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Encyclopedia > Theocracy

Theocracy is a form of government in which a 'god' or 'deity' is recognized as the supreme civil ruler. For believers, theocracy is a form of government in which divine power governs an earthly human state, either in a personal incarnation or, more often, via religious institutional representatives (i.e.: a church), replacing or dominating civil government.[1] Theocratic governments enact theonomic laws. Anarchist redirects here. ... Aristocrat redirects here. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article applies to political and organizational ideologies. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      An autocracy is a form of government in which the political power is held by a single self appointed ruler. ... A Band Society is the simplest form of human society. ... A chiefdom is any community led by an individual known as a chief. ... This article is about a type of political territory. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article is about a form of government in which the state operates under the control of a Communist Party. ... Corporatocracy (sometimes corporocracy) is a neologism coined by proponents of the Global Justice Movement to describe a government bowing to pressure from corporate entities. ... Direct democracy, classically termed pure democracy,[1] comprises a form of democracy and theory of civics wherein sovereignty is lodged in the assembly of all citizens who choose to participate. ... Representative democracy is a form of government founded on the principles of popular sovereignty by the peoples representatives. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A dictatorship is an autocratic form of government in which the government is ruled by a dictator. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste Feudalism, a term first used in the early modern period (17th century), in its most classic sense refers to a Medieval European political system comprised of a set of reciprocal legal and military obligations among the... Kleptocracy (sometimes Cleptocracy) (root: Klepto+cracy = rule by thieves) is a pejorative, informal term for a government that is primarily designed to sustain the personal wealth and political power of government officials and their cronies (collectively, kleptocrats). ... Kritarchy is a form of government ruled by judges and is based on natural rights. ... A Krytocracy is a government ruled by judges. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Meritocracy is a system of a government or another organization wherein appointments are made *who* makes the appointments - ultimately, it is the people (all members of the group). ... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Absolute monarchy is a monarchical form of government where the monarch has the power to rule his or her land or country and its citizens freely, with no laws or legally-organized direct opposition in force. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A constitutional monarchy or limited monarchy is a form of government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges an elected or hereditary monarch as head of state, as opposed to an absolute monarchy, where the monarch is not... Ochlocracy (Greek: οχλοκρατια; Latin: ochlocratia) is government by mob or a mass of people, or the intimidation of constitutional authorities. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Oligarchy (Greek , Oligarkhía) is a form of government where political power effectively rests with a small elite segment of society (whether distinguished by wealth, family or military powers). ... A plutocracy is a form of government where the states power is centralized in an affluent social class. ... A puppet state is a state whose government, though notionally of the same culture as the governed people - owes its existence (or other major debt) to being installed, supported or controlled by a more powerful entity, typically a foreign power. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Classical republic. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A constitutional republic is a state where the head of state and other officials are elected as representatives of the people and must govern according to existing constitutional law that limits the governments power over citizens. ... Parliamentary republics around the world, shown in Orange (Parliamentary republics with a non-executive President) and Green (Parliamentary republics with an executive President linked to Parliament). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Socialist state. ... A Capitalist Republic is the name for a Federal Republic with a Capitalist or Private Capital economic system that has a major outcome on elections or selections of major political leaders. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Cybernetic revolt. ... A single-party state or one-party system or single-party system is a type of party system government in which a single political party forms the government and no other parties are permitted to run candidates for election. ... This article pertains to technocracy as a bureaucratic structure. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Theodemocracy is a political system theorized by Joseph Smith, Jr. ... Constitutional theory defines a timocracy as either: a state where only property owners may participate in government; or a government where rulers are selected and perpetuated based on the degree of honour they hold relative to others in their society, peers and the ruling class. ... Totalitarianism is a term employed by some political scientists, especially those in the field of comparative politics, to describe modern regimes in which the state regulates nearly every aspect of public and private behavior. ... http://www. ... This article lists forms of government and political systems, according to a series of different ways of categorising them. ... Look up incarnation, incarnate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the architectural structure, see Church (building). ... Theonomy The word theonomy derives from the Greek words “theos” God, and “nomos” law. ...


Theocracy should be distinguished from other secular forms of government that have a state religion, or are merely influenced by theological or moral concepts, and monarchies held "By the Grace of God". South America Europe Middle East Africa Asia Oceania Demography of religions by country Full list of articles on religion by country Religion Portal         Nations with state religions:  Buddhism  Islam  Shia Islam  Sunni Islam  Orthodox Christianity  Protestantism  Roman Catholic Church A state religion (also called an official religion, established church... For related meanings see also Monarch (disambiguation) A monarchy, (from the Greek monos archein, meaning one ruler) is a form of government that has a monarch as Head of State. ... By the Grace of God, as well as the various equivalent phrases in other languages thus rendered in English, is not a title in its own right, but a common introductory part of the full styles of many Monarchs, preceding the actual princely styles in chief of the specific realm...


A theocracy may be monist in form, where the administrative hierarchy of the government is identical with the administrative hierarchy of the religion, or it may have two 'arms,' but with the state administrative hierarchy subordinate to the religious hierarchy. For other uses, see Monist (disambiguation). ... A hierarchy (in Greek: , derived from — hieros, sacred, and — arkho, rule) is a system of ranking and organizing things or people, where each element of the system (except for the top element) is a subordinate to a single other element. ...


Some democratic political parties and other organizations advocate reconstruction of governments as theocracies. See the article on the Islamic party. Other alleged examples include the Unification Church and Christian Reconstructionism. An Islamic party is a party that works for promoting Islam while an Islamic political party is a political party that promotes Islam as a political movement by offering nominees for election in a democracy - of which there are several in the Islamic world. ... The Unification Church is a new religious movement started by Sun Myung Moon in Korea in the 1940s. ... Christian Reconstructionism is a religious and theological movement within Protestant Christianity that calls for Christians to put their faith into action in all areas of life. ...

Contents

History of the concept

The word theocracy originates from the Greek θεοκρατία (theokratia), meaning "the rule of God". This in turn derives from the Greek words θεος (theos, from an Indo-European root occurring in religious concepts), meaning “god,” and κρατειν (kratein), meaning “to rule.” Thus the meaning of the word in Greek was “rule by god(s)” or human incarnation(s) of god(s). Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... This article is about the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ...


It was first coined by Josephus Flavius in the 1st century to describe the characteristic government for Jews. Josephus argued that while the Greeks recognized three types of government: monarchy, aristocracy, and anarchy, the Jews were unique in that they had a system of government that did not fit into those categories. Josephus understood theocracy as a fourth form of government in which only God and his law is sovereign. Josephus' definition was widely accepted until the enlightenment era, when the term started to collect more universalistic and undeniably negative connotations, especially in Hegel's hands. Josephus, also known as Flavius Josephus (c. ... The 1st century was that century that lasted from 1 to 100 according the Gregorian calendar. ... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... Aristocrat redirects here. ... For other uses, see Anarchy (disambiguation). ... The Age of Enlightenment refers to the 18th century in European philosophy, and is often thought of as part of a larger period which includes the Age of Reason. ... Connotation is a subjective cultural and/or emotional coloration in addition to the explicit or denotative meaning of any specific word or phrase in a language, i. ... Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 - November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher born in Stuttgart, Württemberg, in present-day southwest Germany. ...


The first recorded English use was in 1622, with the meaning "sacerdotal government under divine inspiration" (as in Biblical Israel before the rise of kings); the meaning "priestly or religious body wielding political and civil power" is recorded from 1825.


The word has been mostly used to label certain politically unpopular societies as somehow less rational or developed. The concept is used in sociology and other social sciences, but the term is often used inaccurately, especially in popular rhetoric. A society is a group of people living or working together. ... Sociology (from Latin: socius, companion; and the suffix -ology, the study of, from Greek λόγος, lógos, knowledge [1]) is the scientific or systematic study of society, including patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture[2]. Areas studied in sociology can range from the analysis of brief contacts between anonymous...


In the most common usage of the term theocracy, some civil rulers are leaders of the dominant religion (e.g., the Byzantine Emperor as patron of the head of the official Church); the government claims to rule on behalf of God or a higher power, as specified by the local religion, and divine approval of government institutions and laws. These characteristics apply also to a Caesaropapist regime. The Byzantine empire however was not theocratic since the Patriarch answered to the Emperor, not vice versa; similarly in Tudor England the crown forced the church to break away from Rome so the royal (and, especially later, parliamentary) power could assume full control of the now Anglican hierarchy and confiscate most church property and income. Byzantium (Greek: Βυζάντιον) was an ancient Greek city, which, according to legend, was founded by Greek colonists from Megara in 667 BC and named after their king Byzas or Byzantas (Βύζας or Βύζαντας in Greek). ... This article is about the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Caesaropapism is the concept of combining the power of secular government with, or making it supreme to, the spiritual authority of the Christian Church; most especially, the inter-penetration of the theological authority of the Christian Church with the legal/juridical authority of the government; in its extreme form, it... The Anglican Communion is a world-wide organisation of Anglican Churches. ...


Taken literally or strictly, theocracy means rule by God or gods (but is commonly used as the generic term). The more specific term ecclesiocracy denotes rule by a church or analogous religious leadership.


In a pure theocracy, the civil leader is believed to have a direct personal connection with God. For example, a prophet like Moses ruled the Israelites, and the prophet Muhammad ruled the early Muslims. Law proclaimed by the ruler is also considered a divine revelation, and hence the law of God. An ecclesiocracy, on the other hand, is a situation where the religious leaders assume a leading role in the state, but do not claim that they are instruments of divine revelation. For example, the prince-bishops of the European Middle Ages, where the bishop was also the temporal ruler. The papacy in the Papal States occupied a middle ground between theocracy and ecclesiocracy, since the pope did not claim he is a prophet who receives revelation from God, but merely the (in rare cases infallible) interpreter of already-received revelation. Religiously endorsed monarchies fall between these two poles, according to the relative strengths of the religious and political organs. For other senses of this word, see Prophet (disambiguation). ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ...


Secular governments can also coexist with a state religion or delegate some aspects of civil law to religious communities. For example, in Israel civil marriage is governed by Jewish religious institutions for Jews, by Muslim religious institutions for Muslims, and by Christian religious institutions for Christians. India similarly delegates control of marriage and some other civil matters to the religious communities, in large part as a way of accommodating its Muslim minority. South America Europe Middle East Africa Asia Oceania Demography of religions by country Full list of articles on religion by country Religion Portal         Nations with state religions:  Buddhism  Islam  Shia Islam  Sunni Islam  Orthodox Christianity  Protestantism  Roman Catholic Church A state religion (also called an official religion, established church...


Current states with theocratic aspects

Iran

Most observers would consider Iran a theocracy,[citation needed] since the elected president and legislature are constitutionally subject to the supervision of two offices reserved for Shia clerics: the Supreme Leader of Iran (Rahbar) and the Guardian Council, which even decide who may run for office. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ... Ayatollah Sayyed Ali Khamenei, Supreme Leader of Iran. ... The Guardian Council of the Constitution[1] (Persian: شورای نگهبان قانون اساسی) is a high chamber within the constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ...



However, Iranian policies themselves consider Iran a theo-democracy or religious democracy. The Supreme Leader is considered as the ultimate head of state and government, whereas the President is granted as the prime executor of policy. However, in the recent years Mohammad Khatami has called Iranian political system as an alternative democratic model so called religious democracy.[citation needed] This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ... Mohammad Khatami (Persian : سید محمد خاتمی Seyyed Moḥammad KhātamÄ«), born on September 29, 1943, in Ardakan city of Yazd province, is an Iranian intellectual, philosopher and political figure. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ...


Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia is run according to a codified version of Shari'a (Islamic legislation) with the Quran declared to be the constitution and is therefore sometimes classified as theocratic, but it is officially and in political fact a hereditary monarchy, with the King wielding near-absolute power and the organs of official religion subservient to them, which is rather caesaropapism: a state structure in which the government ('Caesar') is also in control of the main religious institutions. In law, codification is the process of collecting and restating the law of a jurisdiction in certain areas, usually by subject, forming the legal code. ... Sharia ( Arabic شريعة also Sharia, Shariah or Syariah) is traditional Islamic law. ... The Quran (Arabic al-qurʾān أَلْقُرآن; also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ... Caesaropapism is the concept of combining the power of secular government with, or making it supreme to, the spiritual authority of the Christian Church; most especially, the inter-penetration of the theological authority of the Christian Church with the legal/juridical authority of the government; in its extreme form, it...


The Vatican

The Vatican City State is theocratic in a very limited sense, since it has temporal rule over a small territory, but that is not its primary function. As per the Lateran Treaty, secular laws and practices in the Vatican follow those of Italy. Responsibility for security, including keeping outside invaders at bay and prosecution of criminals, is shared by the Vatican's own armed force, the Swiss Guard, and the Italian state. The State of the City of the Vatican or the Vatican City (Latin: Status Civitatis Vaticanae, Italian Stato della Città del Vaticano) is the smallest independent state in the world (both in area and in population), a landlocked enclave surrounded by the city of Rome in Italy. ... The Lateran Treaties of February 11, 1929 provided for the mutual recognition of the then Kingdom of Italy and the Vatican City. ... Papal Swiss Guards in traditional uniforms Swiss Guards are Swiss mercenary soldiers who have served as bodyguards, ceremonial guards, and palace guards at foreign European courts from the late 15th century until the present day (in the form of the Papal Swiss Guard). ...


The Papal States -- the predecessor to the Vatican City State -- functioned more theocratically, with penalties that included excommunication. Coat of arms Map of the Papal States; the reddish area was annexed to the Kingdom of Italy in 1860, the rest (grey) in 1870. ... Excommunication is a religious censure used to deprive or suspend membership in a religious community. ...


Athos (The Holy Mountain) Greece

Mount Athos is the only autonomous administrative department in Greece, which is a country run according to Roman Law and is otherwise entirely a unitary state. Mount Athos is theocratic in that it is ruled entirely by the monks under their own council from the capital Karyes, and it controls who can visit. Only Orthodox Christian males are allowed to stay permanently on Athos, which consists of 20 Monastic establishments. Its spiritual leadership is the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople based in Istanbul. There is a religious police guard that has the authority to impose order, e.g. bans the playing of musical instruments by visitors. The Greek police also have authority with the monks' permission to enforce the civil law of Greece and decisions of the Patriarchate in accordance with the Canon, e.g. the decision to evict the monks of the renegade Esphigmenou monastery. Athos has upheld derogations from the EU allowing them to continue the prohibition of the entry of females (including female mammals) on the mountain. This isn't because they are male monks, but because the mountain is dedicated to the Virgin Mary,[clarify] and this is an important historical fact of the Eastern Orthodox Church. Capital Karyes Official languages Koine Greek, Church Slavonic, Modern Greek, Russian, Serbian, Georgian, Bulgarian, Romanian (both liturgical and civil use), Modern Greek (civil use) Government  -  Head of State2 Dora Bakoyannis  -  Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew I Area  -  Total 390 km²  150 sq mi  Population  -   estimate 2,250  Demonyms: Athonite, Hagiorite (English); Αθωνίτης, Αγιορίτης (Greek). ... Esphigmenou monastery (Greek: Μονή Εσφιγμένου) is an Eastern Orthodox monastery at the monastic state of Mount Athos in Greece, dedicated to the Ascension of Christ. ...


Religious communities

Theocracy, as a form of ruling the state, should be distinguished from the internal order of a religious community. The Knights Hospitaller is a religious order with an internal rule, but this does not make it a theocracy. Many states incorporate elements of religious law in their civil laws, but if these laws are administered by civil courts according to the logic of the state, this does not constitute a theocratic element in their constitutions. The Knights Hospitaller (also known as the , Sovereign Order of Saint John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta, Knights of Malta, Knights of Rhodes, and Chevaliers of Malta; French: Ordre des Hospitaliers) is a Christian organization that began as an Amalfitan hospital founded in Jerusalem in 1080 to provide...


Current states with vestigial theocratic aspects

Andorra

Andorra's government is in some aspect nominally theocratic in that the Bishop of Urgell is one of its co-princes, although the role is virtually entirely ceremonial. The Bishop of Urgell is the Roman Catholic bishop for Urgell in Catalonia, Spain and also the ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra. ...


The UK

England has a minor theocratic aspect because the monarch is "Supreme Governor" of the Church of England and "defender of the faith", and is prohibited from being a Catholic. This has been the case since the Protestant Reformation in England, under Henry VIII. Henry VIII created the Church of England in part because the Papacy would not annul his marriage with Catherine of Aragon, but also due to the large amount of political power that the Vatican wielded within England. He wanted to annul the marriage because he could not produce a male heir that wasn't illegitimate. The monarch has virtually no real power, and his/her positions as head of state and church are purely ceremonial. Hence, the ruling government is not subject to any religious interference, and England is a multi-faith society. However the Bishops and archbishops of the Church of England sit in the House of Lords as Spiritual Peers, including the Archbishop of Canterbury and York. This does not apply to Scotland, whose Church of Scotland does not have the same relation to the Country, nor to Wales and Northern Ireland, which have no established church. Queen Elizabeth II, however, is a member of the Church of Scotland and appoints a representative to the General Assembly of the church if she cannot attend personally.[citation needed] The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[3] in England, the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the oldest among the communions thirty-eight independent national churches. ... Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England and Lord of Ireland (later King of Ireland) from 22 April 1509 until his death. ... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[3] in England, the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the oldest among the communions thirty-eight independent national churches. ... This article is about the British House of Lords. ... The Lords Spiritual of the United Kingdom, also called Spiritual Peers, consist of the 26 clergymen of the established Church of England who serve in the House of Lords along with the Lords Temporal. ... The Archbishop of Canterbury is the spiritual leader and senior clergyman of the Church of England, recognized by convention as the head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... For other uses, see York (disambiguation). ...


Norway

While Norway's population is relatively religious in their day-to-day lives by Scandinavian standards, they are by no means highly orthodox, and the Norwegian State retains a few vestigial religious overtones. As in many constitutional monarchies, the Head of State is also the leader of the state church. The 12th article of the Constitution of Norway requires more than half of the members of the Norwegian Council of State to be members of the state church. The second article guarantees freedom of religion, while also stating that Evangelical Lutheranism is the official state religion.[2] Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A constitutional monarchy or limited monarchy is a form of government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges an elected or hereditary monarch as head of state, as opposed to an absolute monarchy, where the monarch is not... The Church of Norway (Den norske kirke in BokmÃ¥l or Den norske kyrkja in Nynorsk), also known as the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Norway, is the state church of Norway, to which 83%[1] of Norwegians are members. ... The Constitution of Norway was first adopted on May 16, 1814 by the Norwegian Constituent Assembly at Eidsvoll (a small town north of the countrys capital, Christiania), then signed and dated May 17. ... The Norwegian Council of State consists of the Monarch, a prime minister and at least seven ministers. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther. ...


On July 9, 2006 a prominent member of HEF, Jens Brun-Pedersen, called for the Prime Minister to advocate the separation of church and state. He argues that the 12th article of the constitution is discriminatory, and that Norway can't criticise countries advocating Sharia law when the constitution favours Lutheran members of society.[3] is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Human-Etisk Forbund (HEF), the Norwegian Humanist Association, is currently one of the largest Humanist associations in the world, with 76,470 members (January 2006). ...   (born March 16, 1959) is a Norwegian economist, leader (since 2002) of the Norwegian Labour Party and the current Prime Minister of Norway. ... Constantines Conversion, depicting the conversion of Emperor Constantine the Great to Christianity, by Peter Paul Rubens. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Affirmative action in the United States Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity... Shariah (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the body of Islamic religious law. ...


Norway is unique in the situation, that socialy the policy of the state remains quite liberal - relative to other countries in Europe. Most theocratic states are much more socially conservative than Norway


Israel

Main article: Religion in Israel

Israel can be regarded as somewhat theocratic given the state promotion of Jewish institutions for the purposes of the country's integrity as the 'Jewish Homeland'. Israel's Law of Return grants any Jew the right to become a citizen of the country with the aim of facilitating their immigration to what the State of Israel views as their ancestral homeland. Israel's Basic Law: The Knesset (1958, Amendment No 9) states that a political list may not participate in elections if its party platform implies the "denial of the existence of the state of Israel as the state of Jewish people".[1] Israel is the only country in which Judaism is the religion of the majority of citizens. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The book Der Judenstaat (The Jewish State, 1896) by Theodor Herzl. ... The Law of Return (Hebrew: חוק השבות, hok ha-shvut) is Israeli legislation that allows Jews and those with Jewish parents or grandparents, and spouses of the aforementioned, to settle in Israel and gain citizenship. ... Poster promoting a film about Jewish settlement in Palestine, 1930s: Toward a New Life (in Romanian),The Promised Land (in Hungarian), in small (down) text is written First Palestinian sound movie 1844 Discourse on the Restoration of the Jews by Mordecai Noah, page one. ...


There is a small amount of intertwining of Jewish law (Halakha) and civil law, particularly with regards to the enforcement of Orthodox Jewish weddings for Jewish citizens, rather than allowing freedom to have a civil marriage (although these sorts of laws are being fought and revoked on a constant basis). Another promoted institution is that of the 'yeshiva'- an Orthodox Jewish seminary, often funded to a large extent by the state. Halakha (Hebrew: הלכה ; alternate transliterations include Halocho and Halacha), is the collective corpus of Jewish religious law, including biblical law (the 613 mitzvot) and later talmudic and rabbinic law, as well as customs and traditions. ... This article is about civil law within the common law legal system. ... Orthodox Judaism is the formulation of Judaism that adheres to a relatively strict interpretation and application of the laws and ethics first canonised in the Talmudic texts (Oral Torah) and as subsequently developed and applied by the later authorities known as the Gaonim, Rishonim, and Acharonim. ... This article is about the Jewish male educational system. ...


Historical theocracies

Main article: Imperial cult

The largest and best known theocracies in history were the Umayyad and early Abassid Caliphate, and the Papal States. And as with any other state or empire, pragmatism was part of the politics of these de jure theocracies. An Imperial cult is a kind of religion in which an Emperor, or a dynasty of emperors (or rulers of another title), are worshipped as demigods or deities. ... A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfah), is the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world. ... Coat of arms Map of the Papal States; the reddish area was annexed to the Kingdom of Italy in 1860, the rest (grey) in 1870. ... Pragmatism is a philosophic school that originated in the late nineteenth century with Charles Sanders Peirce, who first stated the pragmatic maxim. ...


In Antiquity

An example often given from Antiquity is Pharaonic Egypt when the king was a divine or semi-divine figure who ruled largely through priests. Properly speaking this was originally a caesaropapist order, rather than a theocratic one, since the worldly rulers took charge of religion, rather than vice versa, but once the Pharaoh (since Ramses the Great) was recognized as a living (incarnated) god both definitions concurred.[citation needed] For other uses, see Pharaoh (disambiguation). ... Caesaropapism is the concept of combining the power of secular government with, or making it supreme to, the spiritual authority of the Christian Church; most especially, the inter-penetration of the theological authority of the Christian Church with the legal/juridical authority of the government; in its extreme form, it... Ramesses II, Abu Simbel Ramesses II (also known as Ramesses the Great and alternatively transcribed as Ramses and Rameses) was an Egyptian pharaoh. ...


In ancient Greece and Rome denying the gods of the state was a crime. In ancient Rome, the emperors were often deified.[citation needed] For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Apotheosis - the posthumous transformation of a Roman emperor into a god, Theosis - being unified with God in East Orthodox theology of salvation, Assigning divine qualities to any mortal and, usually, worshipping that person as if they were a supernatural being. ...


Historical Christian theocracies

Protestant Theocracies

Geneva, during the period of John Calvin's greatest influence and the Massachusetts Bay Colony of the "Puritans" had many characteristics of Protestant theocracies. For other uses, see Geneva (disambiguation). ... John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism or Reformed theology. ... A map of the Massachusetts Bay Colony Capital Charlestown, Boston History  - Established 1629  - New England Confederation 1643  - Dominion of New England 1686  - Province of Massachusetts Bay 1692  - Disestablished 1692 The Massachusetts Bay Colony (sometimes called the Massachusetts Bay Company, for the institution that founded it) was an English settlement on... The Puritans were members of a group of radical Protestants which developed in England after the Reformation. ...


Florence

During the short reign (1494-1498) of Girolamo Savonarola, a Dominican Priest, the city of Florence could have been considered a theocracy. During his rule, un-Christian books, statues, poetry, and other items were burned (in the Bonfire of the Vanities), sodomy was made a capital offense, and other Christian practices became law. Girolamo Savonarola by Fra Bartolomeo, c. ... Bonfire of the Vanities refers to an event on 7 February 1497 when followers of the priest Girolamo Savonarola collected and publicly burned thousands of objects in Florence, Italy, on the Shrove Tuesday festival. ...


Deseret

Another ecclesiocracy was the administration of the short-lived State of Deseret, an independent entity briefly organized in the American West by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Its original borders stretched from western Colorado to the southern California coast. When the Mormons arrived in the valley of the Great Salt Lake in 1847, the Great Basin was still a part of Mexico and had no secular government. As a result, Brigham Young administered the region both spiritually and temporally through the highly organized and centralized Melchizedek Priesthood. This original organization was based upon a concept called theodemocracy, a governmental system combining Biblical theocracy with mid-19th-century American political ideals, including heavy reliance upon the U.S. Constitution. The treaty of Guadalupe Hildalgo resulted in the Mexican Cession by which Deseret was incorporated into the United States. In 1849, the Saints organized a secular government in Utah, although many ecclesiatical leaders maintained their positions of secular power. The Mormons also petitioned Congress to have Deseret admitted into the Union as a state. However, under the Compromise of 1850, Utah Territory was created and Brigham Young was appointed governor. In this situation, Young still stood as head of the LDS Church as well as Utah's secular government. The boundaries of the provisional State of Deseret (orange) as proposed in 1849. ... For other uses, see The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) English Demonym Coloradan Capital Denver Largest city Denver Largest metro area Denver-Aurora Metro Area Area  Ranked 8th in the US  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ... This article is about the region of Southern California. ... Great Salt Lake, located in the northern part of the U.S. state of Utah, is the largest salt lake in the Western Hemisphere,[1] the fourth-largest terminal lake in the world,[2] and the 33rd largest lake on Earth. ... Drainage map showing the Great Basin in orange Various Definitions of the Great Basin (NPS) Wheeler Peak in Great Basin National Park, Nevada. ... For other uses, see Brigham Young (disambiguation). ... The Melchizedek Priesthood, to members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, is the authority and power to act in the name of God including the authority to perform ordinances and to preside over and direct the affairs of his Church and Kingdom. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Theodemocracy is a political system theorized by Joseph Smith, Jr. ... During the 19th century, the Spanish, Portuguese, Chinese, and Ottoman empires began to crumble and the Holy Roman and Mughal empires ceased. ... The Mexican Cession (red) and the Gadsden Purchase (orange) The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was the treaty that ended the Mexican-American War. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. ... Henry Clay takes the floor of the Old Senate Chamber; Millard Fillmore presides as Calhoun and Webster look on. ... The Utah Territory was an organized territory of the United States that existed between 1850 and 1896. ...


After the abortive Utah War of 1857/58, the replacement of Young by an outside Federal Territorial Governor, the eventual resolution of controversies regarding plural marriage, and accession by Utah to statehood, the apparent temporal aspects of LDS theodemocracy receded markedly. However — like many Christians, Jews, and Muslims — Latter-day Saints regard some form of theocracy with God as the head (king) of a chiliastic world government to be the true political ideal. But, until the Second Coming of Christ, the Mormons teach in their 12th Article of Faith: submission to the powers that be. But true to their beliefs in individual liberty and moral accountability, they exhibit a strong preference for democratic-republican, representative government as embodied in the Constitution of the United States. See also Theodemocracy. Belligerents United States Utah Territory Commanders Pres. ... Plural marriage is a type of polygyny taught by Joseph Smith, Jr. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Theodemocracy is a political system theorized by Joseph Smith, Jr. ... This article refers to the religious usage of the term. ... Page I of the Constitution of the United States of America Page II of the United States Constitution Page III of the United States Constitution Page IV of the United States Constitution The Syng inkstand, with which the Constitution was signed The Constitution of the United States is the supreme... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Theodemocracy is a political system theorized by Joseph Smith, Jr. ...


Montenegro

Montenegro offers a singular example of monarchs willingly turning their power to ecclesiastic authority (Serbian Orthodox), as the last of the House of Crnojević (styled Grand Voivode, not sovereign princes) did, in order to preserve national unity before the Ottoman onslaught as a separate millet under an autochthonous Ethnarch. When Montenegro re-established secular dynastic succession by the proclamation of princedom in 1851, it did so in favor of the last Prince-bishop, who changed his style from Vladika i upravitelj Crne Gore i Brde "Vladika [bishop] and Ruler of Montenegro and Brda" to Po Bozjoj milosti knjaz i gospodar Crne Gore i Brde "By the grace of God Prince and Sovereign of Montenegro and Brda," thus rendering his de facto dynasty (the Petrović-Njegoš family since 1696) a hereditary one. This article is about the country in Europe. ... The House of Crnojević was a medieval dynasty that ruled the Kingdom of Zeta. ... The titles of the Austrian emperor. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Ethnarch refers generally to political leadership over a common ethnic group or heterogeneous kingdom. ... Prince-Bishop was the title given bishops who held secular powers, beside their inherent clerical power. ... The history of Montenegro begins in the early Middle Ages, after the arrival of the Slavs into that part of the former Roman province of Dalmatia that forms present-day Montenegro. ... Kniaz’ or knyaz is a word found in some Slavic languages. ... Hospodar or gospodar is a term of Slavonic origin, meaning lord. The rulers of Wallachia and Moldavia (only occasionally joined) were styled hospodars in Slavic writings from the 15th century to 1866, alongside the title of voivod. ... By the Grace of God, as well as the various equivalent phrases in other languages thus rendered in English, is not a title in its own right, but a common introductory part of the full styles of many Monarchs, preceding the actual princely styles in chief of the specific realm...


Republic of Ireland

It has frequently been argued that in the early years of the Republic of Ireland (and its predecessor state Éire), the Roman Catholic hierarchy, in particular John Charles McQuaid (Archbishop of Dublin 1940-72), held power comparable to elected officials. For example, Health Minister Noel Browne was forced to resign in 1950, partly because of McQuaid's opposition to the Mother and Child Scheme. Also, many things forbidden by Catholic doctrine - condoms, abortion, divorce - were also illegal in Ireland up to the 1980s and '90s. The Island of Ireland Capital Dublin Language(s) Irish, English Government Republic President of Dáil Éireann  - 1919 Cathal Brugha  - 1919-1922 Éamon de Valera  - 1922 Arthur Griffith  - 1922 W.T. Cosgrave Legislature Dáil Éireann History  - Proclamation April 24, 1916  - Dáil Constitution January 21, 1919  - Free state constitution... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... John Charles McQuaid (July 28, 1895-April 7, 1973) was a Roman Catholic Archbishop of Dublin and Primate of Ireland between December 1940 and 1971. ... Dr. Noel Christopher Browne (20 December 1915-21 May 1997) was an Irish politician and doctor. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Noel Browne (20 December 1915-21 May 1997) was an Irish politician and doctor. ... This article is about the male contraceptive device. ... Divorce or dissolution of marriage is the ending of a marriage before the death of either spouse. ...


Province of Quebec (Canada)

The province of Quebec was considered a main catholic stronghold of the world from its foundation up to 1960, the quiet revolution.(citation needed). The ecclesiastical regime which ruled Quebec from the 1930s to the early 1960s is mostly associated with the highly controversial premier Maurice Duplessis. During that time, the line separating the civil, political authorities and the Catholic Church was all but obliterated. Duplessis campaigning in the 1952 election. ...


Historical Islamic theocracies

In Islam, the period when Medina was ruled by the Islamic prophet Muhammad is, occasionally, classed as a theocracy. By 630, Muhammad established a theocracy in Mecca. Other plausible examples of Islamic theocracy might be Mahdist Sudan and the Taliban state in Afghanistan (1996-2001). Most irregular was the non-permanent rule of the Akhoonds (imams) in the later princely state of Swat, a valley in (first British India's, later Pakistan's) North-West Frontier Province. Theocratic movements arose in the Arab world in the 1970s. This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... The Quran identifies a number of men as prophets of Islam. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Taliban (Pashto: , also anglicized as Taleban) are a Sunni Muslim and ethnic Pashtun movement [2] that ruled most of Afghanistan from 1996 until 2001, when their leaders were removed from power by a cooperative military effort between the Northern Alliance, United States, Canada, Australia and the United Kingdom. ... An akhoond, or akond, is a Muslim tutor and priest. ... A princely state is any state under the reign of a prince and is thus a principality taken in the broad sense. ... The State of Swat was a princely state which existed in the north of the modern North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan until it was dissolved in 1969. ... The North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) (Urdu: śimāl maġribī sarhadī sūba شمال مغربی سرحدی صوبہ) is the smallest of the four main provinces of Pakistan. ...


Historical Buddhist theocracies

The period when Dalai Lamas ruled Tibet, especially before certain twentieth century reforms, has also been deemed a Lamaist (Buddhist) theocracy until his government was forced into exile by the People's Republic of China which annexed the country[4]. Mongolia also had a theocratic Lama before the Soviets installed a satellite communist state, but there since the start in 1639[clarify], when the son of the Mongol Khan of Urga was named a Living Buddha (Bogdo gegeen), the dynasty espoused theocracy and secular aristocracy[citation needed]. This article is about the Dalai Lama lineage. ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s The 20th century lasted from 1901 to 2000 in the Gregorian calendar (often from (1900 to 1999 in common usage). ... Template:Infobox Settlementcookis and ceam For the band, see Ulan Bator (band). ... The Khalkha Jebtsundamba Khutughtu (standard Mongolian: Javzandamba Hutagt; Tibetan: རྗེ་བཙུན་དམ་པ་ Jetsun Dampa; literally, Holy Venerable Lord) is the spiritual head of the Gelug lineage of Tibetan Buddhism in Mongolia. ...


Other

Japan was a nominal theocracy until it was defeated in World War II when emperor Hirohito was forced to deny in the Ningen-sengen (人間宣言?) the invented claim that the Emperor of Japan was divine. Formerly, the Meiji constitution of Japan stated that Emperor is sacred, but claim of personal devinitiy was only made during Showa emperor. The claim that imperial family are descendant of Amaterasu (天照) (the sun goddess) has not been denied officially. During this period, although the Emperor had some influence, Japan was a constitutional democracy ultimately dominated by the military. Emperor Shōwa ) (April 29, 1901 – January 7, 1989) was the 124th Emperor of Japan according to the traditional order reigning from December 25, 1926 until his death in 1989. ... Shin-Nippon kensetsu ni kan suru shōsho (新日本建設に関する詔書, lit. ... Shin-Nippon kensetsu ni kan suru shōsho (新日本建設に関する詔書, lit. ... The Sun goddess emerging out of a cave, bringing sunlight back to the universe. ...


In Popular Culture

  • In the animated series Avatar: The Last Airbender, the fictional nation known as the Air Nomads was ruled by a theocratic establishment.
  • In the world of Warhammer 40,000, the Imperium follows the system of theocracy by obeying 'The Immortal God-Emperor of Mankind'.
  • The Covenant in Halo is a theocratic hegemony.
  • In Phillip Pullman's His Dark Materials series, the universe to which the main character belonged was ruled by a theocracy known as the Magisterium.

Warhammer 40,000 (informally known as Warhammer 40K, WH40K, W40K or just 40K) is a science fantasy game produced by Games Workshop. ... It has been suggested that Covenant Vehicles in Halo be merged into this article or section. ... Look up hegemony in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Yuuzhan Vong are a race of sentient beings from the fictional Star Wars Expanded Universe that rise as a threat to the New Republic in the New Jedi Order series of novels. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... This article is about the series. ... Philip Pullman CBE (born October 19, 1946) is a British writer. ... The trilogy (U.K versions), in order of succession from left to right. ... Magisterium (from the Latin magister, teacher) is a technical ecclesiastical term in Catholicism referring to the teaching ability and authority of the Pope and those Bishops who are in union with him. ... The Handmaids Tale is a dystopian novel by Canadian author Margaret Atwood, first published by McClelland and Stewart in 1985. ... The Gilead flag in the film The Republic of Gilead is a theocratic fictional country that is the setting of the Margaret Atwood dystopian novel The Handmaids Tale. ...

See also

Look up Theocracy in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Theocracy

Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... Christianism may refer to: Christianity, or its theory and practice The term Christianist is referred to as early as 1992 in a book by Rémi Brague. ... This article is on the political-religious concept of dominionism. ... Establishment of religion refers to investing political power in a particular religious faith or body. ... An Islamic republic, in its modern context, has come to mean several different things, some contradictory to others. ... Anthem: Deh Shiva Bar Mohe Official languages Punjabi and English Khālistān (East Punjabi: ), official title Sikh Republic of Khalistan, was the name given by Jagjit Singh Chauhan, to a proposed nation-state based on theocratic fundamentalism. ... This article lists forms of government and political systems, according to a series of different ways of categorising them. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The Religious... The Christian Left or Religious Left are terms used to describe those who hold a strong Christian belief and share left-wing, liberal, or socialist ideals. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The Christian... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Unification Church is a new religious movement started by Sun Myung Moon in Korea in the 1940s. ...

References

  1. ^ CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Theocracy
  2. ^ The Constitution of the Kingdom of Norway
  3. ^ Visionary or missionary?, Jens Brun-Pedersen, Dagbladet, July 9, 2006
  4. ^ Friendly Fuedalism - The Tibet Myth

Dagbladet is Norways third largest newspaper with a circulation of 191,164 copies in 2002. ... is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Bibliography

  • Ankerl Guy, Coexisting Contemporary Civilizations. Arabo-Muslim, Bharati, C hinese, and Western. Geneva: INUPRESS, 2000, ISBN 2-88155-004-5.

Sources and external links

  • EtymologyOnLine
  • Is Judaism a Theocracy? chabad.org
  • First Things, August/September 2006, p. 23-30 - Theocracy, Theocracy, Theocracy
  • Caliphate: The Future of Islamic Theocracy
  • Freedom of Religion in Israel
  • History and development of Watchtower Society. Bible based teachings that Kingdom of God will restore Theocracy to the Earth.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Theocracy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (0 words)
Theocracy never had that literal meaning in English, as it entered the language in 1622, used for "sacerdotal government under divine inspiration" (as in Biblical Israel before the rise of kings); the meaning "priestly or religious body wielding political and civil power" is recorded from 1825.
A theocracy may be monist in form, where the administrative hierarchy of the government is identical with the administrative hierarchy of the religion, or it may have two 'arms', but with the religious hierarchy dominating the state administrative hierarchy.
Theocracy should be distinguished from other, secular forms of government which also have a state religion, and from some monarchies, in which the head of state legitimates the authority of the crown as being held By the Grace of God and tends to assume a sacral aura.
NationMaster - Encyclopedia: Theocracy (0 words)
Theocracy should be distinguished from forms of government which have a state religion, and from some monarchies, in which the head of state claims that his or her authority comes from God.
In the second usage of the term theocracy, in which the governmental rulers are identical with the leaders of the dominant religion.
This distinguishes a theocracy from forms of governments which have a state religion or from traditional monarchies in which the head of state claims that his or her authority comes from God.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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