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Encyclopedia > Themistocles

Themistocles (Greek: Θεμιστοκλῆς; c. 524459 BC[1]) was a leader in the Athenian democracy during the Persian Wars. He favored the expansion of the navy to meet the Persian threat and persuaded the Athenians to spend the surplus generated by their silver mines on building new ships - the Athenian navy grew from 70 to 200 ships. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC Events 529 BC - Cambyses II succeeds his father Cyrus as ruler of Persia. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 5th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 500s BC 490s BC 480s BC 470s BC 460s BC - 450s BC - 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC Years: 464 BC 463 BC 462 BC 461 BC 460 BC - 459 BC - 458 BC 457 BC... The speakers platform in the Pnyx, the meeting ground of the assembly where all the great political struggles of Athens were fought during the Golden Age. Here Athenian statesmen stood to speak, such as Pericles and Aristides in the 5th century BC and Demosthenes and Aeschines in the 4th... Persian Wars redirects here. ...


Themistocles was the son of Neocles, an Athenian of no distinction and moderate means, his mother being a Carian or a Thracian, Abrotonum by some accounts.[2] Little is known of his early years, but many authors resort to the myth that he was badly behaved as a child and disowned by his father (e.g. Libanius Declamations 9 and 10; Aelian; Cornelius Nepos "Themistocles"). He may have been strategos of his tribe at Marathon and it is said that he was jealous of the victories of Miltiades, repeating to himself, "Miltiades' trophy does not let me sleep" (in Greek: Οὐκ ἐᾷ με καθεύδειν τὸ τοῦ Μιλτιάδου τρόπαιον). Location of Caria Photo of a 15th century map showing Caria. ... Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak  Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Attic Greek: ThrāíkÄ“ or ThrēíkÄ“, Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... Abrotonum (Greek ) was a Thracian harlot, who according to some accounts was the mother of Themistocles. ... Libanius (Greek Libanios) (ca 314 AD - ca 394) was a Greek-speaking teacher of rhetoric of the later Roman Empire, an educated pagan of the Sophist school in an Empire that was turning aggressively Christian and publicly burned its own heritage and closed the academies. ... The name Aelian may refer to one of two people: Aelianus Tacticus, a Greek military writer of the 2nd century, who lived in Rome Claudius Aelianus, a Roman teacher and historian of the 3rd century, who wrote in Greek This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists... Cornelius Nepos (c. ... The term strategos (plural strategoi; Greek στρατηγός) is used in Greek to mean general. In the hellenistic and Byzantine Empires the term was also used to describe a military governor. ... Combatants Athens, Plataea Persia Commanders Miltiades, Callimachus â€ , Arimnestus Datis â€ ?, Artaphernes Strength 10,000 Athenians, 1,000 Plataeans 20,000 - 100,000 a Casualties 192 Athenians killed, 11 Plataeans killed (Herodotus) 6,400 killed, 7 ships captured (Herodotus) a These are modern consensus estimates. ... Miltiades Miltiades (c. ...


Thucydides, a well-respected historian who was born around the time of Themistocles' death, described him in the following terms: "Themistocles was a man who most clearly presents the phenomenon of natural genius...to a quite extraordinary and exceptional degree by sheer personal intelligence, without either previous study or special briefing, he showed both the best grasp of an emergency situation at the shortest notice, and the most far-reaching appreciation of probable future developments." Bust of Thucydides residing in the Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto. ...


Plutarch, more disparagingly, remarks that he was power-hungry and willing to use any means to gain both personal and national prestige. Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ...

Ostracon with inscription: "Themistocles, son of Neocles"
Ostracon with inscription: "Themistocles, son of Neocles"

The death of Miltiades, the hero of Marathon, left a political void filled by Aristides "the Just" and Themistocles. Thermistocles prevailed in 483-82 by arranging the ostracism of Aristides. Themistocles advocated a policy of naval expansion while Aristides represented the interests of the "hoplite" or traditional land-based military establishment. Athens' traditional enemy, Aegina, had a powerful navy while the danger of a renewed Persian invasion was well known. The Persians had recently subjugated the Ionian Greeks who were known for developing a new three level warship known as the "Trireme" which was destined to change naval warfare for years to come. Themistocles successfully persuaded the Athenian Assembly to build 200 Triremes and to continue his work of fortifying the harbours of Piraeus largely facilitated by a fortuitous newly-discovered rich vein of silver at Laureion. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 616 × 599 pixels Full resolution (800 × 778 pixel, file size: 121 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Ostrakon portant le nom de Thémistocle, 490-480 ou vers 460 a. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 616 × 599 pixels Full resolution (800 × 778 pixel, file size: 121 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Ostrakon portant le nom de Thémistocle, 490-480 ou vers 460 a. ... An ostracon with Pericles name written on it (c. ... This article is about Aristides the statesman. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 530s BC 520s BC 510s BC 500s BC 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC Years: 488 BC 487 BC 486 BC 485 BC 484 BC - 483 BC - 482 BC 481 BC... Pieces of broken pottery as voting tokens. ... Aegina (Greek: Αίγινα (Egina)) is one of the Saronic Islands of Greece in the Saronic Gulf, 31 miles (50 km) from Athens. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ... It has been suggested that Kaminia (Piraeus), Greece be merged into this article or section. ... Laurium or Laurion (Λαύριον, Thoricum before early 1000s BC, Ergastiri throughout the medieval times and the mid to late 1000s, Ergastiri is Greek for Workplace) is a town in southeastern part of Attica, Greece and is one of the southernmost and the seat of...


Themistocles may have been archon in 483-82 at the time when this naval programme began. Dionysius of Halicarnassus places his archonship in 493-92, which may be more likely: in 487 the office lost much of its importance owing to the substitution of the lot for election: the chance that the lot would at the particular crisis of 483 fall on Themistocles was remote. In any case, at the year prior to the invasion of Xerxes Themistocles was the most influential politician in Athens, if not in Greece. Though the Greek fleet was nominally under the control of the Spartan Eurybiades, Themistocles caused the Greeks to fight the indecisive Battle of Artemisium, and more, it was he who brought about the Battle of Salamis, by his threat that he would lead the Athenian army to found a new home in the West, and by his seemingly treacherous message to Xerxes, whose fleet was lured into the channel between Salamis and the mainland, and crushed. This is a list of the eponymous archons of Athens. ... Dionysius Halicarnassensis (of Halicarnassus), Greek historian and teacher of rhetoric, flourished during the reign of Augustus. ... Cleromancy, sortilege, casting lots or casting bones is a form of divination in which an outcome is determined by random means, such as the rolling of a die. ... Xerxes I (خشایارشاه), was a Persian king (reigned 485 - 465 BC) of the Achaemenid dynasty. ... Sparta (Doric: Spártā, Attic: SpártÄ“) is a city in southern Greece. ... Eurybiades was the Spartan commander in charge of the Greek navy during the Persian Wars. ... Combatants Greek city-states Persia Commanders Eurybiades of Sparta Themistocles of Athens Adeimantus of Corinth Unknown Strength 333 ships 500 ships Casualties Half of Fleet (Herodotus) Unknown The naval Battle of Artemisium took place, according to tradition, on the same day as the Battle of Thermopylae on August 11, 480... For other uses, see Battle of Salamis (disambiguation). ...


This left the Athenians free to restore their ruined city. Sparta, on the ground that it was dangerous to Greece that there should be any citadel north of the Isthmus of Corinth which an invader might hold, urged against this, but Themistocles forstalled Spartan action by means of a visit to Sparta that allowed diplomatic delays and subterfuges and enabled the work to be carried sufficiently near to completion to make the walls defensible. He also carried out his original plan of making Piraeus a real harbour and fortress for Athens. Athens thus became the finest trade centre in Greece, and this, along with Themistocles' remission of the alien's tax, induced many foreign business men to settle in Athens. The Isthmus of Corinth is the narrow landbridge which connects the Peloponnesos peninsula with the mainland of Greece, near the city of Corinth. ...


After the crisis of the Persian invasion Themistocles and Aristides appear to have made up their differences. But Themistocles soon began to lose the confidence of the people, partly due to his arrogance (it is said that he built near his own house a sanctuary to Artemis Aristoboulë ["of good counsel"]) and partly due to his alleged readiness to take bribes. Diodorus and Plutarch both refer to some accusation levelled against him, and at some point between 476 and 471 he was ostracised. He retired to Argos, but the Spartans further accused him of treasonable intrigues with Persia, and he fled to Corcyra, thence to Admetus, king of Molossia, and finally to Asia Minor. He was proclaimed a traitor at Athens and his property was confiscated, though his friends saved him some portion of it. For other uses, see Artemis (disambiguation). ... Diodorus Siculus was a Greek historian, born at Agyrium in Sicily (now called Agira, in the province of Enna). ... Coordinates 37°37′ N 22°43′ E Country Greece Periphery Peloponnese Prefecture Argolis Province Argos Population 29,505 Area 5. ... (This article is about the Greek island known in English as Corfu. ... In Greek mythology, Admetus was a king of Pherae in Thessaly, succeeding his father Pheres after whom the city was named. ... Republic of Molossia is perhaps the worlds smallest nation. ...


Artaxerxes I succesor of Xerxes I, offered Themistocles – who is the winner of the Battle of Salamis, asylum, after Themistocles was ostracized (banned) from Athens Greece. He was well received by the Persians and was made governor of Magnesia on the Maeander River in Asia Minor (modern Turkey). The revenues (50 talents) of this town were assigned to him for bread, those of Myus for condiments, and those of Lampsacus for wine. His death at Magnesia, at the age of sixty-five, was due to illness according to Thucydides, although he (book I, 138) tells us of a rumor that he may have taken poison, finding that he could not keep the promises that he had made to Xerxes. It was said that his bones were secretly transferred to Attica. He was worshipped by the Magnesians as a god, as we find from a coin on which he is shown with a patera in his hand and a slain bull at his feet (hence perhaps the legend that he died from drinking bull’s blood). Artaxerxes I was king of Persia from 464 BC to 424 BC. He belonged to the Achaemenid dynasty and was the successor of Xerxes I. He is mentioned in two books of the Bible, Ezra and Nehemiah. ... Xerxes I (خشایارشاه), was a Persian king (reigned 485 - 465 BC) of the Achaemenid dynasty. ... For other uses, see Battle of Salamis (disambiguation). ... Right of asylum (or political asylum) is an ancient judicial notion, under which a person persecuted for political opinions or religious beliefs in his or her country may be protected by another sovereign authority, a foreign country, or Church sanctuaries (as in medieval times). ... In modern parlance, to ostracize means to exclude someone from society or from a community, by not communicating with or even noticing them, similar to shunning. ... Athens is the largest and the capital city of Greece, located in the Attica periphery. ... Myus was an ancient city-state and was one of twelve major settlements formed in the Ionian Confederation called the Ionian League. ... Lampsacus was an ancient Greek city strategically located on the eastern side of the Hellespont in the northern Troad. ... Bust of Thucydides residing in the Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto. ... Xerxes may refer to these Persian kings: Xerxes I, reigned 485–465 BC, also known as Xerxes the Great. ... A patera (reverse, right, under the lituus) as cult instrument, in this coin celebrating the pietas of the Roman Emperor Herennius Etruscus. ...


Though his end was discreditable, and his great wealth can hardly have been obtained by loyal public service, there is no doubt that his services to Athens and to Greece were great. He created the Athenian fleet and with it the possibility of the Delian League, which became the Athenian empire, and there are indications (e.g. his plan of expansion in the west) that the later imperialist ideal originated with him. Delian League (Athenian Empire), right before the Peloponnesian War in 431 BC. Corcyra was not part of the League The Delian League was an association of Greek city-states in the 5th century BC. It was led by Athens. ... The Delian League was an association of Greek city-states in the 5th century BC. As it was led by Athens, it is sometimes pejoratively referred to as the Athenian Empire. ...


References and notes

  1. ^ Hornblower and Spawforth (1998) s.v. Themistocles. Secondary sources vary on the dates of birth and death. Other dates often given are 525/523 - 460 BC.
  2. ^ Smith, William (1867), "Abrotonum", in Smith, William, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. 1, Boston, MA, pp. 3

Sir William Smith (1813 - 1893), English lexicographer, was born at Enfield in 1813 of Nonconformist parents. ... Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology is a encyclopedia/biographical dictionary. ...

Bibliography

  • JACT, The World of Athens
  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.
  • Hornblower, Simon and Spawforth, Antony (ed.), The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998).

Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

External links

  • Livius.org, Themistocles by Jona Lendering

  Results from FactBites:
 
Themistocles - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1078 words)
Libanius Declamations 9 and 10; Aelian; Cornelius Nepos "Themistocles").
Themistocles therefore persuaded his countrymen to build 200 triremes, and—what was of even greater importance—to fortify the three natural harbours of Piraeus in place of the open roadstead of Phalerum.
But Themistocles soon began to lose the confidence of the people, partly owing to his arrogance (it is said that he built near his own house a sanctuary to Artemis Aristoboulë “of good counsel “) and partly to his alleged readiness to take bribes.
Themistocles. Plutarch. 1909-14. Plutarch’s Lives. The Harvard Classics (3483 words)
Themistocles, in great distress that the Greeks should retire, and lose the advantage of the narrow seas and strait passage, and slip home every one to his own city, considered with himself, and contrived that stratagem that was carried out by Sicinnus.
Themistocles replied, that a man’s discourse was like to a rich Persian carpet, the beautiful figures and patterns of which can only be shown by spreading and extending it out; when it is contracted and folded up, they are obscured and lost; and, therefore, he desired time.
Themistocles, having escaped this great danger, in admiration of the goodness of the goddess that appeared to him, built, in memory of it, a temple in the city of Magnesia, which he dedicated to Dindymene, Mother of the gods, in which he consecrated and devoted his daughter Mnesiptolema to her service.
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