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Encyclopedia > Thebes, Egypt
Thebes

Location of Thebes Image File history File links Egypt_terrain_map_Cairo_Karnak. ...

Thebes (Θῆβαι, Thēbai) was a city in Ancient Egypt located about 800 km south of the Mediterranean, on the east bank of the river Nile (25.7° N 32.645° E). It was the capital of Waset, the fourth Upper Egyptian nome. (Waset was also a name for the city.) It was the capital of Egypt during part of the 11th Dynasty (Middle Kingdom) and most of the 18th Dynasty (New Kingdom), though the administration probably remained at Memphis for much of this. With the 19th Dynasty the seat of government moved to the Delta. The archaeological remains of Thebes offer a striking testimony to Egyptian civilization at its height. The Greek poet Homer extolled the wealth of Thebes in the Iliad, Book 9 (c. 7th Century BC): "... in Egyptian Thebes the heaps of precious ingots gleam, the hundred-gated Thebes." Image File history File links Point_rouge_croix_frontier_vert_green. ... The pyramids are the most recognizable symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt. ... For other uses, see Nile (disambiguation). ... Thebes [Θηβαι ThÄ“bai] is the Greek designation of ancient Egyptian niwt (The) City and niwt-rst (The) Southern City. It is located about 800 km south of the Mediterranean, on the east bank of the Nile (25. ... Map of Upper and Lower Egypt Ancient Egypt was divided into two kingdoms, known as Upper and Lower Egypt. ... The nomes of Ancient Egypt A nome (Greek: district) is a subnational administrative division of Ancient Egypt. ... Manethos statement that the Eleventh dynasty consisted of 16 kings who reigned 43 years is contradicted by contemporary inscriptions and the evidence of the Turin King List, whose combined testimony proves that it consisted of seven kings who ruled about 160 years. ... The Middle Kingdom is the period in the history of ancient Egypt stretching from the establishment of the Eleventh Dynasty to the end of the Fourteenth Dynasty, roughly between 2030 BC and 1640 BC. The period comprises two phases, the 11th Dynasty, which ruled from Thebes and the 12th Dynasty... The Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Dynasties of ancient Egypt are often combined under the group title, New Kingdom. ... The New Kingdom period of Egyptian history is the period between the 16th century BC and the 11th century BC, covering the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth dynasty of Egypt. ... For other uses, see Memphis. ... Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Nineteenth Dynasty. ... NASA satellite photograph of the Nile Delta (shown in false colour) The Nile Delta (Arabic:دلتا النيل) is the delta formed in Northern Egypt where the Nile River spreads out and drains into the Mediterranean Sea. ... This article is about the Greek poet Homer and the works attributed to him. ... title page of the Rihel edition of ca. ...


The name Thebai is the Greek designation of the ancient Egyptian niwt "(The) City" and niwt-rst "(The) Southern City". At the seat of the Theban triad of Amun, Mut, and Khonsu, Thebes was known in the Egyptian language from the end of the New Kingdom as niwt-imn, "The City of Amun." This found its way into the Hebrew Bible as נא אמון nōˀ ˀāmôn (Nahum 3:8),"no" in Hebrew meaning city with "no amon" or "City of Amon" referring to the Egyptian deity Amon-Re, most likely it is also the same as נא ("No") (Ezekiel 30:14). In Greek this name was rendered Διόσπολις Diospolis, "City of Zeus", as Zeus was the god whom the Greeks identified with Amun, see interpretatio graeca. The Greeks surnamed the city μεγάλη megale, "the Great", to differentiate it from numerous other cities called Diospolis. The Romans rendered the name Diospolis Magna. Egyptian mythology or Egyptian religion is the succession of tentative beliefs held by the people of Egypt for over three thousand years, prior to major exposure to Christianity and Islam. ... For other uses, see Amun (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Mut (disambiguation). ... In Egyptian mythology, Chons (alternately Khensu, Khons, Khonsu or Khonshu) is a lunar deity, and a son of Amun and Mut. ... Spoken in: Ancient Egypt Language extinction: evolved into Demotic by 600 BC, into Coptic by AD 200, and was extinct (not spoken as a day-to-day language) by the 17th century. ... The New Kingdom period of Egyptian history is the period between the 16th century BC and the 11th century BC, covering the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth dynasty of Egypt. ... For other uses, see Amun (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... The book of Nahum is a book in the Bibles Old Testament and Jewish Tanakh. ... Book Of Ezekiel is rapper Freekey Zekeys debut album and debut on Diplomat Records/Asylum. ... For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Amun (disambiguation). ... Interpretatio graeca is a Latin term for the common tendency of ancient Greek writers to equate foreign divinities to members of their own pantheon. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ...


In modern usage, the mortuary temples and tombs on the west bank of the river Nile are generally thought of as part of Thebes. Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut Mortuary temples (or memorial temples) were temples constructed adjacent to, or in the vicinity of, royal tombs in the Middle Kingdom and New Kingdom periods of Ancient Egypt. ... For the New York prison see The Tombs. ...


Two towns at or near two important temples on the outskirts of the city are now called Luxor (Arabic: الأقصر, Al-Uqṣur, "The palaces") and al-Karnak (الكرنك). Luxor on Nile, at Luxor Temple with mosque. ... This article is about the Karnak temple complex in Egypt. ...

Contents

Etymology

The name Thebes is often mistakenly thought to derive from the name of the Greek town called Thebes. Although the etymology is unclear, Thebes is likely a hellenization of ancient Egyptian t3 ipt-swt (lit. "The Most-Select of Places"), one of the names of the temple of Karnak, which is located in the city. Thebes is now known as the modern day city of Luxor Thebes (Demotic Greek: Θήβα — Thíva; Katharevousa: — Thêbai or Thívai) is a city in Greece, situated to the north of the Cithaeron range, which divides Boeotia from Attica, and on the southern edge of the Boeotian plain. ... This article is about the Karnak temple complex in Egypt. ... Luxor on Nile, at Luxor Temple with mosque. ...


Major Archaeological Sites

Map of the Theban Necropolis. Full screen
Map of the Theban Necropolis. Full screen

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1749x1232, 198 KB)Map of the Theban Necropolis Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1749x1232, 198 KB)Map of the Theban Necropolis Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ...

East Bank

This article is about the Karnak temple complex in Egypt. ... Luxor Temple, from the east bank of the Nile Luxor Temple is a large Ancient Egyptian temple complex located on the east bank of the River Nile in the city today known as Luxor (ancient Thebes). ...

West Bank

Location of the valley in the Theban Hills, West of the Nile, October 1988 (red arrow shows location) The Valley of the Kings (Arabic: وادي الملوك Wadi Biban el-Muluk; Gates of the King)[1] is a valley in Egypt where for a period of nearly 500 years from the 16th to... The Valley of the Queens, also known as Biban el-Harim (Arabic: ‎), Biban el-Sultanat (Arabic: ‎), and Wadi el-Melikat (Arabic: ‎), is a place in Egypt where wives of Pharaohs were buried in ancient times. ... Medinet Habu from the air Medinet-Habu is the mortuary temple of Ancient Egyptian Pharaoh Ramses III. It is located on the west bank of the River Nile at Thebes, Egypt, south of the morturary temple of Tutankhamun/Horemheb. ... Nomen: Ramesse Hekaiunu Ra bore him, Ruler of Heliopolis Consort(s) Iset Ta-Hemdjert, Tiye Children Ramesses IV, Ramesses VI, Ramesses VIII, Amun-her-khepeshef, Khaemwaset, Meryamun, Meryatum, Montuherkhopshef, Pentawere, Duatentopet (?) Father Setnakht Mother Tiy-Merenese Died 1155 BC Burial KV11 Monuments Medinet Habu Usimare Ramesses III (also written Ramses... Ramesseum from the air - showing pylons and secondary buildings The Ramesseum is the memorial temple (or mortuary temple) of Pharaoh Ramesses II (Ramesses the Great, also spelt Ramses and Rameses). It is located in the Theban necropolis in Upper Egypt, across the River Nile from the modern city of Luxor. ... Nomen: Ramesses meryamun Ramesses (Re has fashioned him), beloved of Amun. ... Deir al-Madinah is the Arabic name of an Ancient Egyptian village that was home to the artisans who built the temples and tombs ordered by the pharaohs and other dignitaries during the New Kingdom period (18th to 20th dynasties). ... Located in the Theban Necropolis, near Luxor, the Tombs of the Nobles are the burial places of some of the powerful courtiers and persons of the ancient city. ... Djeser-Djeseru – the focal point of the complex Deir el-Bahri (Arabic دير البحري dayr al-baḥrÄ«, literally meaning, “The Northern Monastery”) is a complex of mortuary temples and tombs located on the west bank of the Nile, opposite the city of Luxor, Egypt. ... nomen or birth name Nebhotepre Mentuhotep II (2046-1995 BCE) was a Pharaoh of the 11th dynasty, the son of Intef III of Egypt and a minor queen called Iah. ... Maatkare[1] Truth is the Ka of Re Nomen Khnumt-Amun Hatshepsut[1] Joined with Amun, Foremost of Noble Ladies Horus name Wesretkau [1] Mighty of Kas Nebty name Wadjrenput[1] Flourishing of years Golden Horus Netjeretkhau[1] Divine of appearance Consort(s) Thutmose II Issue Neferure Father Thutmose I... Malkata (or Malqata) is a place located on the west bank of Thebes, Egypt, in Egypt, in the desert south of Medinet Habu. ... Nebmaatre The Lord of Truth is Re[2] Nomen Amenhotep Hekawaset Amun is Satisfied, Ruler of Thebes[1] Horus name Kanakht Emkhaimaat The strong bull, appearing in truth Nebty name Semenhepusegerehtawy One establishing laws, pacifying the two lands Golden Horus Aakhepesh-husetiu Great of valour, smiting the Asiatics Consort(s... The Colossi of Memnon The Colossi of Memnon (known to locals as el-Colossat, or es-Salamat) are two massive stone statues of Pharaoh Amenhotep III. For the past 3400 years they have stood in the Theban necropolis, across the River Nile from the modern city of Luxor. ... Amenhotep IIIs mortuary temple from the air The Mortuary Temple of Amenhotep III is located in the Theban necropolis, on the west bank of the Nile, opposiet Luxor in Egypt. ... Nebmaatre The Lord of Truth is Re[2] Nomen Amenhotep Hekawaset Amun is Satisfied, Ruler of Thebes[1] Horus name Kanakht Emkhaimaat The strong bull, appearing in truth Nebty name Semenhepusegerehtawy One establishing laws, pacifying the two lands Golden Horus Aakhepesh-husetiu Great of valour, smiting the Asiatics Consort(s...

Sources

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Luxor
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Theban Necropolis
  • Gauthier, Henri. 1925–1931. Dictionnaire des noms géographiques contenus dans les textes hiéroglyphiques. Vol. 3 of 7 vols. Cairo: Imprimerie de l’Institut français d’archéologie orientale du Caire. (Reprinted Osnabrück: Otto Zeller Verlag, 1975). 75, 76.
  • Polz, Daniel C. 2001. "Thebes". In The Oxford Encyclopedia of ancient Egypt, edited by Donald Bruce Redford. Vol. 3 of 3 vols. Oxford, New York, and Cairo: Oxford University Press and The American University in Cairo Press. 384–388.
  • Redford, Donald Bruce. 1992. "Thebes". In The Anchor Bible Dictionary, edited by David Noel Freedman. Vol. 6 of 6 vols. New York: Doubleday. 442–443. ISBN 0-385-42583-X (6-volume set)
  • Strudwick, Nigel C., & Strudwick, Helen, Thebes in Egypt: A Guide to the Tombs and Temples of Ancient Luxor. London: British Museum Press, 1999, ISBN 0-8014-3693-1 (hardcover)/ISBN 0-8014-8616-5 (paperback)

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...

External links

Preceded by
Herakleopolis
Capital of Egypt
2060 BC - 1785 BC
Succeeded by
Avaris
Preceded by
Avaris
Capital of Egypt
1580 BC - c. 1353 BC
Succeeded by
Akhetaten
Preceded by
Akhetaten
Capital of Egypt
c. 1332 BC - 1085 BC
Succeeded by
Tanis

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