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Encyclopedia > Thebes, Greece
Thebes  (Θήβα)

Remains of the Cadmea, the central fortress of ancient Thebes
Location
Coordinates 38°19′N 23°19′E / 38.317, 23.317Coordinates: 38°19′N 23°19′E / 38.317, 23.317
Time zone: EET/EEST (UTC+2/3)
Elevation (center): 215 m (705 ft)
Government
Country: Greece
Periphery: Central Greece
Prefecture: Boeotia
Population statistics (as of 2001)
Municipality
 - Population: 23,820
Codes
Postal codes: 32200
Area codes: 22620

Thebes (Demotic Greek: Θήβα — Thíva; Katharevousa: ΘῆβαιThêbai or Thívai) is a city in Greece, situated to the north of the Cithaeron range, which divides Boeotia from Attica, and on the southern edge of the Boeotian plain. Thebes played an important role in the fabric of Greek myth, being the site of the stories of Cadmus, Oedipus, Dionysus, and others. Archaeological excavations in and around Thebes have revealed a Mycenaean settlement and clay tablets written in the Linear B script, indicating the importance of the site in the Bronze Age. In ancient historical times, Thebes was the largest city of the region of Boeotia and was the leader of the Boeotian confederacy. Thebes was a major rival of ancient Athens, and sided with the Persians during the 480 BC invasion of Xerxes. Theban forces ended the power of Sparta at the battle of Leuctra in 371 BC under the command of Epaminondas. The Theban sacred band (an elite military unit) famously fell at the battle of Chaeronea in 338 BC against Philip II and Alexander the Great. Prior to its destruction by Alexander in 335 BC in reprisal for a revolt, Thebes was a major force in Greek history and in fact was the most dominant city-state at the time of the Macedonian conquest of Greece. During the Byzantine period, the city was famous for its silks. The modern city contains an Archaeological Museum, the remains of the Cadmea (Bronze Age and forward citadel), and scattered ancient remains. Modern Thebes is the largest town of the Boeotia Prefecture. It is situated at the E962, some 4 km south of the junction with the E75. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 685 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (800 × 700 pixel, file size: 27 KB, MIME type: image/png) Other versions Adapted from Image:Greece outline map. ... Image File history File links Red_pog. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... A time zone is a region of the Earth that has adopted the same standard time, usually referred to as the local time. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries not observing daylight saving Eastern European Time (EET) is one of the names of UTC+2 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... Eastern European Summer Time (EEST) is one of the names of UTC+3 time zone, 3 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... Eastern European Time Central Africa Time Israel Standard Time South Africa Standard Time Central European Summer Time West Africa Summer Time Category: ... -12 | -11 | -10 | -9:30 | -9 | -8 | -7 | -6 | -5 | -4 | -3:30 | -3 | -2:30 | -2 | -1 | -0:25 | UTC (0) | +0:20 | +0:30 | +1 | +2 | +3 | +3:30 | +4 | +4:30 | +4:51 | +5 | +5:30 | +5:40 | +5:45 | +6 | +6:30 | +7 | +7:20 | +7... Basic Definition In geography, the elevation of a geographic location is its height above mean sea level (or some other fixed point). ... This is an alphabetical list of countries of the world, including independent states (both those that are internationally recognised and generally unrecognised), inhabited dependent territories and areas of special sovereignty. ... The peripheries (περιφέρειες) are the subnational divisions of Greece. ... Central Greece (Greek: Στερεά Ελλάδα - Stereá Elláda) is one of the thirteen peripheries of Greece. ... Greece consists of 13 administrative regions known as Peripheries of Greece, which are further subdivided into 51 prefectures (nomoi, singular - nomos, Greek: νομοί, νομός)): See also List of the prefectures of Greece by area List of the prefectures of Greece by population density List of the prefectures of Greece by population External... Boeotia or Beotia (//, (Greek Βοιωτια; see also list of traditional Greek place names) was the central area of ancient Greece. ... This is an alphabetical list of municipalities and communities in Greece. ... Here are list of postal codes in Greece. ... This is a list of dialing codes in Greece. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece. ... Dhimotiki (Greek Δημοτική, IPA //) or Demotic Greek is the standard language of Greece. ... Katharevousa (Greek Καθαρεύουσα, IPA: ) is a form of the Greek language, created during the early 19th century by Adamantios Korais (1748-1833). ... In Greek mythology, Cithaeron was beloved by Tisiphone, one of the Erinyes. ... Boeotia or Beotia (//, (Greek Βοιωτια; see also list of traditional Greek place names) was the central area of ancient Greece. ... This article is about Attica in Greece. ... Mycenaean may refer to: Mycenae, coming from or belonging to this ancient town in Peloponnese in Greece Mycenaean Greece, the Greek-speaking regions of the Aegean Sea as of the Late Bronze Age, named (somewhat anachronistically) after the Mycenae of the Trojan War epics Mycenaean language, an ancient form of... This article is about the ancient syllabary. ... Boeotia or Beotia (//, (Greek Βοιωτια; see also list of traditional Greek place names) was the central area of ancient Greece. ... Xerxes the Great (Persian: خشایارشا, Khšāyāršā, Old Persian: XÅ¡ayāršā) was a Persian Emperor (Shahanshah) (reigned 485–465 BCE) of the Achaemenid Dynasty. ... Sparta (Doric: Spártā, Attic: SpártÄ“) is a city in southern Greece. ... Leuctra was a village in ancient Greece, in Boetia, seven miles southwest of Thebes. ... For information about the modern board game of the same name, see Epaminondas (game). ... The Sacred Band of Thebes (ancient Greek: Ιερός Λόχος τών Θηβών; ἱερὸς λόχος hieròs lókhos) was a troop of picked soldiers, numbering 150 pederastic couples, which formed the elite force of the Theban army in late-classical Greece. ... Combatants Macedon Athens, Thebes Commanders Philip II of Macedon, Alexander the Great Chares of Athens, Lysicles of Athens, Theagenes of Boeotia Strength 32,000 infantry, 2,000 cavalry 35,000 Casualties Unknown 1,000 Athenians killed, 254 Boeotians killed, 2,000 captured The Battle of Chaeronea (338 BC), fought near... Philip II of Macedon: victory medal (niketerion) struck in Tarsus, 2nd c. ... Alexander the Great (Greek: ,[1] Megas Alexandros; July 356 BC–June 11, 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, king of Macedon (336–323 BC), was one of the most successful military commanders in history. ... A city-state is a region controlled exclusively by a city. ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... The Cadmea, or Cadmeia, was the citadel of ancient Thebes, named after the legendary Phoenician founder of Thebes, Cadmus. ... Boeotia (Greek: Βοιωτία -Voiotía, also Viotia) is one of the prefectures of Greece. ... Greek National Road 1 is the longest highway in Greece. ...

Contents

History

Mythic record

The Stories of Thebes are mainly tragic tales of death, confusion, war, murder, complete frenzy, and other tragic endings. The record of the earliest days of Thebes was preserved among the Greeks in an abundant mass of legends which rival the myths of Troy in their wide ramification and the influence which they exerted upon the literature of the classical age. Five main cycles of story may be distinguished: Troy or Ilion, see Troy (disambiguation) and Ilion (disambiguation). ...

  1. The foundation of the citadel Cadmea by Cadmus, and the growth of the Spartoi or "Sown Men" (probably an aetiological myth designed to explain the origin of the Theban nobility which bore that name in historical times);
  2. The building of a "seven-gated" wall by Amphion, and the cognate stories of Zethus, Antiope and Dirce;
  3. The tale of the Laius, whose misdeeds culminated in the tragedy of Oedipus and the wars of the "Seven Against Thebes," the Epigoni, and the downfall of his house; Laius' pederastic rape of Chrysippus was held by some ancients to have been the first instance of homosexuality among mortals, and may have provided an etiology for the practice of pedagogic pederasty for which Thebes was famous. See Pederasty in ancient Greece#Thebes for a detailed discussion.
  4. The advent of Dionysus; and
  5. The exploits of Heracles.
For a discussion of the many mythical kings of Thebes and their individual feats, see Theban kings - Greek mythology.

Cadmus Sowing the Dragons teeth, by Maxfield Parrish, 1908 Caddmus, or Kadmos (Greek: Κάδμος), in Greek mythology, was the son of the king of Phoenicia (Modern day Lebanon) and brother of Europa. ... In Greek mythology, the Spartes (sown) were the men who grew from the sown teeth of a dragon. ... Etiology (alternately aetiology, aitiology) is the study of Greek words aitia = cause and logos = word/speech) is used in philosophy, physics and biology in reference to the causes of various phenomena. ... There are several characters named Amphion in Greek mythology: Amphion, son of Zeus and Antiope, and twin brother of Zethus (see Amphion and Zethus). ... Amphion (native of two lands) and Zethus, in ancient Greek mythology, were the twin sons of Zeus by Antiope. ... In Greek mythology, Antiope was the name of the daughter of the Boeotian river-god Asopus, according to Homer (Od. ... Dirce (double or cleft) was the wife of Lycus in Greek mythology, and sister in law to Antiope whom Zeus impregnated. ... Laius abducting Chrysippus, who is reaching out to Pelops, his father (detail). ... Oedipus with the Sphinx, from an Attic red-figure cylix from the Vatican Museum, ca. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Επτά επί Θήβας The Seven Against Thebes is a mythic narrative that finds its classic statement in the play by Aeschylus (467 BCE) concerning the battle between the Seven led by Polynices and the army of Thebes headed by Eteocles and his supporters, traditional Theban... This is an article about the Greek myth. ... Pederastic courtship scene Athenian black-figure amphora, 5th c. ... Laius abducting Chrysippus, who is reaching out to Pelops, his father (detail). ... Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ... Pederastic courtship scene Athenian black-figure amphora, 5th c. ... Dionysus with a leopard, satyr and grapes on a vine, in the Palazzo Altemps (Rome, Italy) Dionysus or Dionysos (from the Ancient Greek Διώνυσος or Διόνυσος, associated with the Italic Liber), the Thracian god of wine, represents not only the intoxicating power of wine, but also its social and beneficial influences. ... Hercules, a Roman bronze (Louvre Museum) For other uses, see Heracles (disambiguation). ... The dynastic history of Thebes in Greek mythology is crowded with a bewildering number of kings between the citys foundation (by Cadmus) and the Trojan War. ...

Early history

Partial map of Boeotia, Attica and the Peloponessus in Classical times, showing the position of Thebes.

It is difficult to extract any historical fact out of this maze of myths; the various groups cannot be fully co-ordinated, and a further perplexing feature is the neglect of Thebes in the Homeric poems. On the other hand, these myths cannot be entirely discarded, as shown by the recovery in the 1909 excavation of the "House of Cadmus", whom legend states was born in Tyre and taught letters to the Greeks, of a collection of Mesopotamian cylinder-seals, including one referring to a Kassite king who ruled between 1381 and 1354 BC. Image File history File links Greece,ancient. ... Image File history File links Greece,ancient. ... For the acronyms, see MAP and MAPS. A map is a symbolized depiction of a space which highlights relations between components (objects, regions, themes) of that space. ... Boeotia or Beotia (//, (Greek Βοιωτια; see also list of traditional Greek place names) was the central area of ancient Greece. ... Attica (in Greek: Αττική, Attike; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a periphery (subdivision) in Greece, containing Athens, the capital of Greece. ... Peloponnesos (Greek: Πελοπόννησος, sometime Latinized as Peloponnesus or Anglicized as The Peloponnese) is a large peninsula in Greece, forming the part of the country south of the Isthmus of Corinth. ... Homer (Greek: ) is the name given to the supposed unitary author of the early Greek poems the Iliad and the Odyssey. ... Year 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Triumphal Arch Tyre (Arabic , Phoenician , Hebrew Tzor, Tiberian Hebrew , Akkadian , Greek Týros) is a city in the South Governorate of Lebanon. ... // The Kassites were a Near-Eastern mountain tribe which migrated to the Zagros Mountains and Mesopotamia (present Doroud) in 3000 and 4000 BC.[1] They spoke a non-Indo-European, non-Semitic language. ...


Further archaeological excavations in and around Thebes have revealed cist graves dated to Mycenaean times containing weapons, ivory, and tablets written in Linear B. Its name in the local tablets, and in tablets found in Mycenae, was transliterated TE-QA-I (TH Ft 140.1) understood to be read as *Tʰēgʷai (Ancient Greek Θηβαι Thēbai), and TE-QA-DE (MY X 508; TH Wu 65.a) for *Tʰēgʷasde (Ancient Greek Θηβασδε Thēbasde). Mycenaean Greece, the last phase of the Bronze Age in ancient Greece, is the historical setting of the epics of Homer and much other Greek mythology. ... This article is about the ancient syllabary. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ...

Theban workshop (Oinochoe type), 7 BC.
Theban workshop (Oinochoe type), 7 BC.

It seems safe to infer that *Tʰēgʷai was one of the first Greek communities to be drawn together within a fortified city, and that it owed its importance in prehistoric days — as later — to its military strength. Deger-Jalkotzy claimed that the statue base from Kom el-Hetan in Amenhotep III's kingdom (LHIIIA:1) mentions a name similar to Thebes and considered to be one of four tj-n3-jj (Danaan?) kingdoms worthy of note (alongside Knossos and Mycenae). *Tʰēgʷai in LHIIIB lost contact with Egypt but gained it with "Milatos" (Hit. Milawata) and "Cyprus" (Hit. Alasiya). In the late LHIIIB, according to Palaima ("Sacrificial Feasting", Hesperia 73, 2004), *Tʰēgʷai was able to pull resources from Lamos near Mount Helicon, and from Karystos and Amarynthos on the Greek side of the isle of Euboia. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 330 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1100 × 2000 pixel, file size: 178 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Atelier graphique: Roby 10:22, 18 December 2005 (UTC) à partir de Image:Bell idol Louvre CA 573. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 330 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1100 × 2000 pixel, file size: 178 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Atelier graphique: Roby 10:22, 18 December 2005 (UTC) à partir de Image:Bell idol Louvre CA 573. ... Nebmaatre The Lord of Truth is Re[2] Nomen Amenhotep Hekawaset Amun is Satisfied, Ruler of Thebes[1] Horus name Kanakht Emkhaimaat The strong bull, appearing in truth Nebty name Semenhepusegerehtawy One establishing laws, pacifying the two lands Golden Horus Aakhepesh-husetiu Great of valour, smiting the Asiatics Consort(s...


As a fortified community, it attracted attention from the invading Dorians, and the fact of their eventual conquest of Thebes lie behind the stories of the successive legendary attacks on that city. [[Im Category: ...


The central position and military security of the city naturally tended to raise it to a commanding position among the Boeotians, and from early days its inhabitants endeavoured to establish a complete supremacy over their kinsmen in the outlying towns. This centralizing policy is as much the cardinal fact of Theban history as the counteracting effort of the smaller towns to resist absorption forms the main chapter of the story of Boeotia. No details of the earlier history of Thebes have been preserved, except that it was governed by a land-holding aristocracy who safeguarded their integrity by rigid statutes about the ownership of property and its transmission. Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The term aristocracy refers to a form of government where power is held by a small number of individuals from an elite or from noble families. ...


Archaic and classical periods

In the late 6th century BC, the Thebans were brought for the first time into hostile contact with the Athenians, who helped the small village of Plataea to maintain its independence against them, and in 506 BC repelled an inroad into Attica. The aversion to Athens best serves to explain the apparently unpatriotic attitude which Thebes displayed during the Persian invasion of Greece (480479 BC). Though a contingent of 700 was sent to Thermopylae and remained there with Leonidas until just before the last stand when they surrendered to the Persians[1], the governing aristocracy soon after joined King Xerxes I of Persia with great readiness and fought zealously on his behalf at the Battle of Plataea in 479 BC. The victorious Greeks subsequently punished Thebes by depriving it of the presidency of the Boeotian League and an attempt by the Spartans to expel it from the Delphic amphictyony was only frustrated by the intercession of Athens. (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 6th century BC started on January 1, 600 BC and ended on December 31, 501 BC. // Monument 1, an Olmec colossal head at La Venta The 5th and 6th centuries BC were a time of empires, but more importantly, a time... Athens (Ancient Greek: αἱ Ἀθῆναι (plural), evolving into the modern Αθήναι in Greek until recently, and Αθήνα nowadays (IPA ); singular: see Origin of the name below) is both the largest and the capital city of Greece, located in the Attica periphery. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC - 460s BC - 450s BC Events and Trends 509 BC - Foundation of the Roman Republic 508 BC - Office of pontifex maximus created... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ... The Persian invasion of Greece in 480-479 BC May — King Xerxes I of Persia marches from Sardis and onto Thrace and Macedonia. ... 479 pr. ... Combatants Greek city-states Achaemenid Persia Commanders Leonidas † Xerxes the Great Strength 300 Spartans 700 Thespians[1] 6,000 other Greek allies1 Estimates vary (See below) Casualties 298 Spartans 700 Thespians[1] 1,400 Greek allies 20,000 (Herodotus)[2] 1 Out of the initial 7,000-strong Greek army... Leonidas can refer to: Leonidas I, king of Sparta, ruled c. ... Xerxes the Great (Persian: خشایارشا, Khšāyāršā, Old Persian: XÅ¡ayāršā) was a Persian Emperor (Shahanshah) (reigned 485–465 BCE) of the Achaemenid Dynasty. ... Combatants Greek city-states Persia Commanders Pausanias Mardonius † Strength 100,000 (Pompeius) 110,000 (Herodotus) 70,000-120,000 [1][2][3] (Modern Consensus) Casualties 10,000+ (Ephorus and Diodorus) 1,360 (Plutarch) 159 (Herodotus) 43,000 survived (Herodotus) The Battle of Plataea was the final major battle of the... 479 pr. ... Boeotia (Greek Βοιωτια) was a central area of ancient Greece. ... The Amphictyonic League (Amphictyony) was a form of Greek Hellenic religious organization that was formed to support specific temple or sacred place. ...


In 457 BC Sparta, needing a counterpoise against Athens in central Greece, reversed her policy and reinstated Thebes as the dominant power in Boeotia. The great citadel of Cadmea served this purpose well by holding out as a base of resistance when the Athenians overran and occupied the rest of the country (457447 BC). In the Peloponnesian War the Thebans, embittered by the support which Athens gave to the smaller Boeotian towns, and especially to Plataea, which they vainly attempted to reduce in 431 BC, were firm allies of Sparta, which in turn helped them to besiege Plataea and allowed them to destroy the town after its capture in 427 BC. In 424 BC at the head of the Boeotian levy they inflicted a severe defeat upon an invading force of Athenians at the Battle of Delium, and for the first time displayed the effects of that firm military organization which eventually raised them to predominant power in Greece. Centuries: 4th century BC - 5th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 500s BC 490s BC 480s BC 470s BC 460s BC - 450s BC - 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC Years: 462 BC 461 BC 460 BC 459 BC 458 BC - 457 BC - 456 BC 455 BC... Centuries: 4th century BC - 5th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 500s BC 490s BC 480s BC 470s BC 460s BC - 450s BC - 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC Years: 462 BC 461 BC 460 BC 459 BC 458 BC - 457 BC - 456 BC 455 BC... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 490s BC 480s BC 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC - 440s BC - 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC Years: 452 BC 451 BC 450 BC 449 BC 448 BC - 447 BC - 446 BC 445 BC... For the earlier war beginning in 460 BC, see First Peloponnesian War. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 480s BC 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC - 430s BC - 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC Years: 436 BC 435 BC 434 BC 433 BC 432 BC - 431 BC - 430 BC 429 BC... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC - 420s BC - 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC Years: 432 BC 431 BC 430 BC 429 BC 428 BC - 427 BC - 426 BC 425 BC... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC - 420s BC - 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC Years: 429 BC 428 BC 427 BC 426 BC 425 BC - 424 BC - 423 BC 422 BC... The Battle of Delium took place in 424 BC between the Athenians and the Boeotians, and ended with the siege of Delium in the following weeks. ...


After the downfall of Athens at the end of the Peloponnesian War, the Thebans, having learned that Sparta intended to protect the states which they desired to annex, broke off the alliance. In 404 BC they had urged the complete destruction of Athens, yet in 403 BC they secretly supported the restoration of its democracy in order to find in it a counterpoise against Sparta. A few years later, influenced perhaps in part by Persian gold, they formed the nucleus of the league against Sparta. At the Battle of Haliartus (395 BC) and the Battle of Coronea (394 BC) they again proved their rising military capacity by standing their ground against the Spartans. The result of the war was especially disastrous to Thebes, as the general settlement of 387 BC stipulated the complete autonomy of all Greek towns and so withdrew the other Boeotians from its political control. Its power was further curtailed in 382 BC, when a Spartan force occupied the citadel by a treacherous coup-de-main. Three years later, the Spartan garrison was expelled and a democratic constitution was set up in place of the traditional oligarchy. In the consequent wars with Sparta, the Theban army, trained and led by Epaminondas and Pelopidas, proved itself the best in Greece (see also: Sacred Band of Thebes). Years of desultory fighting, in which Thebes established its control over all Boeotia, culminated in 371 BC in a remarkable victory over the pick of the Spartans at Leuctra. The winners were hailed throughout Greece as champions of the oppressed. They carried their arms into Peloponnesus and at the head of a large coalition, permanently crippled the power of Sparta, in part by freeing many helot slaves, the basis of the Spartan economy. Similar expeditions were sent to Thessaly and Macedon to regulate the affairs of those regions. Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC - 400s BC - 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC Years: 409 BC 408 BC 407 BC 406 BC 405 BC - 404 BC - 403 BC 402 BC... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC - 400s BC - 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC Years: 408 BC 407 BC 406 BC 405 BC 404 BC - 403 BC - 402 BC 401 BC... The Battle of Haliartus was fought in 395 BC between Sparta and Thebes. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC - 390s BC - 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC Years: 400 BC 399 BC 398 BC 397 BC 396 BC - 395 BC - 394 BC 393 BC... The Battle of Coronea can refer to: Battle of Coronea (447 BC) Battle of Coronea (394 BC) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC - 390s BC - 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC Years: 399 BC 398 BC 397 BC 396 BC 395 BC - 394 BC - 393 BC 392 BC... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC - 380s BC - 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC Years: 392 BC 391 BC 390 BC 389 BC 388 BC - 387 BC - 386 BC 385 BC... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC - 380s BC - 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC Years: 387 BC 386 BC 385 BC 384 BC 383 BC - 382 BC - 381 BC 380 BC... For information about the modern board game of the same name, see Epaminondas (game). ... Pelopidas (d. ... The Sacred Band of Thebes (ancient Greek: Ιερός Λόχος τών Θηβών; ἱερὸς λόχος hieròs lókhos) was a troop of picked soldiers, numbering 150 pederastic couples, which formed the elite force of the Theban army in late-classical Greece. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC - 370s BC - 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 376 BC 375 BC 374 BC 373 BC 372 BC - 371 BC - 370 BC 369 BC 368... Combatants Thebes Sparta Commanders Epaminondas Cleombrotus I † Strength 6,000–7,000 10,000–11,000 Casualties Unknown About 2,000 The Battle of Leuctra is a battle fought between the Thebans and the Spartans and their allies in the neighbourhood of Leuctra, a village in Boeotia in the territory... Peloponnesos (Greek: Πελοπόννησος, sometime Latinized as Peloponnesus or Anglicized as The Peloponnese) is a large peninsula in Greece, forming the part of the country south of the Isthmus of Corinth. ... Map showing Thessaly periphery in Greece Thessaly (Θεσσαλια; modern Greek Thessalía; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is one of the 13 peripheries of Greece, and is further sub-divided into 4 prefectures. ... Ancient Macedons regions and towns Macedon or Macedonia (Greek ; see also List of traditional Greek place names) was the name of an ancient kingdom in the northern-most part of ancient Greece, bordered by the kingdom of Epirus to the west and the region of Thrace to the east. ...


However, the predominance of Thebes was short-lived as the states which she protected refused to subject themselves permanently to her control. Due to their renewed rivalry with Athens, whom had joined with Thebes in 395 BC in fear of Sparta, but since 387 BC had endeavored to maintain the balance of power against her ally, prevented the formation of a Theban empire. With the death of Epaminondas at the Battle of Mantinea (362 BC) the city sank again to the position of a secondary power. In a war with the neighboring state of Phocis (356346 BC) it could not even maintain its predominance in central Greece, and by inviting Philip II of Macedon to crush the Phocians it extended that monarch's power within dangerous proximity to its frontiers. A revulsion of feeling was completed in 338 BC by the orator Demosthenes, who persuaded Thebes to join Athens in a final attempt to bar Philip's advance upon Attica. The Theban contingent lost the decisive battle of Chaeronea and along with it every hope of reassuming control over Greece. Philip was content to deprive Thebes of her dominion over Boeotia; but an unsuccessful revolt in 335 BC against his son Alexander was punished by Macedon and other Greek states by the destruction of the city, except, according to tradition, the house of the poet Pindar and the temples. Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC - 390s BC - 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC Years: 400 BC 399 BC 398 BC 397 BC 396 BC - 395 BC - 394 BC 393 BC... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC - 380s BC - 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC Years: 392 BC 391 BC 390 BC 389 BC 388 BC - 387 BC - 386 BC 385 BC... For information about the modern board game of the same name, see Epaminondas (game). ... Combatants Thebes, Arcadia and Boeotia League Sparta, Elis, and Mantinea league Commanders Epaminondas† Agesilaus II Strength Casualties {{{notes}}} The Battle of Mantinea was fought in 362 BC between the Thebans, led by Epaminondas and supported by the Arcadians and the Boeotians, and the Spartans, led by King Agesilaus II and... Phocis (Greek, Modern: Φωκίδα, Ancient/Katharevousa: -s, also Phokida, Phokis) is an ancient district of central Greece. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC - 350s BC - 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 361 BC 360 BC 359 BC 358 BC 357 BC 356 BC 355 BC 354 BC 353... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC - 340s BC - 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 351 BC 350 BC 349 BC 348 BC 347 BC 346 BC 345 BC 344 BC 343... Philip II of Macedon: victory medal (niketerion) struck in Tarsus, 2nd c. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC - 330s BC - 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 343 BC 342 BC 341 BC 340 BC 339 BC - 338 BC - 337 BC 336 BC 335... Demosthenes (384–322 BC, Greek: Δημοσθένης, DÄ“mosthénÄ“s) was a prominent Greek statesman and orator of ancient Athens. ... Two famous ancient battles were fought at Chaeronea in Boeotia: Battle of Chaeronea (338 BC) Battle of Chaeronea (86 BC) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC - 330s BC - 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC Years: 340 BC 339 BC 338 BC 337 BC 336 BC - 335 BC - 334 BC 333 BC... Alexander the Great (Greek: ,[1] Megas Alexandros; July 356 BC–June 11, 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, king of Macedon (336–323 BC), was one of the most successful military commanders in history. ... Pindar (or Pindarus) (probably born 522 BC in Cynoscephalae, a village in Boeotia; died 443 BC in Argos), was perhaps the greatest of the nine lyric poets of ancient Greece. ...


Hellenistic, and Roman periods

The city was refurbished in 315 BC by Cassander, but it never again played a prominent part in Greek politics. It suffered from the establishment of Chalcis as the chief fortress of central Greece, and was severely handled by the Roman conquerors Mummius and Sulla. Strabo describes it as a mere village, and in Pausanias's time (mid-1st century) its citadel alone was inhabited. Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC - 310s BC - 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 320 BC 319 BC 318 BC 317 BC 316 BC - 315 BC - 314 BC 313 BC 312...  Kingdom of Cassander Other diadochi  Kingdom of Seleucus  Kingdom of Lysimachus  Kingdom of Ptolemy  Epirus Other  Carthage  Rome  Greek colonies Cassander (in Greek, Κάσσανδρος — Kassandros, ca. ... Coordinates 38°28′ N 23°36′ E Country Greece Periphery Central Greece Prefecture Euboea Population 53,584 source (2001) Area 30. ... Lucius Mummius (2nd century BC), was a Roman statesman and general. ... Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (Latin: L·CORNELIVS·L·F·P·N·SVLLA·FELIX)[1] (ca. ... The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... Pausanias (Greek: ) was a Greek traveller and geographer of the 2nd century A.D., who lived in the times of Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius. ... The 1st century was that century which lasted from 1 to 100 according the Gregorian calendar. ...


Byzantine period

During the early Byzantine period it served as a place of refuge against foreign invaders. From the 10th century, Thebes became a centre of the new silk trade, its silk workshops boosted by imports of soaps and dyes from Athens. The growth of this trade in Thebes continued to such an extent that by the middle of the 12th century, the city had become the biggest producer of silks in the entire Byzantine empire, surpassing even the Byzantine capital, Constantinople. The women of Thebes were famed for their skills at weaving. Theban silk was prized above all others during this period, both for its quality and its excellent reputation. Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... Silk dresses Silk is a natural protein fiber, some forms of which can be woven into textiles. ... Map of Constantinople. ...


Though severely plundered by the Normans in 1146, Thebes quickly recovered its prosperity and continued to grow rapidly until the dissolution of the Byzantine empire by the Fourth Crusade in 1204. Norman conquests in red. ... Events Saint Bernard of Clairvaux preaches the Second Crusade at Vezelay, Burgundy First written mention of Bryansk. ... The Entry of the Crusaders into Constantinople (Eugène Delacroix, 1840). ...


Latin period

Thanks to its wealth the city was selected by the Frankish dynasty de la Roche as its capital. In 1311 it was used as a capital by the short-lived state of the Catalan Company. The Duchy of Athens was one of the Crusader States set up in Greece after the conquest of the Byzantine Empire during the Fourth Crusade. ... Events Bolingbroke Castle passes to the House of Lancaster. ... The Catalan Company,[1] short name for the Catalan Company of the East (Companyia Catalana dOrient in Catalan), was a free company of mercenaries founded by Roger de Flor in early 14th-century Europe. ...


In 1379, the Navarrese Company took the city with the aid of the archbishop Simon Atumano. The Navarrese Company was a company of mercenaries, mostly from Navarre and Gascony, which fought in Greece during the late fourteenth and early fifteenth centuries, in the twilight of Frankish power in the dwindling remnant of the Latin Empire. ... Simon Atumano was the Bishop of Gerace in Calabria from 23 June 1348 until 1366 and the Latin Archbishop of Thebes thereafter until 1380. ...


Portions of the historical section were taken from the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica. (Redirected from 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica) The Eleventh Edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica (1911) in many ways represents the sum of knowledge at the beginning of the 20th century. ...


See also

The Sacred Band of Thebes (ancient Greek: Ιερός Λόχος τών Θηβών; ἱερὸς λόχος hieròs lókhos) was a troop of picked soldiers, numbering 150 pederastic couples, which formed the elite force of the Theban army in late-classical Greece. ... This is a list of traditional Greek place names. ... Laius abducting Chrysippus, who is reaching out to Pelops, his father. ...

Bibliography

  • Herodotus "The Histories of Herodotus"
  • Angold, Michael - "The Byzantine Empire, 1025-1204"

This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Herodotus Bibliography VII:204 ,222,223.

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Kids.Net.Au - Encyclopedia > Thebes, Greece (0 words)
Thebes was a city in ancient Greece, situated to the north of the Cithaeron range, which divides Boeotia from Attica, and on the southern edge of the Boeotian plain.
History The record of the earliest days of Thebes was preserved among the Greeks in an abundant mass of legends which rival the myths of Troy in their wide ramification and the influence which they exerted upon the literature of the classical age.
Philip was content to deprive Thebes of her dominion over Boeotia; but an unsuccessful revolt in 335 against his son Alexander was punished by the complete destruction of the city, except, according to tradition, the house of the poet Pindar.
Thebes, Greece - LoveToKnow 1911 (0 words)
The record of the earliest days of Thebes was preserved among the Greeks in an abundant mass of legends which rival the myths of Troy in their wide ramification and the influence which they exerted upon the literature of the classical age.
The states which she protected were indisposed to commit themselves permanently to her tutelage, and the renewed rivalry of Athens, which had been linked with Thebes since 395 in a common fear of Sparta, but since 371 had endeavoured to maintain the balance of power against her ally, prevented the formation of a Theban empire.
The literary glory of Thebes is centred in the poet Pindar.
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