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Encyclopedia > Theobromine
Theobromine
Systematic (IUPAC) name
3,7-dihydro-3,7-dimethyl-1H-purine-2,6-dione
Identifiers
CAS number 83-67-0
ATC code C03BD01 R03DA07
PubChem 5429
Chemical data
Formula C7H8N4O2[1] 
Mol. mass 180.164 g/mol
SMILES search in eMolecules, PubChem
Synonyms xantheose
diurobromine
3,7-dimethylxanthine
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability  ?
Metabolism Hepatic demethylation and oxidation[2]
Half life 7.1 +/- 0.7 hours
Excretion Renal (10% unchanged, rest as metabolites)[2]
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat.

? Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... IUPAC nomenclature is a system of naming chemical compounds and of describing the science of chemistry in general. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System is used for the classification of drugs. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... PubChem is a database of chemical molecules. ... A chemical formula (also called molecular formula) is a concise way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... General Name, Symbol, Number carbon, C, 6 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 14, 2, p Appearance black (graphite) colorless (diamond) Standard atomic weight 12. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... General Name, Symbol, Number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... The molecular mass (abbreviated MM) of a substance, formerly also called molecular weight and abbreviated as MW, is the mass of one molecule of that substance, relative to the unified atomic mass unit u (equal to 1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon-12). ... The simplified molecular input line entry specification or SMILES is a specification for unambiguously describing the structure of chemical molecules using short ASCII strings. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... In pharmacology, bioavailability is used to describe the fraction of an administered dose of medication that reaches the systemic circulation, one of the principal pharmacokinetic properties of drugs. ... Drug metabolism is the metabolism of drugs, their biochemical modification or degradation, usually through specialized enzymatic systems. ... The liver is an organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. ... Demethylation is the chemical process resulting in the removal a methyl group (CH3) from a molecule. ... Illustration of a redox reaction Redox (shorthand for oxidation/reduction reaction) describes all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation number (oxidation state) changed. ... It has been suggested that Effective half-life be merged into this article or section. ... Excretion is the process of eliminating waste products of metabolism and other materials that are of no use. ... It has been suggested that Renal anomalies and Renal plasma threshold be merged into this article or section. ... The pregnancy category of a pharmaceutical agent is an assessment of the risk of fetal injury due to the pharmaceutical, if it is used as directed by the mother during pregnancy. ...

Legal status

Uncontrolled substance The regulation of therapeutic goods, that is drugs and therapeutic devices, varies by jurisdiction. ...

Routes Oral

Theobromine, also known as xantheose,[1] is a bitter alkaloid of the cacao plant. It is in the methylxanthine class of chemical compounds,[3] which also includes the similar compounds theophylline and caffeine.[1] Despite its name, the compound contains no brominetheobromine is derived from Theobroma, the genus of the cacao tree, which is composed of the Greek roots theo ("God") and broma ("food"), meaning "food of the gods",[4] with the suffix -ine given to alkaloids and other basic nitrogen-containing compounds.[5] In pharmacology and toxicology, a route of administration is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison or other substance is brought into contact with the body 1. ... Look up oral in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Diagram of Ephedrine An alkaloid, strictly speaking, is a naturally-occurring amine produced by a plant,[1] but amines produced by animals and fungi are also called alkaloids. ... Binomial name Theobroma cacao L. Cacao (Theobroma cacao) is a small (4–8 m tall) evergreen tree in the family Sterculiaceae (alternatively Malvaceae), native to tropical Mexico, but now cultivated throughout the tropics. ... Xanthines are a group of alkaloids that are commonly used for their effects as mild stimulants and as bronchodilators, notably in treating the symptoms of asthma. ... Theophylline is a methylxanthine drug used in therapy for respiratory diseases such as COPD or asthma under a variety of brand names. ... Caffeine is a xanthine alkaloid compound that acts as a stimulant in humans. ... General Name, Symbol, Number bromine, Br, 35 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 4, p Appearance gas/liquid: red-brown solid: metallic luster Atomic mass 79. ... For other uses of the word, please see Genus (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Theobroma cacao L. Cacao (Theobroma cacao) is a small (4–8 m tall) evergreen tree in the family Sterculiaceae (alternatively Malvaceae), native to tropical Mexico, but now cultivated throughout the tropics. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Acids and bases: Acid-base reaction theories pH Self-ionization of water Buffer solutions Systematic naming Electrochemistry Acid-base extraction Acids: Strong acids Weak acids Mineral acids Organic acids Bases: Strong bases Weak bases Organic bases edit In chemistry, a base is most commonly thought of as a substance that...

Contents

Properties

Theobromine has been described as a water insoluble, crystalline, bitter powder; the colour has been listed as either white or colourless.[6] A lesser homologue of caffeine, theobromine is an isomer of theophylline as well a ureide. Theobromine is categorized as a dimethyl xanthine,[7] which means it is a purine[8] with two methyl groups.[9] Impact of a drop of water Water is a chemical substance that is essential to all known forms of life. ... Solubility refers to the ability for a given substance, the solute, to dissolve in a solvent. ... Crystal (disambiguation) Insulin crystals A crystal is a solid in which the constituent atoms, molecules, or ions are packed in a regularly ordered, repeating pattern extending in all three spatial dimensions. ... This article is about the color. ... Color is an important part of the visual arts. ... In chemistry, a homologous series is a series of organic compounds with a similar general formula, possessing similar chemical properties due to the presence of the same functional group, and shows a gradation in physical properties as a result of increase in molecular size and mass (see relative molecular mass). ... In chemistry, isomers are molecules with the same chemical formula and often with the same kinds of bonds between atoms, but in which the atoms are arranged differently. ... Urea is an organic compound of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen, with the formula CON2H4 or (NH2)2CO. Urea is also known as carbamide, especially in the recommended International Non-proprietary Names (rINN) in use in Europe. ... In chemistry a methyl-group is a hydrophobic Alkyl functional group which is derived from methane (CH4). ... Purine is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound, consisting of a pyrimidine ring fused to an imidazole ring. ... In chemistry a methyl-group is a hydrophobic Alkyl functional group which is derived from methane (CH4). ...


As a methylated xanthine, theobromine is a potent cAMP phosphodiesterase inhibitor;[8] this means that it helps prevent the enzyme phosphodiesterase from converting the active cAMP to an inactive form.[10] Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate, or cAMP, works as a second messenger in many hormone- and neurotransmitter-controlled metabolic systems, such as the breakdown of glycogen. When the inactivation of cAMP is inhibited by a compound such as theobromine, the effects of the neurotransmitter or hormone which stimulated the production of cAMP are much longer lived. The net result is generally a stimulatory effect.[11] Structure of cAMP cAMP represented in three ways, the left with sticks-representation, the middle with structure formula, and the right with space filled representation. ... A phosphodiesterase inhibitor is a drug that blocks one or more of the five subtypes of the enzyme phosphodiesterase (PDE), preventing the inactivation of the intracellular second messengers, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). ... Structure of cAMP cAMP represented in three ways, the left with sticks-representation, the middle with structure formula, and the right with space filled representation. ... In biology, second messengers are low-weight diffusible molecules that are used in signal transduction to relay signals within a cell. ... Norepinephrine A hormone (from Greek όρμή - to set in motion) is a chemical messenger from one cell (or group of cells) to another. ... Chemical structure of D-Aspartic Acid, a common Amino Acid neurotransmitter. ... Electron micrograph of a section of a liver cell showing glycogen deposits as accumulations of electron dense particles (arrows). ... Structure of cAMP cAMP represented in three ways, the left with sticks-representation, the middle with structure formula, and the right with space filled representation. ...


Natural sources

A chocolate bar and melted chocolate. Chocolate is made from the cacao bean, which is a natural source of theobromine.
A chocolate bar and melted chocolate. Chocolate is made from the cacao bean, which is a natural source of theobromine.

Theobromine is the primary alkaloid found in cocoa and chocolate; chocolate contains 0.5-2.7% theobromine. Theobromine can also be found in small amounts in the kola nut (1.0-2.5%), the guarana berry, and the tea plant.[12] Download high resolution version (800x768, 84 KB)Chocolate Chocolate block in a pool of melted chocolate. ... Download high resolution version (800x768, 84 KB)Chocolate Chocolate block in a pool of melted chocolate. ... Binomial name Theobroma cacao L. For the town in French Guiana see Cacao, French Guiana Cacao (Theobroma cacao) is a small (4–8 m tall) evergreen tree in the family Sterculiaceae (alternatively Malvaceae), native to tropical South America, but now cultivated throughout the tropics. ... Cocoa beans in a cacao pod Cocoa is the dried and partially fermented fatty seed of the cacao tree from which chocolate is made. ... Chocolate most commonly comes in dark, milk, and white varieties, with cocoa solids contributing to the brown coloration. ... Species See text Kola nut (Cola) is a genus of about 125 species of trees native to the tropical rainforests of Africa, classified in the family Malvaceae, subfamily Sterculioideae (or treated in the separate family Sterculiaceae). ... Binomial name Paullinia cupana Kunth Guarana or Guaraná (IPA: , or ), Paullinia cupana (syn. ... Binomial name Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze Camellia sinensis is one of the two major varieties or strains of the tea plant, the plant species whose leaves and leaf buds are used to produce tea (The other being Camellia Assamica). ...


In the human liver, caffeine is metabolised by enzymes into 10% theobromine, 4% theophylline, and 80% paraxanthine.[13] Trinomial name Homo sapiens sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 Humans, or human beings, are bipedal primates belonging to the mammalian species Homo sapiens (Latin: wise man or knowing man) under the family Hominidae (the great apes). ... The liver is an organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... Paraxanthine, or 1,7-dimethylxanthine, is a dimethylxanthine compound structurally related to caffeine. ...


The plant species with the most amount of theobromine are:[14] Divisions Green algae Chlorophyta Charophyta Land plants (embryophytes) Non-vascular plants (bryophytes) Marchantiophyta—liverworts Anthocerotophyta—hornworts Bryophyta—mosses Vascular plants (tracheophytes) †Rhyniophyta—rhyniophytes †Zosterophyllophyta—zosterophylls Lycopodiophyta—clubmosses †Trimerophytophyta—trimerophytes Pteridophyta—ferns and horsetails Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta—seed ferns Pinophyta—conifers Cycadophyta—cycads Ginkgophyta—ginkgo Gnetophyta—gnetae Magnoliophyta—flowering plants... In biology, a species is one of the basic units of biodiversity. ...

Binomial name Theobroma cacao L. Cacao (Theobroma cacao) is a small (4-8 m tall) evergreen tree in the family Sterculiaceae, native to tropical South America, but now cultivated throughout the tropics. ... Binomial name Ilex paraguariensis A. St. ... Binomial name Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze Camellia sinensis is one of the two major varieties or strains of the tea plant, the plant species whose leaves and leaf buds are used to produce tea (The other being Camellia Assamica). ... Species See text Kola nut (Cola) is a genus of about 125 species of trees native to the tropical rainforests of Africa, classified in the family Malvaceae, subfamily Sterculioideae (or treated in the separate family Sterculiaceae). ... Binomial name Paullinia cupana Kunth Guarana or Guaraná (pronounced gwa-ra-naa), Paullinia cupana (syn. ... Binomial name Coffea arabica L. Coffea arabica is a species of coffee indigenous to Ethiopia. ...

Effects

Humans

A diagram of the bronchus. The loosening of the muscles in the bronchus helps alleviate the symptoms of asthma.
A diagram of the bronchus. The loosening of the muscles in the bronchus helps alleviate the symptoms of asthma.

While theobromine and caffeine are similar in that they're related alkaloids, theobromine has a lesser impact on the human central nervous system though it stimulates the heart to a greater degree.[15] While theobromine is not as addictive, it has been cited as possibly causing addiction to chocolate.[16] A Sexual Odyssey: From Forbidden Fruit to Cybersex discusses how chocolate's alleged aphrodisiac effects may be caused by a number of factors. These include the stimulative effects of theobromine, pleasure induced by the hypothalamus as an effect of chocolate's sweet and fatty nature, or how chocolate affects the levels of serotonin. While serotonin has a pleasurable effect, in high concentrations it can be converted to melatonin which in large amounts reduces sexual drive.[15] Image File history File links Gray961. ... Image File history File links Gray961. ... A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... Addiction is a chronic or recurrent condition proposed to be precipitated by one or more of the following: genetic, biological/pharmacological and social factors. ... The hypothalamus (from Greek ὑποθαλαμος = under the thalamus) is a region of the mammalian brain located below the thalamus, forming the major portion of the ventral region of the diencephalon and functioning to regulate certain metabolic processes and other autonomic activities. ... Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, or 5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter synthesized in serotonergic neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) and enterochromaffin cells in the gastrointestinal tract. ... Melatonin, 5-methoxy-N-acetyltryptamine, is a hormone found in all living creatures from algae[1] to humans, at levels that vary in a diurnal cycle. ...


In medicine, it is used as a vasodilator, diuretic, and myocardial stimulant.[1] A 2005 study published by Imperial College London concluded that theobromine has an antitussive effect superior to codeine by suppressing vagus nerve activity.[17] Additionally, theobromine is helpful in treating asthma since it relaxes the smooth muscles, including the ones found in the bronchi.[18] medicines, see medication and pharmacology. ... Vasodilation is where blood vessels in the body become wider following the relaxation of the smooth muscle in the vessel wall. ... A diuretic (colloquially called a water pill) is any drug or herb that elevates the rate of bodily urine excretion (diuresis). ... Myocardium is the muscular tissue of the heart. ... Stimulants are drugs that temporarily increase alertness and wakefulness. ... Imperial College London is a university in London and is one of the United Kingdoms best-known scientific academic institutions. ... A cough medicine is a drug used to treat coughing and related conditions. ... Codeine (INN) or methylmorphine is an opiate used for its analgesic, antitussive and antidiarrheal properties. ... The vagus nerve (also called pneumogastric nerve or cranial nerve X) is the tenth of twelve paired cranial nerves, and is the only nerve that starts in the brainstem (within the medulla oblongata) and extends, through the jugular foramen, down below the head, to the abdomen. ... Smooth muscle is a type of non-striated muscle, found within the walls of hollow organs; such as blood vessels, bladders, uteri. ... A bronchus (plural bronchi, adjective bronchial) is a caliber of airways in the the respiratory tract that conducts air into the lungs. ...


There is a possible association between theobromine and an increased risk of suffering from prostate cancer.[19] Like all xanthines, theobromine can cause "sleeplessness, tremors, restlessness, and anxiety," as well as contribute to diuresis.[18] Prostate cancer is a disease in which cancer develops in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system. ... Diuresis is the production of urine by the kidney. ...


Animals

The amount of theobromine found in chocolate is small enough that it can be safely consumed by humans, but animals that metabolize theobromine more slowly, such as dogs, can succumb to theobromine poisoning from as little as 50 grams of chocolate for a smaller dog and 400 grams for an average-sized dog. Complications include digestive issues, dehydration, excitability, and a slow heart rate. Later stages of theobromine poisoning include epileptic-like seizure and possibly death. If caught early on, theobromine poisoning is treatable.[20] Trinomial name Homo sapiens sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 Humans, or human beings, are bipedal primates belonging to the mammalian species Homo sapiens (Latin: wise man or knowing man) under the family Hominidae (the great apes). ... Santorio Santorio (1561-1636) in his steelyard balance, from Ars de statica medecina, first published 1614 Metabolism (from μεταβολισμος(metavallo), the Greek word for change), in the most general sense, is the ingestion and breakdown of complex compounds, coupled... Trinomial name Canis lupus familiaris The dog (Canis lupus familiaris) is a domestic subspecies of the wolf, a mammal of the Canidae family of the order Carnivora. ... Theobromine poisoning or chocolate poisoning is an adverse reaction to the alkaloid theobromine, found in chocolate, tea, cola beverages, and some other foods. ... Epileptic redirects here. ... Seizures are temporary abnormal electro-physiologic phenomena of the brain, resulting in abnormal synchronization of electrical neuronal activity. ...


Other

Theobromine is known to induce gene mutations in lower eukaryotes and bacteria. At the time of a 1997 report by the IARC, mutations had not been found in higher eukaryotes, such as humans.[21] For other meanings of this term, see gene (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that mutant be merged into this article or section. ... Kingdoms Animalia - Animals Fungi Plantae - Plants Protista Alternative Phylogeny Unikonta    Opisthokonta    Amoebozoa Bikonta    Apusozoa    Cabozoa       Rhizaria       Excavata    Corticata       Archaeplastida       Chromalveolata Animals, plants, fungi, and protists are eukaryotes (IPA: ), organisms with a complex cell or cells, where the genetic material is organized into a membrane-bound nucleus or nuclei. ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC, or CIRC in its French acronym) is an intergovernmental agency forming part of the World Health Organisation of the United Nations. ...


Additional uses

Theobromine is used as an experimental teratogen in mice and rabbits.[22] Teratogenesis is a medical term from the Greek, literally meaning monster making. ... Feral mouse A mouse (plural mice) is a rodent that belongs to one of numerous species of small mammals. ... Genera Pentalagus Bunolagus Nesolagus Romerolagus Brachylagus Sylvilagus Oryctolagus Poelagus Rabbits are small mammals in the family Leporidae of the order Lagomorpha, found in several parts of the world. ...


References

  1. ^ a b c d William Marias Malisoff (1943). Dictionary of Bio-Chemistry and Related Subjects. Philosophical Library, 311, 530, 573. ISBN B0006AQ0NU. 
  2. ^ a b (French) Theobromine. BIAM (March 29, 2000). Retrieved on 2007 March 1.
  3. ^ Baer, Donald M.; Elsie M. Pinkston (1997). Environment and Behavior. Westview Press, 200. 
  4. ^ Bennett, Alan Weinberg; Bonnie K. Bealer (2002). The World of Caffeine: The Science and Culture of the World's Most Popular Drug. Routledge, New York. ISBN 0415927234.  (note: the book incorrectly notes that the name "Theobroma" is derived from Latin)
  5. ^ "-ine." (2004) The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company. ISBN 0395711460. 
  6. ^ theobromine. Dictionary.com. Retrieved on 2007 February 22. For convenience, the direct source of the three definitions used has been cited.
  7. ^ Theobromine. On-Line Medical Dictionary. Retrieved on 2007 February 23.
  8. ^ a b Xanthine. On-Line Medical Dictionary. Retrieved on 2007 February 23.
  9. ^ Dimethyl. On-Line Medical Dictionary. Retrieved on 2007 February 23.
  10. ^ * Phosphodiesterase. On-Line Medical Dictionary. Retrieved on 2007 February 23.
  11. ^ David L. Nelson, Michael M. Cox (2005). Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry. W.H. Freeman and Company, 435–439. ISBN 0716743396. 
  12. ^ Sir Ghillean Prance, Mark Nesbitt (2004). The Cultural History of Plants. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0415927463. 
  13. ^ Caffeine. The Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics Knowledge Base. Retrieved on 2007 February 22.
  14. ^ Activities of a Specific Chemical Query - Theobromine. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved on 2007 February 23.
  15. ^ a b Kenneth Maxwell (1996). A Sexual Odyssey: From Forbidden Fruit to Cybersex. New York: Plenum, 38-40. ISBN 030645405X. 
  16. ^ William Gervase Clarence-Smith (2000). Cocoa and Chocolate, 1765-1914. London: Routledge, 10, 31. ISBN 0415215765. 
  17. ^ Usmani O; Belvisi M, Patel H, Crispino N, Birrell M, Korbonits M, Korbonits D, Barnes P (2005). "Theobromine inhibits sensory nerve activation and cough.". FASEB J 19 (2): 231-3. PMID 15548587. 
  18. ^ a b Irwin J. Polk (1997). All about Asthma: Stop Suffering and Start Living. New York: Insight Books, 100. ISBN 0306455692. 
  19. ^ Slattery M, West D (1993). "Smoking, alcohol, coffee, tea, caffeine, and theobromine: risk of prostate cancer in Utah (United States).". Cancer Causes Control 4 (6): 559-63. PMID 8280834. 
  20. ^ 2005-03-01, "HEALTH WATCH: How to Avoid a Canine Chocolate Catastrophe!", The News Letter
  21. ^ International Agency for Research on Cancer (November 17, 1991). Volume 51: Coffee, Tea, Mate, Methylxanthines and Methylglyoxal - Theobromine (PDF). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. WHO. Retrieved on 2006 September 19.
  22. ^ Rambali B, Andel I van, Schenk E, Wolterink G, Werken G van de, Stevenson H, Vleeming W (2002). "[The contribution of cocoa additive to cigarette smoking addiction]" (PDF). RIVM (report 650270002/2002). - The National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (Netherlands)

2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... March 1 is the 60th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (61st in leap years). ... Routledge is an imprint for books in the humanities part of the Taylor & Francis Group, which also has Brunner-Routledge, RoutledgeCurzon and RoutledgeFalmer divisions. ... Houghton Mifflin Company is a leading educational publisher in the United States. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... February 22 is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... February 23 is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... February 23 is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... February 23 is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... February 23 is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... February 23 is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... February 22 is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The United States Department of Agriculture (also called the Agriculture Department, or USDA) is a United States Federal Executive Department (or Cabinet Department). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... February 23 is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC, or CIRC in its French acronym) is an intergovernmental agency forming part of the World Health Organisation of the United Nations. ... The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that acts as a coordinating authority on international public health, headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 19 is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years). ...

Further reading

  • Bender, David A.; Arnold E. Bender (1995). A Dictionary of Food and Nutrition. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0198609612. 

External links

  • Computational Chemistry Wiki
  • Links to external chemical sources

  Results from FactBites:
 
Caffeine and Theobromine (279 words)
Caffeine and theobromine are both xanthine stimulants, and theobromine is the metabolite of caffeine, which is in fact methyltheobromine.
The structures of caffeine and theobromine are shown below.
Both caffeine and theobromine are naturally occurring members of the methylxanthine family and whilst caffeine has an effect on predominately the central nervous system, theobromine is associated with diuretic responses.
Bodybuilding.com - Clayton South - Clayton's Health Facts: Theobromine. (563 words)
Theobromine (C7H8N4O2, or 3,7-dimethylxanthine, or 3,7-Dihydro-3,7-dimethyl-1H-purine-2,6-dione) is a methylxanthine and is a chemical relative of caffeine.
Theobromine is a naturally occurring substance in over sixty species of plant, and is most concentrated in the cocoa bean.
Theobromine is commonly used to treat hypertension because of its ability to relax smooth muscle tissue and dilate blood vessels.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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