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Encyclopedia > Theobald of Bec
Theobald of Bec

Archbishop of Canterbury

Birth name Theobald
Enthroned January 8, 1139
Ended April 18, 1161
Predecessor William de Corbeil
Successor Thomas Becket
Died April 18, 1161

Theobald (Tedbald) (died April 18, 1161) was Archbishop of Canterbury from 1138 to 1161. He was of Norman parentage, but the date of his birth is unknown. In 1138 he was selected by King Stephen I of England to fill the vacant see of Canterbury. The dispute of the primacy over the Welsh hierarchy was ended in his reign when Pope Eugene III decided in 1148 in favour of Theobald. is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... July 26, Independence of Portugal from the Kingdom of León and Castile declared after the Battle of Ourique against the Almoravids lead by Ali ibn Yusuf: Prince Afonso Henriques becomes Afonso I, King of Portugal, after assembling the first assembly of the estates-general of Portugal at Lamego, where... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Bartholomew Iscanus becomes Bishop of Exeter. ... William de Corbeil (d. ... St. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Bartholomew Iscanus becomes Bishop of Exeter. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Bartholomew Iscanus becomes Bishop of Exeter. ... The Archbishop of Canterbury is the spiritual leader and senior clergyman of the Church of England, recognized by convention as the head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... Norman conquests in red. ... Stephen (1096 - October 25, 1154), the last Norman King of England, reigned from 1135 to 1154, when he was succeeded by his cousin (or, as the gossip of the time had it, his natural son) Henry II, the first of the Angevin or Plantagenet Kings. ... Arms of the see of Canterbury The Archbishop of Canterbury is the senior clergyman of the established Church of England and symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... This article is about the country. ... The Blessed Eugene III, né Bernardo Pignatelli (d. ...


Serving during The Anarchy of Steven reign, Theobald was able to force peace on the king. Steven recognized Henry of Anjou as his heir. Theobald is also remembered as the patron of his successor Thomas Becket. The Anarchy in English history commonly names the period of civil war and unsettled government that occurred during the reign (1135–1154) of King Stephen of England. ... Henry II of England 5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189) ruled as King of England (1154–1189), Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Count of Nantes, Lord of Ireland and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland and western France. ... St. ...

Contents

Early life

The ruins of the Abbey of Le Bec Hellouin, Eure, Haute Normandie, France, in 2005
The ruins of the Abbey of Le Bec Hellouin, Eure, Haute Normandie, France, in 2005

His family was from the area around Thierville near Le Bec-Hellouin, in the Risle River valley.[1] He may even have been a distant relative of his successor Thomas Becket, who also came from the same area of Normandy.[2] He was a Norman by descent and became a Benedictine monk at Bec late in the late eleventh or early in the twelfth century. In 1127 he was made prior of Bec, and abbot in 1137.[3] While still in Normandy, he made an intense study of canon law, and continued that study once he was elected Archbishop.[4] He had a brother Walter, who was also a priest.[5] Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Le Bec-Hellouin is a commune in France, in the département of Eure and the region of Haute-Normandie. ... Risle (or Rille) is a 140 km long river in Normandy. ... St. ... For the college, see Benedictine College. ... Bec Abbey (French: Abbaye Notre-Dame du Bec) in Le Bec-Hellouin, Normandy, France, is a Benedictine monastic foundation in the Eure département, in a valley midway between the cities of Rouen and Le Havre. ... Prior is a title, derived from the Latin adjective for earlier, first, with several notable uses. ... For other uses, see Abbot (disambiguation). ... Walter was a medieval Bishop of Rochester. ...


In 1138 he was selected by Stephen, king of England, to fill the vacant see of Canterbury. Theobald was chosen by Stephen instead of Stephen's brother Henry, Bishop of Winchester, who had helped Stephen gain the throne of England. Stephen feared that if Henry was archbishop, Henry would be too strong and would attempt to control the king.[6] The election took place on December 24, and Stephen was present with the papal legate, Alberic of Ostia and a small group of barons and bishops, but Henry was absent overseeing the ordination of deacons. Clearly, Stephen had arranged the election's timing so that Henry was absent. Henry felt that Theobald had been elected not only because Theobald wasn't Henry, but because Waleran of Meulan was lay patron of Bec, and thus was attempting to put his own man in one of the most powerful positions in England. Waleran and his twin brother Robert, Earl of Leicester were Henry's chief rivals as chief advisor to Stephen, and Henry disliked both of them intensely.[3] Certainly Theobald was pious and well educated, but he had only just become abbot the year before, and his election was probably based not only on him not being Henry, but on the reputation of his monastery, which had already produced two archbishops of Canterbury, Lanfranc and Anselm.[7] Theobald had no important family connections that advanced his career nor did he have many clerical allies.[8] Stephen (1096 - October 25, 1154), the last Norman King of England, reigned from 1135 to 1154, when he was succeeded by his cousin (or, as the gossip of the time had it, his natural son) Henry II, the first of the Angevin or Plantagenet Kings. ... Henry of Blois (1111-1171) was bishop of Winchester from 1129 to his death. ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Waleran de Beaumont, Count of Meulan, 1st Earl of Worcester (1104 – 9 April 1166, Preaux), son of Robert de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Leicester and Elizabeth de Vermandois, the twin brother of Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester. ... ... Robert de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Leicester and Count of Meulan (died June 5, 1118) was a powerful English and French nobleman, revered as one of the wisest men of his age. ... Lanfranc (d. ... Anselm may refer to any of several historical figures: Saint Anselm, 8th-century Abbot of Nonantula Saint Anselm of Canterbury (ca 1033 - 1109), Archbishop of Canterbury Anselm of Laon (died 1117), Medieval theologian Anselm of Liège (1008-1056), chronicler Saint Anselm of Lucca (ca 1036 - 1086) This is a...


Archbishop of The Anarchy

Election

Theobald was consecrated on January 8, 1139 by the legate, Alberic of Ostia.[9] He went to Rome for his pallium[10] and took part in the second Lateran Council.[11] He proved a capable prelate, devout in his private life, charitable and a lover of learning. Apparently he owed his advancement to his character for meekness, and as archbishop he behaved with a moderation which is in contrast to the conduct of his rival, Henry of Winchester.[7] During the struggle between Stephen and Empress Matilda it was Bishop Henry who fought for the privileges of the Church; Theobald, while showing a preference for Stephen's title, made it his rule to support the de facto sovereign. is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... July 26, Independence of Portugal from the Kingdom of León and Castile declared after the Battle of Ourique against the Almoravids lead by Ali ibn Yusuf: Prince Afonso Henriques becomes Afonso I, King of Portugal, after assembling the first assembly of the estates-general of Portugal at Lamego, where... now. ... The Second Lateran Council was called by Pope Innocent II in 1139 as an attempt to reunify the church after the two papacies. ... Empress Matilda (February 1102 – September 10, 1167; sometimes Maud or Maude), also called Matilda, Countess of Anjou or Matilda, Lady of the English, was the daughter and dispossessed heir of King Henry I of England. ...

Pope Eugene III confirmed the primacy of Canterbury over the four Welsh sees.
Pope Eugene III confirmed the primacy of Canterbury over the four Welsh sees.

Soon after his election, he selected his brother Walter to be archdeacon of Canterbury, and in 1148 promoted Walter to be Bishop of Rochester.[5] He also attended the council held by Stephen in June of 1139 that deprived Roger of Salisbury Bishop of Salisbury and his nephews Nigel of Ely Bishop of Ely and Alexander of Lincoln Bishop of Lincoln of their castles.[12] Image File history File links B_Eugen_III.jpg Summary H.H. Pope Eugenius III Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links B_Eugen_III.jpg Summary H.H. Pope Eugenius III Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For the Major League Baseball player, see Maurice Archdeacon. ... The Bishop of Rochester is the Ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of Rochester in the Province of Canterbury. ... Roger (d. ... Arms of the Bishop of Salisbury The Bishop of Salisbury is the Ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of Salisbury in the Province of Canterbury. ... Nigel (d. ... Arms of the Bishop of Ely The Bishop of Ely is the Ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of Ely in the Province of Canterbury. ... Alexander of Lincoln (Latin: Alexander Lincolniensis) (died 1147), bishop of Lincoln, one of the most magnificent prelates of his day, was born in Blois, France, and was nephew to the famous Roger, bishop of Salisbury. ... Arms of the Bishop of Lincoln The Bishop of Lincoln heads the Anglican Diocese of Lincoln in the Province of Canterbury. ...


In 1140, Bernard, Bishop of St David's contested the right of Theobald to consecrate the candidate for the see of Bangor Maurice, and instead asserted that St. David's should be considered an archbishopric and that Bernard should receive a pallium. This went against the last half-century of precedent that Canterbury had jurisdiction over the four Welsh sees, a precedent that dated back to Anselm's days when Anselm had consecrated Urban Bishop of Llandaff in 1107. However, Pope Eugene III decided in 1148 in favour of the primacy of Canterbury.[13] Bernard (1115-1148), was Bishop of St Davids. ... The Bishop of Saint Davids is the Ordinary of the Church in Wales Diocese of Saint Davids. ... The Bishop of Bangor heads the Church in Wales diocese of Bangor centred upon Bangor Cathedral. ... Meurig (also known as Maurice) (died 1161) was a Welsh or cleric who was Bishop of Bangor from 1139 to 1161. ... Saint Anselm of Canterbury (1033 or 1034 – April 21, 1109) was an Italian medieval philosopher and theologian, who held the office of Archbishop of Canterbury from 1093 to 1109. ... Look up urban in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Bishop of Llandaff is the Ordinary of the Church in Wales Diocese of Llandaff. ... The Blessed Eugene III, né Bernardo Pignatelli (d. ...


In 1141, after the Battle of Lincoln, with Stephen in captivity in Bristol, Theobald did not immediately join the Empress. He claimed that he needed to talk to Stephen before switching his oath of fealty. After consulting with Stephen, he secured permission to accept the current conditions, and then joined Henry of Blois at Winchester in April for a legatine council held to depose Stephen and crown Empress Matilda. However, the attendance at the council was sparse and they were unable to crown the Empress because she did not hold London or Winchester.[14] Combatants Blesevin (Royal) Angevin Commanders King Stephen of England Robert, 1st Earl of Gloucester Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties Unknown Unknown Battle of Lincoln or First Battle of Lincoln occurred on 2 February 1141. ... This article is about the English city. ... A synod (also known as a council) is a council of a church, usually a Christian church, convened to decide an issue of doctrine, administration or application. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...


Difficulties with Henry of Blois

The archbishop was able to force peace on King Stephen.

Theobald suffered difficulties because of the position of Henry of Winchester, his suffragan bishop, as papal legate. Among these was the appointment of William FitzHerbert as archbishop of York, which Theobald felt bound to oppose.[15] This quarrel was ended by the intercession of the queen, Matilda of Boulogne. However, while at Paris in May of 1147 to meet with the pope, Theobald's visit coincided with a visit by Geoffrey of Anjou, Empress Matilda's husband.[15] Image File history File links Stephen. ... Image File history File links Stephen. ... A bishop is an ordained person who holds a specific position of authority in any of a number of Christian churches. ... A papal Legate, from the Decretals of Boniface VIII (1294 to 1303). ... Saint William of York, (died 1154) also known as William FitzHerbert, William I FitzHerbert and William of Thwayt, was an English bishop and Archbishop of York. ... Arms of the Archbishop of York The Archbishop of York, Primate of England, is the metropolitan bishop of the Province of York, and is the junior of the two archbishops of the Church of England, after the Archbishop of Canterbury. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Geoffrey V (August 24, 1113 – September 7, 1151), Count of Anjou and Maine, and later Duke of Normandy, called Le Bel (The Fair) or Geoffrey Plantagenet, was the father of King Henry II of England, and thus the forefather of the Plantagenet dynasty of English kings. ...


When Pope Eugene III summoned the English bishops to the Council of Rheims in April of 1148, the king forbade them all to go, appointing three bishops (those of Chichester, Hereford and Norwich) but Theobald was specifically refused permission to go.[15] However Theobald defied the king and went, sneaking away in a fishing boat. Though he saved the king from excommunication by begging the pope to allow Theobald time to persuade the king to make amends. However, Stephen was not impressed and confiscated Theobald's property and banished the archbishop. The pope then put England under interdict, which was disregarded except in Canterbury. However, Theobald set himself up in Framlingham, which was held by Earl Hugh Bigod, an adherent of the Empress. While at Framlingham, Theobald conducted the ecclesiastical business of England, which was a direct threat to Stephen's power.[15] Theobald had many reasons for going to the council without the king's permission, the main ones being the need to obey the pope's order commanding his attendance, and the other reason being to keep the papacy from favoring Henry Murdac, who had recently been selected as Archbishop of York, and was known to be close to Eugene, who was also a Cistercian like Murdac.[16] The Blessed Eugene III, né Bernardo Pignatelli (d. ... Rheims in, modern France hosted several councils or synods in the Roman Catholic Church. ... Hilary was a medieval Bishop of Chichester. ... Robert de Bethune (or Robert de Betun) was a medieval Bishop of Hereford. ... William de Turbeville (c. ... Excommunication is a religious censure used to deprive or suspend membership in a religious community. ... Interdict can refer to several things: Look up interdict in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Map sources for Framlingham at grid reference TM2863 Framlingham is a market town in East Suffolk, England. ... This article is about Hugh Bigod, 1st Earl of Norfolk. ... Henry Murdac, abbot of Fountains Abbey (1144-1147) and archbishop of York (1147-1153), was a native of Yorkshire, but descended from a wealthy family from Compton Murdac (now Compton Verney), in Warwickshire. ...


Celestine II did not reappoint Henry as legate and finally in 1150, or possibly before, Theobald was named legate by Eugene III, probably on the recommendation of St. Bernard.[11] Theobald was to hold the legatine powers in England until his own death in 1161.[9] Celestine II also wrote to Theobald "forbidding him to allow any change to be made in the position of the English crown, since the transfer of it had been justly denounced, and the matter was still under dispute."[17] This became the papal policy, and was a significant change in papal policy from the recognition of Pope Innocent II.[18] Celestine II, né Guido di Castello (d. ... St. ... Innocent II, né Gregory Papareschi (d. ...


In 1151 Theobald held a legatine council in London.[19] In April of the following year, acting on papal authority, he refused to crown Eustace, the king's eldest son, and was again compelled to seek flight, and was banished from the kingdom by Stephen.[20] Although Theobald claimed papal authority, it was more probable that the bishops had no desire to prolong the civil war.[21] While in Normandy in 1153 he reconciled Henry of Anjou to Stephen, resulting in the Treaty of Wallingford, securing for Henry the succession to the throne. Pope Eugene III terrified Stephen into a reversal of the sentence of banishment, and Theobald returned to his see.[22] It was mainly Theobald and Henry of Blois who negotiated the treaty, as neither Stephen nor Henry of Anjou were interested in a compromise.[23] A synod (also known as a council) is a council of a church, usually a Christian church, convened to decide an issue of doctrine, administration or application. ... Eustace IV (c. ... Henry II of England 5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189) ruled as King of England (1154–1189), Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Count of Nantes, Lord of Ireland and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland and western France. ... The Treaty of Wallingford of 1153, also known as the Treaty of Winchester, effectively ended The Anarchy, a dispute between Empress Matilda and her cousin Stephen of England over the English crown. ...


After Stephen

The archbishop crowned Henry II, depicted in Cassell's History of England (1902).
The archbishop crowned Henry II, depicted in Cassell's History of England (1902).

Theobald was present at Stephen's deathbed in October of 1154, and Stephen named Theobald regent of the kingdom until Henry arrived to take up his crown.[24] Two months later Theobald crowned Henry and his wife Eleanor of Aquitaine on December 19, 1154[25][26] at Westminster.[27] and during the rest of his life he maintained good relations with the Court, as a trusted counsellor; especially with his former disciple Thomas Becket, who had now become Chancellor. He expressed to John of Salisbury his hope that Thomas would succeed him. Download high resolution version (800x997, 130 KB)Henry II of England Image from Cassells History of England - Century Edition - published circa 1902 Scan by Tagishsimon, 23rd June 2004 This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible... Download high resolution version (800x997, 130 KB)Henry II of England Image from Cassells History of England - Century Edition - published circa 1902 Scan by Tagishsimon, 23rd June 2004 This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible... Eleanor of Aquitaine Eleanor of Aquitaine (or Aliénor), Duchess of Aquitaine and Gascony and Countess of Poitou (1122[1] – April 1, 1204) was one of the wealthiest and most powerful women in Europe during the High Middle Ages. ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... King Stephen of England dies at Dover, and is succeeded by his adopted son Henry Plantagenet who becomes King Henry II of England, aged 21. ... Westminster is a district within the City of Westminster in London. ... St. ... The Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, or Lord Chancellor and prior to the Union the Chancellor of England and the Lord Chancellor of Scotland, is a senior and important functionary in the government of the United Kingdom, and its predecessor states. ... John of Salisbury (c. ...


Theobald's household was not monastic in character, although he himself was a monk. As he settled into the role of archbishop, he seems to have left most of his monastic habits behind, although he continued to have a monk as a companion. His nephews and brother benefited from his nepotism.[28] Throughout his pontificate he had continual trouble with the monks of Canterbury Cathedral. He also had conflicts with St Augustine's Abbey over the profession of the abbots of obedience to the archbishop. The abbey claimed exemption from the archbishops' oversight due to owing obedience direct to the pope. Papal documents held at Rome backed the abbey, but there were no English royal charters that gave the abbey its liberty from the archbishops. Theobald attempted to clear up the confusion by legal actions both at Rome and in England, but the record was mixed. The documents at Rome clearly favoured the abbey, but at a Royal Council held at Northampton in 1157, Henry II ruled in favour of Theobald. This was just one event in the long history of dispute between Canterbury and St. Augustine's.[29] Look up nepotism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Canterbury Cathedral is one of the oldest and most famous Christian structures in England and forms part of a World Heritage Site. ... For other uses, see St. ...


Theobald died on April 18, 1161 and was buried in Canterbury Cathedral,[30] where eighteen years afterwards his body was found incorrupt. In 1787 his lead coffin was found in Canterbury.[31] However, as of now (2007), he is not a candidate for sainthood. is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Bartholomew Iscanus becomes Bishop of Exeter. ... For other uses, see Saint (disambiguation). ...


Theobald was, in the words of Frank Barlow, "an upright man, but quick tempered, and sometimes spoke far too rashly."[32]


Patronage

The archbishop was a patron to the future St Thomas Becket, pictured here suffering martyrdom.
The archbishop was a patron to the future St Thomas Becket, pictured here suffering martyrdom.

In his household, he collected many young men of ability, including his successor Thomas Becket, and he encouraged the formation of scholars and statesmen of a new type. Theobald's household was a university in little; and in it were trained not a few of the leading prelates of the next generation. He was instrumental in the early spread of Roman law to England, inviting the Bologna-schooled jurist Roger Vacarius to join his administration and advise on legal matters.[33] Theobald was instrumental in fostering the teaching of canon law in England, and the conflict that later arose between Henry II and Thomas Becket had its roots in conflicts that were exposed during Theobald's time in office.[34] Image File history File links Thomas_Becket_Murder. ... Image File history File links Thomas_Becket_Murder. ... St. ... Roger Vacarius (1120-1200?) was an Italian authority in civil and Canon law, who became the first known teacher of Roman law in England. ...


An interesting charter of Theobald from about 1152 shows the usual household staff that surrounded him. It was witnessed by the archbishop's crossbearer, three of Theobald's nephews and the clerk who presumably was in charge of them, a chancellor, two chaplains who were monks, a butler, sidpenser, chamberlain, steward, cook, usher, porter and marshall.[35] Theobald also at about the same time granted a mill to his baker named William and some lands to his cook William and the cook's heirs.[36]


Theobald is known chiefly as the patron of three eminent men: Becket, who began life as a clerk in his household; Vacarius, who was the first to teach Roman law in England; and John of Salisbury, the most learned scholar of the age.[6] Vacarius was a Italian who at first taught in Theobald's household, and later moved to Oxford to teach Roman law there.[37] Others who studied for a time in Theobald's household were Roger de Pont L'Evêque, later Archbishop of York, John Belemis, later Archbishop of Lyons,[38], John of Pagham, who was later Bishop of Worcester, Bartholomew later Bishop of Exeter, William of Northholt later Bishop of Worcester, and William de Vere later Bishop of Hereford.[39] Roger Vacarius (1120-1200?) was an Italian authority in civil and Canon law, who became the first known teacher of Roman law in England. ... Using the term Roman law in a broader sense, one may say that Roman law is not only the legal system of ancient Rome but the law that was applied throughout most of Europe until the end of the 18th century. ... John of Salisbury (c. ... Roger de Pont LEvêque was a contemporary of Thomas Becket. ... John de Pageham (or John of Pageham) was a medieval Bishop of Worcester. ... The Bishop of Worcester is the ordinary in the see of Worcester and has his seat in Worcester Cathedral. ... Bartholomew Iscanus was a medieval Bishop of Exeter. ... The Bishop of Exeter is the Ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of Exeter in the Province of Canterbury. ... William of Northall or William of Northolt was a medieval Bishop of Worcester. ... The Bishop of Worcester is the ordinary in the see of Worcester and has his seat in Worcester Cathedral. ... William de Vere was the sixteenth Lord Chancellor of England, during 1142. ... The Bishop of Hereford is the Ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of Hereford in the Province of Canterbury. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Barlow Thomas Becket p. 11
  2. ^ Barlow Thomas Becket p. 23
  3. ^ a b Davis King Stephen 1135-1154 p. 27
  4. ^ Knowles The Monastic Order in England" p. 516
  5. ^ a b Bartlett England Under the Norman and Angevin Kings p. 401
  6. ^ a b Barlow The English Church 1066-1154 p. 94-97
  7. ^ a b Appleby The Troubled Reign of King Stephen p. 60-61
  8. ^ Matthew King Stephen p. 87
  9. ^ a b Bartlett England Under the Norman and Angevin Kings p. 411
  10. ^ Barlow The English Church 1066-1154 p. 38
  11. ^ a b Barlow The English Church 1066-1154 p. 110-112
  12. ^ Appleby The Troubled Reign of King Stephen p. 72
  13. ^ Duggan "From the Conquest to the Death of John" p. 101-102
  14. ^ Davis King Stephen p. 52
  15. ^ a b c d Davis King Stephen p. 101-103
  16. ^ Matthew King Stephen p. 197-201
  17. ^ quoted in Davis King Stephen p. 62
  18. ^ Davis King Stephen p. 62
  19. ^ Barlow The English Church 1066-1154 p. 131
  20. ^ Crouch The Normans p. 273
  21. ^ Huscroft Ruling England 1042-1217 p. 135
  22. ^ Barlow The English Church 1066-1154 p. 100-102
  23. ^ Davis King Stephen p. 118
  24. ^ Crouch The Normans p. 278
  25. ^ Warren Henry II p. 53
  26. ^ Powell The House of Lords in the Middle Ages p. 73
  27. ^ Barlow Thomas Becket p. 42
  28. ^ Barlow Thomas Becket p. 32
  29. ^ Knowles The Monastic Order in England p. 588
  30. ^ Powicke Handbook of British Chronology p. 210
  31. ^ Bartlett England Under the Norman and Angevin Kings p. 595
  32. ^ Barlow Thomas Becket p. 36
  33. ^ Helmholz Oxford History of the Laws of England v.1 p. 121
  34. ^ Duggan "From the Conquest to the Death of John" p. 85-88
  35. ^ DuBoulay The Lordship of Canterbury p. 252
  36. ^ DuBoulay The Lordship of Canterbury p. 258
  37. ^ Lyon A Constitutional and Legal History of Medieval England p. 186
  38. ^ Poole Domesday Book to Magna Carta p. 196
  39. ^ Barlow Thomas Becket p. 30-31

References

  • Appleby, John T. [1969] (1995). The Troubled Reign of King Stephen 1135-1154. New York: Barnes & Noble. ISBN 1-56619-848-8. 
  • Barlow, Frank (1979). The English Church, 1066-1154: A History of the Anglo-Norman Church. New York: Longman. ISBN 0-582-50236-5. 
  • Barlow, Frank (1986). Thomas Becket. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-07175-1. 
  • Bartlett, Robert C. (2000). England Under the Norman and Angevin Kings, 1075-1225. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-19-822741-8. 
  • Crouch, David (2007). The Normans: The History of a Dynasty. London: Hambledon. ISBN 1-85285-595-9. 
  • Davis, R. H. C. (1990), King Stephen, 1135-1154 (Third ed.), New York: Longman, ISBN 0-582-04000-0
  • DuBoulay, F. R. H. (1966). The Lordship of Canterbury: An Essay on Medieval Society. Barnes & Noble. 
  • Duggan, Charles (1999), "From the Conquest to the Death of John", in Lawrence, C. H., The English Church and the Papacy in the Middle Ages, Stroud: Sutton, ISBN 0-7509-1947-7
  • Helmholz, R. H. (2004). Oxford History of the Laws of England. Oxdford University Press. 
  • Huscroft, Richard (2005). Ruling England, 1042-1217. London: Pearson/Longman. ISBN 0-582-84882-2. 
  • Knowles, David (1976), The Monastic Order in England: a History of its Development from the Times of St. Dunstan to the Fourth Lateran Council, 940-1216 (Second ed.), Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-05479-6
  • Lyon, Bryce Dale (1980). A Constitutional and Legal History of Medieval England. New York: Norton. ISBN 0-393-95132-4. 
  • Matthew, Donald (2002). King Stephen. London: Hambledon & London. ISBN 1-85285-514-2. 
  • Poole, A. L. (1955), From Domesday Book to Magna Carta, 1087-1216 (Second ed.), Oxford: Clarendon Press, ISBN 0-19-821707-2
  • Powell, J. Enoch & Wallis, Keith (1968), The House of Lords in the Middle Ages: A History of the English House of Lords to 1540, London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson
  • Powicke, F. Maurice & Fryde, E. B. (1961), Handbook of British Chronology (Second ed.), London: Royal Historical Society
  • Warren, W. L. (1973). Henry II. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-03494-5. 

Professor Robert Bartlett (b. ... David Knowles (Studley, Warwickshire 1896-1974) was an English Benedictine monk of Downside Abbey and historian. ... Austin Lane Poole (6 December 1889 - 22 February 1963) was a British mediaevalist. ... Sir (Frederick) Maurice Powicke (1879-1963) was an English medieval historian. ...

Further reading

  • Barlow, Frank "Theobald (c.1090–1161)" Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Oxford University Press, 2004 Online Edition
  • Hook, W. F., Lives of the Archbishops of Canterbury, ii. c. vi. (London, 1862)
  • Norgate, Kate, England under the Angevin Kings, vol. i. (London, 1887)
  • Vita Theobaldi printed in J. A. Giles, Lanfranci Opera, vol. i. (Oxford, 1844)

Walter Farquhar Hook (March 13, 1798 - October 1875), was an eminent Victorian, being the Vicar of Leeds responsible for the construction of the current Leeds Parish Church and for many ecclesiastical and social improvements to the city in the mid nineteenth century. ...

See also

Coat of arms of the Archbishop of Canterbury. ...

External links

  • Theobald at Catholic Encyclopedia Online
Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
William de Corbeil
Archbishop of Canterbury
1139–1161
Succeeded by
Thomas Becket

This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. This article incorporates text from the public-domain Catholic Encyclopedia of 1913. Catholic Church redirects here. ... William de Corbeil (d. ... The Archbishop of Canterbury is the spiritual leader and senior clergyman of the Church of England, recognized by convention as the head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... St. ... Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...

Persondata
NAME Theobald of Bec
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Tedbald
SHORT DESCRIPTION Abbot of Bec; Archbishop of Canterbury
DATE OF BIRTH
PLACE OF BIRTH
DATE OF DEATH April 18, 1161
PLACE OF DEATH

  Results from FactBites:
 
Theobald of Bec (422 words)
In 1153 Theobald succeeded in reconciling Stephen with Henry of Anjou, and in securing for the latter the succession to the throne.
In history Theobald lives chiefly as the patron of three eminent men: Becket, who began life as a clerk in his household; Master Vacarius, the Italian jurist, who was the first to teach Roman law in England; and John of Salisbury, the most learned scholar of the age.
Theobald's household was a university in little; and in it were trained not a few of the leading prelates of the next generation.
Theobald - LoveToKnow 1911 (431 words)
In 115 3 Theobald succeeded in reconciling Stephen with Henry of Anjou, and in securing for the latter the succession to the throne.
On the accession of Henry in 1154, Theobald naturally became his trusted counsellor; but illhealth prevented the archbishop from using his influence to its full extent.
Theobald died on the 18th of April 116r.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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