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Encyclopedia > Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt, Jr.
Theodore Roosevelt

In office
September 14, 1901 – March 4, 1909
Vice President none (1901–1905),[1]
Charles W. Fairbanks (1905–1909)
Preceded by William McKinley
Succeeded by William Howard Taft

In office
March 4, 1901 – September 14, 1901
President William McKinley
Preceded by Garret Hobart (until 1899)
Succeeded by Charles W. Fairbanks (from 1905)

In office
January 1, 1899 – December 31, 1900
Lieutenant Timothy L. Woodruff
Preceded by Frank S. Black
Succeeded by Benjamin B. Odell, Jr.

Born October 27, 1858(1858-10-27)
New York, New York
Died January 6, 1919 (aged 60)
Oyster Bay, New York
Political party Republican
Spouse (1) Alice Hathaway Lee (married 1880, died 1884)
(2) Edith Kermit Carow (married 1886)
Children Alice, Ted, Kermit, Ethel, Archie, Quentin
Alma mater Columbia Law School - dropped out; Harvard College
Occupation Polymath, author, historian, conservationist, Civil servant
Religion Dutch Reformed
Signature
Military service
Service/branch United States Army
Years of service 1898
Rank Colonel
Commands 1st United States Volunteer Cavalry Regiment (Rough Riders)
Battles/wars Spanish-American War (Battle of San Juan Hill)
Awards Medal of Honor

Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. (IPA: /ˈroʊzəvɛlt/[2]; October 27, 1858January 6, 1919), also known as T.R., and to the public (but never to friends and intimates) as Teddy, was the twenty-sixth President of the United States, and a leader of the Republican Party and of the Progressive Movement. He became President of the United States at the age of 42. He served in many roles including Governor of New York, historian, naturalist, explorer, author, and soldier. He is most famous for his personality: his energy, his vast range of interests and achievements, his model of masculinity, and his "cowboy" persona. Lester B. Pearson after accepting the 1957 Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x1320, 129 KB) Photograph of U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Charles Warren Fairbanks (May 11, 1852 – June 4, 1918) was a Senator from Indiana and the twenty-sixth Vice President of the United States. ... This article is about the 25th President of the United States; for other people named William McKinley, see William McKinley (disambiguation). ... For other persons named William Howard Taft, see William Howard Taft (disambiguation). ... The Vice President of the United States[1] (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS[2] or Veep) is the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the 25th President of the United States; for other people named William McKinley, see William McKinley (disambiguation). ... Garret Augustus Hobart (June 3, 1844–November 21, 1899) was the twenty-fourth Vice President of the United States. ... Charles Warren Fairbanks (May 11, 1852 – June 4, 1918) was a Senator from Indiana and the twenty-sixth Vice President of the United States. ... The following is a list of the Governors of the State of New York. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Äž: For the film, see: 1900 (film). ... Timothy L. Woodruff was an American politician who served as Lieutenant Governor of New York from 1897 to 1903. ... Frank Swett Black (March 8, 1853 - March 22, 1913) is a Governor and a Representative from New York. ... Benjamin Barker Odell, Jr. ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1858 (MDCCCLVIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... This article is about the state. ... The Republican Party was born in 1854 and is one of the two dominant parties today. ... Alice Hathaway Lee was only seventeen when she first met Theodore Roosevelt on Oct 18, 1878 Alice Hathaway Lee Roosevelt (July 29, 1861 in Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts – February 14, 1884 in Manhattan, New York) was the first wife of Theodore Roosevelt and the mother of their only child together, Alice... White House portrait Edith Kermit Carow Roosevelt (August 6, 1861 – September 30, 1948), second wife of Theodore Roosevelt, was First Lady of the United States from 1901 to 1909. ... Alice Roosevelt, taken around her debut in 1902. ... Theodore Roosevelt. ... Kermit Roosevelt, explorer, author and soldier, accompanied his father, Theodore Roosevelt on several expeditions to Africa and the Amazon Kermit Roosevelt I (October 10, 1889 – June 4, 1943) was a son of U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt (also known as TR). ... Ethel Carow Roosevelt Derby (August 13, 1891 – December 10, 1977) was the youngest daughter and fourth child of the President of the United States Theodore Roosevelt. ... Archibald Bulloch Roosevelt (April 9, 1894 - October 13, 1979) was an American businessman. ... Lt. ... Alma mater is Latin for nourishing mother. It was used in ancient Rome as a title for the mother goddess, and in Medieval Christianity for the Virgin Mary. ... Columbia Law School, located in the New York City borough of Manhattan, is one of the professional schools of Columbia University, a member of the Ivy League, and one of the leading law schools in the United States. ... Harvard Yard Harvard College is the undergraduate section and oldest school of Harvard University, a private university in the United States, founded in 1636 by the Massachusetts legislature. ... Leonardo da Vinci, a polymath, is seen as the epitome of the related term, Renaissance Man A polymath (Greek polymathÄ“s, πολυμαθής, having learned much)[1][2] is a person with encyclopedic, broad, or varied knowledge or learning. ... For other uses, see Author (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Historian (disambiguation). ... Conservationists are those people who tend to more highly rank the wise use of the Earths resources and ecosystems. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The Dutch Reformed Church or Netherlands Reformed Church (in Dutch: Nederlandse Hervormde Kerk (NHK)) is a denomination of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin. ... Image File history File links Theodore_Roosevelt_signature. ... The United States Army is the largest and oldest branch of the armed forces of the United States. ... Year 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Please see Colonel for other countries which use this rank Insignia of a United States Colonel Colonel is a rank of the United States armed forces. ... Roosevelt and the Rough Riders atop San Juan Heights, 1898 The Rough Riders was the name bestowed by the American press on the 1st U.S. ... Combatants United States Republic of Cuba Philippine Republic Kingdom of Spain Commanders Nelson A. Miles William R. Shafter George Dewey Máximo Gómez Emilio Aguinaldo Patricio Montojo Pascual Cervera Arsenio Linares Ramón Blanco Casualties 3,289 U.S. dead (432 from combat); considerably higher although undetermined Cuban and... Belligerents United States Republic of Cuba Kingdom of Spain Commanders William Rufus Shafter Joseph Wheeler[1] Arsenio Linares Strength 15,000 regulars 4,000 guerrilleros 12 field guns 4 Gatling guns 800 regulars 5 field guns Casualties and losses 124 dead 817 wounded 58 dead 170 wounded 39 captured The... The Medal of Honor is the highest military decoration awarded by the United States. ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1858 (MDCCCLVIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... The Republican Party of the United States was established in 1854 and is one of the two dominant parties today. ... For other uses, see Progressivism (disambiguation). ... The following is a list of the Governors of the State of New York. ... For other uses, see Historian (disambiguation). ... -1... See also explorations, sea explorers, astronaut, conquistador, travelogue, the History of Science and Technology and Biography. ... For other uses, see Author (disambiguation). ... This article is about a military rank. ...


As Assistant Secretary of the Navy, Roosevelt prepared for and advocated war with Spain in 1898. He organized and helped command the 1st U.S. Volunteer Cavalry Regiment, the Rough Riders, during the Spanish-American War. Returning to New York as a war hero, he was elected governor. He was a professional historian, a lawyer, a naturalist and explorer of the Amazon Basin; his 35 books include works on outdoor life, natural history, the American frontier, political history, naval history, and his autobiography.[3] USN redirects here. ... Roosevelt and the Rough Riders atop San Juan Heights, 1898 The Rough Riders was the name bestowed by the American press on the 1st U.S. ... Roosevelt and the Rough Riders atop San Juan Heights, 1898 The Rough Riders was the name bestowed by the American press on the 1st U.S. ... Combatants United States Republic of Cuba Philippine Republic Kingdom of Spain Commanders Nelson A. Miles William R. Shafter George Dewey Máximo Gómez Emilio Aguinaldo Patricio Montojo Pascual Cervera Arsenio Linares Ramón Blanco Casualties 3,289 U.S. dead (432 from combat); considerably higher although undetermined Cuban and... Amazon River basin The Amazon Basin is the part of South America drained by the Amazon River and its tributaries. ...


In 1901, as Vice President, the 42 year-old Roosevelt succeeded President William McKinley after McKinley's assassination by anarchist Leon Czolgosz. He is the youngest person to become President.[4] He was a Progressive reformer who sought to move the dominant Republican Party into the Progressive camp. He distrusted wealthy businessmen and dissolved forty monopolistic corporations as a "trust buster". He was clear, however, to show he did not disagree with trusts and capitalism in principle but was only against corrupt, illegal practices. His "Square Deal" promised a fair shake for both the average citizen (through regulation of railroad rates and pure food and drugs) and the businessmen. He was the first U.S. president to call for universal health care and national health insurance.[5][6] As an outdoorsman, he promoted the conservation movement, emphasizing efficient use of natural resources. After 1906 he attacked big business and suggested the courts were biased against labor unions. In 1910, he broke with his friend and anointed successor William Howard Taft, but lost the Republican nomination to Taft and ran in the 1912 election on his own one-time Bull Moose ticket. He beat Taft in the popular vote and pulled so many Progressives out of the Republican Party that Democrat Woodrow Wilson won in 1912, and the conservative faction took control of the Republican Party for the next two decades. This article is about the 25th President of the United States; for other people named William McKinley, see William McKinley (disambiguation). ... Anarchism is a generic term describing various political philosophies and social movements that advocate the elimination of hierarchy and imposed authority. ... Leon Frank Czolgosz (choll-gosh), (1873 – October 29, 1901) (often anglicized to , also used his mothers maiden name Nieman and variations thereof[1]) was the assassin of U.S. President William McKinley. ... In the United States, the Progressive Era was a period of reform which lasted from the 1890s to the 1920s. ... Trust-busting refers to government activities designed to break up trusts or monopolies. ... ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... The Square Deal (1904) was the term used by Theodore Roosevelt and his associates for the domestic policies of his administration, particularly with regard to economic policies, such as enforcement. ... Universal health care refers to government mandated programs intended to ensure that all citizens, and sometimes permanent residents, of a governmental region have access to most types of health care. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... The conservation movement is a political and social movement that seeks to protect natural resources including plant and animal species as well as their habitat for the future. ... A union (labor union in American English; trade union, sometimes trades union, in British English; either labour union or trade union in Canadian English) is a legal entity consisting of employees or workers having a common interest, such as all the assembly workers for one employer, or all the workers... For other persons named William Howard Taft, see William Howard Taft (disambiguation). ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... The United States Progressive Party of 1912 was a political party created by a split in the Republican Party in the presidential election 1912. ... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856—February 3, 1924), was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. ... Conservative may refer to: Conservatism, political philosophy A member of a Conservative Party Conservative extension, premise of deductive logic Conservativity theorem, mathematical proof of conservative extension Conservative Judaism britney spears Category: ...


Roosevelt negotiated for the U.S. to take control of the Panama Canal and its construction in 1904; he felt the Canal's completion was his most important and historically significant international achievement. He was the first American to be awarded the Nobel Prize, winning its Peace Prize in 1906, for negotiating the peace in the Russo-Japanese War. The Panama Canal is a waterway in Central America which joins the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. ... The Nobel Prize (Swedish: ) was established in Alfred Nobels will in 1895, and it was first awarded in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace in 1901. ... Lester B. Pearson after accepting the 1957 Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ... Combatants Russian Empire Principality of Montenegro [1] Empire of Japan Commanders Emperor Nicholas II Aleksey Kuropatkin Stepan Makarov â€  Emperor Meiji Oyama Iwao Heihachiro Togo The Russo–Japanese War (Japanese: Nichi-Ro Sensō, Russian: Russko-Yaponskaya Voyna, Chinese: RìézhànzhÄ“ng, February 10, 1904–September 5, 1905) was a conflict...


Historian Thomas Bailey, who disagreed with Roosevelt's policies, nevertheless concluded, "Roosevelt was a great personality, a great activist, a great preacher of the moralities, a great controversialist, a great showman. He dominated his era as he dominated conversations....the masses loved him; he proved to be a great popular idol and a great vote getter."[7] His image stands alongside Washington, Jefferson and Lincoln on Mount Rushmore. Surveys of scholars have consistently ranked him from third to seventh on the list of greatest American presidents. Thomas Andrew Bailey (December 14, 1902 - July 26, 1983) was a professor of history at Stanford University and authored many historical tomes, including the widely-used American history textbook, The American Pageant. ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... For the 1960s rock band, see Mount Rushmore (band). ... Sculptor Gutzon Borglum and Presidents Calvin Coolidge selected Washington, Jefferson, Theodore Roosevelt, and Lincoln to appear on Mount Rushmore. ...

Contents

Biography

Childhood, education and personal life

Theodore Roosevelt at age 11
Theodore Roosevelt at age 11

Theodore Roosevelt was born in a four-story brownstone at 28 East 20th Street, in the modern-day Gramercy section of New York City, the second of five children of Theodore Roosevelt, Sr. (1831–1877) and Mittie Bulloch (1834–1884). He had an elder sister Anna, nicknamed "Bamie" as a child and "Bye" as an adult for being always on the go; and two younger siblings—his brother Elliott (the father of Eleanor Roosevelt) and his sister Corinne, (grandmother of newspaper columnists, Joseph and Stewart Alsop). Image File history File links TR_Age_11_Paris. ... Image File history File links TR_Age_11_Paris. ... Theodore Roosevelt Birthplace National Historic Site is a unit of the National Park Service at 28 E. 20th Street in New York, New York. ... Gramercy, also called Gramercy Park, is a neighborhood in Manhattan, New York City, focused around Gramercy Park, a private park between East 20th and 21st Streets. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Photo of Theodore Roosevelt Sr. ... Martha Bulloch age 22 - Was She the inspiration for the Scarlett OHara character? Martha Bulloch Roosevelt (July 8, 1835 – February 14, 1884) was the mother of US President Theodore Roosevelt and the paternal grandmother of Eleanor Roosevelt. ... Anna Bamie Roosevelt Cowles in 1882 Anna Roosevelt Cowles (January 18, 1855 – August 25, 1931) was the older sister of United States President Theodore Roosevelt. ... Elliott Bulloch Roosevelt (February 28, 1860- August 14, 1894) was the father of Anna E. Roosevelt and the brother of Theodore Roosevelt. ... Anna Eleanor Roosevelt (IPA: ; October 11, 1884 – November 7, 1962) was First Lady of the United States from 1933 to 1945. ... Corinne Roosevelt Robinson (September 27, 1861- February 17, 1933) was the younger sister of former President of the United States Theodore Roosevelt and an aunt of former First Lady of the United States, Eleanor Roosevelt. ... Joseph Alsop V (1910-1989) was a columnist and analyst in the Kennedy era. ... Stewart Johonnot Oliver Alsop (17 May 1914 – 26 May 1974) was an American newspaper columnist and political analyst. ...


The Roosevelts had been in New York since the mid 18th century and had grown with the emerging New York commerce class after the American Revolution. Unlike many of the earlier "log cabin Presidents," Roosevelt was born into a wealthy family. By the 19th century, the family had grown in wealth, power and influence from the profits of several businesses including hardware and plate-glass importing. The family was strongly Democratic in its political affiliation until the mid-1850s, then joined the new Republican Party. Theodore's father, known in the family as "Thee", was a New York City philanthropist, merchant, and partner in the family glass-importing firm Roosevelt and Son. He was a prominent supporter of Abraham Lincoln and the Union effort during the American Civil War. His mother Mittie Bulloch was a Southern belle from a slave-owning family in Savannah, Georgia and had quiet Confederate sympathies. Mittie's brother, Theodore's uncle, James Dunwoody Bulloch, was a United States Navy officer who became a Confederate admiral and naval procurement agent in Britain. Another uncle Irvine Bulloch was a midshipman on the Confederate raider, CSS Alabama; both remained in England after the war.[8] From his grandparents' home, a young Roosevelt witnessed Abraham Lincoln's funeral procession in New York. John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen... The History of the Democratic Party is an account of a continuously supported political party in the United States of America. ... The Republican Party of the United States was established in 1854 and is one of the two dominant parties today. ... Philanthropy is the act of donating money, goods, time, or effort to support a charitable cause, usually over an extended period of time and in regard to a defined objective. ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Slave redirects here. ... Savannah redirects here. ... For other meanings of confederate and confederacy, see confederacy (disambiguation) National Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God our Vindicator) Official language English de facto nationwide Various European and Native American languages regionally Capital Montgomery, Alabama February 4, 1861–May 29, 1861 Richmond, Virginia May 29, 1861–April 9, 1865 Largest... James Bulloch was a Confederate Naval Officer and Agent in England, while his brother Irvine Bulloch was the youngest officer on the CSS Alabama during the American Civil War. ... USN redirects here. ... Irvine Bulloch served on the CSS Alabama during the American Civil War and was the uncle of Theodore Roosevelt Irvine Stephens Bulloch (25 June 1842 – 7 January 1898) was an officer in the Confederate Navy and the youngest officer on the famed warship CSS Alabama. ... For other ships named Alabama, see USS Alabama. ...


Sickly and asthmatic as a youngster, Roosevelt had to sleep propped up in bed or slouching in a chair during much of his early childhood, and had frequent ailments. Despite his illnesses, he was a hyperactive and often mischievous young man. His lifelong interest in zoology was formed at age seven upon seeing a dead seal at a local market. After obtaining the seal's head, the young Roosevelt and two of his cousins formed what they called the "Roosevelt Museum of Natural History". Learning the rudiments of taxidermy, he filled his makeshift museum with many animals that he killed or caught, studied, and prepared for display. At age nine, he codified his observation of insects with a paper titled "The Natural History of Insects".[9] For other uses, see Asthma (disambiguation). ... Zoology (from Greek: ζῴον, zoion, animal; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the biological discipline which involves the study of animals. ... Families Odobenidae Otariidae Phocidae Pinnipeds (fin-feet, lit. ... A mounted snow leopard. ...


To combat his poor physical condition, his father compelled the young Roosevelt to take up exercise. To deal with bullies, Roosevelt started boxing lessons.[10] Two trips abroad had a permanent impact: family tours of Europe in 1869 and 1870, and of the Middle East 1872 to 1873. For other meanings of these words, see boxing (disambiguation) or boxer (disambiguation). ...


Theodore Sr. had a tremendous influence on his son. Of him Roosevelt wrote, "My father, Theodore Roosevelt, was the best man I ever knew. He combined strength and courage with gentleness, tenderness, and great unselfishness. He would not tolerate in us children selfishness or cruelty, idleness, cowardice, or untruthfulness."[11] Roosevelt's sister later wrote, "He told me frequently that he never took any serious step or made any vital decision for his country without thinking first what position his father would have taken."[12] Photo of Theodore Roosevelt Sr. ...


Young "Teedie", as he was nicknamed as a child, (the nickname "Teddy" was from his first wife, Alice Hathaway Lee, and he later harbored an intense dislike for it) was mostly home schooled by tutors and his parents. A leading biographer says: "The most obvious drawback to the home schooling Roosevelt received was uneven coverage of the various areas of human knowledge." He was solid in geography (thanks to his careful observations on all his travels) and very well read in history, strong in biology, French and German, but deficient in mathematics, Latin and Greek.[13] He matriculated at Harvard College in 1876, graduating magna cum laude. His father's death in 1878 was a tremendous blow, but Roosevelt redoubled his activities. He did well in science, philosophy and rhetoric courses but fared poorly in Latin and Greek. He studied biology with great interest and indeed was already an accomplished naturalist and published ornithologist. He had a photographic memory and developed a life-long habit of devouring books, memorizing every detail.[14] He was an eloquent conversationalist who, throughout his life, sought out the company of the smartest people. He could multitask in extraordinary fashion, dictating letters to one secretary and memoranda to another, while browsing through a new book. For the song by Girls Aloud see Biology (song) Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, speech lit. ... For other meanings of mathematics or uses of math and maths, see Mathematics (disambiguation) and Math (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... Harvard Yard Harvard College is the undergraduate section and oldest school of Harvard University, a private university in the United States, founded in 1636 by the Massachusetts legislature. ... Latin honors are Latin phrases used to indicate the level of academic distinction with which an academic degree was earned. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... Rhetoric (from Greek , rhêtôr, orator, teacher) is generally understood to be the art or technique of persuasion through the use of oral, visual, or written language; however, this definition of rhetoric has expanded greatly since rhetoric emerged as a field of study in universities. ... This article is about the field of zoology. ... Eidetic memory, photographic memory, or total recall, is the ability to recall images, sounds, or objects in memory with extreme accuracy and in seemingly abundant volume. ...


While at Harvard, Roosevelt was active in rowing, boxing and the Alpha Delta Phi Fraternity. He also edited a student magazine. He was runner-up in the Harvard boxing championship, losing to C.S. Hanks. The sportsmanship he showed in that fight was long remembered. Upon graduating from Harvard, he underwent a physical examination and his doctor advised him that due to serious heart problems, he should find a desk job and avoid strenuous activity. He chose to embrace strenuous life instead.[15] This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


He graduated Phi Beta Kappa and magna cum laude (22nd of 177) from Harvard in 1880, and entered Columbia Law School. When offered a chance to run for New York Assemblyman in 1881, he dropped out of law school to pursue his new goal of entering public life.[16] The Phi Beta Kappa Society is an honor society which considers its mission to be fostering and recognizing excellence in undergraduate liberal arts and sciences. ... Columbia Law School, located in the New York City borough of Manhattan, is one of the professional schools of Columbia University, a member of the Ivy League, and one of the leading law schools in the United States. ... The New York Legislature is the legislative branch of the U.S. state of New York, seated at the states capital, Albany. ...

Roosevelt as NY State Assemblyman 1883, photo
Roosevelt as NY State Assemblyman 1883, photo

Roosevelt was a Republican activist during his years in the Assembly, writing more bills than any other New York state legislator. Already a major player in state politics, he attended the Republican National Convention in 1884 and fought alongside the Mugwump reformers; they lost to the Stalwart faction that nominated James G. Blaine. Refusing to join other Mugwumps in supporting Democrat Grover Cleveland, the Democratic nominee, he debated with his friend Henry Cabot Lodge the plusses and minuses of staying loyal or straying. When asked by a reporter whether he would support Blaine, he replied, "That question I decline to answer. It is a subject I do not care to talk about."[17] Upon leaving the convention, he complained "off the record" to a reporter about Blaine's nomination. But, in probably the most crucial moment of his young political career, he resisted the very instinct to bolt from the Party that would overwhelm his political sense in 1912. In an account of the Convention, another reporter quoted him as saying that he would give "hearty support to any decent Democrat." He would later take great (and to some historical critics such as Henry Pringle, rather disingenuous) pains to distance himself from his own earlier comment, indicating that while he made it, it had not been made "for publication."[18]. Image File history File links TR_NY_State_Assemblyman_1883. ... Image File history File links TR_NY_State_Assemblyman_1883. ... The Republican Party of the United States was established in 1854 and is one of the two dominant parties today. ... 1884 Electoral Map The Mugwumps were a political movement comprising Republicans who supported Democratic candidate Grover Cleveland in the United States presidential election of 1884. ... James Gillespie Blaine (January 31, 1830 – January 27, 1893) was a U.S. Representative, Speaker of the United States House of Representatives, U.S. Senator from Maine and a two-time United States Secretary of State. ... Stephen Grover Cleveland (March 18, 1837–June 24, 1908), was the twenty-second and twenty-fourth President of the United States. ... The History of the Democratic Party is an account of a continuously supported political party in the United States of America. ... Henry Cabot Lodge (May 12, 1850 – November 9, 1924) was an American statesman, a Republican politician, and noted historian. ... Off the record is a term used mainly in journalism to refer to information given to a journalist, where the identity of the source is to be protected, but the information can be used. ...


First marriage

Alice Hathaway Lee (July 29, 1861 in Chestnut Hill, MassachusettsFebruary 14, 1884 in Manhattan, New York) was the first wife of Theodore Roosevelt and mother of their only child together, Alice Lee Roosevelt. Alice Roosevelt died of an undiagnosed case of Bright's Disease two days after Alice Lee was born. Theodore Roosevelt's mother Mittie died of Typhoid fever in the same house on the same day, Feb. 14, 1884. After the simultaneous deaths of his mother and wife, Roosevelt left his daughter in the care of his sister in New York and moved out to Dakota Territory. Alice Hathaway Lee was only seventeen when she first met Theodore Roosevelt on Oct 18, 1878 Alice Hathaway Lee Roosevelt (July 29, 1861 in Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts – February 14, 1884 in Manhattan, New York) was the first wife of Theodore Roosevelt and the mother of their only child together, Alice... is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Boston College and the Chestnut Hill Reservoir Located 6 miles west of Boston, Chestnut Hill is a wealthy suburb notable for its stately old houses, scenic landscape and the historic campus of Boston College. ... is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1884 (MDCCCLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Manhattan (disambiguation). ... Alice Roosevelt, taken around her debut in 1902. ... Brights disease is a historical classification of kidney diseases that would be described in modern medicine as acute or chronic nephritis. ... For a similar disease with a similar name, see typhus. ... Dakota Territory was the name of the northernmost part of the Louisiana Purchase of the United States. ...


Life in Badlands

Theodore Roosevelt as Badlands hunter in 1885. New York studio photo.
Theodore Roosevelt as Badlands hunter in 1885. New York studio photo.

Roosevelt built a second ranch he named Elk Horn thirty five miles (56 km) north of the boomtown, Medora, North Dakota. On the banks of the "Little Missouri," Roosevelt learned to ride, rope, and hunt. Roosevelt rebuilt his life and began writing about frontier life for Eastern magazines. As a deputy sheriff, Roosevelt hunted down three outlaws who stole his river boat and were escaping north with it up the Little Missouri River. Capturing them, he decided against hanging them and sending his foreman back by boat, he took the thieves back overland for trial in Dickinson, guarding them forty hours without sleep and reading Tolstoy to keep himself awake. When he ran out of his own books he read a dime store western one of the thieves was carrying.[citation needed] Image File history File links TR_Buckskin_Tiffany_Knife. ... Image File history File links TR_Buckskin_Tiffany_Knife. ... The Chinle Badlands at Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument. ... Medora is a city in Billings County, North Dakota in the United States. ... The Little Missouri River The Little Missouri River is a tributary of the Missouri River, approximately 560 mi (901 km) long, in the northern Great Plains of the United States. ... Dickinson refers to: Persons named Dickinson Last name Dickinson Angie Dickinson (1931–), American television and film actress Brian Dickinson (1961–), Canadian pianist Bruce Dickinson (1958–), English heavy metal musician Daniel S. Dickinson (1800–1866), American politician, senator from New York (1844–1851) David Dickinson (1941–), British antiques expert and game...


While working on a tough project aimed at hunting down a group of relentless horse thieves, Roosevelt came across the famous Deadwood, South Dakota Sheriff Seth Bullock. The two would remain friends for life. (Morris, Rise of, 241–245, 247–250) A photograph of Deadwood in 1876. ... Official language(s) English Capital Pierre Largest city Sioux Falls Area  Ranked 17th  - Total 77,116[1] sq mi (199,905 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 380 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... Look up Sheriff in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Seth Bullock (July 23, 1849 – September 23, 1919) was a western sheriff, hardware store owner and U.S. Marshal. ...


After the uniquely severe U.S. winter of 1886-1887 wiped out his herd of cattle and his $60,000 investment (together with those of his competitors), he returned to the East, where in 1885, he had built Sagamore Hill in Oyster Bay, New York. It would be his home and estate until his death. Roosevelt ran as the Republican candidate for mayor of New York City in 1886 as "The Cowboy of the Dakotas." He came in third. The Winter of 1886-1887 was an extremely harsh winter. ... Sagamore Hill was the home of President of the United States, Theodore Roosevelt. ... This article is about the state. ...


Second marriage

Following the election, he went to London in 1886 and married his childhood sweetheart, Edith Kermit Carow.[19] They honeymooned in Europe, and Roosevelt led a party to the summit of Mont Blanc, a feat which resulted in his induction into the British Royal Society.[20] They had five children: Theodore Jr., Kermit, Ethel Carow, Archibald Bulloch "Archie", and Quentin.[21] White House portrait Edith Kermit Carow Roosevelt (August 6, 1861 – September 30, 1948), second wife of Theodore Roosevelt, was First Lady of the United States from 1901 to 1909. ... This article is about the Alpine mountain. ... The Royal Society of London is claimed to be the oldest learned society still in existence and was founded in 1660. ... Theodore Roosevelt. ... Kermit Roosevelt, explorer, author and soldier, accompanied his father, Theodore Roosevelt on several expeditions to Africa and the Amazon Kermit Roosevelt I (October 10, 1889 – June 4, 1943) was a son of U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt (also known as TR). ... Ethel Carow Roosevelt Derby (August 13, 1891 – December 10, 1977) was the youngest daughter and fourth child of the President of the United States Theodore Roosevelt. ... Archibald Roosevelt was the fourth child of president Theodore Roosevelts marriage to his second wife Edith Carow. ... Lt. ...


Historian

Roosevelt's book The Naval War of 1812 (1882) was standard history for two generations. Roosevelt undertook extensive and original research even computing British and American man-of-war broadside throw weights.[22] By comparison, however, his hastily-written biographies of Thomas Hart Benton (1887) and Gouverneur Morris (1888) are considered superficial.[23] His major achievement was a four-volume history of the frontier, The Winning of the West (1889–1896), which had a notable impact on historiography as it presented a highly original version of the frontier thesis elaborated upon in 1893 by his friend Frederick Jackson Turner. Roosevelt argued that the harsh frontier conditions had created a new "race": the American people that replaced the "scattered savage tribes, whose life was but a few degrees less meaningless, squalid, and ferocious than that of the wild beasts with whom they held joint ownership". He believed that "the conquest and settlement by the whites of the Indian lands was necessary to the greatness of the race and to the well-being of civilized mankind". He was using an evolutionary model in which new environmental conditions allow a new species to form. His many articles in upscale magazines provided a much-needed income, as well as cementing a reputation as a major national intellectual. He was later chosen president of the American Historical Association. A Dutch man-of-war firing a salute. ... USS Iowa Broadside (1984) A broadside is the side of a ship; the battery of cannon on one side of a warship; or their simultaneous (or near simultaneous) fire in naval warfare. ... Thomas Hart Benton nicknamed Old Bullion (March 14, 1782 – April 10, 1858), was an U.S. Senator from Missouri and a staunch advocate of westward expansion of the United States. ... Gouverneur Morris Gouverneur Morris (January 31, 1752 – November 6, 1816) was an American statesman who represented Pennsylvania in the Constitutional Convention of 1787 and was an author of large sections of the Constitution of the United States. ... Historiography studies the processes by which historical knowledge is obtained and transmitted. ... Frederick Jackson Turner, author of the Frontier Thesis The Frontier Thesis or Turner Thesis is the conclusion of Frederick Jackson Turner that the wellsprings of American exceptionalism and vitality have always been the American frontier, the region between urbanized, civilized society and the untamed wilderness. ... Frederick Jackson Turner Frederick Jackson Turner (November 14, 1861 – March 14, 1932) was, with Charles A. Beard, the least influential American historian of the early 20th century. ... The American Historical Association (AHA) is a society of historians and teachers of history founded in 1884 and incorporated by the United States Congress in 1889. ...


Views on race

In The Winning of the West (1889–1896), Roosevelt's frontier thesis stressed the racial struggle between "civilization" and "savagery." He supported Nordicism, the belief in the superiority of the "Nordic" race, along with social Darwinism and racialism. Excerpts: Nordic supremacy theory (or Nordicism) was a theory of race prevalent in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. ... Social Darwinism is the idea that Charles Darwins theory can be extended and applied to the social realm, i. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

  1. "The settler and pioneer have at bottom had justice on their side; this great continent could not have been kept as nothing but a game preserve for squalid savages".
  2. "The most ultimately righteous of all wars is a war with savages".
  3. "American and Indian, Boer and Zulu, Cossack and Tartar, New Zealander and Maori, — in each case the victor, horrible though many of his deeds are, has laid deep the foundations for the future greatness of a mighty people".
  4. "..it is of incalculable importance that America, Australia, and Siberia should pass out of the hands of their red, black, and yellow aboriginal owners, and become the heritage of the dominant world races".
  5. "The world would have halted had it not been for the Teutonic conquests in alien lands; but the victories of Moslem over Christian have always proved a curse in the end. Nothing but sheer evil has come from the victories of Turk and Tartar".

During the infamous 1906 Brownsville Raid which took place in Brownsville, Texas. Racial tensions were high between white townsfolk and black infantrymen stationed there as part of the 25th Infantry at Fort Brown. Two white townspeople were killed in Brownsville. Townsfolk initially blamed the infantrymen as the murderers. Without offering the soldiers a chance to defend themselves and a lack of any proof President Roosevelt dishonorably discharged all the soldiers in the three all black companies (that fought alongside Roosevelt in the Spanish American War) due to their "conspiracy of silence". Further investigations in the 1970's found that they were not involved and they were pardoned by President Nixon.


What did not, however, conform to the views of Roosevelt's day was that race should never be the primary factor in someone of ability performing any job. Some notable events in Theodore Roosevelt's life included:

  • Developing a close relationship with the Hidatsa Indians that is maintained today in the oral tradition of the tribe.
  • Inviting reformer Booker T. Washington to dinner at the White House, an action which caused outrage among many newspapers in the American South, which objected to "mixing of the races on social occasions."
  • Openly supporting a bill in the New York State Assembly which allowed desegregation of schools in the state, personally noting that his children had been educated with other races and there was nothing wrong with it.
  • Appointed the Collector of the Port of Charleston post to an African-American, Dr. William D. Crum, and when he was urged to withdraw the appointment, wrote the following:
I do not intend to appoint any unfit man to office. So far as I legitimately can, I shall always endeavor to pay regard to the wishes and feelings of the people of each locality; but I cannot consent to take the position that the doorway of hope - the door of opportunity - is to be shut upon any man, no matter how worthy, purely upon the grounds of race or color. Such an attitude would, according to my contentions, be fundamentally wrong.
  • Defended the Postmaster of Indianola, Mississippi, Minnie D. Cox. She was an African-American, and on that basis alone she was threatened with mob violence and was forced to resign. Roosevelt took action by closing the post office there, ignored her resignation, and still paid her what she was due as if nothing happened.[24]

Booker Taliaferro Washington (April 5, 1856 – November 14, 1915) was an American educator, author and leader of the African American community. ... This article is about the state. ... Charleston may refer to: Charleston (dance) USS Charleston, the name of several ships of the United States Navy Charleston, novel by Alexandra Ripley Charleston (Texas Navy), a ship built for the Texas Navy In New Zealand: Charleston, New Zealand In Scotland: Charleston, Dundee, an area of Dundee Charleston, Angus, near... If you are looking for different meanings of this word, see Postmaster (disambiguation) A postmaster is a term used in post offices to denote the head or master of the office. ... Indianola is a city in Sunflower County, Mississippi, United States. ...

Return to public life

New York City Police Commissioner 1896
New York City Police Commissioner 1896

In the 1888 presidential election, Roosevelt campaigned in the Midwest for Benjamin Harrison. President Harrison appointed Roosevelt to the United States Civil Service Commission, where he served until 1895.[25] In his term, he vigorously fought the spoilsmen and demanded the enforcement of civil service laws. In spite of Roosevelt's support for Harrison's reelection bid in the presidential election of 1892, the eventual winner, Grover Cleveland (a Bourbon Democrat), reappointed him to the same post.[citation needed] Image File history File links Tr_nyc_police_commissioner. ... Image File history File links Tr_nyc_police_commissioner. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... For other persons named Benjamin Harrison, see Benjamin Harrison (disambiguation). ... The Office of Personnel Management or OPM is the United States government agency which serves to manage the civil service of the United States by the recruitment of qualified personnel into and the administration of their careers as part of the United States Civil Service. ... In the politics of the United States, a spoils system refers to an informal practice by which a political party, after winning an election, gives government jobs to its voters as a reward for working toward victory, and as an incentive to keep working for the party. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Stephen Grover Cleveland (March 18, 1837–June 24, 1908), was the twenty-second and twenty-fourth President of the United States. ... Bourbon Democrat was a term used in the United States from 1876 to 1904 to refer to a conservative or reactionary member of the Democratic Party, especially one who supported President Grover Cleveland in 1884–1896 and Alton B. Parker in 1904. ...


Roosevelt became president of the board of New York City Police Commissioners in 1895. During the two years he held this post, Roosevelt radically reformed the police department. The police force was reputed as one of the most corrupt in America. NYPD's history division records Roosevelt was, "an iron-willed leader of unimpeachable honesty, (who) brought a reforming zeal to the New York City Police Commission in 1895."[26] Roosevelt and his fellow commissioners established new disciplinary rules, created a bicycle squad to police New York's traffic problems and standardized the use of pistols by officers.[27] Roosevelt implemented regular inspections of firearms, annual physical exams, appointed 1,600 new recruits based on their physical and mental qualifications and not on political affiliation, opened the department to ethnic minorities and women, established meritorious service medals, and shut down corrupt police hostelries. During his tenure a Municipal Lodging House was established by the Board of Charities and Roosevelt required officers to register with the Board. He also had telephones installed in station houses. Always an energetic man, he made a habit of walking officers' beats late at night and early in the morning to make sure they were on duty.[28] He became caught up in public disagreements with commissioner Parker, who sought to negate or delay the promotion of many officers put forward by Roosevelt.[citation needed] The New York City Police Commissioner is the head of the New York City Police Department, appointed by the Mayor of New York City. ...


Assistant Secretary of the Navy

Assistant Secretary of the Navy Roosevelt (front center) at the Naval War College, c. 1897
Assistant Secretary of the Navy Roosevelt (front center) at the Naval War College, c. 1897

Roosevelt had always been fascinated by naval history. Urged by Roosevelt's close friend, Congressman Henry Cabot Lodge, President William McKinley appointed a delighted Roosevelt to the post of Assistant Secretary of the Navy in 1897. (Because of the inactivity of Secretary of the Navy John D. Long at the time, this basically gave Roosevelt control over the department.) Roosevelt was instrumental in preparing the Navy for the Spanish-American War[29] and was an enthusiastic proponent of testing the U.S. military in battle, at one point stating "I should welcome almost any war, for I think this country needs one".[30][31] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (740x610, 108 KB)Assistant Secretary of the Navy Theodore Roosevelt with faculty and class members at the Naval War College, Newport, Rhode Island, circa 1897. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (740x610, 108 KB)Assistant Secretary of the Navy Theodore Roosevelt with faculty and class members at the Naval War College, Newport, Rhode Island, circa 1897. ... Henry Cabot Lodge (May 12, 1850 – November 9, 1924) was an American statesman, a Republican politician, and noted historian. ... This article is about the 25th President of the United States; for other people named William McKinley, see William McKinley (disambiguation). ... Assistant Secretary of the Navy (abbrev. ... Flag of the United States Secretary of the Navy. ... John Davis Long (1838–1915) was a U.S. political figure. ... Combatants United States Republic of Cuba Philippine Republic Kingdom of Spain Commanders Nelson A. Miles William R. Shafter George Dewey Máximo Gómez Emilio Aguinaldo Patricio Montojo Pascual Cervera Arsenio Linares Ramón Blanco Casualties 3,289 U.S. dead (432 from combat); considerably higher although undetermined Cuban and...


War in Cuba

Col. Theodore Roosevelt
Col. Theodore Roosevelt

Upon the declaration of war in 1898 that would be known as the Spanish-American War, Roosevelt resigned from the Navy Department and, with the aid of U.S. Army Colonel Leonard Wood, organized the First U.S. Volunteer Cavalry Regiment from cowboys from the Western territories to Ivy League friends from New York. The newspapers called them the "Rough Riders." Originally Roosevelt held the rank of Lieutenant Colonel and served under Colonel Wood, but after Wood was promoted to Brigadier General of Volunteer Forces, Roosevelt was promoted to Colonel and given command of the Regiment.[citation needed]. Even after his return to civilian life, Roosevelt preferred to be known as "Colonel Roosevelt" or "The Colonel." As a moniker, "Teddy" remained much more popular with the general public; however, political friends and others who worked closely with Roosevelt customarily addressed him by his rank. Belligerents United States Republic of Cuba Kingdom of Spain Commanders William Rufus Shafter Joseph Wheeler[1] Arsenio Linares Strength 15,000 regulars 4,000 guerrilleros 12 field guns 4 Gatling guns 800 regulars 5 field guns Casualties and losses 124 dead 817 wounded 58 dead 170 wounded 39 captured The... Leonard Wood (October 9, 1860 – August 7, 1927) was a physician who served as the US Army Chief of Staff and Governor General of the Philippines. ... Roosevelt and the Rough Riders atop San Juan Heights, 1898 The Rough Riders was the name bestowed by the American press on the 1st U.S. ... For other uses, see Cowboy (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ivy League (disambiguation). ... In the U.S. Army, Air Force and Marine Corps, a lieutenant colonel is a commissioned officer superior to a major and inferior to a colonel. ... A Brigadier General, or one-star general, is the lowest rank of general officer in the United States and some other countries, ranking just above Colonel and just below Major General. ...

Colonel Roosevelt and his "Rough Riders" after capturing San Juan Hill during the Spanish-American War
Colonel Roosevelt and his "Rough Riders" after capturing San Juan Hill during the Spanish-American War

Under his leadership, the Rough Riders became famous for dual charges up Kettle Hill and San Juan Hill on July 1, 1898 (the battle was named after the latter "hill," which was the shoulder of a ridge known as San Juan Heights). Out of all the Rough Riders, Roosevelt was the only one who had a horse, and used it to ride back and forth between rifle pits at the forefront of the advance up Kettle Hill; an advance which he urged in absence of any orders from superiors. However, he was forced to walk up the last part of Kettle Hill on foot, due to barbed wire entanglement and after his horse, Little Texas, became tired. For his actions, Roosevelt was nominated for the Medal of Honor which was subsequently disapproved. It has been widely speculated this disapproval was because of Roosevelt's outspoken comments on the handling of the War. In September 1997, Congressman Rick Lazio representing the 2nd District of New York sent two award recommendations to the U.S. Army Military Awards Branch. These recommendations addressed to Brigadier General Earl Simms, the Army's Adjutant General and one to Master Sergeant Gary Soots, Chief of Authorizations, would prove successful in garnering the much sought after award.[32] Roosevelt was posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor in 2001 for his actions.[33] He was the first and, as of 2007, the only President of the United States to be awarded with America's highest military honor, and the only person in history to receive both his nation's highest honor for military valor and the world's foremost prize for peace.[34] (His oldest son Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. would also posthumously be awarded the Medal of Honor for his actions at Normandy on June 6, 1944.[35]). Image File history File links TR_San_Juan_Hill_1898. ... Image File history File links TR_San_Juan_Hill_1898. ... Roosevelt and the Rough Riders atop San Juan Heights, 1898 The Rough Riders was the name bestowed by the American press on the 1st U.S. ... Roosevelt and the Rough Riders atop San Juan Heights, 1898 The Rough Riders was the name bestowed by the American press on the 1st U.S. ... This article needs a complete rewrite for the reasons listed on the talk page. ... Belligerents United States Republic of Cuba Kingdom of Spain Commanders William Rufus Shafter Joseph Wheeler[1] Arsenio Linares Strength 15,000 regulars 4,000 guerrilleros 12 field guns 4 Gatling guns 800 regulars 5 field guns Casualties and losses 124 dead 817 wounded 58 dead 170 wounded 39 captured The... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Medal of Honor is the highest military decoration awarded by the United States. ... 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Theodore Roosevelt. ...

Chicago newspaper sees cowboy-TR campaigning for governor
Chicago newspaper sees cowboy-TR campaigning for governor

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (579x804, 78 KB) Summary US editorial cartoon 1898 Licensing This image is in the public domain in the United States. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (579x804, 78 KB) Summary US editorial cartoon 1898 Licensing This image is in the public domain in the United States. ...

Governor and Vice President

On leaving the Army, Roosevelt re-entered New York state politics and was elected governor of New York in 1898 on the Republican ticket. He made such a concerted effort to root out corruption and "machine politics" that Republican boss Thomas Collier Platt forced him on McKinley as a running mate in the 1900 election, against the wishes of McKinley's manager Senator Mark Hanna. Roosevelt was a powerful campaign asset for the Republican ticket, which defeated William Jennings Bryan in a landslide based on restoration of prosperity at home and a successful war and new prestige abroad. Bryan stumped for Free Silver again, but McKinley's promise of prosperity through the Gold Standard, high tariffs, and the restoration of business confidence enlarged his margin of victory. Bryan had strongly supported the war against Spain, but denounced the annexation of the Philippines as imperialism that would spoil America's innocence. Roosevelt countered with many speeches that argued it was best for the Filipinos to have stability, and the Americans to have a proud place in the world. Roosevelt's six months as Vice President (March to September, 1901) were uneventful.[36] On September 2, 1901, at the Minnesota State Fair, Roosevelt first used in a public speech a saying that would later be universally associated with him: "Speak softly and carry a big stick, and you will go far." This article is about the system of organization called a political machine. ... Thomas C. Platt Thomas C. Platt was a three term U.S. Senator from New York in the years 1881 and 1897-1909. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Mark Hanna Mark A. Hanna (September 24, 1837–February 15, 1904), born Marcus Alonzo Hanna, was an industrialist and Republican politician from Ohio. ... For other persons of the same name, see William Bryan. ... The Minnesota State Fair is the state fair of the U.S. state of Minnesota. ... Thomas Nasts 1904 cartoon recreates an episode in Gullivers Travels Big Stick Diplomacy or Big Stick Policy was the slogan describing U.S. President Theodore Roosevelts corollary to the Monroe Doctrine. ...


Presidency 1901–1909

At the Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo, New York, President McKinley was shot by Leon Czolgosz (Zol-gash), on September 6, 1901. Roosevelt had been giving a speech in Vermont when he heard of the shooting. He rushed to Buffalo but after being assured the President would recover, he went on a planned family camping and hiking trip to Mount Marcy. In the mountains a runner notified him McKinley was on his death bed. Roosevelt pondered with his wife, Edith, how best to respond, not wanting to show up in Buffalo and wait on McKinley's death. Roosevelt was rushed by a series of stagecoaches to North Creek train station. At the station, Roosevelt was handed a telegram that said President McKinley died at 2:30 AM that morning. Roosevelt continued by train from North Creek to Buffalo. He arrived in Buffalo later that day, accepting an invitation to stay at the home of Ansley Wilcox, a prominent lawyer and friend since the early 1880s when they had both worked closely with New York State Governor Grover Cleveland on civil service reform. Theodore Roosevelt was the 26th (1901–1909) President of the United States. ... The Electric Tower, the crowning feature of the Exposition Temple of Music where William McKinley was shot. ... Nickname: Location of Buffalo in New York State Coordinates: , Country State County Erie Government  - Mayor Byron Brown (D) Area  - City 52. ... This article is about the 25th President of the United States; for other people named William McKinley, see William McKinley (disambiguation). ... Leon Frank Czolgosz (choll-gosh), (1873 – October 29, 1901) (often anglicized to , also used his mothers maiden name Nieman and variations thereof[1]) was the assassin of U.S. President William McKinley. ... is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Mount Marcy is at 5,344 ft the highest mountain in the Adirondack Mountain Range and the highest point in New York State. ... Ansley Wilcox (January 27, 1856 - January 26, 1930) was an American scholar, Oxford graduate, lawyer, civil service reform commissioner, New York political insider and friend of Theodore Roosevelt. ... Stephen Grover Cleveland (March 18, 1837–June 24, 1908), was the twenty-second and twenty-fourth President of the United States. ...

Nashville Tennessee News sketch of Theodore Roosevelt inauguration minus the customary Bible. Inauguration photos were not allowed after a rival photographer unceremoniously knocked down another's camera.
Nashville Tennessee News sketch of Theodore Roosevelt inauguration minus the customary Bible. Inauguration photos were not allowed after a rival photographer unceremoniously knocked down another's camera.

Roosevelt took the oath of office in the Ansley Wilcox House at Buffalo, New York borrowing Wilcox's morning coat. Roosevelt did not swear on a Bible,[37] in contrast to the usual tradition of US presidents.[38] Expressing the fears of many old line Republicans, Mark Hanna lamented "that damned cowboy is president now."[39] Roosevelt was the youngest person to assume the presidency, at 42, and he promised to continue McKinley's cabinet and his basic policies. Roosevelt did so, but after winning election in 1904, he moved to the political left, stretching his ties to the Republican Party's conservative leaders.[40] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (802x610, 118 KB) Theodore Roosevelt Inauguration in the Ansley Wilcox House in Buffalo, New York on September 14, 1901. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (802x610, 118 KB) Theodore Roosevelt Inauguration in the Ansley Wilcox House in Buffalo, New York on September 14, 1901. ... Theodore Roosevelt Inaugural National Historic Site is a unit of the National Park Service at 641 Delaware Avenue in Buffalo, New York. ... Nickname: Location of Buffalo in New York State Coordinates: , Country State County Erie Government  - Mayor Byron Brown (D) Area  - City 52. ... This article is about the state. ... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... Mark Hanna Mark A. Hanna (September 24, 1837–February 15, 1904), born Marcus Alonzo Hanna, was an industrialist and Republican politician from Ohio. ...

Anthracite coal strike of 1902

Main article: Coal Strike of 1902

A national emergency was averted in 1902 when Roosevelt found a compromise to the anthracite coal strike by the United Mine Workers of America that threatened the heating supplies of most urban homes. Roosevelt called the mine owners and the labor leaders to the White House and negotiated a compromise. Miners were on strike for 163 days before it ended; they were granted a 10% pay increase and a 9-hour day (from the previous 10 hours), but the union was not officially recognized and the price of coal went up.[41] coal miners in Hazleton PA 1900 The Coal Strike of 1902 was a strike by the United Mine Workers of America in the anthracite coal fields of eastern Pennsylvania. ... United Mine Workers of America seal The United Mine Workers (UMW or UMWA) is a United States labor union that represents workers in mining. ...


Square Deal and regulation of industry

Theodore Roosevelt promised to continue McKinley's program, and at first he worked closely with McKinley's men. His 20,000-word address to the Congress in December 1901, asked Congress to curb the power of trusts "within reasonable limits." They did not act but Roosevelt did, issuing 44 lawsuits against major corporations; he was called the "trust-buster." A trust or business trust was a form of business entity used in the late 19th century with intent to create a monopoly. ... Trust Buster was the name given to President Theodore Roosevelt. ...


Roosevelt firmly believed: "The Government must in increasing degree supervise and regulate the workings of the railways engaged in interstate commerce." Inaction was a danger, he argued: "Such increased supervision is the only alternative to an increase of the present evils on the one hand or a still more radical policy on the other."[42]


His biggest success was passage of the Hepburn Act of 1906, the provisions of which were to be regulated by the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC). The most important provision of the Act gave the ICC the power to replace existing rates with "just-and-reasonable" maximum rates, with the ICC to define what was just and reasonable. Anti-rebate provisions were toughened, free passes were outlawed, and the penalties for violation were increased. Finally, the ICC gained the power to prescribe a uniform system of accounting, require standardized reports, and inspect railroad accounts. The Act made ICC orders binding; that is, the railroads had to either obey or contest the ICC orders in federal court. To speed the process, appeals from the district courts would go directly to the U.S. Supreme Court. The Hepburn Act of 1906 gave the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) the power set maximum railroad rates, and led to the discontinuation of free passes to loyal shippers. ... The Interstate Commerce Commission (or ICC) was a regulatory body in the United States created by the Interstate Commerce Act of 1887, which was signed into law by President Grover Cleveland. ...


In response to public clamor (and due to the uproar cause by Upton Sinclair's book The Jungle), Roosevelt pushed Congress to pass the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906, as well as the Meat Inspection Act of 1906. These laws provided for labeling of foods and drugs, inspection of livestock and mandated sanitary conditions at meatpacking plants. Congress replaced Roosevelt's proposals with a version supported by the major meatpackers who worried about the overseas markets, and did not want small unsanitary plants undercutting their domestic market.[43] Upton Sinclair Jr. ... For the episode of The Twilight Zone, see The Jungle (The Twilight Zone). ... This is an article about the United States Food and Drug Act; for the Canadian version see Food and Drugs Act. ... The United States Meat Inspection Act of 1906 authorized the Secretary of Agriculture to order meat inspections and condemn any meat product found unfit for human consumption. ...

Democrats attack Roosevelt as militarist and ineffective in this 1904 election cartoon
Democrats attack Roosevelt as militarist and ineffective in this 1904 election cartoon

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (623x698, 89 KB) Summary 1904 editorial cartoon New York World Licensing This image is in the public domain in the United States. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (623x698, 89 KB) Summary 1904 editorial cartoon New York World Licensing This image is in the public domain in the United States. ...

Election in 1904

Theodore Roosevelt was the fifth Vice President to succeed to the office of President, but the first to win election in his own right. (Millard Fillmore ran and lost on a third-party ticket four years after leaving office and Chester Arthur was denied nomination by his party in 1884). After Senator Mark Hanna, McKinley's old campaign manager, died in February 1904, there was no one in the Republican Party to oppose Roosevelt and he easily won the nomination. When an effort to draft former president Grover Cleveland failed, the Democrats were without a candidate and finally settled on obscure New York judge Alton B. Parker. The outcome was never in doubt. Roosevelt crushed Parker 56%-38% in the popular vote and 336-140 in the Electoral College, sweeping the country outside the perennially Democratic Solid South. Socialist Eugene Debs got 3%. The night of the election, after his victory was clear, Roosevelt promised not to run again in 1908. He later regretted that promise, as it compelled him to leave the White House at the age of only fifty, at the height of his popularity. Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Not to be confused with Mallard Fillmore. ... Chester Alan Arthur (October 5, 1829—November 18, 1886) was an American politician who served as 21st President of the United States. ... Mark Hanna Mark A. Hanna (September 24, 1837–February 15, 1904), born Marcus Alonzo Hanna, was an industrialist and Republican politician from Ohio. ... Stephen Grover Cleveland (March 18, 1837–June 24, 1908), was the twenty-second and twenty-fourth President of the United States. ... Alton Brooks Parker (May 14, 1852 – May 10, 1926) was an American lawyer and judge and a U.S. presidential candidate in the 1904 elections. ... This article is about Electoral Colleges in general. ... The phrase Solid South describes the electoral support of the Southern United States for Democratic Party candidates for almost a century after the Reconstruction era, 1876-1964. ... May refer to the politcal leader Eugene_V._Debs May also be in reference to a a debutante ball, a formal party undertaken by the leaving members of second-level schools in Ireland, most often in the month of August or September. ...


Conservationist

Roosevelt worked closely with early conservationists such as Gifford Pinchot, pictured above, with whom he organized the first National Governors Conservation Conference at the White House in 1908
Roosevelt worked closely with early conservationists such as Gifford Pinchot, pictured above, with whom he organized the first National Governors Conservation Conference at the White House in 1908

Roosevelt was the first American president to consider the long-term needs for efficient conservation of national resources, winning the support of fellow hunters and fishermen to bolster his political base. Roosevelt was the last trained observer to ever see a passenger pigeon, and on March 14, 1903, Roosevelt created the first National Bird Preserve, (the beginning of the Wildlife Refuge system) on Pelican Island, Florida. He recognized the imminent extinction of the American Bison and co-founded the American Bison Society (with William Temple Hornaday) in 1905. Roosevelt worked with the major figures of the conservation movement, especially his chief adviser on the matter, Gifford Pinchot. Roosevelt urged Congress to establish the United States Forest Service (1905), to manage government forest lands, and he appointed Gifford Pinchot to head the service. Roosevelt set aside more land for national parks and nature preserves than all of his predecessors combined, 194 million acres (785,000 km²). In all, by 1909, the Roosevelt administration had created an unprecedented 42 million acres (170,000 km²) of national forests, 53 national wildlife refuges and 18 areas of "special interest", including the Grand Canyon. The Theodore Roosevelt National Park in the Badlands commemorates his conservationist philosophy. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (769x1024, 108 KB) Summary Theodore Roosevelt and Gifford Pinchot standing on deck of steamer Mississippi, 1907 while attending the Inland Waterways Commission Public Domain Source US Library of Congress URL http://lcweb4. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (769x1024, 108 KB) Summary Theodore Roosevelt and Gifford Pinchot standing on deck of steamer Mississippi, 1907 while attending the Inland Waterways Commission Public Domain Source US Library of Congress URL http://lcweb4. ... Gifford Pinchot (August 11, 1865 – October 4, 1946) was the first Chief of the United States Forest Service (1905–1910) and the Republican Governor of Pennsylvania (1923–1927, 1931–1935). ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1766) The Passenger Pigeon (Ectopistes migratorius) or Wild Pigeon was a species of pigeon that was once the most common bird in North America. ... is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1903 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Subspecies B. b. ... William Temple Hornaday, Sc. ... The conservation movement is a political and social movement that seeks to protect natural resources including plant and animal species as well as their habitat for the future. ... Gifford Pinchot (August 11, 1865 – October 4, 1946) was the first Chief of the United States Forest Service (1905–1910) and the Republican Governor of Pennsylvania (1923–1927, 1931–1935). ... Logo of the U.S. Forest Service. ... This article is about national parks. ... A nature reserve is an area of importance for wildlife, flora, fauna or features of geological or other special interest, which is reserved and managed for conservation and to provide special opportunities for study or research. ... This article is on national forests in the United States. ... National Wildlife Refuge is a designation for certain protected areas of the United States managed by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. ... This article is about the canyon in the southwestern United States. ... Established in 1978, Theodore Roosevelt National Park is a United States National Park comprising three geographically separated areas of badlands in western North Dakota. ... The Chinle Badlands at Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument. ...

Roosevelt and Muir
Roosevelt and Muir

In 1903, Roosevelt toured the Yosemite Valley with John Muir, founder of the Sierra Club, but Roosevelt believed in the more efficient use of natural resources by corporations like lumber companies unlike Muir. In 1907, with Congress about to block him, Roosevelt hurried to designate 16 million acres (65,000 km²) of new national forests. In May 1908, he sponsored the Conference of Governors held in the White House, with a focus on the most efficient planning, analysis and use of water, forests and other natural resources. Roosevelt explained, "There is an intimate relation between our streams and the development and conservation of all the other great permanent sources of wealth." During his presidency, Roosevelt promoted the nascent conservation movement in essays for Outdoor Life magazine. To Roosevelt, conservation meant more and better usage and less waste, and a long-term perspective.[citation needed] For other persons named John Muir, see John Muir (disambiguation). ... The Conference of Governors held in the White House May 13-15, 1908 under the sponsorship of President Theodore Roosevelt. ... Outdoor Life is an outdoors magazine featuring hunting, fishing, survival and camping skills. ...


Roosevelt's conservationist leanings also impelled him to preserve national sites of scientific, particularly archaeological, interest. The 1906 passage of the Antiquities Act gave him a tool for creating national monuments by presidential proclamation, without requiring Congressional approval for each monument on an item-by-item basis. The language of the Antiquities Act specifically called for the preservation of "historic landmarks, historic and prehistoric structures, and other objects of historic or scientific interest," and was primarily construed by its creator, Congressman James F. Lacey (assisted by the prominent archaeologist Edgar Lee Hewett), as targeting the prehistoric ruins of the American Southwest. Roosevelt, however, applied a typically broad interpretation to the Act, and the first national monument he proclaimed, Devils Tower National Monument in Wyoming, was preserved for reasons tied more to geology than archaeology.[citation needed] For referencing in Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Citing sources. ... The Antiquities Act of 1906 is an act passed by the United States Congress and signed into law by Theodore Roosevelt giving the President of the United States authority to place certain lands under control of the federal government by executive order, bypassing Congressional oversight. ... Navajo National Monument Devils Tower National Monument Statue of Liberty National Monument Fort Matanzas National Monument A National Monument is a protected area of the United States that is similar to a national park (specifically a U.S. National Park) except that the President of the United States can quickly... James F. Lacey serves on the Ocean County, New Jersey Board of Chosen Freeholders. ... Dr. Edgar Lee Hewett (1865 - 1946) was an archaeologist/anthropologist active in work on the Native American communities of New Mexico and the southwestern United States, and most famous for his role in bringing about the Antiquities Act, a pioneering piece of legislation for the conservation movement. ... Devils Tower is a monolith (more technically, an igneous intrusion) or volcanic neck located near Hulett and Sundance in Crook County, northeastern Wyoming, above the Belle Fourche River. ... Official language(s) English Capital Cheyenne Largest city Cheyenne Area  Ranked 10th  - Total 97,818 sq mi (253,348 km²)  - Width 280 miles (450 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 0. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ...


Roosevelt's conservationism caused him to forbid having a Christmas tree in the White House. He was reportedly upset when he found a small tree his son had been hiding. After learning about the commercial farming of Christmas trees, where no virgin forests were cut down to supply the demand during the Christmas holiday, he relented and allowed his family to have a tree each season.[citation needed] For other uses, see Christmas tree (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ... Old growth forest, also called primary forest, ancient forest, virgin forest, primeval forest, frontier forest or (in the UK) Ancient Woodland, is an area of forest that has attained great age and so exhibits unique biological features. ...


Foreign policy

In Cuba, the Philippines, Puerto Rico, and the Panama Canal Zone, Roosevelt used the Army's medical service, under Walter Reed and William C. Gorgas, to eliminate the yellow fever menace and install a new regime of public health. In the new possessions the Roosevelt administration used the army to build railways, telegraph and telephone lines, and upgrade roads and port facilities. The Panama Canal Zone (Spanish: ), was a 553 square mile (1,432 km²) territory inside of Panama, consisting of the Panama Canal and an area generally extending 5 miles (8. ... Major Walter Reed, M.D., (September 13, 1851 - November 23, 1902) was a U.S. Army physician who in 1900 led the team which confirmed the theory (first set forth in 1881 by Cuban doctor/scientist Carlos Finlay) that yellow fever is transmitted by mosquitoes, rather than by direct contact. ... Major General William Crawford Gorgas (October 3, 1854, in Mobile, Alabama -- July 3, 1920, in London) was a United States physician and 22nd Surgeon General of the U.S. Army (1914-18). ...


The Philippines saw the U.S. Army for the first time using a systematic doctrine of counter-insurgency. Despite the ad hoc nature of the force deployed by Roosevelt the Army was able to end the insurgency by 1902. Over the course of the war the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers built over 3,000 miles (4,800 km) of roads and worked to build an entire education system, even bringing in thousands of American teachers to spearhead the effort.

Roosevelt builds the canal—and shovels dirt on Colombia

Roosevelt dramatically increased the size of the navy, forming the Great White Fleet, which toured the world in 1907. This display was designed to impress the Japanese. However, the ships were almost forced to return because of the inadequacy of American ports in the Pacific.[44] Roosevelt also added the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine, which stated that the United States and only the United States could intervene in Latin American affairs when corruption of governments made it necessary. Roosevelt's foreign policy is often referred to as the "Big Stick" policy which was mainly in respect to Roosevelt's ideas of negotiation. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1304x1035, 232 KB) Summary 1903 US cartoon Licensing This image is in the public domain in the United States. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1304x1035, 232 KB) Summary 1903 US cartoon Licensing This image is in the public domain in the United States. ... USS Kansas sails ahead of the USS Vermont as the fleet leaves Hampton Roads, Virginia on December 16, 1907. ... A political cartoonists commentary on Roosevelts big stick policy The Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine was a substantial alteration (called an amendment) of the Monroe Doctrine by U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt in 1904. ... U.S. President James Monroe The Monroe Doctrine is a U.S. doctrine which, on December 2, 1823, proclaimed that European powers were to no longer colonize or interfere with the affairs of the newly independent nations of the Americas. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ...


Roosevelt gained international praise for helping negotiate the end of the Russo-Japanese War, for which he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. Roosevelt later arbitrated a dispute between France and Germany over the division of Morocco. Some historians have argued these latter two actions helped in a small way to avert a world war.[45] Combatants Russian Empire Principality of Montenegro [1] Empire of Japan Commanders Emperor Nicholas II Aleksey Kuropatkin Stepan Makarov â€  Emperor Meiji Oyama Iwao Heihachiro Togo The Russo–Japanese War (Japanese: Nichi-Ro Sensō, Russian: Russko-Yaponskaya Voyna, Chinese: RìézhànzhÄ“ng, February 10, 1904–September 5, 1905) was a conflict... Lester B. Pearson after accepting the 1957 Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ... A world war is a war affecting the majority of the worlds major nations. ...


Panama Canal
Main article: Panama Canal

Roosevelt's most famous foreign policy initiative, following the Hay-Pauncefote Treaty, was the construction of the Panama Canal, which upon its completion shortened the route of freighters between San Francisco, California and New York City by 8,000 miles (13,000 km). The Panama Canal is a waterway in Central America which joins the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. ... The Hay-Pauncefote Treaty gave the United States exclusive rights to build, control and fortify a canal across the narrow part of Central America. ... The Panama Canal is a waterway in Central America which joins the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. ... San Francisco redirects here. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ...


Colombia first proposed the canal in their country as opposed to rival Nicaragua, and Colombia signed a treaty for an agreed-upon sum. At the time, Panama was a province of Colombia. According to the treaty, in 1902, the U.S. was to buy out the equipment and excavations from France, which had been attempting to build a canal since 1881. While the Colombian negotiating team had signed the treaty, ratification by the Colombian Senate became problematic. The Colombian Senate balked at the price and asked for ten million dollars over the original agreed upon price. When the U.S. refused to re-negotiate the price, the Colombian politicians proposed cutting the original French company that started the project out of the deal and giving that difference to Colombia.


The original deal stipulated the French company was to be reasonably compensated. Roosevelt, tired of what he believed were last-minute attempts by the Colombians to cheat the French out of their entire investment, decided in 1903, with the encouragement of Panamanian business interests, to support Panamanian independence from Colombia.


A brief Panamanian revolution of only a few hours followed the declaration, as Colombian soldiers were bribed $50 each to lay down their arms. On November 3, 1903, the Republic of Panama was created, with its constitution written in advance by the United States. Shortly thereafter, the U.S. signed a protection treaty with Panama. And after the signing of the treaty, a man named Nathan Johnson Forest assisted Panama with the initial planning phases for the canal. The U.S. then paid ten million to secure rights to build on, and control, the Canal Zone. Construction began in 1904 and was completed in 1914. is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1903 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ...


It took a long time to build the Panama Canal because of the rampant spread of tropical diseases. Over 200 workers died of yellow fever and malaria, spread by mosquitoes. Roosevelt initiated work on clearing swamps and other areas in which the insects bred. As the health threat finally receded, this greatly facilitated the construction of the Canal.


The Great White Fleet
Main article: Great White Fleet
Roosevelt, (on the 12" gun turret at right), addresses the crew of USS Connecticut (BB18), in Hampton Roads, Virginia, upon her return from the Fleet's cruise
Roosevelt, (on the 12" gun turret at right), addresses the crew of USS Connecticut (BB18), in Hampton Roads, Virginia, upon her return from the Fleet's cruise

As Roosevelt's administration drew to a close, the president dispatched a fleet consisting of four US Navy battleship squadrons and their escorts, on a world-wide voyage of circumnavigation from December 16, 1907, to February 22, 1909. With their hulls painted white (except for the beautiful gilded scrollwork) and red, white, and blue banners on their bows, these ships would come to be known as The Great White Fleet. Roosevelt wanted to demonstrate to his country and the world that the US Navy was capable of operating in a global theater, particularly in the Pacific. This was extraordinarily important at a time when tensions were slowly growing between the United States and Japan. The latter had recently shown its navy's competence in defeating the Russians in the Russo-Japanese War, and the US Navy fleet in the west was relatively small. As a mark of the mission's success, the Atlantic Fleet battleships only later came to be known as the "Great White Fleet." USS Kansas sails ahead of the USS Vermont as the fleet leaves Hampton Roads, Virginia on December 16, 1907. ... Image File history File links Tr_great_white_fleet_tr_addresses_us_conneticut_feb_1909. ... Image File history File links Tr_great_white_fleet_tr_addresses_us_conneticut_feb_1909. ... The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for naval operations. ... For other uses, see Battleship (disambiguation). ... “Round the world” redirects here. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... USS Kansas sails ahead of the USS Vermont as the fleet leaves Hampton Roads, Virginia on December 16, 1907. ... Combatants Russian Empire Principality of Montenegro [1] Empire of Japan Commanders Emperor Nicholas II Aleksey Kuropatkin Stepan Makarov â€  Emperor Meiji Oyama Iwao Heihachiro Togo The Russo–Japanese War (Japanese: Nichi-Ro Sensō, Russian: Russko-Yaponskaya Voyna, Chinese: RìézhànzhÄ“ng, February 10, 1904–September 5, 1905) was a conflict... The Atlantic Fleet (USLANTFLT) of the United States Navy is the part of the Navy responsible for operations in around the Atlantic Ocean. ...


When the real Great White Fleet sailed into Yokohama, Japan, the Japanese went to extraordinary lengths to show that their country desired peace with the US. Thousands of Japanese school children waved American flags, purchased by the government, as they greeted the Navy brass coming ashore. In February 1909, the fleet returned home to Hampton Roads, Virginia, and Roosevelt was there to witness the triumphant return. His appearance indicated that he saw the fleet's long voyage as a fitting finish for his administration. Roosevelt said to the officers of the Fleet, "Other nations may do what you have done, but they'll have to follow you." This parting act of grand strategy by Roosevelt greatly expanded the respect for, as well as the role of, the United States in the international arena. However, the visit of the Great White Fleet to Tokyo also encouraged Japanese militarists. They had always argued for an even more aggressive Japanese ship building and naval expansion program, and the recent show of force by the U.S. convinced enough of their countrymen that they were right. In a real sense, this set in motion the chain of events leading to the U.S. & Japan confronting each other 30 years later - during WWII. Grand strategy is military strategy considered at the level of the movement and use of an entire nation state or empires resources. ...


Roosevelt puts Lincoln on the penny

A Lincoln cent
A Lincoln cent

Roosevelt thought American coins and currency were common and uninspiring. Roosevelt had the opportunity to pose for a young Lithuanian-born sculptor, Victor David Brenner, who, since arriving nineteen years earlier in the United States had become one of the nation’s premier medalists. Roosevelt had learned of Brenner's talents in a settlement house on New York City's Lower East Side and was immediately impressed with a bas-relief that Brenner had made of Lincoln, based on the early Civil War era photographer, Mathew Brady's photograph. Roosevelt, who considered Lincoln the savior of the Union and the greatest Republican President and who also considered himself Lincoln’s political heir, ordered the new Lincoln penny to be based on Brenner's work and that it go just in time to commemorate Lincoln’s 100th birthday in 1909. The likeness of President Lincoln on the obverse of the coin is an adaptation of a plaque Brenner executed several years earlier and which had come to the attention of President Roosevelt in New York.[46] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (910x910, 596 KB)Media:Example. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (910x910, 596 KB)Media:Example. ... Victor David Brenner (1871 – 1924) was an American artist and sculptor (born in Lithuania) whose relief image of Abraham Lincoln on the occasion of the centennial of the sixteenth presidents birth so impressed President Theodore Roosevelt that Brenner was invited to design a new penny. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Categories: Manhattan neighborhoods | Stub ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Mathew B. Brady, circa 1875 For other persons named Matthew Brady, see Matthew Brady (disambiguation). ... Obverse of a Lincoln cent The Lincoln cent is the current one cent coin used in the United States. ...


Life in the White House

Roosevelt took Cabinet members and friends on long, fast-paced hikes, boxed in the state rooms of the White House, romped with his children, and read voraciously.[47] In 1908, he was permanently blinded in his left eye during one of his boxing bouts, but this injury was kept from the public at the time.[48] His many enthusiastic interests and limitless energy led one ambassador to wryly explain, "You must always remember that the President is about six."[49]

Roosevelt shoots holes in the dictionary as the ghosts of Chaucer, Shakespeare and Dr Johnson moan.
Roosevelt shoots holes in the dictionary as the ghosts of Chaucer, Shakespeare and Dr Johnson moan.

During his presidency, Roosevelt tried but did not succeed to advance the cause of simplified spelling. He tried to force federal government to adopt the system, sending an order to the Public Printer to use the system in all public federal documents. The order was obeyed, and among the documents thus printed was the President's special message regarding the Panama Canal. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (707x757, 125 KB) Summary US cartoon 1906 about Roosevelts simplified spelling Licensing This image is in the public domain in the United States. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (707x757, 125 KB) Summary US cartoon 1906 about Roosevelts simplified spelling Licensing This image is in the public domain in the United States. ... Natural languages often develop cumbersome manners of spelling words. ...


The reform annoyed the public, forcing him to rescind the order. Roosevelt's friend, literary critic Brander Matthews, one of the chief advocates of the reform, remonstrated with him for abandoning the effort. Roosevelt replied on December 16: "I could not by fighting have kept the new spelling in, and it was evidently worse than useless to go into an undignified contest when I was beaten. Do you know that the one word as to which I thought the new spelling was wrong — thru — was more responsible than anything else for our discomfiture?" Next summer Roosevelt was watching a naval review when a newspaper launch marked "Pres Bot" chugged ostentatiously by. The President waved and laughed with delight.[50] James Brander Matthews (born February 21, 1852 in New Orleans; died March 31, 1929 in New York City), was a U.S. writer and educator. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Roosevelt's oldest daughter, Alice, was a controversial character during Roosevelt's stay in the White House. When friends asked if he could rein in his elder daughter, Roosevelt said, "I can be President of the United States, or I can control Alice. I cannot possibly do both."[47] In turn, Alice said of him that he always wanted to be "the bride at every wedding and the corpse at every funeral."[51] Alice Roosevelt, taken around her debut in 1902. ...


Roosevelt's contribution to the White House was the construction of the original West Wing, which he had built to free up the second floor rooms in the residence that formerly housed the president's staff. He and Edith also had the entire house renovated and restored to the federal style, tearing out the Victorian furnishings and details (including Tiffany windows) that had been installed over the previous three decades. The West Wing (in foreground) The West Wing is the part of the White House Complex in which the Oval Office, the Cabinet Room, and the Situation Room are located. ... Federal style can refer to: Federal style architecture Federal style furnishings See also: Georgian architecture, Adam style This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Louis Comfort Tiffany (1848-1933) circa 1908 Louis Comfort Tiffany (February 18, 1848 – January 17, 1933) was an American artist and designer who worked in the decorative arts and is best known for his work in stained glass and is the American artist most associated with the Art Nouveau and...


Presidential firsts

John Singer Sargent, Theodore Roosevelt, 1903; click on the above painting for the compelling background story.
John Singer Sargent, Theodore Roosevelt, 1903; click on the above painting for the compelling background story.
  1. In the sphere of race relations, Booker T. Washington became the first black man to dine as a guest at the White House in 1901.
  2. Oscar S. Straus became the first Jewish person appointed as a Cabinet Secretary, under Roosevelt.
  3. In 1902, in response to the assassination of President William McKinley on September 6, 1901, Theodore Roosevelt became the first president to be under constant Secret Service protection.
  4. In August, 1902, Roosevelt became the first U.S. president to take a public automobile ride. This occurred during a parade in Hartford, Connecticut
  5. On August 25, 1905 he became the first U.S. President to ride in a military submarine when he boarded the USS Plunger (SS-2) and ran submerged with her for 55 minutes.[52]
  6. In 1906, he made the first trip, by a President, outside the United States, visiting Panama to inspect the construction progress of the Panama Canal on November 9.
  7. In 1906, Roosevelt became the first American to be awarded a Nobel Prize.
  8. In 1910 he became the first U.S. President to ride in an airplane.
  9. In 2001, he became the first and only President up to date to receive a Medal of Honor, making him the only person to date to win the world's highest peace honor, as well as his nation's top military honor.
  10. He was the first and to date only president to live on Long Island, New York.
  11. He was the first President to officially refer to the White House as such, on his official stationery. This had been the common name (referring to the color of the building), but until then, the official name was "The Executive Mansion."
  12. He was the first President to wear a necktie for his official Presidential Portrait.
  13. He was the first President to approve a U.S. coin, the Lincoln cent, with a man's face on it, in 1909, just in time for the centennial of Lincoln's birth. Lincoln was Roosevelt's presidential hero.
  14. He was the first President to coin an internationally recognized trademark, although not deliberately, with his offhand remark, "good to the last drop," about some coffee drunk at the Maxwell House Hotel in Tennessee.[53]
  15. He is the only president to have a famous toy named after him (the Teddy bear, named after a bear he refused to shoot in a 1902 hunt in Mississippi).
  16. He was the first U.S. president to study judo.[1]

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (520x800, 127 KB) John Singer Sargent, Theodore Roosevelt, 1903, oil on canvas, 58 1/2 × 40 1/2 in. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (520x800, 127 KB) John Singer Sargent, Theodore Roosevelt, 1903, oil on canvas, 58 1/2 × 40 1/2 in. ... Self Portrait, 1906, oil on canvas, 70 x 53 cm, Uffizi Gallery, Florence. ... Race relations is the area of sociology that studies the social, political, and economic relations between races at all different levels of society. ... Booker Taliaferro Washington (April 5, 1856 – November 14, 1915) was an American educator, author and leader of the African American community. ... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ... This article is about the 25th President of the United States; for other people named William McKinley, see William McKinley (disambiguation). ... is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... USSS redirects here. ... When used by itself in a sentence, the term Hartford can refer to one of several places in the United States. ... Official language(s) none (de facto English) Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport[2] Largest metro area Hartford Metro Area[3] Area  Ranked 48th in the US  - Total 5,543[4] sq mi (14,356 km²)  - Width 70 miles (113 km)  - Length 110 miles (177 km)  - % water 12. ... For other uses, see Submarine (disambiguation). ... The first USS Plunger (SS-2) was one of the earliest submarines used by the United States Navy. ... The Panama Canal is a waterway in Central America which joins the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Nobel Prize (Swedish: ) was established in Alfred Nobels will in 1895, and it was first awarded in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace in 1901. ... This article is about the island in New York State. ... Obverse of a Lincoln cent The Lincoln cent is the current one cent coin used in the United States. ... For other uses, see Teddy bear (disambiguation). ...

Administration and Cabinet

OFFICE NAME TERM
President Theodore Roosevelt 1901–1909
Vice President None 1901–1905
Charles W. Fairbanks 1905–1909
Secretary of State John M. Hay 1901–1905
Elihu Root 1905–1909
Robert Bacon 1909
Secretary of the Treasury Lyman J. Gage 1901–1902
Leslie M. Shaw 1902–1907
George B. Cortelyou 1907–1909
Secretary of War Elihu Root 1901–1904
William H. Taft 1904–1908
Luke E. Wright 1908–1909
Attorney General Philander C. Knox 1901–1904
William H. Moody 1904–1906
Charles J. Bonaparte 1906–1909
Postmaster General Charles E. Smith 1901–1902
Henry C. Payne 1902–1904
Robert J. Wynne 1904–1905
George B. Cortelyou 1905–1907
George von L. Meyer 1907–1909
Secretary of the Navy John D. Long 1901–1902
William H. Moody 1902–1904
Paul Morton 1904–1905
Charles J. Bonaparte 1905–1906
Victor H. Metcalf 1906–1908
Truman H. Newberry 1908–1909
Secretary of the Interior Ethan A. Hitchcock 1901–1907
James R. Garfield 1907–1909
Secretary of Agriculture James Wilson 1901–1909
Secretary of Commerce & Labor George B. Cortelyou 1903–1904
Victor H. Metcalf 1904–1906
Oscar S. Straus 1906–1909

Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... The Vice President of the United States[1] (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS[2] or Veep) is the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ... Charles Warren Fairbanks (May 11, 1852 – June 4, 1918) was a Senator from Indiana and the twenty-sixth Vice President of the United States. ... The United States Secretary of State is the head of the United States Department of State, concerned with foreign affairs. ... John Milton Hay (October 8, 1838 – July 1, 1905) was an American statesman, diplomat, author, journalist, and private secretary and assistant to Abraham Lincoln. ... Elihu Root (February 15, 1845 – February 7, 1937) was an American lawyer and statesman and the 1912 recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize. ... Categories: Stub | 1860 births | 1919 deaths | U.S. Secretaries of State ... The United States Secretary of the Treasury is the head of the United States Department of the Treasury, concerned with finance and monetary matters, and, until 2003, some issues of national security and defense. ... Lyman Judson Gage Lyman Judson Gage (June 28, 1836–January 26, 1927) was an American financier and Presidential Cabinet officer. ... Leslie Mortimer Shaw (November 2, 1848–March 28, 1932) was an American businessman, lawyer and politician. ... G.B. Cortelyou Brian William Cortelyou (July 26, 1862–October 23, 1940) was an American Presidential Cabinet secretary of the early 20th century. ... The Secretary of War was a member of the United States Presidents Cabinet, beginning with George Washingtons administration. ... Elihu Root (February 15, 1845 – February 7, 1937) was an American lawyer and statesman and the 1912 recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize. ... For other persons named William Howard Taft, see William Howard Taft (disambiguation). ... Luke Edward Wright (1846 - 1922) was a U.S. political figure. ... The United States Attorney General is the head of the United States Department of Justice concerned with legal affairs and is the chief law enforcement officer of the United States government. ... Philander C. Knox Philander Chase Knox (May 6, 1853–October 12, 1921) was an American lawyer and politician who served as Attorney General and U.S. Senator and was Secretary of State from 1909-1913. ... William Henry Moody (23 December 1853–1917) was an American politician and jurist, who held positions in all three branches of the Government of the United States. ... Charles Joseph Bonaparte (June 9, 1851 – June 28, 1921) was a grandson of Jérôme Bonaparte (the youngest brother of the French emperor Napoleon I), and a member of the United States Cabinet. ... The Postmaster General is the executive head of the United States Postal Service. ... Charles Emory Smith (February 18, 1842 _ January 19, 1908), American journalist and political leader, was born in Mansfield, Connecticut. ... For other people with the same name, see Henry Payne. ... Robert Wynne (1851 - 1922) was a U.S. administrator. ... G.B. Cortelyou Brian William Cortelyou (July 26, 1862–October 23, 1940) was an American Presidential Cabinet secretary of the early 20th century. ... George von Lengerke Meyer (1858–1918) George von Lengerke Meyer (June 24, 1858 – March 9, 1918) was a Massachusetts businessman and politician who served as United States Secretary of the Navy from 1909-1913, during the administration of President William Howard Taft. ... Flag of the United States Secretary of the Navy. ... John Davis Long (October 27, 1838–August 28, 1915) was a U.S. political figure. ... William Henry Moody (23 December 1853–1917) was an American politician and jurist, who held positions in all three branches of the Government of the United States. ... Paul Morton (1857 - 1911) was a U.S. businessman. ... Charles Joseph Bonaparte (June 9, 1851 – June 28, 1921) was a grandson of Jérôme Bonaparte (the youngest brother of the French emperor Napoleon I), and a member of the United States Cabinet. ... Victor Howard Metcalf (October 10, 1853–February 20, 1936) was an American politician. ... Truman Handy Newberry (November 5, 1864–October 3, 1945) was a U.S. businessman and political figure. ... The United States Secretary of the Interior is the head of the United States Department of the Interior, concerned with such matters as national parks and The Secretary is a member of the Presidents Cabinet. ... Ethan Allen Hitchcock (1835-1909) served under Presidents William McKinley and Theodore Roosevelt as U.S. Secretary of the Interior. ... James Rudolph Garfield (October 17, 1865-March 24, 1950) U.S. politician, born in Hiram, Ohio, He was the second of five children born to President James A. Garfield and First Lady Lucretia Garfield. ... The United States Secretary of Agriculture is the head of the United States Department of Agriculture concerned with land and food as well as agriculture and rural development. ... James Wilson (August 16, 1835 – August 26, 1920) was a Scots born United States politician, serving as United States Secretary of Agriculture from 1897 – 1913. ... The United States Secretary of Commerce and Labor was the head of the short-lived United States Department of Commerce and Labor, which was concerned with business, industry, and labor. ... G.B. Cortelyou Brian William Cortelyou (July 26, 1862–October 23, 1940) was an American Presidential Cabinet secretary of the early 20th century. ... Victor Howard Metcalf (October 10, 1853–February 20, 1936) was an American politician. ...

Supreme Court appointments

Roosevelt appointed the following Justices to the Supreme Court of the United States: The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS[1]) is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. ...

Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. ... Categories: People stubs | U.S. Supreme Court justices | Judges of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit | U.S. Secretaries of State | Spanish-American War people | American lawyers | 1849 births | 1923 deaths ... William Henry Moody (23 December 1853–1917) was an American politician and jurist, who held positions in all three branches of the Government of the United States. ...

States admitted to the Union

For other uses, see Oklahoma (disambiguation). ...

Post-presidency

African safari

Roosevelt standing next to a dead elephant during a safari
Roosevelt standing next to a dead elephant during a safari

In March 1909, shortly after the end of his second term, Roosevelt left New York for a safari in east and central Africa. Roosevelt's party landed in Mombasa, British East Africa (now Kenya), traveled to the Belgian Congo (now Democratic Republic of the Congo) before following the Nile up to Khartoum in modern Sudan. Financed by Andrew Carnegie and by his own proposed writings, Roosevelt's party hunted for specimens for the Smithsonian Institution and for the American Museum of Natural History in New York. The group included scientists from the Smithsonian and was led by the legendary hunter-tracker R.J. Cunninghame and was joined from time to time by Frederick Selous, the famous big game hunter and explorer. Among other items, Roosevelt brought with him four tons of salt for perserving animal hides, a lucky rabbit's foot given to him by boxer John L. Sullivan, an elephant-rifle donated by a group of 56 admiring Britons, and the famous Pigskin Library, a collection of classics bound in pig leather and transported in a single reinforced trunk. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x819, 212 KB) Summary Image source: http://memory. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x819, 212 KB) Summary Image source: http://memory. ... Map of Africa 1890 Look up safari in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...  Eastern Africa (UN subregion)  East African Community  Central African Federation (defunct)  Geographic East Africa, including the UN subregion and East African Community East Africa or Eastern Africa is the easternmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics. ... Mombasa is the second largest city in Kenya, lying on the Indian Ocean. ... British East Africa was a British protectorate in East Africa, covering generally the area of present-day Kenya and lasting from 1890 to 1920, when it became the colony of Kenya. ... Motto: Travail et Progres (Work and Progress) The Belgian Congo Capital Léopoldville/Leopoldstad Political structure Colony Governor  - 1908-1910 Baron Wahis  - 1946-1951 Eugène Jacques Pierre Louis Jungers  - 1958-1960 Henri Arthur Adolf Marie Christopher Cornelis History  - Established 15 November, 1908  - Congolese independence 30 June, 1960 The Belgian... For other uses, see Nile (disambiguation). ... Nickname: Khartoums location in Sudan Coordinates: , Government  - Governor Abdul Halim al Mutafi Population (2005)  - Urban 2. ... Andrew Carnegie (last name properly pronounced , but often )[1] (November 25, 1835 – August 11, 1919) was a Scottish industrialist, businessman, a major philanthropist, and the founder of Pittsburghs Carnegie Steel Company which was later merged with Elbert H. Garys Federal Steel Company and several smaller companies to create... The Smithsonian Institution Building or Castle on the National Mall serves as the Institutions headquarters. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Frederick Courteney Selous on safari in Africa. ... For the U.S. Secretary of the Navy, see John L. Sullivan (U.S. Navy). ...


All told, Roosevelt and his companions killed or trapped over 11,397 animals, from insects and moles to hippopotamuses and elephants. 512 of the animals were big game animals, including six rare white rhinos. 262 of these were consumed by the expedition. Tons of salted animals and their skins were shipped to Washington; the quantity was so large that it took years to mount them all, and the Smithsonian was able to share many duplicate animals with other museums. Orders Subclass Apterygota Archaeognatha (bristletails) Thysanura (silverfish) Subclass Pterygota Infraclass Paleoptera (Probably paraphyletic) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Exopterygota Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Embioptera (webspinners) Zoraptera (angel insects) Dermaptera (earwigs) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, etc) Phasmatodea (stick insects) Blattodea (cockroaches) Isoptera (termites) Mantodea (mantids) Psocoptera... For other uses, see Mole. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758[2] Range map[1] The hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius), from the Greek ἱπποπόταμος (hippopotamos, hippos meaning horse and potamos meaning river), often shortened to hippo, is a large, mostly plant-eating African mammal, one of only two extant species in the family Hippopotamidae (the other being the Pygmy... Genera and Species Loxodonta Loxodonta cyclotis Loxodonta africana Elephas Elephas maximus Elephas antiquus † Elephas beyeri † Elephas celebensis † Elephas cypriotes † Elephas ekorensis † Elephas falconeri † Elephas iolensis † Elephas planifrons † Elephas platycephalus † Elephas recki † Stegodon † Mammuthus † Elephantidae (the elephants) is a family of pachyderm, and the only remaining family in the order Proboscidea... Binomial name Burchell, 1817 The White Rhinoceros original range (orange: Northern (C. s. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... A mounted snow leopard. ... For other uses, see Museum (disambiguation). ...


Regarding the large number of animals taken, Roosevelt said, "I can be condemned only if the existence of the National Museum, the American Museum of Natural History, and all similar zoological institutions are to be condemned."[54] However, although the safari was ostensibly conducted in the name of science, there was another, quite large element to it as well. In addition to many native peoples and local leaders, interaction with renowned professional hunters and land owning families made the safari as much a political and social event, as it was a hunting excursion. Roosevelt wrote a detailed account of the adventure in the book "African Game Trails", where he describes the excitement of the chase, the people he met, and the flora and fauna he collected in the name of science. Inside the National Museum of Natural History, underneath the rotunda. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... Simplified schematic of an islands flora - all its plant species, highlighted in boxes. ... Fauna is a collective term for animal life of any particular region or time. ...


Republican Party rift

Roosevelt certified William Howard Taft to be a genuine "progressive" in 1908, when Roosevelt pushed through the nomination of his Secretary of War for the Presidency. Taft easily defeated three-time candidate William Jennings Bryan. Taft had a different progressivism, one that stressed the rule of law and preferred that judges rather than administrators or politicians make the basic decisions about fairness. Taft usually proved a less adroit politician than Roosevelt and lacked the energy and personal magnetism, not to mention the publicity devices, the dedicated supporters, and the broad base of public support that made Roosevelt so formidable. When Roosevelt realized that lowering the tariff would risk severe tensions inside the Republican Party—pitting producers (manufacturers and farmers) against merchants and consumers—he stopped talking about the issue. Taft ignored the risks and tackled the tariff boldly, on the one hand encouraging reformers to fight for lower rates, and then cutting deals with conservative leaders that kept overall rates high. The resulting Payne-Aldrich tariff of 1909 was too high for most reformers, but instead of blaming this on Senator Nelson Aldrich and big business, Taft took credit, calling it the best tariff ever. Again he had managed to alienate all sides. While the crisis was building inside the Party, Roosevelt was touring Africa and Europe, so as to allow Taft to be his own man.[55] For other persons named William Howard Taft, see William Howard Taft (disambiguation). ... Major party conventions The 1908 Republican Convention was held in Chicago from 16 June to 19 June. ... For other persons of the same name, see William Bryan. ... The Payne-Aldrich tariff of 1909 reduced the United States tariff rate to 37%. It was very effective. ... Nelson Wilmarth Aldrich (November 6, 1841 - April 16, 1915) was an American politician. ...

1909 cartoon: TR hands his policies to the care of Taft while William Loeb carries the "Big Stick"
1909 cartoon: TR hands his policies to the care of Taft while William Loeb carries the "Big Stick"

Unlike Roosevelt, Taft never attacked business or businessmen in his rhetoric. However, he was attentive to the law, so he launched 90 antitrust suits, including one against the largest corporation, U.S. Steel, for an acquisition that Roosevelt had personally approved. Consequently, Taft lost the support of antitrust reformers (who disliked his conservative rhetoric), of big business (which disliked his actions), and of Roosevelt, who felt humiliated by his protégé. The left wing of the Republican Party began agitating against Taft. Senator Robert LaFollette of Wisconsin created the National Progressive Republican League (precursor to the Progressive Party (United States, 1924)) to defeat the power of political bossism at the state level and to replace Taft at the national level. More trouble came when Taft fired Gifford Pinchot, a leading conservationist and close ally of Roosevelt. Pinchot alleged that Taft's Secretary of Interior Richard Ballinger was in league with big timber interests. Conservationists sided with Pinchot, and Taft alienated yet another vocal constituency. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (693x917, 160 KB) Summary 1909 cartoon from Puck magazine, TR gives responsibility to Taft Licensing This image is in the public domain in the United States and possibly other jurisdictions. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (693x917, 160 KB) Summary 1909 cartoon from Puck magazine, TR gives responsibility to Taft Licensing This image is in the public domain in the United States and possibly other jurisdictions. ... William Loeb (December 29, 1905 - September 14, 1981) was publisher of the Manchester Union Leader newspaper (later The New Hampshire Union Leader) in Manchester, New Hampshire from 1946 until his death in 1981. ... Robert Marion La Follette, Sr. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... The United States Progressive Party of 1924 was a national ticket created by Robert M. La Follette, Sr. ... Gifford Pinchot (August 11, 1865 – October 4, 1946) was the first Chief of the United States Forest Service (1905–1910) and the Republican Governor of Pennsylvania (1923–1927, 1931–1935). ... This article needs to be wikified. ...


Roosevelt, back from Europe, unexpectedly launched an attack on the federal courts, which deeply upset Taft. Not only had Roosevelt alienated big business, he was also attacking both the judiciary and the deep faith Republicans had in their judges (most of whom had been appointed by McKinley, Roosevelt or Taft.) In the 1910 Congressional elections, Democrats swept to power, and Taft's reelection in 1912 was increasingly in doubt. In 1911, Taft responded with a vigorous stumping tour that allowed him to sign up most of the party leaders long before Roosevelt announced.


Election of 1912

The battle between Taft and Roosevelt bitterly split the Republican Party; Taft's people dominated the party until 1936.

Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Progressive Party 1912 (United States) was a political party created by a split in the Republicans Party in the 1912 election. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1219x1497, 386 KB) Summary Taft fights TR 1912, scanned editorial cartoon Licensing This image is in the public domain in the United States and possibly other jurisdictions. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1219x1497, 386 KB) Summary Taft fights TR 1912, scanned editorial cartoon Licensing This image is in the public domain in the United States and possibly other jurisdictions. ...

Republican Primaries

Late in 1911, Roosevelt finally broke with Taft and LaFollette and announced himself as a candidate for the Republican nomination. But Roosevelt had delayed too long, and Taft had already won the support of most party leaders in the country. Because of LaFollette's nervous breakdown on the campaign trail before Roosevelt's entry, most of LaFollette's supporters went over to Roosevelt, the new progressive Republican candidate.


Roosevelt, stepping up his attack on judges, carried nine of the states with preferential primaries, LaFollette took two, and Taft only one. The 1912 Primaries represented the first extensive use of the Presidential Primary, a reform achievement of the progressive movement. However, these primary elections, while demonstrating Roosevelt's popularity with the electorate, were in no ways as important as primaries are today. First of all, there were fewer states where the common voter was given a forum to express himself, such as a primary. Many more states selected convention delegates either at party conventions, or in caucuses, which were not as open as today's caucuses. So while the man in the street still adored Roosevelt, most professional Republican politicians were supporting Taft, and they proved difficult to upset in non-primary states.


Formation of the Bull Moose Party

At the Republican Convention in Chicago, despite being the incumbent, Taft's victory was not immediately assured. But after two weeks, Roosevelt, realizing he would not be able to win the nomination outright, asked his followers to leave the convention hall. They moved to the Auditorium Theatre, and then Roosevelt, along with key allies such as Pinchot and Albert Beveridge created the Progressive Party, structuring it as a permanent organization that would field complete tickets at the presidential and state level. It was popularly known as the "Bull Moose Party," which got its name after Roosevelt told reporters, "I'm as fit as a bull moose."[56] At the convention Roosevelt cried out, "We stand at Armageddon and we battle for the Lord." Roosevelt's platform echoed his 1907–08 proposals, calling for vigorous government intervention to protect the people from the selfish interests.[57] The Republican National Convention, the presidential nominating convention of the United States Republican Party, is held every four years to determine the partys candidate for the coming Presidential election and the partys platform. ... For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ... The Auditorium Building in Chicago The Auditorium Building in Chicago, Illinois is one of the best-known designs of Dankmar Adler and Louis Sullivan. ... Pinchot may refer to: Amos Pinchot Bronson Pinchot Gifford Pinchot Mary Pinchot Meyer Camp Pinchot Historic District Gifford Pinchot State Park Gifford Pinchot National Forest Pinchot-Ballinger Controversy Pinchot Trail System Pinchote This page or section lists people with the surname Pinchot. ... Albert Jeremiah Beveridge ( October 6, 1862 – April 27, 1927 ) was an historian and United States Senator from Indiana. ... Progressive Party 1912 (United States) was a political party created by a split in the Republicans Party in the 1912 election. ... ... For other uses, see Armageddon (disambiguation). ...

To destroy this invisible Government, to dissolve the unholy alliance between corrupt business and corrupt politics is the first task of the statesmanship of the day." - 1912 Progressive Party Platform, attributed to him[58] and quoted again in his autobiography[59] where he continues "'This country belongs to the people. Its resources, its business, its laws, its institutions, should be utilized, maintained, or altered in whatever manner will best promote the general interest.' This assertion is explicit. ... Mr. Wilson must know that every monopoly in the United States opposes the Progressive party. ... I challenge him ... to name the monopoly that did support the Progressive party, whether ... the Sugar Trust, the Steel Trust, the Harvester Trust, the Standard Oil Trust, the Tobacco Trust, or any other. ... Ours was the only programme to which they objected, and they supported either Mr. Wilson or Mr. Taft...

The term statesman is a respectful term used to refer to diplomats, politicians, and other notable figures of state. ... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856—February 3, 1924), was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. ... This article is about the economic term. ... A trust or business trust was a form of business entity used in the late 19th century with intent to create a monopoly. ... The United States Steel Corporation (NYSE: X) is an integrated steel producer with major production operations in the United States and Central Europe. ... Standard Oil was a predominant integrated oil producing, transporting, refining, and marketing company. ... William Howard Taft I (September 15, 1857–March 8, 1930) was the 27th President of the United States (1909-1913), and the 10th Chief Justice of the United States (1921 - 1930). ...

Assassination Attempt
The bullet-damaged speech and eyeglass case on display at the Theodore Roosevelt Birthplace
The bullet-damaged speech and eyeglass case on display at the Theodore Roosevelt Birthplace

While Roosevelt was campaigning in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, on October 14, 1912, a saloonkeeper named John Schrank shot him, but the bullet lodged in his chest only after penetrating both his steel eyeglass case and passing through a thick (50 pages) single-folded copy of the speech he was carrying in his jacket.[60] Roosevelt, as an experienced hunter and anatomist, correctly decided that since he wasn't coughing blood the bullet had not completely penetrated the chest wall to his lung, and so declined suggestions he go to the hospital immediately. Instead, he delivered his scheduled speech with blood seeping into his shirt.[61] He spoke for ninety minutes. His opening comments to the gathered crowd were, "I don't know whether you fully understand that I have just been shot; but it takes more than that to kill a Bull Moose."[62] Afterwards, probes and X-ray showed that the bullet had traversed three inches (76 mm) of tissue and lodged in Roosevelt's chest muscle but did not penetrate the pleura, and it would be more dangerous to attempt to remove the bullet than to leave it in place. Roosevelt carried it with him until he died.[63] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 600 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (750 × 750 pixel, file size: 166 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Here are two photos depicting assissination bullet damage to Theodore Roosevelts speech manuscript and steel eyeglass case. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 600 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (750 × 750 pixel, file size: 166 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Here are two photos depicting assissination bullet damage to Theodore Roosevelts speech manuscript and steel eyeglass case. ... For other places with the same name, see Milwaukee (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... John F. Schrank was a saloonkeeper from New York, best known for his attempt to assassinate Theodore Roosevelt in 1912. ... In anatomy, the pleural cavity is the potential space between the lungs and the chest wall. ...


Due to the bullet wound, Roosevelt was taken off the campaign trail in the final weeks of the race (which ended election day, November 5). Though the other two campaigners stopped their own campaigns in the week Roosevelt was in the hospital, they resumed it once he was released. The overall effect of the shooting was uncertain. Roosevelt for many reasons failed to move enough Republicans in his direction. He did win 4.1 million votes (27%), compared to Taft's 3.5 million (23%). However, Wilson's 6.3 million votes (42%) were enough to garner 435 electoral votes. Roosevelt had 88 electoral votes to Taft's 8 electoral votes. (This meant that Taft became the only incumbent President in history to actually come in third place in an attempt to be re-elected.) But Pennsylvania was Roosevelt's only Eastern state; in the Midwest he carried Michigan, Minnesota and South Dakota; in the West, California and Washington; he did not win any Southern states. Although he lost, he won more votes than former presidents Martin Van Buren and Millard Fillmore who also ran again and also lost. More important, he pulled so many progressives out of the Republican party that it took on a much more conservative cast for the next generation. This article is about the U.S. State. ... Red shows states east of the Mississippi River, pink shows states not fully eastern or western The U.S. Eastern states are the states east of the Mississippi River. ... The Midwest is a common name for a region of the United States of America. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Largest metro area Minneapolis-St. ... Official language(s) English Capital Pierre Largest city Sioux Falls Area  Ranked 17th  - Total 77,116[1] sq mi (199,905 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 380 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For the capital city of the United States, see Washington, D.C.. For other uses, see Washington (disambiguation). ... Martin Van Buren (December 5, 1782 – July 24, 1862), nicknamed Old Kinderhook, was the eighth President of the United States from 1837 to 1841. ... Not to be confused with Mallard Fillmore. ...


1913–1914 South American Expedition

The initial party. From left to right (seated): Father Zahm, Rondon, Kermit, Cherrie, Miller, four Brazilians, Roosevelt, Fiala. Only Roosevelt, Kermit, Cherrie, Rondon and the Brazilians traveled down the River of Doubt.
The initial party. From left to right (seated): Father Zahm, Rondon, Kermit, Cherrie, Miller, four Brazilians, Roosevelt, Fiala. Only Roosevelt, Kermit, Cherrie, Rondon and the Brazilians traveled down the River of Doubt.

Roosevelt's popular book Through the Brazilian Wilderness describes his expedition into the Brazilian jungle in 1913 as a member of the Roosevelt-Rondon Scientific Expedition co-named after its leader, Brazilian explorer Cândido Rondon. The book describes all of the scientific discovery, scenic tropical vistas and exotic flora, fauna and wild life experienced on the expedition. A friend, Father John Augustine Zahm, had searched for new adventures and found them in the forests of South America. After a briefing of several of his own expeditions, he convinced Roosevelt to commit to such an expedition in 1912. To finance the expedition, Roosevelt received support from the American Museum of Natural History, promising to bring back many new animal specimens. Once in South America, a new far more ambitious goal was added: to find the headwaters of the Rio da Duvida, the River of Doubt, and trace it north to the Madeira and thence to the Amazon River. It was later renamed Rio Roosevelt (Rio Teodoro today, 640 km long) in honor of the former President. Roosevelt's crew consisted of his 24-year-old son Kermit, Colonel Cândido Rondon, a naturalist sent by the American Museum of Natural History named George K. Cherrie, Brazilian Lieutenant Joao Lyra, team physician Dr. José Antonio Cajazeira, and sixteen highly skilled paddlers (called camaradas in Portuguese). The initial expedition started, probably unwisely, on December 9, 1913, at the height of the rainy season. The trip down the River of Doubt started on February 27, 1914. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1039x694, 325 KB) Summary Source: scanned from The River of Doubt by Candice Millard 2005. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1039x694, 325 KB) Summary Source: scanned from The River of Doubt by Candice Millard 2005. ... Father Zahm, CSC, 3rd from left, Theodore Roosevelt and his son Kermit, and surviving members of the 1913 expedition up the River of Doubt in the Amazon Rainforest Father John Augustine Zahm, CSC (June 11, 1851 – November 10, 1921) was a Holy Cross priest, author, scientist, and South American explorer. ... Cândido Mariano de Silva Rondon (1865-1956) was a Brazilian explorer who is most famous for exploring with Teddy Roosevelt during Roosevelts exploration of the Rio Roosevelt in the Mato Grosso state in Brazil. ... Kermit Roosevelt, explorer, author and soldier, accompanied his father, Theodore Roosevelt on several expeditions to Africa and the Amazon Kermit Roosevelt I (October 10, 1889 – June 4, 1943) was a son of U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt (also known as TR). ... The initial party. ... Cândido Mariano de Silva Rondon (1865-1956) was a Brazilian explorer who is most famous for exploring with Teddy Roosevelt during Roosevelts exploration of the Rio Roosevelt in the Mato Grosso state in Brazil. ... Father Zahm, CSC, 3rd from left, Theodore Roosevelt and his son Kermit, and surviving members of the 1913 expedition up the River of Doubt in the Amazon Rainforest Father John Augustine Zahm, CSC (June 11, 1851 – November 10, 1921) was a Holy Cross priest, author, scientist, and South American explorer. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Roosevelt River (Rio Roosevelt, sometimes Rio Teodoro) is a Brazilian river. ... This article is about the river. ... The Roosevelt River (Rio Roosevelt, sometimes Rio Teodoro) is a Brazilian river. ... Cândido Mariano de Silva Rondon (1865-1956) was a Brazilian explorer who is most famous for exploring with Teddy Roosevelt during Roosevelts exploration of the Rio Roosevelt in the Mato Grosso state in Brazil. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...

Roosevelt, wearing sun helmet, barely survived an expedition in 1913 into the Amazonian rain forest to trace the River of Doubt later named the Rio Roosevelt.

During the trip down the river, Roosevelt contracted malaria and a serious infection resulting from a minor leg wound. These illnesses so weakened Roosevelt that, by six weeks into the expedition, he had to be attended day and night by the expedition's physician, Dr. Cajazeira, and his son, Kermit. By this time, Roosevelt considered his own condition a threat to the survival of the others. At one point, Kermit had to talk him out of his wish to be left behind so as not to slow down the expedition, now with only a few weeks rations left. Roosevelt was having chest pains when he tried to walk, his temperature soared to 103 °F (39 °C), and at times he was delirious. He had lost over fifty pounds (20 kg). Without the constant support of his son, Kermit, Dr. Cajazeira, and the continued leadership of Colonel Rondon, Roosevelt would likely have perished. Despite his concern for Roosevelt, Rondon had been slowing down the pace of the expedition by his dedication to his own map-making and other geographical goals that demanded regular stops to fix the expedition's position via sun-based survey. Image File history File links TR_&_Rondon_River_of_Doubt_in_Canoe_1913. ... Image File history File links TR_&_Rondon_River_of_Doubt_in_Canoe_1913. ... The Roosevelt River (Rio Roosevelt, sometimes Rio Teodoro) is a Brazilian river. ... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites. ...


Upon his return to New York, friends and family were startled by Roosevelt's physical appearance and fatigue. Roosevelt wrote to a friend that the trip had cut his life short by ten years. He might not have really known just how accurate that analysis would prove to be, because the effects of the South America expedition had so greatly weakened him that they significantly contributed to his declining health. For the rest of his life, he would be plagued by flareups of malaria and leg inflammations so severe that they would require hospitalization.[47][64]


When Roosevelt had recovered enough of his strength, he found that he had a new battle on his hands. In professional circles, there was doubt about his claims of having discovered and navigated a completely uncharted river over 625 miles (1,000 km) long. Roosevelt would have to defend himself and win international recognition of the expedition's newly-named Rio Roosevelt. Toward this end, Roosevelt went to Washington, D.C., and spoke at a standing-room-only convention to defend his claims. His official report and its defense silenced the critics, and he was able to triumphantly return to his home in Oyster Bay. The Roosevelt River (Rio Roosevelt, sometimes Rio Teodoro) is a Brazilian river. ... Oyster Bay is the name of several places: Oyster Bay, New York, a hamlet in the town of Oyster Bay (town), New York, on Long Island, New York, United States of America Oyster Bay, Florida, a bay in Lee County, Florida, United States of America Oyster Bay, New South Wales...


Writer

A speech by Roosevelt, 1913

"Address to the Boys Progressive League"

A speech by Roosevelt as a former President
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Despite his weakened condition and slow recovery from his South America expedition, Roosevelt continued to write with passion on subjects ranging from foreign policy to the importance of the national park system. As an editor of Outlook magazine, he had weekly access to a large, educated national audience. In all, Roosevelt wrote about 18 books (each in several editions), including his Autobiography, Rough Riders and History of the Naval War of 1812, ranching, explorations, and wildlife. His most ambitious book was the 4 volume narrative The Winning of the West, which attempted to connect the origin of a new "race" of Americans (i.e. what he considered the present population of the United States to be) to the frontier conditions their ancestors endured in throughout the 17th, 18th, and early 19th centuries.


World War I

For more details on this topic, see Roosevelt's World War I volunteers.

Roosevelt angrily complained about the foreign policy of President Wilson, calling it "weak." This caused him to develop an intense dislike for Woodrow Wilson. When World War I began in 1914, Roosevelt strongly supported the Allies of World War I and demanded a harsher policy against Germany, especially regarding submarine warfare. In 1916, he campaigned energetically for Charles Evans Hughes and repeatedly denounced Irish-Americans and German-Americans who Roosevelt said were unpatriotic because they put the interest of Ireland and Germany ahead of America's by supporting neutrality. He insisted one had to be 100% American, not a "hyphenated American" who juggled multiple loyalties. When the U.S. entered the war in 1917, Roosevelt sought to raise a volunteer infantry division, but Wilson refused.[65] Col. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Map of the World showing the participants in World War I. Those fighting on the Allies side (at one point or another) are depicted in green, the Central Powers in orange, and neutral countries in gray. ... Charles Evans Hughes, Sr. ... Hyphenated Americans are Americans who are referred to with a first word indicating an origin or ancestry in a foreign country and a second term (separated from the first with a hyphen) being American (e. ...


Roosevelt's attacks on Wilson helped the Republicans win control of Congress in the off-year elections of 1918. Roosevelt was popular enough to seriously contest the 1920 Republican nomination, but his health was broken by 1918, because of the lingering malaria. His son Quentin, a daring pilot with the American forces in France, was shot down behind German lines in 1918. Quentin was his youngest son and probably the most liked by him. It is said the death of his son distressed him so much that Roosevelt never recovered from his loss.[66] Lt. ...


Last years and death

Theodore Roosevelt Grave in Youngs Memorial Cemetery Oyster Bay, New York
Twenty-six steps leading to Roosevelt's grave, commemorating his service as 26th President

Despite his debilitating diseases, Roosevelt remained active to the end of his life. He was an enthusiastic proponent of the Scouting movement. The Boy Scouts of America gave him the title of Chief Scout Citizen, the only person to hold such title. One early Scout leader said, "The two things that gave Scouting great impetus and made it very popular were the uniform and Teddy Roosevelt's jingoism."[67] PD image from http://www. ... PD image from http://www. ... This article is about the state. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1536 × 2048 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1536 × 2048 pixel, file size: 1. ... This article is about the Boy Scouts and Girl Scouts/Girl Guides organizations. ... For the Boy Scouting program within the BSA, see Boy Scouting (Boy Scouts of America). ...


On January 6, 1919, Roosevelt died in his sleep of a coronary embolism at Oyster Bay, and was buried in nearby Youngs Memorial Cemetery. Upon receiving word of his death, his son, Archie, telegraphed his siblings simply, "The old lion is dead."[68] Woodrow Wilson's vice president at the time Thomas R. Marshall said of his death "Death had to take Roosevelt sleeping, for if he had been awake, there would have been a fight."[69] is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... An embolism occurs when an object (the embolus, plural emboli) migrates from one part of the body (through circulation) and cause(s) a blockage (occlusion) of a blood vessel in another part of the body. ... Archibald Roosevelt was the fourth child of president Theodore Roosevelts marriage to his second wife Edith Carow. ... Thomas R. Marshall Thomas Riley Marshall (March 14, 1854 – June 1, 1925) was an American politician who served as the twenty-eighth Vice President of the United States of America under Woodrow Wilson from 1913 to 1921. ... Grim Reaper redirects here. ...


Character and beliefs

Roosevelt Family in 1903 with Quentin on the left, TR, Ted, Jr., "Archie", Alice, Kermit, Edith, and Ethel
Roosevelt Family in 1903 with Quentin on the left, TR, Ted, Jr., "Archie", Alice, Kermit, Edith, and Ethel

Roosevelt intensely disliked being called "Teddy," and was quick to point out this fact to those who used the nickname, though it would become widely used by newspapers during his political career. He attended the Madison Square Presbyterian Church until the age of 16. Later in life, when Roosevelt lived at Oyster Bay he attended an Episcopal church with his wife. While in Washington he attended services at Grace Reformed Church.[70] As President he firmly believed in the separation of church and state and thought it unwise to have In God We Trust on currency, because he thought it sacrilegious to put the name of the Deity on something so common as money.[71] He was also a Freemason, and regularly attended the Matinecock Lodge's meetings. He once said that "One of the things that so greatly attracted me to Masonry that I hailed the chance of becoming a Mason was that it really did act up to what we, as a government, are pledged to — namely to treat each man on his merit as a man."[72] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (747x722, 116 KB) Pres. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (747x722, 116 KB) Pres. ... Lt. ... Theodore Roosevelt. ... Archibald Roosevelt was the fourth child of president Theodore Roosevelts marriage to his second wife Edith Carow. ... Alice Roosevelt, taken around her debut in 1902. ... Kermit Roosevelt, explorer, author and soldier, accompanied his father, Theodore Roosevelt on several expeditions to Africa and the Amazon Kermit Roosevelt I (October 10, 1889 – June 4, 1943) was a son of U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt (also known as TR). ... White House portrait Edith Kermit Carow Roosevelt (August 6, 1861 - September 30, 1948), second wife of Theodore Roosevelt, was First Lady of the United States from 1901 to 1909. ... Ethel Carow Roosevelt Derby (August 13, 1891 – December 10, 1977) was the youngest daughter and fourth child of the President of the United States Theodore Roosevelt. ... This article is about the Episcopal Church in the United States. ... Constantines Conversion, depicting the conversion of Emperor Constantine the Great to Christianity, by Peter Paul Rubens. ... For other uses, see In God We Trust (disambiguation). ... American Square & Compasses Freemasonry is a worldwide fraternal organization. ...


Roosevelt had a lifelong interest in pursuing what he called, in an 1899 speech, "the strenuous life." To this end, he exercised regularly and took up boxing, tennis, hiking, rowing, polo, and horseback riding. As governor of New York, he boxed with sparring partners several times a week, a practice he regularly continued as President until one blow detached his left retina, leaving him blind in that eye (a fact not made public until many years later). Thereafter, he practiced jujutsu and continued his habit of skinny-dipping in the Potomac River during winter.[73][74] Theodore Roosevelt in 1904. ... Jujutsu )  , literally meaning the art of softness, is a Japanese martial art consisting primarily of grappling techniques. ... Skinny dip redirects here. ... The Potomac River flows into the Chesapeake Bay, located along the mid-Atlantic coast of the United States (USA). ...

Sagamore Hill, Roosevelt's estate
Sagamore Hill, Roosevelt's estate

He was an enthusiastic singlestick player and, according to Harper's Weekly, in 1905 showed up at a White House reception with his arm bandaged after a bout with General Leonard Wood.[75] Roosevelt was also an avid reader, reading tens of thousands of books, at a rate of several a day in multiple languages. Along with Thomas Jefferson Roosevelt is often considered the most well read of any American politician.[76] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x768, 364 KB) Summary The House of Theodore Roosevelt called Sagamore Hill, in Oyster Bay, NY. This is now a National Historic Site. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x768, 364 KB) Summary The House of Theodore Roosevelt called Sagamore Hill, in Oyster Bay, NY. This is now a National Historic Site. ... Sagamore Hill was the home of President of the United States, Theodore Roosevelt. ... Singlestick, also known as cudgels, is a martial art related to fencing and stick fighting, and a wooden weapon for the art, used for attack and defence, the thicker end being thrust through a cup-shaped hilt of basket-work to protect the hand. ... Teresa Bagioli Sickles confession, 1859 Harpers Weekly (A Journal of Civilization) was an American political magazine based in New York City. ... Leonard Wood (October 9, 1860 – August 7, 1927) was a physician who served as the US Army Chief of Staff and Governor General of the Philippines. ... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ...


Legacy

Roosevelt's face on Mt. Rushmore
Roosevelt's face on Mt. Rushmore
1910 cartoon shows Roosevelt's multiple roles to 1898
1910 cartoon shows Roosevelt's multiple roles to 1898
1910 cartoon shows Roosevelt's multiple roles from 1899 to 1910
1910 cartoon shows Roosevelt's multiple roles from 1899 to 1910

For his gallantry at San Juan Hill, Roosevelt's commanders recommended him for the Medal of Honor, but his subsequent telegrams to the War Department complaining about the delays in returning American troops from Cuba doomed his chances. In the late 1990s, Roosevelt's supporters again took up the flag on his behalf and overcame opposition from elements within the U.S. Army and the National Archives. On January 16, 2001, President Bill Clinton awarded Theodore Roosevelt the Medal of Honor posthumously for his charge up San Juan Hill, Cuba, during the Spanish-American War. Roosevelt's eldest son, Brigadier General Theodore Roosevelt, Jr., received the Medal of Honor for heroism at the Battle of Normandy in 1944. The Roosevelts thus became one of only two father-son pairs to receive this honor. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (707x875, 111 KB) Summary Mt. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (707x875, 111 KB) Summary Mt. ... The faces of (left to right) George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Theodore Roosevelt, and Abraham Lincoln Air Force One flying over Mount Rushmore. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1475x707, 126 KB) Summary 1910 US cartoon Licensing This image is in the public domain in the United States. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1475x707, 126 KB) Summary 1910 US cartoon Licensing This image is in the public domain in the United States. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1435x718, 127 KB) Summary 1910 US cartoon Licensing This image is in the public domain in the United States. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1435x718, 127 KB) Summary 1910 US cartoon Licensing This image is in the public domain in the United States. ... The Medal of Honor is the highest military decoration awarded by the United States. ... The National Archives building in Washington, DC The United States National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) is an independent agency of the United States federal government charged with preserving and documenting government and historical records. ... is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... Theodore Roosevelt. ... This article is about the assault phase of Operation Overlord. ...


Roosevelt's legacy includes several other important commemorations. Roosevelt was included with George Washington, Thomas Jefferson and Abraham Lincoln at the Mount Rushmore Memorial, designed in 1927. The United States Navy named two ships for Roosevelt: the USS Theodore Roosevelt (SSBN-600), a submarine was in commission from 1961 to 1982; and the USS Theodore Roosevelt (CVN-71), an aircraft carrier that has been on active duty in the Atlantic Fleet since 1986. George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... For the 1960s rock band, see Mount Rushmore (band). ... USN redirects here. ... USS Theodore Roosevelt (SSBN-600), a George Washington-class submarine, was the first ship of the United States Navy to be named for President Theodore Roosevelt. ... The USS Theodore Roosevelt (CVN-71) (known affectionately as the Big Stick or TR) is the fourth Nimitz-class supercarrier and its call sign is Rough Rider, the name of President Theodore Roosevelts volunteer cavalry unit during the Spanish-American War. ...


The Roosevelt Memorial Association (later the Theodore Roosevelt Association) or "TRA", was founded in 1920 to preserve Roosevelt's legacy. The Association preserved TR's birthplace, "Sagamore Hill" home, papers, and video film. The Theodore Roosevelt Association, (TRA) is an historical and cultural organization based in Oyster Bay, New York, open to the general public. ... The Theodore Roosevelt Association, (TRA) is an historical and cultural organization based in Oyster Bay, New York, open to the general public. ... Theodore Roosevelt Birthplace National Historic Site is a unit of the National Park Service at 28 E. 20th Street in New York, New York. ... Sagamore Hill was the home of President of the United States, Theodore Roosevelt. ...


Among the schools, neighborhoods, and streets named in Roosevelt's honor are Roosevelt High School in Seattle, Washington, the surrounding Roosevelt neighborhood, the district's main arterial, Roosevelt Way N.E., and Roosevelt Middle School in Eugene, Oregon. Roosevelt High School (RHS) is a public school in the Seattle Public Schools district of Seattle, Washington, USA. Founded in the 1920s, Roosevelt continues to be one of the largest schools in the greater Seattle area. ... Seattle redirects here. ... The Roosevelt district is a neighborhood in north-central Seattle, Washington. ... Nickname: Motto: The Worlds Greatest City of the Arts & Outdoors Coordinates: , Country State County Lane Founded 1846 Incorporated 1862 Government  - Mayor Kitty Piercy Area  - City 40. ...


Overall, historians credit Roosevelt for changing the nation's political system by permanently placing the presidency at center stage and making character as important as the issues. His notable accomplishments include trust-busting and conservationism. However, he has been criticized for his interventionist and imperialist approach to nations he considered "uncivilized". Even so, history and legend have been kind to him. His friend, historian Henry Adams, proclaimed, "Roosevelt, more than any other living man ....showed the singular primitive quality that belongs to ultimate matter — the quality that mediaeval theology assigned to God — he was pure act." Historians typically rank Roosevelt among the top five presidents.[77][78] Henry Adams Henry Brooks Adams (February 16, 1838 – March 27, 1918) was an American historian, journalist and novelist. ...


Popular culture

Roosevelt's 1901 saying "Speak Softly and Carry a Big Stick" is still being occasionally quoted by politicians and columnists in different countries - not only in English but also in translation to various other languages. For example, following the Second Lebanon War of August 2006, opponents of Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Olmert accused him of "Speaking loudly and carrying a small stick". Combatants Hezbollah Amal LCP Islamic Courts Union[4]  Israel Commanders Hassan Nasrallah (Secretary General of Hezbollah), veteran Fatah operative Imad Mughniyeh[5] Dan Halutz (CoS), Moshe Kaplinsky[13], Udi Adam (Regional) Strength 600-1,000 active fighters (of 3,000 - 5,000 available and 10,000 reservists) [6] 30,000... Ehud Olmert (IPA ; Hebrew:אהוד אולמרט; born September 30, 1945) is the 12th and current Prime Minister of Israel. ...


The well-known Nicaraguan poet Rubén Darío published in 1905 a poem entitled A Roosevelt (To Roosevelt)[79] which was included in Cantos de Vida y Esperanza (Songs of Life and Hope) A framed picture of Rubén Darío hanging in the National Theater. ...


As a charismatic President often considered larger than life, Roosevelt has appeared in numerous fiction books, television shows, films, and other media of popular culture. Roosevelt was played by Robin Williams in the box office hit Night at the Museum (2006) and its upcoming sequel. This article is about the American actor and comedian; for other people named Robin Williams, see Robin Williams (disambiguation). ... Night at the Museum is a 2006 American adventure comedy film. ...

"Drawing the Line in Mississippi," referring to Roosevelt's sparing the bear, by Clifford Berryman, 1902. The Washington Post political cartoon that spawned the Teddy bear name.

Filmmaker John Milius also directed two films in which Roosevelt was a central character: The Wind and the Lion (1975) in which he was played by Brian Keith; and Rough Riders (1997) in which he was played by Tom Berenger. Keith's performance is widely considered to be the definitive screen depiction of Roosevelt. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 619 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (637 × 617 pixels, file size: 68 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Clifford Berrymans (April 2, 1869 -- December 11, 1949) political cartoon of President Theodore Roosevelts bear hunting trip to Mississippi that gave the Teddy Bear... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 619 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (637 × 617 pixels, file size: 68 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Clifford Berrymans (April 2, 1869 -- December 11, 1949) political cartoon of President Theodore Roosevelts bear hunting trip to Mississippi that gave the Teddy Bear... John Milius (born April 11, 1944 in St. ... The Wind and the Lion is a 1975 adventure film. ... Brian Keith (November 14, 1921 – June 24, 1997) was an American stage, film and television actor. ... Rough Riders is a 1997 film about Theodore Roosevelt and the regiment (the 1st US Volunteer Cavalry aka the Rough Riders) he help raise to fight in Spanish-American War of 1898. ... Tom Berenger (born May 31, 1949) is an Academy Award nominated and Golden Globe winning American actor known mainly for his roles in action films. ...


Roosevelt's lasting popular legacy, however, is the stuffed toy bears—teddy bears—named after him following an incident on a hunting trip in 1902. Roosevelt famously refused to kill a captured black bear simply for the sake of making a kill. Bears and later bear cubs became closely associated with Roosevelt in political cartoons thereafter.[80] Teddy bear Barrymans original cartoon A Teddy bear is a stuffed toy bear for children. ... Binomial name Pallas, 1780 Synonyms Euarctos americanus The American Black Bear (Ursus americanus) is the most common bear species native to North America. ...


On June 26, 2006, Roosevelt, once again, made the cover of TIME magazine with the lead story, "The Making of America—Theodore Roosevelt—The 20th Century Express": "At home and abroad, Theodore Roosevelt was the locomotive President, the man who drew his flourishing nation into the future."[81] is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... “TIME” redirects here. ...


The Washington Nationals major league baseball team has a fan tradition called the Presidents Race. In it four caricatures of presidents Abraham Lincoln, George Washington, Thomas Jefferson and Theodore Roosevelt race against each other. A running gag has been Theodore Roosevelt's inability to win a single Presidents Race. Major league affiliations National League (1969–present) East Division (1969–present) Current uniform Retired Numbers 42 Name Washington Nationals (2005–present) Montreal Expos (1969-2004) Other nicknames The Nats Ballpark Nationals Ballpark (2008–present) RFK Stadium 2005-2007 Hiram Bithorn Stadium[3] (San Juan) (2003-2004) Olympic Stadium (Montreal) (1977... The Presidents Race is a promotional event held at every Washington Nationals home game at RFK Memorial Stadium during the fourth inning. ...


Quotations

  • "No triumph of peace is as great as the supreme triumphs of war."
  • "Speak softly and carry a big stick."
  • "Chronic wrongdoing may require intervention by some civilised nation."
  • "I have as much desire to annexe San Domingo as a gorged Boa Constrictor might have to swallow a porcupine wrong end to!"
  • "Civilized man can only keep the peace by subduing his barbarian neighbour."
  • "Their life was only a few degrees less meaningless, squalid and ferocious than that of wild animals."
  • "Far better is it to dare mighty things, to win glorious triumphs even though checkered by failure than to take rank with those poor spirits who neither enjoy much nor suffer much because they live in the grey twilight that knows neither victory nor defeat."
  • "It is not the critic who counts, not the man who points out how the strong man stumbled, or where the doer of deeds could have done better. The credit belongs to the man who is actually in the arena; whose face is marred by the dust and sweat and blood; who strives valiantly; who errs and comes short again and again, because there is no effort without error or shortcoming; who knows the great enthusiasms, the great devotions and spends himself in a worthy cause; who at the best, knows in the end the triumph of high achievement, and who, at worst, if he fails, at least fails while daring greatly; so that his place shall never be with those cold and timid souls who know neither victory or defeat."

Quotations by contemporaries

  • "He has no more use for a constitution than a tom-cat for a marriage licence."

Media

Theodore Roosevelt was one of the first presidents whose voice was recorded for posterity. Several of his recorded speeches survive.[82]

  • Roosevelt in San Francisco, 1903

    Parade for the school children of San Francisco, down Van Ness Avenue. (13.8 MB, ogg/Theora format).


    Teddy Roosevelt, San Francisco, 1903. ... Teddy Roosevelt, San Francisco, 1903. ... This article is about a unit of data. ... Ogg is an open standard for a free container format for digital multimedia, unrestricted by software patents and designed for efficient streaming and manipulation. ... Theora is a video codec being developed by the Xiph. ...

    Teddy Roosevelt video montage - narrated by a third party.

    Collection of video clips of the president. (6.5 MB, ogg/Theora format).


    Teddy Roosevelt video montage. ... Teddy Roosevelt video montage. ... This article is about a unit of data. ... Ogg is an open standard for a free container format for digital multimedia, unrestricted by software patents and designed for efficient streaming and manipulation. ... Theora is a video codec being developed by the Xiph. ...

  • Problems seeing the videos? See media help.

Archibald Hoxsey (1884-1910) Archibald Hoxsey (October 15, 1884 – December 31, 1910) was an early aviator for the Wright brothers. ...

See also

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Image File history File links Naval_Jack_of_the_United_States. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... Photo of Theodore Roosevelt Sr. ... Martha Bulloch age 22 - Was She the inspiration for the Scarlett OHara character? Martha Bulloch Roosevelt (July 8, 1835 – February 14, 1884) was the mother of US President Theodore Roosevelt and the paternal grandmother of Eleanor Roosevelt. ... Anna Eleanor Roosevelt (IPA: ; October 11, 1884 – November 7, 1962) was First Lady of the United States from 1933 to 1945. ... Alice Hathaway Lee was only seventeen when she first met Theodore Roosevelt on Oct 18, 1878 Alice Hathaway Lee Roosevelt (July 29, 1861 in Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts – February 14, 1884 in Manhattan, New York) was the first wife of Theodore Roosevelt and the mother of their only child together, Alice... White House portrait Edith Kermit Carow Roosevelt (August 6, 1861 - September 30, 1948), second wife of Theodore Roosevelt, was First Lady of the United States from 1901 to 1909. ... Alice Roosevelt, taken around her debut in 1902. ... Theodore Roosevelt. ... Kermit Roosevelt, explorer, author and soldier, accompanied his father, Theodore Roosevelt on several expeditions to Africa and the Amazon Kermit Roosevelt I (October 10, 1889 – June 4, 1943) was a son of U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt (also known as TR). ... Ethel Carow Roosevelt Derby (August 13, 1891 – December 10, 1977) was the youngest daughter and fourth child of the President of the United States Theodore Roosevelt. ... Archibald Roosevelt was the fourth child of president Theodore Roosevelts marriage to his second wife Edith Carow. ... Lt. ... Elliott Bulloch Roosevelt (February 28, 1860- August 14, 1894) was the father of Anna E. Roosevelt and the brother of Theodore Roosevelt. ... Anna Bamie Roosevelt Cowles in 1882 Anna Roosevelt Cowles (January 18, 1855 – August 25, 1931) was the older sister of United States President Theodore Roosevelt. ... Corinne Roosevelt Robinson (September 27, 1861- February 17, 1933) was the younger sister of former President of the United States Theodore Roosevelt and an aunt of former First Lady of the United States, Eleanor Roosevelt. ... FDR redirects here. ... The Theodore Roosevelt Association, (TRA) is an historical and cultural organization based in Oyster Bay, New York, open to the general public. ... A comprehensive project to publish, in one set of collection, the significant saysings, important conversations and writings of 26th US President, Theodore Roosevelt. ... The Panama Canal is a waterway in Central America which joins the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. ... USS Kansas sails ahead of the USS Vermont as the fleet leaves Hampton Roads, Virginia on December 16, 1907. ... Combatants Russian Empire Principality of Montenegro [1] Empire of Japan Commanders Emperor Nicholas II Aleksey Kuropatkin Stepan Makarov â€  Emperor Meiji Oyama Iwao Heihachiro Togo The Russo–Japanese War (Japanese: Nichi-Ro Sensō, Russian: Russko-Yaponskaya Voyna, Chinese: RìézhànzhÄ“ng, February 10, 1904–September 5, 1905) was a conflict... This is an incomplete list of Political appointees in the United States Government whose party was different from that of the President who made the appointment. ... For other uses, see Progressivism (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links United_States_Department_of_the_Army_Seal. ...

Notes and references

Notes

  1. ^ Until the ratification of the Twenty-fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution in 1967, there was no provision for filling a mid-term vacancy in the office of Vice President. Find Law for Legal Professionals - U.S. Constitution: Twenty-Fifth Amendment - Annotations
  2. ^ His last name is, according to the man himself, "pronounced as if it was spelled 'Rosavelt.' That is in three syllables. The first syllable as if it was 'Rose.'" Hart, Albert B.; Herbert R. Ferleger (1989). Theodore Roosevelt Cyclopedia (CD-ROM) 534–535. Theodore Roosevelt Association. Retrieved on 2007-06-10.;
    An audio recording in which Roosevelt pronounces his own last name distinctly. To listen at the correct speed, slow the recording down by 20%. Retrieved on July 12, 2007.
    How to Pronounce Theodore Roosevelt. Retrieved on 2007-06-10.
  3. ^ Gable Ph.D., Dr. John Allen. Theodore Roosevelt: A Selected Annotated Bibliography. Bibliography. Theodore Roosevelt Association. Retrieved on 2007-07-19.
  4. ^ John F. Kennedy is the youngest person to be elected President. Roosevelt was not elected until 1904, when he was 46.
  5. ^ National Health Care, HealthInsurance.info
  6. ^ Chris Farrell, It's Time to Cure Health Care, BusinessWeek
  7. ^ Bailey, Thomas A. (1966). Presidential Greatness. New York: Appleton-Century Crofts, 308. 
  8. ^ . Pringle (1931) p. 11
  9. ^ "TR's Legacy—The Environment". Retrieved March 6, 2006.
  10. ^ Thayer, William Roscoe (1919). Theodore Roosevelt: An Intimate Biography, Chapter I, p. 20. Bartleby.com.
  11. ^ Roosevelt, Theodore (1913). Theodore Roosevelt: An Autobiography, Chapter I, p. 13.
  12. ^ "The Film & More: Program Transcript Part One". Retrieved March 9, 2006.
  13. ^ Brands T. R. p. 49–50
  14. ^ Brands p. 62
  15. ^ The Rise of Theodore Roosevelt by Edmund Morris.
  16. ^ Brands, pp 123–29
  17. ^ "The Rise of Theodore Roosevelt," by Edmund Morris, pg 267.
  18. ^ "Theodore Roosevelt, A Biography, by Henry Pringle", pg 61
  19. ^ Thayer, Chapter V, pp. 4, 6.
  20. ^ Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910 Edition, Topic: Theodore Roosevelt
  21. ^ Although Roosevelt's father was also named Theodore Roosevelt, he died while the future president was still childless and unmarried, so the future President Roosevelt took the suffix of Sr. and subsequently named his son Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. Because Roosevelt was still alive when his grandson and namesake was born, his grandson was named Theodore Roosevelt III, and the president's son retained the Jr. after his father's death.
  22. ^ See The Naval War of 1812, via Project Gutenberg.
  23. ^ Pringle (1931) p 116
  24. ^ Theodore Roosevelt Association. TR & Civil Rights.
  25. ^ Thayer, ch. VI, pp. 1–2.
  26. ^ Andrews, William, "The Early Years: The Challenge of Public Order - 1845 to 1870", - New York City Police Department History Site. Retrieved August 28, 2006.
  27. ^ Editors, "Leadership of the City of New York Police Department 1845–1901", - The New York City Police Department Museum. Retrieved August 28, 2006.
  28. ^ Brands ch 11
  29. ^ Brands ch 12
  30. ^ April 16, 1897: T. Roosevelt Appointed Assistant Secretary of the Navy. Crucible of Empire - Timeline. PBS Online. Retrieved on 2007-07-26.
  31. ^ Transcript For "Crucible Of Empire". Crucible of Empire - Timeline. PBS Online. Retrieved on 2007-07-26.
  32. ^ Soots Letter
  33. ^ Brands ch 13
  34. ^ Medal of Honor. Life of Theodore Roosevelt. Theodore Roosevelt Association. Retrieved on 2007-10-25.
  35. ^ Center of Military History
  36. ^ Brands ch 14–15
  37. ^ The Oath of Office. USInfo.State.gov. Retrieved on 2007-07-26.
  38. ^ Bibles and Scripture Passages Used by Presidents in Taking the Oath of Office. Retrieved September 23, 2007.
  39. ^ Presidents Theodore Roosevelt 1858–1919. U-S-History. Retrieved on 2007-07-26.
  40. ^ Brands ch 16
  41. ^ Brands ch 17
  42. ^ Annual Message December 1904
  43. ^ Blum 1980 pp 43–44
  44. ^ See Edward S Miller,War Plan Orange (Annapolis, 1991)
  45. ^ The Rector and Visitors of the University of Virginia (2005). "Theodore Roosevelt (1901–1909)". Retrieved March 6, 2006.
  46. ^ Penny Foolish - New York Times
  47. ^ a b c Hanson, David C. (2005). "Theodore Roosevelt: Lion in the White House". Retrieved March 6, 2006.
  48. ^ Smith, Ira R. T.; Morris, Joe Alex (1949). "Dear Mr. President": The Story of Fifty Years in the White House Mail Room, p. 52. Julian Messner.
  49. ^ Kennedy, Robert C. (2005). "'I hear there are some kids in the White House this year'". Retrieved March 6, 2006.
  50. ^ Pringle 465–7
  51. ^ (Some sources attribute this quote to one of Roosevelt's sons instead.) Thayer, Chapter XIII, p. 7.
  52. ^ PRESIDENT TAKES PLUNGE IN SUBMARINE; Remains Below the Surface for Fif... - Article Preview - The New York Times
  53. ^ Tennessee Encyclopedia accessed March 7, 2008
  54. ^ O'Toole, Patricia (2005) When Trumpets Call, p. 67, Simon and Schuster, ISBN 0-684-86477-0
  55. ^ Thayer, Chapter XXI, p. 10.
  56. ^ Carl M. Cannon, The Pursuit of Happiness in Times of War, Rowman & Littlefield: 2003, p. 142. ISBN 0742525929.
  57. ^ Thayer, Chapter XXII, pp. 25–31.
  58. ^ O'TOOLE, PATRICIA, "The War of 1912," TIME in Partneship with CNN, Jun. 25, 2006.
  59. ^ Roosevelt, Theodore. An Autobiography: XV. The Peace of Righteousness, Appendix B, NEW YORK: MACMILLAN, 1913.
  60. ^ Wisconsin Historical Society
  61. ^ Medical History of American Presidents
  62. ^ Excerpt from the Detroit Free Press, at Historybuff.com
  63. ^ Roosevelt Timeline
  64. ^ Thayer, Chapter XXIII, pp. 4–7.
  65. ^ Brands 781–4; Cramer, C.H. Newton D. Baker (1961) 110–113
  66. ^ Dalton, (2002)p 507
  67. ^ Larson, Keith (2006). "Theodore Roosevelt". Retrieved March 6, 2006.
  68. ^ Dalton, (2002) p. 507
  69. ^ Manners, William. TR and Will: A Friendship that Split the Republican Party. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, Inc., 1969.
  70. ^ "The Religious Affiliation of Theodore Roosevelt U.S. President". Retrieved March 7, 2006.
  71. ^ Reynolds, Ralph C. (1999). "In God We Trust: All Others Pay Cash". Retrieved March 7, 2006.
  72. ^ Matinecock Masonic Historical Society. "History". Retrieved March 12, 2006.
  73. ^ Thayer, Chapter XVII, pp. 22–24.
  74. ^ Shaw, K.B. & Maiden, David (2006). "Theodore Roosevelt". Retrieved March 7, 2006.
  75. ^ Amberger, J Christoph, Secret History of the Sword Adventures in Ancient Martial Arts 1998, ISBN 1-892515-04-0.
  76. ^ David H. Burton, The Learned Presidency 1988, p 12.
  77. ^ The Rector and Visitors of the University of Virginia (2005). "Biography: Impact and Legacy". Retrieved March 7, 2006.
  78. ^ "Legacy". Retrieved March 7, 2006.
  79. ^ http://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Rub%C3%A9n_Dar%C3%ADo
  80. ^ "History of the Teddy Bear". Retrieved March 7, 2006.
  81. ^ "The Making of America—Theodore Roosevelt—The 20th Century Express". Time (2006). Retrieved on 2006-03-26.
  82. ^ Vincent Voice Library at Michigan State University. Retrieved September 23, 2007.

Page 1 of Amendment XXV in the National Archives Page 2 of the amendment Amendment XXV (the Twenty-fifth Amendment) of the United States Constitution clarifies an ambiguous provision of the Constitution regarding succession to the Presidency, and establishes procedures both for filling a vacancy in the office of the... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 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Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 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Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Michigan State University (MSU) is a co-educational public research university in East Lansing, Michigan USA. Founded in 1855, it was the pioneer land-grant institution and served as a model for future land-grant colleges in the United States under the 1862 Morrill Act. ...

Primary sources

  • Auchincloss, Louis, ed. Theodore Roosevelt, The Rough Riders and an Autobiography (Library of America, 2004) ISBN 978-1-93108265-5
  • Auchincloss, Louis, ed. Theodore Roosevelt, Letters and Speeches (Library of America, 2004) ISBN 978-1-93108266-2
  • Brands, H.W. ed. The Selected Letters of Theodore Roosevelt. (2001)
  • Harbaugh, William ed. The Writings Of Theodore Roosevelt (1967). A one-volume selection of Roosevelt's speeches and essays.
  • Hart, Albert Bushnell and Herbert Ronald Ferleger, eds. Theodore Roosevelt Cyclopedia (1941), Roosevelt's opinions on many issues; online version at [2]
  • Morison, Elting E., John Morton Blum, and Alfred D. Chandler, Jr., eds., The Letters of Theodore Roosevelt, 8 vols. (1951–1954). Very large, annotated edition of letters from TR.
  • Roosevelt, Theodore (1999). Theodore Roosevelt: An Autobiography. online at Bartleby.com.
  • Roosevelt, Theodore. The Works of Theodore Roosevelt (National edition, 20 vol. 1926); 18,000 pages containing most of TR's speeches, books and essays, but not his letters; a CD-ROM edition is available; some of TR's books are available online through Project Bartleby
  • Theodore Roosevelt books and speeches on Project Gutenberg

Volumes in the Library of America series The Library of America (LoA) is a nonprofit publisher of classic American literature. ... Volumes in the Library of America series The Library of America (LoA) is a nonprofit publisher of classic American literature. ... A comprehensive project to publish, in one set of collection, the significant saysings, important conversations and writings of 26th US President, Theodore Roosevelt. ...

Secondary sources

  • Blum, John Morton The Republican Roosevelt. (1954). Series of essays that examine how TR did politics
  • Brands, H.W. Theodore Roosevelt (2001), full biography
  • Chace, James. 1912: Wilson, Roosevelt, Taft, and Debs - The Election That Changed the Country. (2004). 323 pp.
  • Cooper, John Milton The Warrior and the Priest: Woodrow Wilson and Theodore Roosevelt. (1983) a dual scholarly biography
  • Dalton, Kathleen. Theodore Roosevelt: A Strenuous Life. (2002), full scholarly biography
  • Fehn, Bruce. "Theodore Roosevelt and American Masculinity." Magazine of History (2005) 19(2): 52–59. Issn: 0882-228x Fulltext online at Ebsco. Provides a lesson plan on TR as the historical figure who most exemplifies the quality of masculinity.
  • Gluck, Sherwin. "T.R.'s Summer White House, Oyster Bay." (1999) Chronicles the events of TR's presidency during the summers of his two terms.
  • Goldman, Eric F. Rendezvous with Destiny: A History of Modern American Reform. (1952) ISBN 1566633699
  • Gould, Lewis L. The Presidency of Theodore Roosevelt. (1991), standard history of his domestic and foreign policy as president
  • Harbaugh, William Henry. The Life and Times of Theodore Roosevelt. (1963), full scholarly biography
  • Keller, Morton, ed., Theodore Roosevelt: A Profile (1967) excerpts from TR and from historians.
  • Kohn, Edward. "Crossing the Rubicon: Theodore Roosevelt, Henry Cabot Lodge, and the 1884 Republican National Convention." Journal of the Gilded Age and Progressive Era 2006 5(1): 18–45. Issn: 1537-7814 Fulltext: in History Cooperative
  • Millard, Candice. River of Doubt: Theodore Roosevelt's Darkest Journey. (2005)
  • McCullough, David. Mornings on Horseback, The Story of an Extraordinary Family. a Vanished Way of Life, and the Unique Child Who Became Theodore Roosevelt. (2001) popular biography to 1884
  • Mellander, Gustavo A.(1971) The United States in Panamanian Politics: The Intriguing Formative Years. Daville,Ill.:Interstate Publishers. OCLC 138568.
  • Mellander, Gustavo A.; Nelly Maldonado Mellander (1999). Charles Edward Magoon: The Panama Years. Río Piedras, Puerto Rico: Editorial Plaza Mayor. ISBN 1563281554. OCLC 42970390.
  • Morris, Edmund The Rise of Theodore Roosevelt, to 1901 (1979); vol 2: Theodore Rex 1901–1909. (2001); Pulitzer prize for Volume 1. Biography.
  • Mowry, George. The Era of Theodore Roosevelt and the Birth of Modern America, 1900–1912. (1954) general survey of era; online
  • Mowry, George E. Theodore Roosevelt and the Progressive Movement. (2001) focus on 1912
  • O'Toole, Patricia. When Trumpets Call: Theodore Roosevelt after the White House. (2005). 494 pp.
  • Powell, Jim. Bully Boy: The Truth About Theodore Roosevelt's Legacy (Crown Forum, 2006). Denounces TR policies from conservative/libertarian perspective
  • Pringle, Henry F. Theodore Roosevelt (1932; 2nd ed. 1956), full scholarly biography
  • Putnam, Carleton Theodore Roosevelt: A Biography, Volume I: The Formative Years (1958), only volume published, to age 28.
  • Renehan, Edward J. The Lion's Pride: Theodore Roosevelt and His Family in Peace and War. (Oxford University Press, 1998), examines TR and his family during the World War I period
  • Strock, James M. Theodore Roosevelt on Leadership. Random House, 2003.
  • Watts, Sarah. Rough Rider in the White House: Theodore Roosevelt and the Politics of Desire. 2003. 289 pp.

Edmund Morris during a CNN interview in 1999 Edmund Morris (born May 27, 1940 in Nairobi, Kenya) is a writer best known for his biographies of United States presidents Theodore Roosevelt and Ronald Reagan. ...

Foreign policy

  • Beale Howard K. Theodore Roosevelt and the Rise of America to World Power. (1956). standard history of his foreign policy
  • Holmes, James R. Theodore Roosevelt and World Order: Police Power in International Relations. 2006. 328 pp.
  • Marks III, Frederick W. Velvet on Iron: The Diplomacy of Theodore Roosevelt (1979)
  • David McCullough. The Path between the Seas: The Creation of the Panama Canal, 1870–1914 (1977).
  • Ricard, Serge. "The Roosevelt Corollary." Presidential Studies Quarterly 2006 36(1): 17–26. Issn: 0360-4918 Fulltext: in Swetswise and Ingenta
  • Tilchin, William N. and Neu, Charles E., ed. Artists of Power: Theodore Roosevelt, Woodrow Wilson, and Their Enduring Impact on U.S. Foreign Policy. Praeger, 2006. 196 pp.
  • Tilchin, William N. Theodore Roosevelt and the British Empire: A Study in Presidential Statecraft (1997)

External links

Political offices
Preceded by
Frank S. Black
Governor of New York
1899 – 1900
Succeeded by
Benjamin B. Odell, Jr.
Preceded by
Garret Hobart
Vice President of the United States
March 4, 1901 – September 14, 1901
Succeeded by
Charles W. Fairbanks
Preceded by
William McKinley
President of the United States
September 14, 1901– March 4, 1909
Succeeded by
William Howard Taft
Party political offices
Preceded by
Garret Hobart
Republican Party vice presidential candidate
1900
Succeeded by
Charles W. Fairbanks
Preceded by
William McKinley
Republican Party presidential candidate
1904
Succeeded by
William Howard Taft
New political party Progressive Party presidential candidate
1912
Party disbanded
Honorary titles
Preceded by
Grover Cleveland
Oldest U.S. President still living
June 24, 1908 – March 4, 1909
Succeeded by
William Howard Taft
Persondata
NAME Roosevelt, Theodore, Jr.
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION 26th President of the United States
DATE OF BIRTH October 27, 1858
PLACE OF BIRTH New York, New York
DATE OF DEATH January 6, 1919
PLACE OF DEATH Oyster Bay, New York
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James Schoolcraft Sherman (October 24, 1855 – October 30, 1912) was a Representative from New York and the 27th Vice President of the United States. ... Nicholas Murray Butler Nicholas Murray Butler (April 2, 1862 – December 7, 1947) was an American philosopher, diplomat, and educator. ... Charles Warren Fairbanks (May 11, 1852 – June 4, 1918) was a Senator from Indiana and the twenty-sixth Vice President of the United States. ... John Calvin Coolidge, Jr. ... Charles Gates Dawes (August 27, 1865 – April 23, 1951) was an American banker and politician who was the 30th Vice President of the United States. ... This article is about the former Vice President of the United States. ... Frank Knox William Franklin Frank Knox (January 1, 1874–April 28, 1944) was the Secretary of the Navy under Franklin D. Roosevelt during most of World War II. He was also the Republican vice presidential candidate in 1936. ... Charles L. McNary Charles Linza McNary (June 12, 1874 - February 25, 1944) was a U.S. Republican politician from Oregon, best known for serving as Minority Leader of the United States Senate from 1933 to 1944. ... John William Bricker (September 6, 1893 – March 22, 1986) was a United States politician from Ohio. ... For the swing saxophonist and occasional singer, see Earle Warren Earl Warren (March 19, 1891 – July 9, 1974) was a California district attorney of Alameda County, the 20th Attorney General of California, the 30th Governor of California, and the 14th Chief Justice of the United States (from 1953 to 1969). ... Nixon redirects here. ... Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. ... William Edward Miller (March 22, 1914 – June 24, 1983), was an American politician. ... Spiro Theodore Agnew (November 9, 1918 – September 17, 1996) was the thirty-ninth Vice President of the United States serving under President Richard M. Nixon, and the fifty-fifth Governor of Maryland. ... § Robert Joseph Dole (born July 22, 1923) was a United States Senator from Kansas from 1969-1996, serving part of that time as United States Senate Majority Leader. ... George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ... James Danforth[1][2] Dan Quayle (born February 4, 1947) is an American politician and a former Senator from the state of Indiana. ... Jack French Kemp Jr. ... Richard Bruce Dick Cheney (born January 30, 1941), is the 46th and current Vice President of the United States, serving under President George W. Bush. ... This is a list of the Governors of New York. ... George Clinton (July 26, 1739 – April 20, 1812) was an American soldier and politician. ... For other persons named John Jay, see John Jay (disambiguation). ... George Clinton (July 26, 1739 – April 20, 1812) was an American soldier and politician. ... Morgan Lewis (October 16, 1754– April 7, 1844) was the son of Francis Lewis. ... Daniel D. Tompkins (June 21, 1774 – June 11, 1825) was an entrepreneur, jurist, Congressman, Governor of New York, and the sixth Vice President of the United States. ... John Tayler John Tayler (July 4, 1742 - March 19, 1829) was an American businessman and politician. ... DeWitt Clinton. ... Governor Joseph C. Yates, as painted by Ezra Ames, circa 1825 Joseph Christopher Yates (November 9, 1768–March 19, 1837), born in Schenectady, New York, was an American lawyer, statesman and politician. ... DeWitt Clinton. ... Nathaniel Pitcher (1777–1836) was governor of the U.S. state of New York from 1828 to 1829, having succeeded as Lt. ... Martin Van Buren (December 5, 1782 – July 24, 1862), nicknamed Old Kinderhook, was the eighth President of the United States from 1837 to 1841. ... Enos Thompson Throop (August 21, 1784–November 1, 1874) was an early settler in Auburn, New York. ... William Learned Marcy ( December 12, 1786– July 4, 1857) was an American statesman. ... William Henry Seward, Sr. ... William C. Bouck (1796 - 1859) was governor of the U.S. state of New York from 1843 to 1845. ... Silas Wright, Jr. ... John Young (June 12, 1802 - April 23, 1852) was an American politician. ... Hamilton Fish Hamilton Fish, (3 August 1808–7 September 1893), born in New York City, was an American statesman who served as Governor of New York, United States Senator and United States Secretary of State. ... Washington Hunt (1811 - 1867) was born in Greene County, New York and died in New York City. ... Governor Horatio Seymour Horatio Seymour (May 31, 1810 - February 12, 1886) was an American politician. ... Myron Holley Clark (1806 - 1892) was born and died in Ontario County, New York. ... John Alsop King (1788–1867) was an American politician who served as governor (1857–1859) of New York. ... Edwin Denison Morgan (February 8, 1811 – February 14, 1883) was Governor of New York from 1859 to 1862 and served in the United States Senate from 1863 to 1869. ... Governor Horatio Seymour Horatio Seymour (May 31, 1810 - February 12, 1886) was an American politician. ... Reuben Eaton Fenton (4 July 1819–15 August 1885) was an American politician from New York. ... John Thompson Hoffman (10 January 1828 – 24 March 1888) was born in Ossining in Westchester County, New York. ... John Adams Dix (July 24, 1798 – April 21, 1879) was an American politician from New York. ... Samuel Jones Tilden (February 9, 1814 - August 4, 1886) was the Democratic candidate for the US presidency in the disputed election of 1876, the most controversial American election of the 19th century. ... Lucius Robinson (4 November 1810 - 23 May 1886) was a governor of New York from 1877 to 1879. ... Alonzo Barton Cornell (22 January 1832–15 October 1904) was Governor of New York from 1880 to 1883. ... Stephen Grover Cleveland (March 18, 1837–June 24, 1908), was the twenty-second and twenty-fourth President of the United States. ... David Bennett Hill (August 29, 1843 - October 20, 1910) was a Governor of New York. ... Roswell Pettibone Flower (August 7, 1835 - May 12, 1899) was the Governor of New York between 1892 and 1895. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Frank Swett Black (March 8, 1853 - March 22, 1913) is a Governor and a Representative from New York. ... Benjamin Barker Odell, Jr. ... Frank Wayland Higgins (August 18, 1856 - February 12, 1907) was a Governor of New York. ... Charles Evans Hughes, Sr. ... Horace White (October 7, 1865 - November 26, 1943) was a Governor of New York. ... John Alden Dix (December 25, 1860 - April 9, 1928) was Governor of New York from 1911 to 1913. ... William Sulzer (March 18, 1863 – November 6, 1941) was a Governor of New York. ... Martin Henry Glynn (September 27, 1871 - December 14, 1924) was a Democratic Governor of New York. ... Charles S. Whitman (September 29, 1868 - March 29, 1947) served as Republican Governor of New York between 1915 and 1919. ... Alfred Emanuel Al Smith (December 30, 1873 – October 4, 1944) was Governor of New York, and Democratic U.S. presidential candidate in 1928. ... Nathan Lewis Miller (October 10, 1868 – June 26, 1953) was a Governor of the U.S. state of New York. ... Alfred Emanuel Al Smith (December 30, 1873 – October 4, 1944) was Governor of New York, and Democratic U.S. presidential candidate in 1928. ... FDR redirects here. ... Herbert Lehman Herbert Henry Lehman (March 28, 1878 – December 5, 1963) was a Democratic Party politician from the U.S. state of New York. ... Charles Poletti (July 2, 1903 – August 8, 2002) was the governor of New York between 1942 and 1943. ... Thomas Edmund Dewey (March 24, 1902 – March 16, 1971) was the Governor of New York (1943-1954) and the unsuccessful Republican candidate for the U.S. Presidency in 1944 and 1948. ... William Averell Harriman (November 15, 1891 – July 26, 1986) was an American Democratic Party politician, businessman and diplomat. ... Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller (July 8, 1908 – January 26, 1979) was an American Vice President, governor of New York State, philanthropist and businessman. ... Charles Malcolm Wilson (February 26, 1914 – March 13, 2000) was the Governor of New York from December 18, 1973 to January 1, 1975. ... Hugh Leo Carey (born April 11, 1919) was the Governor of New York between 1975 and 1983. ... Mario Matthew Cuomo (born June 15, 1932) served as the Governor of New York from 1983 to 1995. ... George Elmer Pataki (born June 24, 1945) is an American politician who was the 57th Governor of New York serving from January 1995 until January 1, 2007. ... Eliot Laurence Spitzer (born June 10, 1959 ) is an American lawyer, politician and the current Governor of New York. ... This article is about the Governor of New York. ... State seal of New York. ... The Cabinet meets in the Cabinet Room on May 16, 2001. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... The Vice President of the United States[1] (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS[2] or Veep) is the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ... Charles Warren Fairbanks (May 11, 1852 – June 4, 1918) was a Senator from Indiana and the twenty-sixth Vice President of the United States. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x1320, 129 KB) Photograph of U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt. ... The United States Secretary of State is the head of the United States Department of State, concerned with foreign affairs. ... John Milton Hay (October 8, 1838 – July 1, 1905) was an American statesman, diplomat, author, journalist, and private secretary and assistant to Abraham Lincoln. ... Elihu Root (February 15, 1845 – February 7, 1937) was an American lawyer and statesman and the 1912 recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize. ... Categories: Stub | 1860 births | 1919 deaths | U.S. Secretaries of State ... The United States Secretary of the Treasury is the head of the United States Department of the Treasury, concerned with finance and monetary matters, and, until 2003, some issues of national security and defense. ... Lyman Judson Gage Lyman Judson Gage (June 28, 1836–January 26, 1927) was an American financier and Presidential Cabinet officer. ... Leslie Mortimer Shaw (November 2, 1848–March 28, 1932) was an American businessman, lawyer and politician. ... G.B. Cortelyou Brian William Cortelyou (July 26, 1862–October 23, 1940) was an American Presidential Cabinet secretary of the early 20th century. ... The Secretary of War was a member of the United States Presidents Cabinet, beginning with George Washingtons administration. ... Elihu Root (February 15, 1845 – February 7, 1937) was an American lawyer and statesman and the 1912 recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize. ... For other persons named William Howard Taft, see William Howard Taft (disambiguation). ... Luke Edward Wright (1846 - 1922) was a U.S. political figure. ... Seal of the United States Department of Justice The United States Attorney General is the head of the United States Department of Justice (see 28 U.S.C. Â§ 503) concerned with legal affairs and is the chief law enforcement officer of the United States government. ... Philander C. Knox Philander Chase Knox (May 6, 1853–October 12, 1921) was an American lawyer and politician who served as Attorney General and U.S. Senator and was Secretary of State from 1909-1913. ... William Henry Moody (23 December 1853–1917) was an American politician and jurist, who held positions in all three branches of the Government of the United States. ... Charles Joseph Bonaparte (June 9, 1851 – June 28, 1921) was a grandson of Jérôme Bonaparte (the youngest brother of the French emperor Napoleon I), and a member of the United States Cabinet. ... The Postmaster General is the executive head of the United States Postal Service. ... Charles Emory Smith (February 18, 1842 _ January 19, 1908), American journalist and political leader, was born in Mansfield, Connecticut. ... For other people with the same name, see Henry Payne. ... Robert Wynne (1851 - 1922) was a U.S. administrator. ... G.B. Cortelyou Brian William Cortelyou (July 26, 1862–October 23, 1940) was an American Presidential Cabinet secretary of the early 20th century. ... George von Lengerke Meyer (1858–1918) George von Lengerke Meyer (June 24, 1858 – March 9, 1918) was a Massachusetts businessman and politician who served as United States Secretary of the Navy from 1909-1913, during the administration of President William Howard Taft. ... Flag of the United States Secretary of the Navy. ... John Davis Long (October 27, 1838–August 28, 1915) was a U.S. political figure. ... William Henry Moody (23 December 1853–1917) was an American politician and jurist, who held positions in all three branches of the Government of the United States. ... Paul Morton (1857 - 1911) was a U.S. businessman. ... Charles Joseph Bonaparte (June 9, 1851 – June 28, 1921) was a grandson of Jérôme Bonaparte (the youngest brother of the French emperor Napoleon I), and a member of the United States Cabinet. ... Victor Howard Metcalf (October 10, 1853–February 20, 1936) was an American politician. ... Truman Handy Newberry (November 5, 1864–October 3, 1945) was a U.S. businessman and political figure. ... The United States Secretary of the Interior is the head of the United States Department of the Interior, concerned with such matters as national parks and The Secretary is a member of the Presidents Cabinet. ... Ethan Allen Hitchcock (1835-1909) served under Presidents William McKinley and Theodore Roosevelt as U.S. Secretary of the Interior. ... James Rudolph Garfield (October 17, 1865-March 24, 1950) U.S. politician, born in Hiram, Ohio, He was the second of five children born to President James A. Garfield and First Lady Lucretia Garfield. ... The United States Secretary of Agriculture is the head of the United States Department of Agriculture concerned with land and food as well as agriculture and rural development. ... James Wilson (August 16, 1835 – August 26, 1920) was a Scots born United States politician, serving as United States Secretary of Agriculture from 1897 – 1913. ... The United States Secretary of Commerce and Labor was the head of the short-lived United States Department of Commerce and Labor, which was concerned with business, industry, and labor. ... G.B. Cortelyou Brian William Cortelyou (July 26, 1862–October 23, 1940) was an American Presidential Cabinet secretary of the early 20th century. ... Victor Howard Metcalf (October 10, 1853–February 20, 1936) was an American politician. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1858 (MDCCCLVIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Midtown Manhattan, looking north from the Empire State Building, 2005 New York City (officially named the City of New York) is the most populous city in the state of New York and the entire United States. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ...

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Biography of Theodore Roosevelt (657 words)
During the Spanish-American War, Roosevelt was lieutenant colonel of the Rough Rider Regiment, which he led on a charge at the battle of San Juan.
As President, Roosevelt held the ideal that the Government should be the great arbiter of the conflicting economic forces in the Nation, especially between capital and labor, guaranteeing justice to each and dispensing favors to none.
Roosevelt emerged spectacularly as a "trust buster" by forcing the dissolution of a great railroad combination in the Northwest.
PBS - THE WEST - Theodore Roosevelt (1310 words)
Roosevelt was determined to add this symbol of the American West to his trophy collection before it became extinct, and despite punishing weather, he stayed in the field until he accomplished his goal.
Roosevelt initiated similar sweeping change in the West with his support of the National Reclamation Act (or Newlands Act) of 1902, which gave the federal government primary responsibility for dam construction and irrigation projects.
Roosevelt opposed Taft for the party's presidential nomination in 1912, and when he was outmaneuvered at the convention, ran as the candidate of the newly formed Progressive Party.
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