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Encyclopedia > The Wizard of Oz (1939 film)
The Wizard of Oz

Theatrical release poster
Directed by Victor Fleming
Mervyn LeRoy (uncredited)
Richard Thorpe (uncredited)
King Vidor (uncredited)
Produced by Mervyn LeRoy
Arthur Freed
Written by L. Frank Baum
Noel Langley
Starring Judy Garland
Ray Bolger
Jack Haley
Bert Lahr
Billie Burke
Margaret Hamilton
Frank Morgan
Music by Herbert Stothart
Cinematography Harold Rosson
Distributed by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
Release date(s) Flag of the United States August 25, 1939
Running time Theatrical cut
101 min.
Preview cut
112 min.
Country USA
Language English
Budget $2,777,000 ($41,200,000 in 2007$)
Gross revenue $16,538,431
Followed by Return to Oz
Allmovie profile
IMDb profile

The Wizard of Oz is a 1939 American musical-fantasy film mainly directed by Victor Fleming and based on the 1900 children’s novel The Wonderful Wizard of Oz by L. Frank Baum.[1] The film features Judy Garland as Dorothy Gale, Ray Bolger as the Scarecrow, Jack Haley as the Tin Man, Bert Lahr as the Cowardly Lion, Billie Burke as Glinda the Good Witch of the North, Margaret Hamilton as the Wicked Witch of the West, and Frank Morgan as the Wizard. The Wonderful Wizard of Oz is a childrens novel written by L. Frank Baum and illustrated by W.W. Denslow. ... The Wonderful Wizard of Oz is a 1900 novel by L. Frank Baum, which has been adapted into several different works, the most famous being the 1939 film The Wizard of Oz, starring Judy Garland. ... The Wizard of Oz may refer to: The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, a 1900 book by L. Frank Baum Political interpretations of The Wonderful Wizard of Oz The Wizard of Oz (1939 film), most notable adaptation See The Wizard of Oz (adaptations) for all other adaptations Wizard of Oz, the... Image File history File links Wizard_oz_movieposter. ... Victor Fleming (February 23, 1883 - January 6, 1949) (sometimes Vic Fleming) was an American film director. ... Mervyn LeRoy (October 15, 1900 - September 13, 1987) was an American film director, producer and sometime actor. ... Richard Thorpe (February 24, 1896 - May 1, 1991) was an American film director. ... King Vidor King Wallis Vidor (February 8, 1894 – November 1, 1982) was an American film director. ... Mervyn LeRoy (October 15, 1900 - September 13, 1987) was an American film director, producer and sometime actor. ... Arthur Freed (September 9, 1894 - April 12, 1973) was born Arthur Grossman in Down Ton Ton Village. ... Lyman Frank Baum (May 15, 1856 – May 6, 1919) was an American author, actor, and independent filmmaker best known as the creator, along with illustrator W. W. Denslow, of one of the most popular books in American childrens literature, The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, better known today as simply... Noel Langley (December 25, 1911 – November 4, 1980) was a successful novelist, playwright, screenwriter and director. ... Judy Garland (born Frances Ethel Gumm; June 10, 1922 - June 22, 1969) was an Academy Award-nominated American film actress and singer, best known for her role as Dorothy Gale in The Wizard of Oz (1939). ... Ray Bolger (January 10, 1904 – January 15, 1987) was an American entertainer of stage and screen, best known for his portrayal of the Scarecrow (and the farmworker Hunk) who was Dorothys favorite in the 1939 film classic, The Wizard of Oz. ... Jack Haley August 10, 1898-June 6, 1979, was an American film actor best known for his portrayal of The Tin Man (and farmworker Hickory) in The Wizard of Oz, which role he got only because actor Buddy Ebsen had a near-fatal reaction from ingesting the aluminum dust makeup... Bert Lahr as the Cowardly Lion. ... Mary William Ethelbert Appleton Billie Burke (August 7, 1884 – May 14, 1970) was an Oscar-nominated American actress primarily known to modern audiences for her role as Glinda the Good Witch of the North in the musical The Wizard of Oz. ... Margaret Hamilton could also refer to a local politician in the United Kingdom. ... Frank Morgan as The Wizard of Oz. ... Herbert Stothart (11 September 1885 - 1 February 1949) was a composer, born of Scottish and Bavarian descent in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. ... Harold G. Hal Rosson (August 24, 1895 – September 6, 1988) was an American Cinematographer during the early and classical Hollywood cinema. ... For alternate meanings of MGM, see MGM (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The year 1939 in film involved some significant events. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... For other uses, including the 1964 film of the same name, see Return to Oz (disambiguation). ... The year 1939 in film involved some significant events. ... The musical film is a film genre in which several songs sung by the characters are interwoven into the narrative. ... Fantasy films are films with fantastic themes, usually involving magic, supernatural events, make-believe creatures, or exotic fantasy worlds. ... Victor Fleming (February 23, 1883 - January 6, 1949) (sometimes Vic Fleming) was an American film director. ... Childrens books redirects here. ... For other uses, see Novel (disambiguation). ... The Wonderful Wizard of Oz is a childrens novel written by L. Frank Baum and illustrated by W.W. Denslow. ... Lyman Frank Baum (May 15, 1856 – May 6, 1919) was an American author, actor, and independent filmmaker best known as the creator, along with illustrator W. W. Denslow, of one of the most popular books in American childrens literature, The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, better known today as simply... Judy Garland (born Frances Ethel Gumm; June 10, 1922 - June 22, 1969) was an Academy Award-nominated American film actress and singer, best known for her role as Dorothy Gale in The Wizard of Oz (1939). ... For the Doctor Who character, see Ace (Doctor Who). ... Ray Bolger (January 10, 1904 – January 15, 1987) was an American entertainer of stage and screen, best known for his portrayal of the Scarecrow (and the farmworker Hunk) who was Dorothys favorite in the 1939 film classic, The Wizard of Oz. ... The Scarecrow is a character in the fictional Land of Oz created by American author L. Frank Baum and illustrator William Wallace Denslow. ... Jack Haley August 10, 1898-June 6, 1979, was an American film actor best known for his portrayal of The Tin Man (and farmworker Hickory) in The Wizard of Oz, which role he got only because actor Buddy Ebsen had a near-fatal reaction from ingesting the aluminum dust makeup... The Tin Woodman (also known as The Tin Man or The Tin Woodsman (the latter appearing only in adaptations)) is a character in the fictional Land of Oz created by American author L. Frank Baum. ... Bert Lahr as the Cowardly Lion. ... Cover of The Cowardly Lion of Oz (1929) by Ruth Plumly Thompson. ... Mary William Ethelbert Appleton Billie Burke (August 7, 1884 – May 14, 1970) was an Oscar-nominated American actress primarily known to modern audiences for her role as Glinda the Good Witch of the North in the musical The Wizard of Oz. ... Glinda depicted on the cover of Glinda of Oz Glinda (or Glinda the Good Witch) is a fictional character in the Land of Oz created by American author L. Frank Baum. ... Margaret Hamilton could also refer to a local politician in the United Kingdom. ... The Wicked Witch, as portrayed by Margaret Hamilton in the 1939 film The Wizard of Oz The Wicked Witch of the West (or simply The Wicked Witch) is a character in the fictional Land of Oz created by American author L. Frank Baum in his childrens books. ... Frank Morgan as The Wizard of Oz. ... The Wizard, on the cover of Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz The Wizard of Oz (or simply The Wizard) is a fictional character in the Land of Oz created by American author L. Frank Baum and further popularized by the classic 1939 movie. ...


The film, set in what is most likely late nineteenth-century Kansas, follows schoolgirl Dorothy Gale who lives on a farm with her Aunt Em and Uncle Henry, but dreams of a better place "somewhere over the rainbow." After being struck unconscious during a tornado, by a piece of broken window, Dorothy dreams that she, her dog Toto, and the farmhouse are transported to the magical Land of Oz. There, the Good Witch of the North advises Dorothy to follow the yellow brick road to Emerald City and meet the Wizard of Oz, who can return her to Kansas. During her journey, she meets a Scarecrow, Tin Man and a Cowardly Lion, who join her, hoping to receive what they lack themselves (a brain, a heart, and courage, respectively), all of this is done while also trying to avoid the many plots of the Wicked Witch of the West, in her attempt to get the ruby slippers that Dorothy received from the squashed Wicked Witch of the East. This article is about the U.S. state. ... Oz is a fairy country (fantasy region) containing four lands under the rule of one monarch. ... The road of yellow brick is an element in the novel The Wonderful Wizard of Oz by L. Frank Baum. ... For other uses, see Emerald City (disambiguation). ... See: The Wonderful Wizard of Oz by L. Frank Baum The Wizard of Oz (1939 movie) starring Judy Garland The Wizard of Oz (stage) Stage versions starting in 1903 The Wizard of Oz (animated series) The Wizard of Oz (game) The Wizard of Oz (movie) Various film versions See also... Scarecrows in a rice paddy in Japan For other uses, see Scarecrow (disambiguation). ... Tin Man may refer to: In television: Tin Man (Stargate SG-1), an episode of the science fiction television series Stargate SG-1 Tin Man (TNG episode), an episode from the third season of Star Trek: The Next Generation Tin Man (miniseries), a modern re-imagining of The Wonderful Wizard... Cover of The Cowardly Lion of Oz (1929) by Ruth Plumly Thompson. ... The Wicked Witch of the East is a character in the fictional Land of Oz created by American author L. Frank Baum in his classic books. ...


Initially, The Wizard of Oz was not considered a commercial success in relation to what was then considered its enormous budget, although it made a small profit and received largely favorable reviews. What impact it had upon release was reportedly responsible for the release of two other fantasy films in Technicolor the following year - The Blue Bird and The Thief of Bagdad. The songs from The Wizard of Oz became widely popular, with "Over the Rainbow" receiving the Oscar for Best Song of the Year, and the film itself garnering several Oscar nominations, including Best Picture. The Blue Bird is a 1940 film starring Shirley Temple. ... This is about the 1940 film starring Sabu. ... For other uses, see Over the Rainbow (disambiguation). ... Although he never won an Oscar for any of his movie performances, the comedian Bob Hope received two honorary Oscars for his contributions to cinema. ... The Academy Award for Best Original Song is one of the awards given annually to people working in the motion picture industry by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS). ... ©A.M.P.A.S.® The Academy Award for Best Motion Picture is one of the Awards of Merit presented annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS) to artists working in the motion picture industry. ...


The film received much more attention after frequent television screenings and has since become one of the most beloved films of all time. It is often ranked among the top ten best movies of all-time in various critics' and popular polls, and has provided many indelible quotes to the American cultural consciousness. Its signature song, "Over the Rainbow," sung by Judy Garland, has been voted the greatest movie song of all time by the American Film Institute.[2] While there is no agreement upon the greatest film of all time, many publications and organizations have tried to determine the films considered the greatest ever. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Contents

Plot

Orphan Dorothy Gale (Judy Garland) lives a simple life in Kansas with Aunt Em (Clara Blandick), Uncle Henry (Charley Grapewin) and three colorful farm hands, simple-minded Hunk (Ray Bolger), blustery-but-timid Zeke (Bert Lahr), and would-be engineer Hickory (Jack Haley). One day, stern neighbor Miss Almira Gulch (Margaret Hamilton) is bitten by Dorothy's dog, Toto. Dorothy senses that Miss Gulch will try to do something dreadful, but her aunt and uncle, as well as the farmhands, are too busy with their work to listen. Dorothy yearns for a better place in the song "Over the Rainbow". Miss Gulch shows up with a court order and takes Toto away to be destroyed. Toto escapes and returns to Dorothy, who is momentarily elated, but then realizes that Miss Gulch will soon return to retrieve Toto. Fearing for his life, Dorothy decides to take Toto and run away. On their journey, Dorothy encounters Professor Marvel (Frank Morgan), a fraudulent but kindhearted fortune teller who, out of concern for Dorothy, tricks her into believing Aunt Em is ill so Dorothy will return home. Dorothy rushes back to the farm just ahead of a sudden huge "twister" (tornado). She tries to get into the storm cellar under the house, but it is locked and nobody inside can hear her pleas for help over the noise. She takes shelter inside the house and is knocked unconscious by a falling shutter. For the Doctor Who character, see Ace (Doctor Who). ... Judy Garland (born Frances Ethel Gumm; June 10, 1922 - June 22, 1969) was an Academy Award-nominated American film actress and singer, best known for her role as Dorothy Gale in The Wizard of Oz (1939). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Clara Blandick (born June 4, 1881 in Hong Kong; died April 15, 1962 in Hollywood, California) was a twentieth century American actress best known for her portrayal of Auntie Em in the 1939 film The Wizard of Oz. ... From newspaper promotional for vaudeville character actor Charles E. Grapewin Charles E. Grapewin (December 20, 1869, Xenia, Ohio – February 2, 1956, Corona, California) was an American vaudeville performer, and a stage and film actor. ... Ray Bolger (January 10, 1904 – January 15, 1987) was an American entertainer of stage and screen, best known for his portrayal of the Scarecrow (and the farmworker Hunk) who was Dorothys favorite in the 1939 film classic, The Wizard of Oz. ... Bert Lahr as the Cowardly Lion. ... Jack Haley August 10, 1898-June 6, 1979, was an American film actor best known for his portrayal of The Tin Man (and farmworker Hickory) in The Wizard of Oz, which role he got only because actor Buddy Ebsen had a near-fatal reaction from ingesting the aluminum dust makeup... Margaret Hamilton could also refer to a local politician in the United Kingdom. ... Terry, the Cairn Terrier who played Toto in the film Toto is the name of a fictional dog in L. Frank Baums Oz series of childrens books, and works derived from them. ... Frank Morgan as The Wizard of Oz. ... This article is about the weather phenomenon. ... Categories: Stub ...


A confused Dorothy awakens what seems like a few minutes later to discover the house has been caught up in the twister. Through the bedroom window, she sees a parade of people fly by, including Miss Gulch, who seemingly transforms into a frightening witch. Moments later, the twister drops the house, Dorothy and Toto back onto solid ground. Opening the door and stepping into full three-strip Technicolor, Dorothy finds herself in a village and parkland of unearthly beauty. Glinda, the Good Witch of the North (Billie Burke), arrives magically. She informs Dorothy that she is in Munchkinland and that she has killed the ruby-slippered Wicked Witch of the East by "dropping a house" on her. Logo celebrating Technicolors 90th Anniversary Technicolor is the trademark for a series of color film processes pioneered by Technicolor Motion Picture Corporation (a subsidiary of Technicolor, Inc. ... Glinda depicted on the cover of Glinda of Oz Glinda (or Glinda the Good Witch) is a fictional character in the Land of Oz created by American author L. Frank Baum. ... The Good Witch of the North is a fictional character in the Land of Oz, created by American author L. Frank Baum. ... Mary William Ethelbert Appleton Billie Burke (August 7, 1884 – May 14, 1970) was an Oscar-nominated American actress primarily known to modern audiences for her role as Glinda the Good Witch of the North in the musical The Wizard of Oz. ... Munchkin Country (or Munchkinland in the 1939 film and its imitators) is a region in the fictional Land of Oz in L. Frank Baums Oz books, first described in The Wonderful Wizard of Oz. ... The original ruby slippers used in The Wizard of Oz; now on display at the Smithsonian. ... The Wicked Witch of the East is a character in the fictional Land of Oz created by American author L. Frank Baum in his classic books. ...

Margaret Hamilton as the Wicked Witch of the West.

Encouraged by Glinda, the timid Munchkins come out of hiding to celebrate the demise of the witch, while singing "Ding Dong The Witch Is Dead" and proclaiming Dorothy as their national heroine. The witch's sister, the Wicked Witch of the West (also played by Margaret Hamilton), makes a startling appearance in a blaze of fire and smoke to claim the powerful ruby slippers. Glinda magically transfers the slippers from the dead witch onto Dorothy's feet and reminds the witch of the west that her power is ineffectual in Munchkinland. The witch vows revenge on Dorothy before leaving the same way she arrived. Glinda advises Dorothy, who is anxious to return home, to seek the help of the mysterious Wizard of Oz in the Emerald City in her quest to return home to Kansas; Glinda explains that she can find Emerald City by following the yellow brick road. She also advises Dorothy that she must never remove the slippers or she will be at the mercy of the Wicked Witch of the West. After a farewell kiss, Glinda too disappears, leaving Dorothy and Toto to find their own way to Emerald City. Image File history File links MargaretHamiltoninTheWizardOfOz. ... Image File history File links MargaretHamiltoninTheWizardOfOz. ... Margaret Hamilton could also refer to a local politician in the United Kingdom. ... Alternate meanings: see Munchkin (disambiguation) The word munchkin was first coined by L. Frank Baum in his 1900 novel The Wonderful Wizard of Oz. ... Ding Dong The Witch Is Dead is the centerpiece of several individual songs in an extended set-piece performed by the Munchkins, Glinda (Billie Burke) and Dorothy Gale (Judy Garland) in the 1939 film The Wizard of Oz. ... The Wicked Witch, as portrayed by Margaret Hamilton in the 1939 film The Wizard of Oz The Wicked Witch of the West (or simply The Wicked Witch) is a character in the fictional Land of Oz created by American author L. Frank Baum in his childrens books. ... For other uses, see Emerald City (disambiguation). ... The road of yellow brick is an element in the novel The Wonderful Wizard of Oz by L. Frank Baum. ...


On her way Dorothy befriends a Scarecrow with no brain (also played by Ray Bolger), a Tin Man with no heart (also played by Jack Haley), and a Cowardly Lion (also played by Bert Lahr). The three decide to accompany Dorothy to the Wizard in hopes of obtaining their desires. Along the way the group confronts a forest of angry apple trees, a poisonous field of poppies, and a warning from the witch to the others that they are not to help Dorothy in her quest for the Wizard. Undaunted by the witch's threats, the gang reaches Emerald City. They are greeted kindly, but the Wicked Witch appears on a broomstick over the city, while skywriting the message "Surrender Dorothy." The group talks to the Wizard of Oz - a disembodied and imposing head with a booming voice - who says that he will consider granting their wishes if they can bring him the broomstick of the Wicked Witch. The Scarecrow is a character in the fictional Land of Oz created by American author L. Frank Baum and illustrator William Wallace Denslow. ... The Tin Woodman (also known as The Tin Man or The Tin Woodsman (the latter appearing only in adaptations)) is a character in the fictional Land of Oz created by American author L. Frank Baum. ... Cover of The Cowardly Lion of Oz (1929) by Ruth Plumly Thompson. ... For other uses, see Emerald City (disambiguation). ... This article is considered orphaned, since there are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... A broom is a cleaning tool consisting of stiff fibres attached to, and roughly parallel to, a cylindrical handle, the broomstick. ...


On their way to the witch's castle, they are attacked by flying monkeys, who carry Dorothy and Toto away and deliver her to the witch, who then demands that Dorothy hand over the ruby slippers. After the witch threatens to kill Toto, Dorothy agrees to give her the shoes; but their removal is prevented by a shower of sparks. The witch says that the shoes cannot be removed unless Dorothy first dies. While the witch is distracted, Toto takes the opportunity to escape. The witch then locks Dorothy in the chamber and leaves to consider how to kill Dorothy without damaging the shoes' magic. Toto finds Dorothy's friends and leads them to the castle. Once inside they free Dorothy and attempt an escape. The witch and her Winkie soldiers corner the group on a parapet, where the witch sets the Scarecrow on fire. To douse the flames, Dorothy throws water on them, while accidentally splashing water on the horrified witch, causing her to melt. To the group's surprise, the soldiers are delighted. Their captain (played by silent film actor Mitchell Lewis, who played the Sheik in the silent Ben-Hur) gives Dorothy the broomstick to thank her. Upon their return to Emerald City, Toto inadvertently exposes the great and powerful wizard as a fraud; they find an ordinary man hiding behind a curtain operating a bunch of buttons and levers. They are outraged at the deception, but the wizard solves their problems through common sense and a little double talk, rather than magic, by suggesting that they already had what they had been searching for all along. The monkeys caught Dorothy in their arms and flew away with her: illustration by W. W. Denslow in L. Frank Baum, The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, 1900 Winged monkeys (often referred to in adaptations and popular culture as flying monkeys) are characters from The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, of enough... The Winkie Country is a division of the fictional Land of Oz. ... Mitchell Lewis (26 June 1880 – 24 August 1956), was an American film actor. ... Ben-Hur is the second silent film, and first feature-length version, based on the novel Ben-Hur by Lew Wallace. ...


The wizard explains that he too was born in Kansas and his presence in Oz was the result of an escaped hot air balloon. He promises to take Dorothy home in the same balloon after leaving the Scarecrow, Tin Woodman and Lion in charge of Emerald City. Just before takeoff, Toto jumps out of the balloon's basket; Dorothy jumps out to catch him and the wizard, unable to control the balloon, leaves without her. She is resigned to spend the rest of her life in Oz until Glinda appears and tells her that she has always had the power to return home. Glinda explains that she did not tell Dorothy at first because she needed to find something out for herself. When asked what she has learned, Dorothy replies: "The next time I go looking for my heart's desire, I won't look any further than my own backyard; if it's not there, then I never really lost it to begin with." Dorothy says goodbye to the friends she has met in Oz, and then follows Glinda's instructions to "tap your heels together while repeating the words, 'There's no place like home'." Back in sepia tone she awakens in her bedroom in Kansas surrounded by family and friends and tells them of her journey. Everyone laughs and tells her it was all a dream, except Uncle Henry, who says seriously "Of course we believe you, Dorothy." Toto appears and jumps onto the bed with Dorothy. A happy Dorothy, still convinced the journey was real, hugs Toto and says, "There's no place like home." This article is about hot air balloons themselves. ... Sepia tone is a type of digital photo in which the picture appears similar to a traditional black-and-white print toned with sepia. ...


Differences from the original novel

For the most part, the movie only follows the novel in a very general way: Many details are omitted or altered, while many of the perils which Dorothy encountered in the novel are not even mentioned in the movie. Due to time restraints a number of sub-plots from the book, including the China Country and the Hammerheads, were cut. Nevertheless, the film was far more faithful to Baum's original book than many earlier scripts (see below). The movie also interprets the Oz experience as a dream, in which many of the characters that Dorothy meets represent the people from her home life. In the book, her adventures in Oz are unambiguously meant to be real. Difference between the book The Wonderful Wizard of Oz and the 1939 film version The Wizard of Oz are numerous, but largely minor. ...


Cast

Judy Garland (born Frances Ethel Gumm; June 10, 1922 - June 22, 1969) was an Academy Award-nominated American film actress and singer, best known for her role as Dorothy Gale in The Wizard of Oz (1939). ... For the Doctor Who character, see Ace (Doctor Who). ... Ray Bolger (January 10, 1904 – January 15, 1987) was an American entertainer of stage and screen, best known for his portrayal of the Scarecrow (and the farmworker Hunk) who was Dorothys favorite in the 1939 film classic, The Wizard of Oz. ... The Scarecrow is a character in the fictional Land of Oz created by American author L. Frank Baum and illustrator William Wallace Denslow. ... Jack Haley August 10, 1898-June 6, 1979, was an American film actor best known for his portrayal of The Tin Man (and farmworker Hickory) in The Wizard of Oz, which role he got only because actor Buddy Ebsen had a near-fatal reaction from ingesting the aluminum dust makeup... The Tin Woodman (also known as The Tin Man or The Tin Woodsman (the latter appearing only in adaptations)) is a character in the fictional Land of Oz created by American author L. Frank Baum. ... Bert Lahr as the Cowardly Lion. ... Cover of The Cowardly Lion of Oz (1929) by Ruth Plumly Thompson. ... Mary William Ethelbert Appleton Billie Burke (August 7, 1884 – May 14, 1970) was an Oscar-nominated American actress primarily known to modern audiences for her role as Glinda the Good Witch of the North in the musical The Wizard of Oz. ... Glinda depicted on the cover of Glinda of Oz Glinda (or Glinda the Good Witch) is a fictional character in the Land of Oz created by American author L. Frank Baum. ... Margaret Hamilton could also refer to a local politician in the United Kingdom. ... The Wicked Witch, as portrayed by Margaret Hamilton in the 1939 film The Wizard of Oz The Wicked Witch of the West (or simply The Wicked Witch) is a character in the fictional Land of Oz created by American author L. Frank Baum in his childrens books. ... The Wicked Witch of the East is a character in the fictional Land of Oz created by American author L. Frank Baum in his classic books. ... Frank Morgan as The Wizard of Oz. ... The Wizard, on the cover of Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz The Wizard of Oz (or simply The Wizard) is a fictional character in the Land of Oz created by American author L. Frank Baum and further popularized by the classic 1939 movie. ... From newspaper promotional for vaudeville character actor Charles E. Grapewin Charles E. Grapewin (December 20, 1869, Xenia, Ohio – February 2, 1956, Corona, California) was an American vaudeville performer, and a stage and film actor. ... Clara Blandick (born June 4, 1881 in Hong Kong; died April 15, 1962 in Hollywood, California) was a twentieth century American actress best known for her portrayal of Auntie Em in the 1939 film The Wizard of Oz. ... // Toto can have several meanings: Toto (cat), a cheetah cub seen in episodes of Big Cat Week on BBC. Toto (gorilla), a gorilla taken from the wild in the 1930s and eventually sold to the Ringling Brothers and Barnum and Bailey Circus TOTO (company), a Japanese manufacturer of bathroom...

Production

Development and pre-production

In January 1938, MGM bought the rights to the hugely popular novel from Samuel Goldwyn. The film's script was adapted by Noel Langley, Florence Ryerson, and Edgar Allan Woolf. Several people assisted with the adaptation without official credit: Irving Brecher, William H. Cannon, Herbert Fields, Arthur Freed, Jack Haley, E.Y. Harburg, Samuel Hoffenstein, Bert Lahr, John Lee Mahin, Herman J. Mankiewicz, Jack Mintz, Ogden Nash, Sid Silvers, Richard Thorpe, George Cukor and King Vidor. MGM logo Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer or MGM, is a large media company, involved primarily in the production and distribution of cinema and television programs. ... The Wonderful Wizard of Oz is a childrens novel written by L. Frank Baum and illustrated by W.W. Denslow. ... Samuel Goldwyn (July 1882 (some sources say 17 August 1882, others 1879 [1]) – 31 January 1974) was an Academy Award and Golden Globe Award-winning producer, also a well-known Hollywood motion picture producer and founding contributor of several motion picture studios. ... Noel Langley (December 25, 1911 – November 4, 1980) was a successful novelist, playwright, screenwriter and director. ... Irving Brecher (born 17 January 1914) enjoyed early success as a screenwriter for the Marx Brothers; he helped write At the Circus in 1939 and Go West in 1940. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Arthur Freed (September 9, 1894 - April 12, 1973) was born Arthur Grossman in Down Ton Ton Village. ... E. Y. Yip Harburg (April 8, 1896 - March 5, 1981) was a lyricist who worked with many well-known composers. ... Samuel Hoffenstein (October 9, 1890 - October 6, 1947) was a screenwriter and a musical composer. ... John Lee Mahin, (August 23, 1902 - April 18, 1984) was a prolific screenwriter and producer. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Frederic Ogden Nash (August 19, 1902 – May 19, 1971) was an American poet best known for writing pithy and funny light verse. ... Richard Thorpe (February 24, 1896 - May 1, 1991) was an American film director. ... George Dewey Cukor (July 7, 1899 – January 24, 1983) was an American film director. ... King Vidor King Wallis Vidor (February 8, 1894 – November 1, 1982) was an American film director. ...


The script went through a number of revisions before the final shooting. The original producers thought that a 1939 audience was too sophisticated to accept Oz as a straight-ahead fantasy; therefore, it was reconceived as a lengthy, elaborate dream. Because of a perceived need to attract a youthful audience through appealing to modern fads and styles, the script originally featured a scene with a series of musical contests. A spoiled, selfish princess in Oz had outlawed all forms of music except classical and operetta, and went up against Dorothy in a singing contest in which Dorothy's swing style enchanted listeners and won the grand prize. This part was initially written for Betty Jaynes.[3] The plan was later dropped. Operetta is a genre of light opera, light in terms both of music and subject matter. ...


Another scene, which was removed before final script approval and never filmed, was a concluding scene back in Kansas after Dorothy's return. Hunk (the Kansan counterpart to the Scarecrow) is leaving for agricultural college, and extracts a promise from Dorothy to write to him. The implication of the scene is that romance will eventually develop between the two, which also may have been intended as an explanation for Dorothy's partiality for the Scarecrow over her other two companions.[4]


The final draft of the script was completed on October 8, 1938 (following numerous rewrites).[5] is the 281st day of the year (282nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


A persistent rumor suggests that negotiations took place early in pre-production for Shirley Temple to play the part of Dorothy, on loan out from Twentieth Century Fox, who in turn promised to loan Clark Gable and Jean Harlow to MGM. The tale is almost certainly untrue, as Harlow died in 1937, before MGM had even purchased the rights to the story. Despite this, the story appears in many film biographies (including Temple's own autobiography). For the cocktail named after this person, see Shirley Temple cocktail. ... Related articles FOX Television Network Fox Searchlight Pictures Fox Entertainment Group List of Hollywood movie studios List of movies Variant of current 20th Century Fox logo External links 20th Century Fox Movies official site Twentieth Century Fox is also the punning title of a song by The Doors on their... William Clark Gable (February 1, 1901 – November 16, 1960) was an Academy Award-winning American film actor. ... Jean Harlow (March 3, 1911 – June 7, 1937) was an American film actress and sex symbol of the 1930s. ...


Another common myth is that a munchkin can be seen hanging himself in a scene of the movie. No evidence has ever been found to substantiate this, and what can be seen is most probably a crane used to populate the set background.[6] Genera Grus Anthropoides Balearica Bugeranus Cranes are large, long-legged and long-necked birds of the order Gruiformes, and family Gruidae. ...


Casting

Buddy Ebsen was originally cast as the Tin Man. Ebsen fell ill due to contaminates in the makeup he wore for the role, and was therefore replaced by Jack Haley two weeks into shooting.
Buddy Ebsen was originally cast as the Tin Man. Ebsen fell ill due to contaminates in the makeup he wore for the role, and was therefore replaced by Jack Haley two weeks into shooting.

Casting The Wizard of Oz was problematic, with actors shifting roles repeatedly at the beginning of filming. One of the primary changes was in the role of the Tin Man. The Tin Man was originally to have been portrayed by Ray Bolger, and Buddy Ebsen (later famous for his role as Jed Clampett on the 1960s TV show The Beverly Hillbillies) was to play the Scarecrow.[5] Bolger, unhappy with being assigned the role of the Tin Man, convinced producer Mervyn LeRoy to recast him in the role of the Scarecrow. Ebsen did not object to the change; he recorded all of his songs, went through all the rehearsals as the Tin Man and started filming with the rest of the cast.[7] However, nine days after filming began, Ebsen suffered a reaction to the aluminum powder makeup he wore as the Tin Man; the powder had coated his lungs from his breathing it in as it was applied daily. By that point in critical condition, Ebsen had to be hospitalized and left the project. MGM did not publicize the reasons for Ebsen's departure and even his replacement, Jack Haley, did not initially know the reason. Image File history File links Buddy_Ebsen_Tin_Man. ... Image File history File links Buddy_Ebsen_Tin_Man. ... Buddy Ebsen (April 2, 1908 – July 6, 2003) was an American actor and dancer, who is best-remembered for his role as Jed Clampett in the popular television series The Beverly Hillbillies. ... Jack Haley August 10, 1898-June 6, 1979, was an American film actor best known for his portrayal of The Tin Man (and farmworker Hickory) in The Wizard of Oz, which role he got only because actor Buddy Ebsen had a near-fatal reaction from ingesting the aluminum dust makeup... Ray Bolger (January 10, 1904 – January 15, 1987) was an American entertainer of stage and screen, best known for his portrayal of the Scarecrow (and the farmworker Hunk) who was Dorothys favorite in the 1939 film classic, The Wizard of Oz. ... Buddy Ebsen (April 2, 1908 – July 6, 2003) was an American actor and dancer, who is best-remembered for his role as Jed Clampett in the popular television series The Beverly Hillbillies. ... For the 1993 film, see The Beverly Hillbillies (film) The Beverly Hillbillies was an American television program about a hillbilly family transplanted in Southern California. ... Mervyn LeRoy (October 15, 1900 - September 13, 1987) was an American film director, producer and sometime actor. ... Jack Haley August 10, 1898-June 6, 1979, was an American film actor best known for his portrayal of The Tin Man (and farmworker Hickory) in The Wizard of Oz, which role he got only because actor Buddy Ebsen had a near-fatal reaction from ingesting the aluminum dust makeup...


The makeup used for Jack Haley was quietly changed to an aluminum paste makeup; although it did not have the same dire effect on Haley, he did at one point suffer from an unpleasant reaction to it. Despite his near-death experience with the makeup, Ebsen outlived all the principal players, although his film career was damaged by the incident. His career did not fully recover until the 1950s, when he began a string of popular film and TV series appearances that would continue into the 1980s. Although his lungs had presumably recovered from the effects of the powder makeup, he eventually died from complications from pneumonia on July 6, 2003 at the age of ninety-five.[8] is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The book The World of Entertainment (1975) by Hugh Fordin, created with the full cooperation of uncredited associate producer Arthur Freed before his death, is said to suggest that Victor Fleming fired the actor when he took over as director. In a later interview (included on the 2005 DVD release of Wizard of Oz), Ebsen recalled that the studio heads initially did not believe he was ill. No footage of Ebsen as the Tin Man has ever been released — only photographs taken during filming and test photos of different makeup styles remain. Arthur Freed (September 9, 1894 - April 12, 1973) was born Arthur Grossman in Down Ton Ton Village. ...


Gale Sondergaard was originally cast as the Wicked Witch. She became unhappy with the role when the witch's persona shifted from sly and glamorous (thought to emulate the wicked queen in Disney's Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs) into the familiar "ugly hag." She turned down the role and was replaced on October 10, 1938 by Margaret Hamilton. Sondergaard said in an interview for a bonus feature on the DVD that she had no regrets about turning down the part. Hamilton was severely burned in the Munchkinland scene when she was to disappear in a puff of fiery smoke. When she returned from the hospital, Hamilton refused to do the scene where she flies a broomstick billowing smoke, so the directors chose to have a stand-in perform the scene instead. The stand-in was also severely injured doing the scene after a malfunction occurred during filming. Margaret Hamilton plays a remarkably similar role in the Judy Garland film Babes in Arms released that same year. She is a busybody social worker who wants to remove Judy Garland's character from the custody of her parents, much as Almira Gulch wants to remove Toto from the Gale family. Gale Sondergaard (February 15, 1899–August 14, 1985) was an Academy Award-winning U.S. film actress. ... The Wicked Witch, as portrayed by Margaret Hamilton in the 1939 film The Wizard of Oz The Wicked Witch of the West (or simply The Wicked Witch) is a character in the fictional Land of Oz created by American author L. Frank Baum in his childrens books. ... Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs is a 1937 animated feature, the first produced by Walt Disney. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Margaret Hamilton could also refer to a local politician in the United Kingdom. ...


On July 25, 1938, Bert Lahr was signed and cast as the Cowardly Lion. Frank Morgan was cast as the Wizard on September 22, 1938. On August 12, 1938, Charley Grapewin was cast as Uncle Henry. is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Bert Lahr as the Cowardly Lion. ... Frank Morgan as The Wizard of Oz. ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... From newspaper promotional for vaudeville character actor Charles E. Grapewin Charles E. Grapewin (December 20, 1869, Xenia, Ohio – February 2, 1956, Corona, California) was an American vaudeville performer, and a stage and film actor. ...


Filming

Filming commenced on October 12, 1938 on the MGM Studios lot in Culver City, California, with Richard Thorpe directing. After an unknown number of scenes were shot, Thorpe was fired and George Cukor temporarily took over. Initially, the studio made Garland wear a blond wig and heavy, "baby-doll" makeup, and she played Dorothy in an exaggerated fashion. Cukor changed Judy Garland and Margaret Hamilton's makeup and costumes and told Garland to "be herself." This meant that all scenes Garland and Hamilton had already completed were discarded and refilmed. Cukor didn't actually shoot any scenes for the film, and because of his prior commitment to direct Gone with the Wind, left on November 3, 1938, at which time Victor Fleming assumed the directorial responsibility. is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For alternate meanings of MGM, see MGM (disambiguation). ... Motto: The Heart of Screenland Location of Culver City in Los Angeles County, California Coordinates: , Country State County Los Angeles Incorporated (city) 1917-09-07 [2] Government  - City Manager Jerry Fulwood [1] Area  - City  5. ... Richard Thorpe (February 24, 1896 - May 1, 1991) was an American film director. ... George Dewey Cukor (July 7, 1899 – January 24, 1983) was an American film director. ... For the novel, see Gone with the Wind. ... is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Victor Fleming (February 23, 1883 - January 6, 1949) (sometimes Vic Fleming) was an American film director. ...


Ironically, on February 12, 1939, Fleming replaced Cukor in directing Gone with the Wind. The next day, King Vidor would be assigned as director to finish the filming of The Wizard of Oz (mainly the sepia Kansas sequences, including Judy Garland's singing of "Over the Rainbow"). In later years, when the film became firmly established as a classic, King Vidor chose not to take public credit for his contribution until after the death of his friend Fleming. is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the novel, see Gone with the Wind. ... King Vidor King Wallis Vidor (February 8, 1894 – November 1, 1982) was an American film director. ... Look up sepia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Over the Rainbow (disambiguation). ...


Filming concluded on March 16, 1939; with subsequent test screenings on June 5, 1939.[9] is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Release

The Wizard of Oz premiered at the Strand Theatre in Oconomowoc, Wisconsin on August 12, 1939 and Grauman's Chinese Theater in Hollywood on August 15, 1939. The New York City premiere at Loew's Capitol Theater on August 17, 1939 was followed by a live performance with Judy Garland and her frequent film co-star Mickey Rooney. They would continue to perform there after each screening for a week, extended in Rooney's case for a second week and in Garland's to three. The movie opened nationally on August 25, 1939. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Judy Garland (born Frances Ethel Gumm; June 10, 1922 - June 22, 1969) was an Academy Award-nominated American film actress and singer, best known for her role as Dorothy Gale in The Wizard of Oz (1939). ... For the Doctor Who character, see Ace (Doctor Who). ... Oconomowoc is a city in Waukesha County, Wisconsin, United States. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... ... This article is about the day of the year. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Actor Mickey Rooney speaks at the Pentagon in 2000 during a ceremony honoring the USO. Mickey Rooney (born Joseph Yule, Jr. ... is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The film grossed approximately $3 million against production/distribution costs of $2.8 million in its initial release. It did not show what MGM considered a large profit until a 1949 re-release earned an additional $1.5 million.


Beginning with the 1949 re-issue, and continuing until the film's 50th Anniversary videocassette release in 1989, the Kansas sequences were printed and shown in ordinary black-and-white, not sepia, and so TV viewers saw them in black-and-white for more than thirty years. However, with the film's fiftieth anniversary restoration, the sepia tone was brought back to the Kansas scenes, and beginning in 1990, the film was shown on television as originally released in 1939.


The film was again re-released in 1955 in a widescreen 1.85:1 aspect ratio version, with portions of the top and the bottom of the film removed to produce the effect. The re-release trailer falsely claimed "every scene" from Baum's novel was in the film, including "the rescue of Dorothy", though there is no such incident in the novel. The Wikipedia main page as viewed with a widescreen monitor. ... The aspect ratio of a two-dimensional shape is the ratio of its longer dimension to its shorter dimension. ...

The film was first shown on television November 3, 1956 on CBS, as the last installment of the Ford Star Jubilee. It was shown in color (posters still exist advertising the broadcast, and they specifically say in color and black-and-white), but because most television sets then were not color sets, few members of the TV audience saw it that way. An estimated 45 million people watched the broadcast. However, it was not rerun until three years later. On December 13, 1959 the film was shown (again on CBS) as a two-hour Christmas season special, and at an earlier time, to an even larger audience. (Commercial breaks were much shorter then, enabling the film to run in a two-hour time slot without being cut.) Encouraged by the response, CBS decided to make it an annual tradition, showing it every December from 1959 through 1962. The film was not shown in December of 1963 as might have been expected, perhaps due to the proximity of the John F. Kennedy assassination November 22, 1963. Others say that there was no room on the schedule, due to the fact that by then there were other Christmas specials on television, though not nearly as many as in later years. The enormous popularity of the 1939 MGM film The Wizard of Oz is primarily due today to the large number of times it has been shown on television, although it was a famous film even before then. ... is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A car from 1956 Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the broadcast network. ... Ford Star Jubilee was a live, ninety minute, color spectacular that aired once a month on Saturday nights on CBS from September 1955 to November 1956. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... In American television, a Christmas television special is typically a one-time, half-hour program aired during the Christmas season. ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ...


Still, the film was shown very early in 1964, and the showings were therefore still only roughly a year apart. The January 1964 broadcast marked the end of the Christmas season showings, but The Wizard of Oz was nevertheless still televised only once a year for more than two decades. In the late 1960s, the film was bought for annual TV showings by NBC, but by 1976, it had reverted to CBS. It is now shown several times a year, on the Turner Classic Movies cable channel, Turner Network Television, and the TBS Superstation, often several times during the same week "in rotation" on these three channels.[10] This article is about the television network. ... Turner Classic Movies (TCM) is a cable television channel featuring commercial-free classic movies, mostly from the Turner Entertainment and Warner Bros. ... Turner Network Television, usually referred to as TNT, is an American cable TV network created by media mogul Ted Turner and currently owned by the Turner Broadcasting System division of Time Warner. ... TBS Superstation is a popular American cable TV network that shows sports and variety programming. ...


The Wizard of Oz became the first videocassette released by MGM/CBS Home Video in 1980; all current home video releases are by Warner Home Video (via current rights holder Turner Entertainment). The first laserdisc release of The Wizard of Oz was in 1989, with a second in 1993, and a final laserdisc release on September 11, 1996. The first DVD release of the film was on March 26, 1997, and contained no special features or supplements. It was re-released for its 60th Anniversary on October 19, 1999, with its soundtrack presented in a new 5.1 surround sound mix. The DVD also contained an extensive behind-the-scenes documentary: The Wonderful Wizard of Oz: The Making of a Movie Classic, produced in 1990 and hosted by Angela Lansbury. Despite being a one-disc release, outtakes, the deleted "Jitterbug" musical number, clips of pre-1939 Oz adaptations, trailers, newsreels and a portrait gallery were also included, as well as two radio programs of the era publicizing the film. In 2005, two new DVD editions were released, both featuring a newly restored version of the film with audio commentary and an isolated music and effects track. One of the two DVD releases was a 2-disc "deluxe edition", featuring production documentaries, trailers, various outtakes, newsreels, radio shows, and still galleries. The other set, a 3-disc edition, included these features as well as complete copies of the 1925 silent film version of The Wizard of Oz and a 1933 animated short version. Warner has also stated that The Wizard of Oz will be released on BluRay Disc in 2009 for the 70th anniversary of the Motion Picture. MGM/CBS Home Video was the joint venture between Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer and CBS Video Enterprises. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Turner Entertainment Company was established August 4, 1986 to oversee Turner Broadcastings film library after its acquisition of MGM/UA. In addition to the studio, Turner got its library, which included all of MGMs films, Warner Bros. ... Not to be confused with disk laser, a type of solid-state laser in a flat configuration. ... is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... DVD (also known as Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc - see Etymology) is a popular optical disc storage media format. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... Multichannel audio is the name for a variety of techniques for expanding and enriching the sound of audio playback by recording additional sound channels that can be reproduced on additional speakers. ... Angela Brigid Lansbury, CBE (born October 16, 1925) is an English three-time Academy Award-nominated, Emmy-nominated, four-time Tony-winning and six-time Golden Globe-winning actress and singer best known for her work in film, her award-winning tenures on Broadway in such musicals as Mame, Gypsy...


In 1999, the film had a theatrical re-release in Australia, in honor of the 60th Anniversary. The film was also scheduled for theatrical re-release in the United Kingdom on December 15, 2006. is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Worldwide release dates

Lobby card for the 1955 re-release of The Wizard of Oz.
Lobby card for the 1955 re-release of The Wizard of Oz.
Country Date
Brazil September 18, 1939
Argentina November 15, 1939
Sweden January 2, 1940
Denmark March 26, 1940
Australia April 18, 1940
Finland November 21, 1943
Spain March 19, 1945
France June 26, 1946
Belgium, Netherlands August 8, 1946
Hong Kong February 6, 1947
Italy December 5, 1947
Austria October 6, 1950
West Germany April 19, 1951
El Salvador July 27, 1956
Philippines January 15, 1953
Japan December 22, 1954
Nicaragua February 25, 1960
Nigeria December 18, 1967
Kuwait September 12, 1983

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 279th day of the year (280th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A car from 1956 Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1954 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Jimi Hendrix song, see 1983. ...

Reception

Regarding the original Baum storybook, it has been said: "The Wonderful Wizard of Oz is America's greatest and best-loved home grown fairytale. The first totally American fantasy for children, it is one of the most-read children's books . . . and despite its many particularly American attributes, including a wizard from Omaha, The Wonderful Wizard of Oz has universal appeal."[11] The film itself is widely considered to be one of the most well known, beloved films of all time, and was one of the earliest films to be deemed "culturally significant" by the United States Library of Congress and selected for preservation in the National Film Registry. In June 2007, the film was listed on UNESCO's Memory of the World Register.[12] Construction of the Thomas Jefferson Building, from July 8, 1888 to May 15, 1894. ... The National Film Registry is the registry of films selected by the United States National Film Preservation Board for preservation in the Library of Congress. ... Map showing the distribution of documentary heritages by State Parties as of 2005. ...


The film has gained many listings from the American Film Institute (AFI). In 1997, the AFI ranked The Wizard of Oz sixth on its "100 Greatest Movies" list; in its Tenth Anniversary Edition, it was rated tenth. Two songs from the film are on AFI's 100 years, 100 songs list ("Over the Rainbow" at #1 and "Ding, Dong, the Witch is Dead" #82). In 2006, this film ranked #3 on their list of best musicals. In 1999, Entertainment Weekly released a guide celebrating the greatest films ever made, with The Wizard of Oz listed in the top 10. In addition, a 2005 poll by the AFI ranked Dorothy's line "Toto, I've a feeling we're not in Kansas anymore" as the fourth most memorable line in cinema history.[13][14] It was also placed at number 86 on Bravo's 100 Scariest Movie Moments.[15] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The first of the AFI 100 Years. ... Part of the AFI 100 Years. ... Entertainment Weekly (sometimes abbreviated EW) is a magazine published by Time Inc. ... This article is about the U.S. cable network. ...


In 1977, Aljean Harmetz wrote The Making of The Wizard of Oz, a detailed description of the creation of the film based on interviews and research; it was updated in 1989. ISBN 0-7868-8352-9 Aljean Harmetz is a Hollywood journalist and film historian. ... The Making of the Wizard Of Oz is a book published in November 1977 written by film historian Aljean Harmetz. ...


All of the film's stars except Frank Morgan lived long enough to see and enjoy at least some of the film's legendary reputation after it came to television. The last of the major players to die was Ray Bolger, in 1987. The day after his death, a prominent editorial cartoonist referenced the cultural impact of this film, portraying the Scarecrow running along the Yellow Brick Road to catch up with the other characters, as they all danced off into the sunset. Neither director Victor Fleming, nor music arranger Herbert Stothart, screenwriter Edgar Allan Woolf, or actor Charley Grapewin (who played Dorothy's Uncle Henry) lived to see the film become an icon of cinema and a television tradition. By a curious coincidence, Fleming, Stothart, and Morgan all died in the same year - 1949. Costume designer Adrian died in September 1959, only three months before the highly successful second telecast of the film, the one that would persuade CBS to make it an annual tradition. The film's principal art director Cedric Gibbons passed away in the spring of 1960, after the 1959 telecast, but months before its next TV showing. From newspaper promotional for vaudeville character actor Charles E. Grapewin Charles E. Grapewin (December 20, 1869, Xenia, Ohio – February 2, 1956, Corona, California) was an American vaudeville performer, and a stage and film actor. ... Norma Shearer in an Adrian gown. ... Cedric Gibbons in Dublin, Ireland, (23 March 1893 - 26 July 1960 was the art director at MGM studios. ...


Awards and honors

According to The Observer, the film has the greatest soundtrack of all time.[16] The film was nominated for several Academy Awards upon its release, including Best Picture and Academy Award for Visual Effects. It lost the award in the Best Picture category to Gone with the Wind (another MGM release), but won in the category of Best Song (Over The Rainbow) and Academy Award for Best Original Score. Although the Best Song award went to E.Y. Harburg and Harold Arlen, the Best Original Score Award went to, not the songwriters, but Herbert Stothart, who composed the background score. Judy Garland received a special Academy Juvenile Award that year, for "Best Performances by a Juvenile" (this meant that the award was also for her role in the film version of Babes in Arms). The Wizard of Oz did not receive an Oscar for its now-famous special effects - that award went to the 1939 film version of The Rains Came, for its monsoon sequence. Additional nominations were for Cedric Gibbons and William A. Horning for Art Direction and to Hal Rosson for Cinematography (color). Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Although he never won an Oscar for any of his movie performances, the comedian Bob Hope received two honorary Oscars for his contributions to cinema. ... The Academy Award for Best Picture is one of the awards given to people working in the motion picture industry by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences; the awards are voted on by other people within the industry. ... The Academy Award for Visual Effects is an Oscar given to one film each year that shows highest achievement in visual effects. ... For the novel, see Gone with the Wind. ... The Song of the Year is one of the two most prestigious awards in the Grammies, if not in all of the music industry. ... From Rule Sixteen of the Special Rules for The Music Awards Original Score: An original score is a substantial body of music in the form of dramatic underscoring written specifically for the film by the submitting composer. ... This award is officially called the Honorary Juvenile Award. ... The Rains Came is the title of novel by Louis Bromfield, published in 1937, as well as the 1939 20th Century Fox film version which followed it. ... For other uses, see Monsoon (disambiguation). ...


In current reviews, The Wizard of Oz is still praised by critics. On the film's Rotten Tomatoes listing, 100% of critics give the film positive reviews, based on 60 reviews.[17] This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


In June 2008, AFI revealed its "Ten top Ten"—the best ten films in ten "classic" American film genres—after polling over 1,500 people from the creative community. The Wizard of Oz was acknowledged as the best film in the fantasy genre.[18][19]


Music

The Wizard of Oz is widely noted for its musical selections and soundtrack. Music and lyrics were by Harold Arlen and E.Y. "Yip" Harburg, who won the Academy Awards for Best Music, Song for "Over the Rainbow". In addition, Herbert Stothart, who composed the instrumental underscore, won the Academy Award for Best Original Score. Publicity still showing music for The Wizard of Oz being recorded. ... Harold Arlen (February 15, 1905 – April 23, 1986) was an American composer of popular music. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Academy Award The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, are the most prominent and most watched film awards ceremony in the world. ... The Academy Award for Best Song is one of the awards given to people working in the motion picture industry by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences; nominations are made by Academy members who are songwriters and composers. ... For other uses, see Over the Rainbow (disambiguation). ... Herbert Stothart (11 September 1885 - 1 February 1949) was a composer, born of Scottish and Bavarian descent in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. ... From Rule Sixteen of the Special Rules for The Music Awards Original Score: An original score is a substantial body of music in the form of dramatic underscoring written specifically for the film by the submitting composer. ...


The song "The Jitterbug", written in a swing style, was intended for the sequence in which the four are journeying to the castle of the Wicked Witch of the West. Due to time constraints, the song was cut from the final theatrical version. The film footage for the song has been lost, although silent home film footage of rehearsals for the number has survived. The sound recording for the song, however, has survived, and it is included in the 2-CD Rhino Record deluxe edition of the film soundtrack, as well as on the VHS and DVD editions of the film. A reference to "The Jitterbug" remains in the film; the Witch remarks to her flying monkeys that they should have no trouble apprehending Dorothy and her friends because "I sent a little insect ahead to take the fight out of them." The Wicked Witch, as portrayed by Margaret Hamilton in the 1939 film The Wizard of Oz The Wicked Witch of the West (or simply The Wicked Witch) is a character in the fictional Land of Oz created by American author L. Frank Baum in his childrens books. ...


The songs were recorded in a studio before filming. Several of the recordings were completed while Buddy Ebsen was still with the cast. Therefore, while Ebsen had to be dropped from the cast due to illness from the aluminum powder makeup, his singing voice remained in the soundtrack. In the group vocals of "We're off to See the Wizard," his voice is easy to detect. Jack Haley spoke with a distinct Boston accent and thus did not pronounce the r in wizard. By contrast, Ebsen was a Midwesterner, like Judy Garland, and thus pronounced it. Of course, Haley re-recorded Ebsen's solo parts at a later date. In film formats, the soundtrack is the physical area of the film which records the synchronized sound. ... The Wizard of Oz Charmed, see Were Off to See the Wizard (Charmed episode). ... The Midwest is a common name for a region of the United States of America. ...


The Dark Side of the Rainbow is the term sometimes given to the act of watching the The Wizard of Oz to the Pink Floyd album The Dark Side of the Moon. Many claim an apparent sychronicity between the motion picture and the Pink Floyd album.[20] Dark Side of the Rainbow logo from The Synchronicity Arkive Dark Side of the Rainbow (also known as Dark Side of Oz or The Wizard of Floyd) is the name used to refer to the act of listening to the 1973 Pink Floyd album The Dark Side of the Moon... Pink Floyd are an English rock band that initially earned recognition for their psychedelic or space rock music, and, as they evolved, for their progressive rock music. ... This article is about the album by Pink Floyd. ...


The film also inspired the album and song, Living In Oz by Rick Springfield. Rick Springfield (born Richard Lewis Springthorpe on August 23, 1949 in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia) is a songwriter, musician and actor. ...


During the live segment's of Prince's seminal 1987 concert film Sign 'O' The Times, he encourages the crowd to call and respond with the "ooh-wee-ooh... oh-oh" marching song that the Wicked Witch of the West's Winkie army uses. The term prince, from the Latin root princeps, is used for a member of the highest ranks of the aristocracy or the nobility. ... // May 9 - Actor Tom Cruise marries actress Mimi Rogers. ... i went a free film from you to wacth ... Released in 1987, this double album is considered by many to be Princes finest moment. ...


In popular culture

The film was an influence for Sara Evans' "Born to Fly" video in 2000. The video won the Country Music Association's Video of the Year the following year. Sara Lynn Evans (born February 5, 1971) is an American country music singer. ... The Country Music Association (CMA) was founded in 1958 in Nashville, Tennessee. ...


The American Thrash Metal band Metallica used in the intro of their song The Frayed Ends of Sanity from the album ...And Justice for All the "ooh-wee-ooh... oh-oh" marching song that the Wicked Witch of the West's Winkie army uses. Thrash metal is a subgenre of heavy metal music, one of the extreme metal subgenres that is characterised by high speed riffing and aggression. ... Metallica is a Grammy Award-winning American heavy metal/thrash metal band formed in 1981[1] and has become one of the most commercially successful musical acts of recent decades. ... ...And Justice for All is the last line of the Pledge of Allegiance of the United States. ... The Wicked Witch, as portrayed by Margaret Hamilton in the 1939 film The Wizard of Oz The Wicked Witch of the West (or simply The Wicked Witch) is a character in the fictional Land of Oz created by American author L. Frank Baum in his childrens books. ...


References

  1. ^ Fricke, John (1989). The Wizard of Oz. New York: Warner Books. ISBN 0446514462. 
  2. ^ Smithsonian Institute (2006). Treasures of American History (in English). National Museum of American History - Smithsonian Institute. Retrieved on September 10, 2007.
  3. ^ Fordin, Hugh (1976). World of Entertainment. City: Avon Books (Mm). ISBN 9780380007547. 
  4. ^ "Hollywood Reporter, Oct. 20, 2005".
  5. ^ a b Warner Bros. Wizard of Oz Timeline (in English). Warnerbros.com. Retrieved on September 10, 2007.
  6. ^ http://www.snopes.com/movies/films/ozsuicide.asp Hanging Munchkin
  7. ^ Fricke, John, and Jay Scarfone and William Stillman. The Wizard of Oz: The Official 50th Anniversary Pictorial History, Warner Books, 1989
  8. ^ newsfromme.com (2003). Oz Stuff (in English). povonline. Retrieved on September 10, 2007.
  9. ^ Jim's "Wizard of Oz" Website Directory. "The Wizard of Oz"... A Movie Timeline (in English). geocities.com. Retrieved on September 10, 2007.
  10. ^ The Wizard of Oz (1939) - TV schedule
  11. ^ The Wizard of Oz: An American Fairy Tale.
  12. ^ UNESCO chooses The Wizard of Oz as USA's Memory of the World. UNESCO. Retrieved on 2008-03-21.
  13. ^ Reuters (2005). 'Frankly, my dear...' named number one movie quote (in English). ABC News. Retrieved on September 10, 2007.
  14. ^ American Film Institute (2006). AFI's 100 Years... 100 Movie Quotes (in English). American Film Institute. Retrieved on September 10, 2007.
  15. ^ Bravotv.com. The 100 Scariest Movie Moments (in English). Bravotv.com. Retrieved on September 10, 2007.
  16. ^ The Observer Music Monthly (2007). The 50 Greatest Film Soundtracks (in English). Guardian Unlimited. Retrieved on September 10, 2007.
  17. ^ The Wizard of Oz garners full approval at Rotten Tomatoes. Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved on 2008-03-21.
  18. ^ American Film Institute. "AFI Crowns Top 10 Films in 10 Classic Genres", ComingSoon.net, 2008-06-17. Retrieved on 2008-06-18. 
  19. ^ Top 10 Fantasy. American Film Institute. Retrieved on 2008-06-18.
  20. ^ RB SAVAGE's Home Page.

2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

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Billy Roses Jumbo (1962) is a musical film, produced by MGM and starring Jimmy Durante, Doris Day, Martha Raye, and Stephen Boyd. ... No, No, Nanette is an English musical comedy with lyrics by Irving Caesar and Otto Harbach, music by Vincent Youmans, and a book by Otto Harbach and Frank Mandel. ...

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