FACTOID # 19: Cheap sloppy joes: Looking for reduced-price lunches for schoolchildren? Head for Oklahoma!
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > The War of the Worlds (radio)

The War of the Worlds was an episode of the American radio drama anthology series Mercury Theatre on the Air. It was performed as a Halloween special on October 30, 1938 and aired over the CBS Radio network. Directed by Orson Welles, the episode was an adaptation of H. G. Wells' classic novel The War of the Worlds. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Alien tripod illustration from the 1906 French edition of H.G. Wells The War of the Worlds. ... Radio drama is a form of audio storytelling broadcast on radio. ... The Mercury Theatre was a theatre company founded in New York City by Orson Welles and John Houseman. ... This article is about the holiday. ... is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The year 1938 in radio involved some significant events. ... CBS Radio Inc. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Herbert George Wells (September 21, 1866 – August 13, 1946), better known as H. G. Wells, was an English writer best known for such science fiction novels as The Time Machine, The War of the Worlds, The Invisible Man, The First Men in the Moon and The Island of Doctor Moreau. ... The War of the Worlds (1898), by H. G. Wells, is an early science fiction novel which describes an invasion of England by aliens from Mars. ...


The first half of the 60-minute broadcast was presented as a series of news bulletins, which suggested to many listeners that an actual Martian invasion was in progress. Some fled their homes; others merely were terrified. The news-bulletin format was decried as cruelly deceptive by some newspapers and public figures, leading to an outcry against the perpetrators of the broadcast, but the episode launched Welles to fame. This article is about hypothetical native inhabitants of the planet Mars. ... The alien invasion is a common theme in science fiction stories and film, in which a technologically-superior extraterrestrial society invades Earth with the intent to replace human life, or to enslave it under a colonial system, or in some cases, to use humans as food. ...


Welles's adaptation is arguably the most well-known radio dramatic production in history. It was one of the Radio Project's first studies. The Radio Project was a social research project funded by the Rockefeller Foundation to look into the effects of mass media on society. ...

Contents

Broadcast

Monument commemorating where the Martians "landed" in Van Nest Park.
Monument commemorating where the Martians "landed" in Van Nest Park.

H. G. Wells's novel is about an alien invasion of Earth, set in Woking, England at the end of the 19th century. The radio play's story was adapted by and written primarily by Howard Koch, with input from Orson Welles and the staff of CBS's Mercury Theatre On The Air. The action was transferred to contemporary Grover's Mill, a community that has since been annexed by West Windsor Township, New Jersey, and the radio program's format was meant to simulate a live newscast of developing events. To this end, Welles played recordings of Herbert Morrison's radio reports of the Hindenburg disaster for actor Frank Readick and the rest of the cast, to demonstrate the mood he wanted. Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 1568 KB) This picture was taken by me at the landing site Grovers Mill, New Jersey. ... Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 1568 KB) This picture was taken by me at the landing site Grovers Mill, New Jersey. ... , See Woking (borough) for the administrative district. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Howard Koch (December 2, 1902 - August 17, 1995) was an American screenwriter who was blacklisted by the Hollywood movie studio bosses in the 1950s. ... This article is about the broadcast network. ... Grovers Mill is a section of West Windsor Township, New Jersey made famous in Orson Welles 1938 radio broadcast of The War of the Worlds where it was depicted as ground zero for a Martian invasion. ... West Windsor Township highlighted in Mercer County. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... A newscast typically consists of the coverage of various news events and other information, either produced locally by a radio or television station, or by a broadcast network. ... Herbert Morrison (May 14, 1905 – January 10, 1989), American radio reporter, was best known for his vivid description of the fire that destroyed the Hindenburg zeppelin on May 6, 1937. ... LZ 129 Hindenburg was a German zeppelin. ...


About half of the 55-and-a-half-minute play was a contemporary retelling of the events of the novel, presented as a series of news bulletins in documentary style. This approach to radio drama was not exactly new. Fr. Ronald Knox's satirical "newscast" of a riot overtaking London over the British Broadcasting Company in 1926 had taken a similar approach (and created much the same effect upon its audience). Welles had himself also been influenced by the Archibald MacLeish dramas The Fall of The City and Air Raid, the former using Welles himself in the role of a live radio news reporter. But the approach had never been done before with as much continued verisimilitude and the innovative format has been cited as a key factor in the confusion that would follow. A radio documentary or feature is a radio programme devoted to covering a particular topic in some depth, usually with a mixture of commentary and sound pictures. ... Ronald Arbuthnott Knox (1888-1957) was an English theologian and crime writer. ... The British Broadcasting Company Ltd was a British commercial company formed on October 18, 1922 by British and American electrical companies doing business in the United Kingdom. ... // January 12 - Sam n Henry debuts on WGN in Chicago, Illinois. ... Archibald MacLeish Archibald MacLeish (May 7, 1892 – April 20, 1982) was an American poet, writer and the Librarian of Congress. ... Strategic bombing is a military strategem used in a total war style campaign that attempts to destroy the economic ability of a nation-state to wage war. ...


The program, broadcast from the 20th floor at 485 Madison Avenue (in New York City), started with an introduction to the intentions of the aliens and noted that the adaptation was set in 1938. The program continued as an apparently ordinary music show, only occasionally interrupted by news flashes. Initially, the news is of strange explosions sighted on Mars. The news reports grew more frequent and increasingly ominous after a "meteorite" — later revealed as a Martian rocket capsule — lands in New Jersey. A crowd gathers at the landing site, and the events are related by reporter "Carl Philips" until the Martians incinerate curious onlookers with their "Heat-Rays." (Later surveys indicate that many listeners heard only this portion of the show before contacting neighbors or family to inquire about the broadcast. Many of these people contacted others in turn, leading to rumors and later confusion.) New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... The Heat-Ray is the primary offensive weapon used by the Martians in the H. G. Wellss classic science fiction novel The War of the Worlds. ...


More Martian ships land, and then proceed to wreak havoc throughout the United States, destroying bridges and railroads, and spraying a poison gas into the air. An unnamed Secretary of the Interior advises the nation on the growing conflict. (The "secretary" was originally intended to be a portrayal of Franklin D. Roosevelt, then President, but CBS insisted this detail, among others, be changed. The "secretary" did, however, sound very much like Roosevelt as the result of directions given to actor Kenny Delmar by Welles.) The term Black Smoke is also sometimes used to refer to The Monster from the television series Lost. ... The United States Secretary of the Interior is the head of the United States Department of the Interior, concerned with such matters as national parks and The Secretary is a member of the Presidents Cabinet. ... FDR redirects here. ... Kenny Delmar [1] (b. ...


Military forces begin to attack the Martians, but are unable to fight them off. People flee or gather in churches to pray as the Martian machines head towards New York City, spraying poison gas in the air. New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ...


This section ends famously: a news reporter (played by Ray Collins), broadcasting from atop the CBS building, describes the Martian invasion of New York City — "great machines" wading across the Hudson River, poison smoke drifting over the city, people running and diving into the East River "like rats", others "falling like flies" — until he, too, succumbs to the poison gas. Finally, a despairing ham radio operator is heard calling out, "2X2L calling CQ ... Isn't there anyone on the air? Isn't there anyone on the air? Isn't there ... anyone?" Collins in The Racket (1951) Ray Collins (December 10, 1889 – July 11, 1965) was an American actor in film, stage, radio, and television. ... The Hudson River, called Muh-he-kun-ne-tuk in Mahican or as the Lenape Native Americans called it in Unami, Muhheakantuck, is a river that runs through the eastern portion of New York State and, along its southern terminus, demarcates the border between the states of New York and... New York City waterways: 1. ...


The last portion of the broadcast was a monologue and dialog featuring Welles, portraying "noted astronomer" Professor Richard Peirson, who had earlier commented on the strange Martian explosions. The story ends as does the novel, with the Martians falling victim to earthly germs and bacteria.


After the play, Welles breaks character to remind listeners that the broadcast was only a Halloween concoction, the equivalent of dressing up in a sheet and saying "boo" like a ghost. Popular mythology holds that this "disclaimer" was added to the broadcast at the insistence of CBS executives as they became aware of the panic inspired by the program; in fact, it appears in Howard Koch's working script for the radio play as presented in his 1968 book The Panic Broadcast.


Public reaction

New York Times headline from October 31, 1938
New York Times headline from October 31, 1938

Many people missed or ignored the opening credits of the program, and in the atmosphere of growing tension and anxiety in the days leading up to World War II, took it to be a news broadcast. Contemporary newspapers reported that panic ensued, with people fleeing the area, and others thinking they could smell the poison gas or could see the flashes of the lightning in the distance. Image File history File links WOTW-NYT-headline. ... Image File history File links WOTW-NYT-headline. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Professor Richard J. Hand cites studies by unnamed historians who "calculate[d] that some six million heard the CBS broadcast; 1.7 million believed it to be true, and 1.2 million were 'genuinely frightened'".[1] While Welles and company were heard by a comparatively small audience (in the same time period, rival station NBC's audience was an estimated 30 million), the uproar that followed was anything but minute: within a month, there were about 12,500 newspaper articles about the broadcast or its impact, while Adolf Hitler cited the panic, as Hand writes, as "evidence of the decadence and corrupt condition of democracy."[1] Hitler redirects here. ...


Later studies suggested this "panic" was far less widespread than newspaper accounts suggested. However, it remains clear that many people were caught up, to one degree or another, in the confusion that followed.


Robert Bartholomew and Hilary Evans suggest in Panic Attacks that hundreds of thousands of people were frightened in some way, but note that evidence of people taking action based on this fear is "scant" and "anecdotal." Indeed, contemporary news articles indicate that police were swamped with hundreds of calls in numerous locations, but stories of people doing anything more than calling up the authorities typically involve groups of ones or tens and were often reported by people who were panicking, themselves.


Later studies also indicated that many listeners missed the repeated notices that the broadcast was entirely fictional, partly because the Mercury Theatre (an unsponsored "cultural" program with a relatively small audience) ran opposite the popular Chase and Sanborn Hour over the Red Network of NBC, hosted by Don Ameche and featuring comic ventriloquist Edgar Bergen and singer Nelson Eddy, at the time three of the most popular figures in broadcasting. About 15 minutes into the Chase and Sanborn program the first comic sketch ended and a musical number began, and many listeners presumably began tuning around the dial at that point. According to the American Experience program The Battle Over Citizen Kane, Welles knew the schedule of the Chase & Sanborn show, and scheduled the first report from Grover's Mill at the 12 minute mark to heighten the audience's confusion. As a result, some listeners happened upon the CBS broadcast at the exact point the Martians emerge from their spacecraft. This article is about the television network. ... This article is about the television network. ... Not to be confused with former NBA player John Amaechi. ... Sam Bermans caricature of Charlie McCarthy and Edgar Bergen for 1947 NBC promotion book Edgar John Bergen (February 16, 1903 – September 30, 1978) was an American actor and radio performer, best known as a ventriloquist. ... Nelson Eddy Nelson Ackerman Eddy (born June 29, 1901; died March 6, 1967) was an American singer who appeared in 19 musical films during the 1930s and 1940s, as well as in opera and on the concert stage, radio, television, and in nightclubs. ... American Experience (sometimes abbreviated AmEx) is a television program airing on the PBS network in the United States. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


Many of these listeners were apparently confused. In fairness, it must be noted that the confusion cannot be credited entirely to naiveté. Though many of the actors' voices should have been recognisable from appearances on other radio shows, nothing like The War of the Worlds broadcast had ever been attempted in the United States, so listeners were accustomed to accepting newsflashes as reliable.


Compounding the problem is that the working script had only three statements concerning the fictional nature of the program: at the very beginning, at the 40 minute mark, and at the end. In fact, the warning at the 40 minute mark is the only one that occurs after the actors start speaking in character, and before Welles breaks character at the end. This structure is roughly similar to earlier Mercury Theatre broadcasts: due to the lack of sponsorship (which often included a commercial message at the 30-minute mark during an hour-long show), Welles and company were able to schedule breaks more or less at will, depending on the pacing of a given narrative. Furthermore, the show's technique of jumping between scenes and narratives made it hard for the audience to distinguish between fact and fiction, so it is understandable that they were no more likely to perceive the three statements of the fictional nature of the program as being 'outside' of the narrative, than they were to perceive the introduction (and subsequent interruption) of the music show as being 'inside' the narrative.


While the War of the Worlds broadcast was in progress, some residents in northeastern cities went outside to ask neighbors what was happening (many homes still did not have telephones at this time). As the story was repeated by word of mouth, rumours began to spread, and these rumours caused some panic.


Contemporary accounts spawned urban legends, many of which persist and have come to be accepted through repetition as fact: Several people reportedly rushed to the "scene" of the events in New Jersey to see if they could catch a glimpse of the unfolding events, including a few astronomers from Princeton University who went looking for the "meteorite" that had supposedly fallen near their school. Some people, who had brought firearms, reportedly mistook a farmer's water tower for an alien spaceship and shot at it. An urban legend or urban myth is similar to a modern folklore consisting of stories often thought to be factual by those circulating them. ... For other uses, see Astronomy (disambiguation). ... Princeton University is a private coeducational research university located in Princeton, New Jersey. ...


Initially Grover's Mill was deserted, but later crowds developed as people rushed to the area. Eventually police were sent to the area to help control the crowds. To people arriving later in the evening, the scene really did look like the events being narrated on the radio broadcast, with panicked crowds and flashing police lights streaming across the masses.


Some people called CBS, newspapers or the police in confusion over the realism of the simulated news bulletins. There were instances of panic scattered throughout the US as a result of the broadcast, especially in New York and New Jersey. This article is about the state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


Seattle, Washington CBS affiliate radio stations KIRO and KVI broadcast Orson Welles' radio drama, While this broadcast was heard around the country, it made a deep impact in the small town of Concrete, Washington. At the point of the drama where the Martian invaders were invading towns and the countryside with flashes of light and poison gases, a power failure suddenly plunged almost the entire town of 1,000 into darkness. Some listeners fainted while others grabbed their families to head up into the mountains. Other more enterprising locals headed for the surrounding hills to guard their moonshine stills. One man was said to have jumped up out of his chair and, in bare feet, ran the two miles from his home to the center of town. Some of the men grabbed their guns, and one particular businessman - a devout Catholic - got his wife into the family car, drove to the nearest service station and demanded gasoline. Without paying the attendant, he rushed off to Bellingham (some forty-miles away) in order to see his priest for a last-minute absolution of sins. He reportedly told the gas-station attendant that paying for the gas "[wouldn't] make any difference, everyone is going to die!". Concrete is a town located in Skagit County, Washington. ...


Because the phone lines (as well the electricity) were out, the town's residents were unable to call neighbors, family or friends to verify that their fears were legitimate. Of course, the real story was not as fantastic as the fictional radio drama - all that had occurred was that the Superior Portland cement company's electrical sub-station suffered a short-circuit with a flash of brilliant light, and all the town's lights went dark. The more conservative radio-listeners in Concrete (who had been listening to Charlie McCarthy on another station), calmed neighbors that they hadn't heard a thing about any "disaster". Reporters heard soon after of the coincidental blackout of Concrete, Washington and sent the story out over the international newswire and soon the town of Concrete was known (if only for a moment) world-wide.[2]


Edgar Bergen and Don Ameche, who were continuing their Chase & Sanborn Hour broadcast at the same time on NBC, are often credited with "saving the world". It is said that many startled listeners were reassured by hearing their familiar tones on a neighbouring station. Sam Bermans caricature of Charlie McCarthy and Edgar Bergen for 1947 NBC promotion book Edgar John Bergen (February 16, 1903 – September 30, 1978) was an American actor and radio performer, best known as a ventriloquist. ... Not to be confused with former NBA player John Amaechi. ...


Aftermath

In the aftermath of the reported panic, a public outcry arose, but CBS informed officials that listeners were reminded throughout the broadcast that it was only a performance. Welles and the Mercury Theatre escaped punishment, but not censure, and CBS had to promise never again to use the "we interrupt this program" device for dramatic purposes.[citation needed] Some find this fact hard to accept considering that many radio commercials to this very day start with the phrase, "We interrupt this program".


A study by the Radio Project discovered that some of the people who panicked presumed that Germans — not Martians — had invaded. Other studies have suggested that the extent of the panic was exaggerated by contemporary media[citation needed]. The Radio Project was a social research project funded by the Rockefeller Foundation to look into the effects of mass media on society. ...


When a meeting between H.G. Wells and Orson Welles was broadcast on Radio KTSA San Antonio on October 28, 1940, Wells expressed a lack of understanding of the apparent panic and suggested that it was, perhaps, only pretense, like the American version of Halloween, for fun. The two men and their radio interviewer joked about the matter, though clearly with some embarrassment. KTSA, as a CBS affiliate, had carried the original broadcast. KTSA is a News-Talk AM radio station in San Antonio, Texas. ... San Antonio redirects here. ... is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... See also: 1939 in radio, other events of 1940, 1941 in radio and the list of years in radio. Debuts The Bell Telephone Hour (1940-1958) Categories: 1940 ... This article is about the holiday. ...


Both the War of the Worlds broadcast and the panic it created have become textbook examples of mass hysteria and the delusions of crowds. Mass hysteria, also called collective hysteria or collective obsessional behavior, is the sociopsychological phenomenon of the manifestation of the same or similar hysterical symptoms by more than one person. ...


In 1988, during the weekend nearest the fiftieth anniversary of the broadcast, West Windsor Township, in which Grovers Mills is located, held a "Martian festival" to mark the occasion. Designed solely to attract tourist revenue, this event included "Martians" firing harmless "ray guns" and various carnival rides and hucksters' stalls. The New Yorker magazine covered this event with a review beginning "It's not every day we get to see the Martians invade..." Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... West Windsor Township highlighted in Mercer County. ... For other uses, see New Yorker. ...


Conspiracy theory

It has been suggested in recent years that the War of the Worlds broadcast was actually a psychological warfare experiment. In the 1999 documentary, Masters of the Universe: The Secret Birth of the Federal Reserve, writer Daniel Hopsicker claims that the Rockefeller Foundation actually funded the broadcast, studied the ensuing panic, and compiled a report that was only available to a chosen few. A variation of this conspiracy theory has the Princeton Radio Project and the Rockefeller Foundation as conspirators.[3] The U.S. Department of Defense defines psychological warfare (PSYWAR) as: The planned use of propaganda and other psychological actions having the primary purpose of influencing the opinions, emotions, attitudes, and behavior of hostile foreign groups in such a way as to support the achievement of national objectives. ... The Fed redirects here. ... The Rockefeller Foundation (RF) is a prominent philanthropic organization based at 420 Fifth Avenue, New York City. ...


This theory seems at odds with the fact that the Mercury Theatre's broadcasts over CBS before December 1938 did not contain any sponsorship announcements, and the competing Chase & Sanborn Hour on NBC originated from studios in Manhattan's Rockefeller Center complex. This theory is also suspicious given Welles' well-known liberal political beliefs, which would have put him completely at odds with anything the conservative leaning Rockefeller Foundation would have wanted. The Mercury Theatre was a theatre company founded in New York City by Orson Welles and John Houseman. ... Look up December in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Lower Plaza at Rockefeller Center. ...


There has been continued speculation that the panic generated by the War of the Worlds broadcast inspired officials to cover up unidentified flying object evidence, to avoid a similar panic. Indeed, U.S. Air Force Captain Edward J. Ruppelt wrote in 1956, "The [U.S. government's] UFO files are full of references to the near mass panic of October 30, 1938, when Orson Welles presented his now famous The War of the Worlds broadcast."[citation needed] UFO redirects here. ... Edward J. Ruppelt (1922 - 1960) was a United States Air Force officer probably best-known for his involvement in Project Blue Book, a formal governmental study of unidentified flying objects. ...


In a theatrical trailer for his film F For Fake, Welles joked about such theories, jesting that the broadcast indeed "had secret sponsors". Theatrical trailers are 2-3 minute advertisements for movies that play in cinemas before another movie. ... F for Fake (1974) (original French title, Vérités et Mensonges) is the last major film completed by Orson Welles. ...


Remakes and re-airings

Since the original Mercury Theatre broadcast of The War of the Worlds, there have been many re-airings, remakes, reenactments and new dramatizations of the original broadcast.


In February 1949, Leonardo Paez and Eduardo Alcaraz produced a Spanish-language version of Welles's 1938 script for broadcast on Radio Quito in Quito, Ecuador. The broadcast set off general panic in the city. Police and fire brigades rushed out of town in order to engage the supposedly alien invasion force. After it was revealed that the broadcast was a work of fiction, the panic transformed into a riot and hundreds of townspeople attacked the building housing Radio Quito and El Comercio, the local newspaper. (In the days preceding the broadcast, El Comercio had participated in the hoax by publishing false news reports of unidentified objects appearing in the skies above Ecuador.) The riot resulted in six deaths, including those of Paez's girlfriend and nephew. Paez slipped out of the building and fled to Venezuela, never to return to Ecuador.[4] Quito is the capital city of Ecuador. ...


Many stations air the original program as a Halloween tradition. Since at least the 1970s, KNX in Los Angeles has re-aired the show, as have many other stations, particularly those that regularly air old time radio programs. KNX (1070 kHz) is an all-news radio station in Los Angeles, California. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... Old-Time Radio (OTR) or The Golden Age of Radio is a term used to refer to radio programs that were broadcast during the 1920s through the late 1950s (with some outlying programs produced earlier and later) in the United States, as well as the United Kingdom and Canada and...


Perhaps the most famous remake was by WKBW in Buffalo, NY, which aired a modernized update in 1968, produced by the station's news department. In this version, which was revised for airing in 1971 and 1975, Martians invaded the Niagara Falls area. Like the original, this realistic version also inspired listener panic, despite reassurances throughout the broadcast that it was only a dramatization. WWKB (formerly WKBW) is an AM radio station in Buffalo, New York that operates on a frequency of 1520 kHz. ... See Buffalo for other places with this name. ... An editor has expressed a concern that the subject of the article does not satisfy the notability guideline or one of the following guidelines for inclusion on Wikipedia: Biographies, Books, Companies, Fiction, Music, Neologisms, Numbers, Web content, or several proposals for new guidelines. ... The year 1968 in radio involved some significant events. ... For other uses, see Niagara Falls (disambiguation). ...


PBS also aired a remake on the 50th anniversary of the Mercury Theatre play in 1988. It starred Jason Robards, Steve Allen, Douglas Edwards, Scott Simon and Terry Gross and was nominated for a Grammy Award for "Best Spoken Word or Nonmusical Recording"[5] Note: Public Broadcasting Services is a broadcaster in Malta. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... “Steve Allen” redirects here. ... Douglas Edwards (July 14, 1917 — October 13, 1990) was Americas first network news television anchor, anchoring CBSs first nightly news broadcast from 1948-1962, which was later to be titled CBS Evening News. ... Scott Simon is the host of National Public Radios Weekend Edition Saturday. ... Terry Gross (born 1951) is the host and co-executive producer of Fresh Air, an interview format radio show produced by WHYY-FM in Philadelphia and distributed throughout the United States by National Public Radio. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


In 1994 the L.A. Theater Works' The Play's the Thing and KPCC rebroadcast the original radio play before a live audience, featuring actors from the various Star Trek television shows, including Leonard Nimoy, Wil Wheaton, Gates McFadden, Brent Spiner, and Armin Shimerman. John de Lancie served as the director.[citation needed] The year 1994 in radio involved some significant events. ... KPCC (89. ... This article is about the entire Star Trek franchise. ... Leonard Simon Nimoy (born March 26, 1931) is an American actor, film director, poet, musician and photographer. ... Richard William Wil Wheaton III (born July 29, 1972) is an American writer and actor. ... Cheryl Gates McFadden (born March 2, 1949 in Cuyahoga Falls, Ohio), usually credited as Gates McFadden, is an American actress and choreographer. ... Brent Jay Spiner (born February 2, 1949) is an American actor, best known for his portrayal of the android Lieutenant Commander Data in the television and movie series Star Trek: The Next Generation. ... Armin Shimerman (born November 5, 1949) is an American actor. ... For the oboist, see John de Lancie (oboist) John de Lancie (born March 20, 1948) is an American character actor. ...


On October 31, 2002, talk show host Glenn Beck did his own live version on his nationally-syndicated radio program.[citation needed] is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The year 2002 in radio involved some significant events. ... Glenn Beck (born February 10, 1964) is a conservative talk-radio and television host. ... In the entertainment and news industries, syndication is a method of making content available to a range of outlets simultaneously. ...


XM Satellite Radio has broadcast an updated version in recent years titled "Not From Space", in which Microsoft's Bill Gates is one of the Martians.[citation needed] “XM” redirects here. ... For other persons named Bill Gates, see Bill Gates (disambiguation). ...


Since 2005, students from WXOU radio (at Oakland University in Rochester Hills, MI) perform the radio drama live. It was begun by WXOU host Richard Luzenski on his film music program "Cinema Serenade."[citation needed] // Digital Radio Mondiale conducted an extensive test of using the 11 meter (26 MHz) shortwave band for local digital shortwave radio broadcasts in Mexico City during July. ... WXOU is the on-campus radio station located at Oakland University in Rochester, MI. The station can be heard at 88. ... Oakland University is a public university located in Rochester, Michigan. ... Rochester Hills is a city located in Oakland County, Michigan. ...


In 2006 the Florida, NY-based independent radio station WTBQ planned a broadcast on Halloween using a slightly modified script with local actors.[citation needed] // Categories: | | | ... Florida is a village located in Orange County, New York. ... AM 1110 WTBQ is an independent radio station broadcasting from Warwick, New York. ...


On October 30, 2006, Camden County College's WDBK in Blackwood, New Jersey aired a new version of the broadcast performed by the current staff. The new version was updated and set in West Windsor Township, as well as Blackwood and the surrounding towns. The broadcast was a finalist in the CBI Awards in 2007.[citation needed] is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Categories: | | | ... Camden County College is an accredited, co-educational, two-year, public, community college located in Camden County, New Jersey. ... WDBK, known as Real 91. ... Blackwood is a census-designated place and section of Gloucester Township, New Jersey located in Camden County, New Jersey. ...


Television

On September 9, 1957, CBS's prestigious live television program, Studio One, opened its tenth season with Nelson Bond's The Night America Trembled, the first dramatization of the public panic to the radio adaptation of Wells' novel. The hour-long production was narrated by Edward R. Murrow and featured such future stars as Ed Asner, James Coburn, Warren Oates, and Warren Beatty. is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The year 1957 in television involved some significant events. ... Studio One was an American dramatic anthology television series, sponsored by Westinghouse Electric Corporation. ... Nelson Slade Bond (November 23, 1908 - November 4, 2006) was an early writer of science fiction and fantasy, he also wrote a great deal of sports and crime fiction. ... Edward R. Ed Murrow (April 25, 1908 – April 27, 1965) was an American journalist and media figure. ... Edward Asner (born November 15, 1929) is an American actor known for his Emmy-winning role as Lou Grant on The Mary Tyler Moore Show, and later continued in a spinoff series, Lou Grant. ... James Coburn in Sam Peckinpahs Cross of Iron (1977). ... Warren Oates (July 5, 1928 – April 3, 1982) was an American character actor best known for his performances in several films directed by Sam Peckinpah including The Wild Bunch (1969) and Bring Me the Head of Alfredo Garcia (1974). ... Henry Warren Beatty (born March 30, 1937), better known as Warren Beatty, is an Academy Award and Golden Globe-winning American actor, producer, screenwriter, and director. ...


A 1975 television movie for ABC, Howard Koch and Nicholas Meyer's The Night That Panicked America, also dramatizes the public's panicked reaction to the broadcast but comes across as a fairly standard disaster movie (albeit one in which the disaster is assumed rather than actual). The production included Vic Morrow, Meredith Baxter, Michael Constantine, John Ritter, Will Geer, and Tom Bosley. The year 1975 in television involved some significant events. ... “Telefilm” redirects here. ... The American Broadcasting Company (ABC) is an American television network. ... Nicholas Meyer at the Paramount Pictures lot in 2002. ... The Night That Panicked America is an American made-for-television movie that was originally broadcast on the ABC network on October 31, 1975. ... Victor Vic Morrow (February 14, 1929 - July 23, 1982) born Bronx, New York was a Jewish-American actor. ... Meredith Baxter (born June 21, 1947 in South Pasadena, California) is an American actress. ... Michael Constantine (Born 22 May 1927) is a Greek American actor. ... This article is about the American actor. ... TV Guide August 21, 1976, featuring Will Geer (center) with his Waltons costars, Richard Thomas and Ellen Corby Will Geer (born 9 March 1902 in Frankfort, Indiana – died 22 April 1978 in Los Angeles) was an American actor. ... Thomas Edward Bosley (born October 1, 1927) is an American actor. ...


Influence

It is sometimes said that the news of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor was first received in skepticism by the American public, as a consequence of the radio performance.[citation needed] This article is about the actual attack. ...


Amazingly enough, the drama has been rewritten to apply to other locations and rebroadcast, with similar results:

  • A 1944 broadcast in Santiago, Chile caused panic, including mobilization of troops by the governor.
  • A February 12, 1949 broadcast in Quito, Ecuador panicked tens of thousands.[6] Some listeners, enraged at the deception, set fire to the radio station and the offices of El Comercio, the capital's leading newspaper, killing twenty people. The property damage was estimated at $350,000. Three officials charged with responsibility for the broadcast were arrested.[7]

Because of the panic in the 1930s and 1940s associated with this radio play, U.S. TV networks have deemed it necessary to post bulletins to their viewing audience to inform them some TV stories were in fact fictional drama, and not really happening[citation needed]. Disclaimers of this sort were shown during broadcasts of the 1983 television movie Special Bulletin, and again during the 1994 telefilm, Without Warning, both of which were dramas disguised as realistic news broadcasts (Without Warning, presenting Earth being hit by three meteor fragments, acknowledged that it was a tribute to War of the Worlds and was broadcast on CBS TV on the 56th anniversary of the radio broadcast). NBC placed disclaimers in an October 1999 TV movie dramatizing the possible disastrous effects of the Y2K bug even though it was obviously drama and was unlikely to be confused with reality. Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Location of Santiago commune in Greater Santiago Coordinates: , Region Province Foundation February 12, 1541 Government  - Mayor Raúl Alcaíno Lihn Area 1  - City 22. ... is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Quito (disambiguation). ... The 1930s were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known as the [[. In East Asia, the rise of militarism occurred. ... The 1940s decade ran from 1940 to 1949. ... Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ... Special Bulletin was an American made-for-TV movie first broadcast in 1983. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... Without Warning is a TV movie that premiered on CBS on Halloween night, October 31, 1994. ... This article is about the year. ... This article is about the millennial computer glitch. ...


On February 16, 1991, a popular Estonian TV satire show Wigla Sou reported, using the "we interrupt this program" device similar to Orson Welles, that the government of Finland has voided the bills of one hundred Finnish Markka, most common hard currency banknote in Estonia of that time, when local Soviet ruble was not trusted because of high inflation. That was obvious parody of recent Soviet currency reform, but thousands of people believed the report and rushed to get rid of their 100 markka bills, some selling their currency many times under the market prices. The TV reporters Ivar Vigla and Felix Undusk received later threats from angry people who had sold their currency cheaply, while local currency profiteers cheered their unexpected high profits this day.[8] is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... The markka or mark was the currency used in Finland from 1861 until January 1, 1999, when it was replaced by the euro (€). The currency code used for the markka was FIM, and the usual familiar notation was a postfix mk. ... ISO 4217 Code SUR User(s) Soviet Union Subunit 1/100 kopek (копейка) Symbol руб kopek (копейка) к Plural rublya (gen. ...


On December 22, 1991, the popular student-run satire TV show Ku-Ku on the Bulgarian state channel Kanal 1 broadcast reports of an accident in the Bulgarian Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant, in an attempt to draw attention to the lack of preparedness for such an accident. The report's impact was heightened due to people's memory of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant disaster and its incomplete coverage by official media during events of 1986. The show used actual TV news reporters because actors from the show were popular and would have been easily recognized. Reminders of the program's fictional nature were broadcast during music video breaks but largely ignored. There were reports about people taking iodine pills in order to protect their thyroid glands from absorbing radiation. In the aftermath, the show was canceled, but trial charges against director, screenwriter and producer were dismissed.[citation needed] is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The year 1991 in television involved some significant events. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Bulgarian National Television. ... The Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant is a nuclear power plant in Bulgaria situated 200 km north of Sofia and 5 km east of Kozloduy, a town on the Danube river, near the border with Romania. ... Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station, viewed from the roof of a building in Pripyat, Ukraine. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ...


In 2005, Danish radio station P2 announced their plan to broadcast a remake of the original broadcast on September 3rd. As the broadcast was about to start, an announcer interrupted the show to report on a fake story about a biological terrorist attack on Copenhagen.[citation needed] // Digital Radio Mondiale conducted an extensive test of using the 11 meter (26 MHz) shortwave band for local digital shortwave radio broadcasts in Mexico City during July. ... For other uses, see Copenhagen (disambiguation). ...


In 2006, a false Belgian news bulletin, broadcasted by RTBF, reported that the Dutch-speaking Flanders region of the country had declared its independence from Belgium, and led to widespread panic in French-speaking Belgium. It was actually a hoax inspired by Orson Welles's adaptation of The War of the Worlds. See 2006 Belgian Secession Hoax[citation needed]. The year 2006 in television involved some significant events. ... RTBF official logo RTBF or Radio télévision belge de la communauté française is the national broadcasting organisation of the government of the French-speaking southern part of Belgium, the counterpart to the Dutch-speaking VRT in the northern part of the country. ... For other uses, see Flanders (disambiguation). ... Wikinews has news related to: Fictional documentary about Flemish independence causes consternation in Belgium Tout ça (ne nous rendra pas la Belgique) was a hoax perpetrated by the French speaking Belgian public TV station RTBF on Wednesday, December 13th 2006. ...


Possible influence on Welles

A 2005 BBC report suggested that Welles' idea and style may have been influenced by an earlier 1926 hoax broadcast by Ronald Knox on BBC Radio. Knox's broadcast also mixes breathless reporting of a revolution sweeping across London with dance music and sound effects of destruction. Moreover, Knox's broadcast also caused a minor panic among listeners who did not know that the program was fictional. Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... // January 12 - Sam n Henry debuts on WGN in Chicago, Illinois. ... Ronald Arbuthnott Knox (1888-1957) was an English theologian and crime writer. ... BBC Radio is a service of the British Broadcasting Corporation which has operated in the United Kingdom under the terms of a Royal Charter since 1927. ...


A somewhat similar hoax from 1874 used wild animals rather than aliens claiming that they were escaping from New York Central Park Zoo and this also seems to have generated some public panic.[9] This article is about the state. ... The Central Park Zoo is located in Central Park in New York City and run by the Wildlife Conservation Society. ...


References in fiction

  • In literature
  • Arthur C. Clarke's 2001: A Space Odyssey and Michael Crichton's Sphere cites the Orson Welles broadcast as an example of why, in the event of an actual alien arrival, it would be more prudent to anticipate mass panic on the part of humanity rather than wonder and awe. There has been similar speculation for decades in ufology: that the War of the Worlds broadcast is the reason evidence supporting the reality of unidentified flying objects has been suppressed.
  • The 1968 novel Sideslip by Ted White and Dave Van Arnam takes place in an alternative history where aliens (quite different from Wells' and Welles' Martians) took advantage of the confusion following the broadcast to carry out an actual invasion, and ruled Earth for three decades (until overthrown thanks to the intervention of an intrepid private eye from our own reality).
  • The War of the Worlds Murder[1] by Max Allan Collins was published by Berkley in 2005, blending fact and fiction for an exciting tale where Orson Welles is accused of murder and teams with The Shadow writer Walter Gibson to clear his name.
  • The Doomsday Conspiracy by Sidney Sheldon makes a mention of this event, using it as a way for one of the U.S. Generals to justify withholding information from the public to prevent a mass panic.
  • In film
  • In the 1984 movie The Adventures of Buckaroo Banzai Across the 8th Dimension, the plot hinges around an alien race of Red Lectroids whose arrival on earth in Grover's Mill, New Jersey instigates Orson Welles' The War of the Worlds radio broadcast, with the aliens hypnotizing Welles and causing him to pass the broadcast off as a drama, when it was indeed factual. Their later cover is that of employees of a fictional defense contracting company called Yoyodyne.
  • In the 1990 film Spaced Invaders, a crew of rather dimwitted Martians intercepts radio signals from a rebroadcast of the performance and believes the entire Martian invasion fleet is moving in, leading them to land on Earth and get stranded, setting up the plot of the film.
  • The episode is briefly referred to in the 1989 film Radio Days by Woody Allen.
  • A similar realistic-looking "hoax" was a 1977 British science fiction movie titled Alternative 3 which was presented as a science documentary, though the credits showed a production date of April Fool's Day. To this day, there are many who contend the events documented in Alternative 3 were at least partly factual.
  • The 1946 Looney Tunes cartoon Kitty Kornered briefly spoofs the incident.
  • In television
  • The War of the Worlds TV series also incorporated a similar premise. In an episode taking place in Grover's Mill during the 50th anniversary of the broadcast, it is revealed that Orson Welles was hired by the government to orchestrate the broadcast in order to cover up what was a reconnaissance mission by the same aliens who would launch an all-out war 15 years later.
  • The X-Files episode "War of the Coprophages" parodied the 1938 panic as a small town called "Miller's Grove" (a reference to the Welles program's "Grover's Mill") is seized by fear of an invading horde of tiny robot cockroaches.
  • In a Halloween episode of Hey Arnold, Arnold and Gerald conduct their own radio broadcast in an attempt to scare the residents of Arnold's boarding house much like Orson Welles did. They also trick their 4th grade class, who were all trick-or-treating as aliens, into visiting Arnold's house precisely after the broadcast had finished. However, the broadcast is inadvertently picked up by a paranormal investigator, who mistakes it for legitimate and re-broadcasts it across the city as a real news bulletin. The water tower covered with Christmas lights also resulted in an electricity breakdown that made the broadcast even more believable.[10]
  • A Doctor Who audio drama titled Invaders from Mars is set in New York City at the time of the broadcast, with unusual events occurring in the city's underworld, which mirror the radio story.
  • The 1992 BBC TV Halloween special Ghostwatch was similar in its shocking displays of a haunted house in North London.
  • An Animaniacs segment starring Pinky and the Brain, "Battle for the Planet", featured a plan to recreate the broadcast in hopes of actually taking over the world during the panic. However, the Brain fails to realize that the public has grown more sophisticated in viewing such material, especially considering the amateurish effort the pair attempt, and no one takes it seriously (The character of The Brain is based on Orson Welles himself)
  • In an episode of The Flintstones, there was a publicity stunt in the form of a Halloween radio broadcast about a coming invasion of the Way-Outs, which was really just a Beatles-like music group wearing odd costumes. Much of Bedrock was scared, but the fear was exacerbated by Fred trying to get to the Water Buffalo Lodge in his secret spaceman costume. Eventually, the broadcaster is forced by the police to explain his previous announcements were fictitious.
  • The British children's cartoon Budgie the Little Helicopter featured an episode where the characters (who are anthropomorphic aircraft) are mistaken as spacecraft during a stormy night by a driver listening to a Welles-esque radio drama, leading to local panic.
  • In "Madeline and the Spider Lady", an episode of the animated series The New Adventures of Madeline, the girls played around in an 'unused' radio studio and acted out a phony news broadcast concerning giant polka-dotted ants who were attacking New York, and got broadcast when a technician at the station accidentally hits a lever and switched the broadcast from the Spider Lady drama to the girls' phony news report. What follows is mass hysteria similar to those reported as the outcome of the Orson Welles War of the Worlds radio drama broadcast.
  • A similar plot was used in the short lived animated series adoption of the American Dennis the Menace comic strip, in which Dennis and his cohorts visit a radio station studio to record a radio play for a school project. Unfortunately, in this version, Martians did really try to invade earth, but the plans were foiled by the coincidence of Dennis' play accidentally leaking out to the public after Ruff accidentally flips a lever and causes the recording to be broadcast. The panicking townspeople drive off the aliens, who were counting on the element of surprise.
  • Touched By An Angel featured parts of the original broadcast in a Halloween episode titled "The Sky Is Falling", where an old man had to deal with the trauma he endured during the nation wide panic, including the death of his father due to a misfire by a paranoid citizen. It also set the scene for the first encounter between the two leads, Monica and Tess.
  • A 1989 Saturday Night Live episode hosted by Tony Danza featured a sketch in which "Da War of Da Woilds" is dramatized by Da Brooklyn Academy of Fine Art.
  • The Simpsons has alluded to the broadcast several times:
  • In the episode titled "Radio Bart", Homer buys Bart a microphone that can be used to broadcast on nearby radios. One of the pranks Bart pulls is to pretend he is the leader of a Martian invasion of Earth and has eaten the president of the United States, which Homer subsequently believes.
  • In the opening sequence of "Treehouse of Horror IV", Marge interrupts Bart's Night Gallery-esque introduction to suggest he warn viewers that the episode is frightening and that "maybe they'd rather listen to that old War of the Worlds broadcast on NPR".
  • Yet another Simpsons episode, "Treehouse of Horror XVII", features a segment titled "The Day the Earth Looked Stupid", which adapts the storyline of Orson Welles' famous broadcast and takes place in Springfield circa 1938. The episode has people act like animals instead of acting suicidal. The Welles character was voiced by Maurice LaMarche, the same voice as The Brain.
  • The November 4, 2007 episode of Cold Case dealt with a murder that took place during the panic surrounding the original 1938 radio broadcast.
  • In the October 15, 1956 episode of I Love Lucy, "Lucy Meets Orson Wells", Lucy is shopping for scuba gear in Macy's at the same time Wells is signing record albums of his Shakespearian readings. After Lucy approaches him still wearing a Scuba mask, flippers and assorted air hoses, Wells takes one look at her and says, "My "Man from Mars" broadcast was 18 years ago...where were you?"
  • "Panic", a 1997 episode of HBO's Perversions of Science, based loosely on a story from the comic book Weird Science (see below), featured Jamie Kennedy and Jason Lee as listeners confused and alarmed by a War of the Worlds-style radio broadcast. However, in this instance, Kennedy and Lee play two extra-terrestrial invaders disguised as humans, who mistakenly believe that the broadcast relates to an invasion of Earth by their own people, about which they had not been informed.
  • In radio
  • An Adventures in Odyssey episode, "Terror From the Skies", is based on and makes many references to The War of the Worlds. Like Orson Welles' broadcast, it features a dramatized radio broadcast that tells about an alien invasion of Earth.
  • In video games
  • In the video game Metal Gear Solid 3: Snake Eater, supporting character Para-Medic from Snake's radio frequency gives an amusing retelling of her parents' panic during the radio play.
  • In comics
  • EC Comics did a story in Weird Science where a TV network decides to a televise a remake of the War of the Worlds broadcast. To avoid confusion, they publicize the event weeks ahead of time. Unfortunately, a real invasion occurs the same night, and as the station breaks into the hoax report with a real report, no one believes it.
  • DC Comics had a similar story where Orson Welles himself learns of an actual Martian invasion, but his radio warnings are useless since no one takes them seriously because of his radio play. Fortunately, Superman realizes that Welles is serious and stops the invasion.
  • In songs
  • Queen's song Radio Gaga, which is a tribute to the medium of radio written by Roger Taylor, includes the lyrics You gave them all those old time stars / Through wars of worlds - invaded by Mars, obviously referencing the radio broadcast.

Sir Arthur Charles Clarke, CBE, Sri Lankabhimanya (16 December 1917 – 19 March 2008) was a British (lived in Sri Lanka since 1956) science fiction author, inventor, and futurist, most famous for the novel 2001: A Space Odyssey, written in collaboration with director Stanley Kubrick, a collaboration which led also to... A movie poster from the original release of 2001 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968) is an immensely popular and influential science fiction film and book; the film directed by Stanley Kubrick and the book written by Arthur C. Clarke. ... Michael Crichton, pronounced [1], (born October 23, 1942) is an American author, film producer, film director, and television producer. ... Sphere is a science fiction novel written by Michael Crichton and published in 1987. ... Artistic representation of UFOs Ufology is the study of unidentified flying object (UFO) reports, sightings, alleged physical evidence, and other related phenomena. ... UFO redirects here. ... Frank Frazettas cover illustration for Ted Whites Phoenix Prime Ted White (born February 4, 1938) is an American science fiction author and editor as well as a music critic. ... Max Allan Collins in 1982, posing with a drawing of Dick Tracy. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... This article is about the fictional character. ... Walter Gibson was an American author who created the pulp fiction character The Shadow. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Sidney Sheldon (February 11, 1917 – January 30, 2007) was an American writer who won awards in three careers—a Broadway playwright, a Hollywood TV and movie screenwriter, and a best-selling novelist. ... // Events The Walt Disney Company founds Touchstone Pictures to release movies with subject matter deemed inappropriate for the Disney name. ... The Adventures of Buckaroo Banzai Across the 8th Dimension! (also more simply referred to as Buckaroo Banzai) is a science fiction film that has reached cult film status. ... Grovers Mill is a section of West Windsor Township, New Jersey made famous in Orson Welles 1938 radio broadcast of The War of the Worlds where it was depicted as ground zero for a Martian invasion. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Yoyodyne is a fictional defense contractor introduced in Thomas Pynchons V. (1961) and featured prominently in his novel The Crying of Lot 49 (1965). ... The year 1990 in film involved some significant events. ... Spaced Invaders is a 1990 science fiction comedy directed by Patrick Read Johnson and starring Douglas Barr, Royal Dano and a young Ariana Richards. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Radio Days is a 1987 film directed by Woody Allen. ... Woody Allen (born Allen Stewart Königsberg on December 1, 1935) is a three-time Academy Award-winning American film director, writer, actor, jazz musician, comedian, and playwright. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... Alternative 3 is a television programme, broadcast in the UK in 1977. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Looney Tunes opening title Looney Tunes is a Warner Brothers animated cartoon series which ran in many movie theatres from 1930 to 1969. ... Bob Clampett directed his only Sylvester the cat cartoon, released in 1946. ... War of the Worlds is a television program that ran for two seasons, from 1988 to 1990. ... Mixed reconnaissance patrol of the Polish Home Army and the Soviet Red Army during Operation Tempest, 1944 Reconnaissance is the military term for the active gathering of information about an enemy, or other conditions, by physical observation. ... The War of the Worlds (also sometimes known as H.G. Wells The War of the Worlds) is a 1953 science fiction film produced by George Pál and directed by Byron Haskin from a script by Barré Lyndon based on the H. G. Wells novel of the same name. ... The X-Files is an American Peabody and Emmy Award-winning science fiction television series created by Chris Carter, which first aired on September 10, 1993, and ended on May 19, 2002. ... Hey Arnold! is a Nickelodeon cartoon first aired in autumn 1996. ... This article is about the television series. ... Invaders from Mars is a Big Finish Productions audio drama based on the long-running British science fiction television series Doctor Who. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... This article is an overview article about the Crown chartered British Broadcasting Corporation formed in 1927. ... The BFI DVD release cover Ghostwatch was a controversial British horror-mockumentary television programme which was produced by the BBC and aired on BBC One on October 31 (Halloween), 1992. ... North London is that part of London which is north of the River Thames. ... This article is about the television series. ... This article describes both the animated television series, and the characters from that series. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... The Flintstones is an animated American television sitcom which ran from 1960 to 1966 on ABC. The Flintstones is about a working class Stone Age mans life with his family and his next door neighbor and best friend. ... Budgie the Little Helicopter is a series of childrens books and animated TV series relating to a fictional character Budgie and his friends. ... For other uses, see Madeleine (disambiguation). ... Dennis the Menace is a daily syndicated newspaper comic strip originally created, written and illustrated by Hank Ketcham since March 12, 1951, which made its debut in only 16 newspapers. ... This section contains a list of trivia items. ... The Sky is Falling may refer to: // The Sky Is Falling (fable) a fable, also known as Chicken Licken, Chicken Little or Henny Penny is an old fable about a chicken (or a hare in early versions) who believes the sky is falling. ... This article is about the American television series. ... Tony Danza (born Antonio Salvatore Iadanza[1] April 21, 1951 in Brooklyn, New York), is an American actor best known for starring in two popular TV series, Taxi and Whos the Boss?, as well as appearing in the Academy Award-winning motion picture, Crash. ... Simpsons redirects here. ... Radio Bart is the thirteenth episode of The Simpsons third season. ... Treehouse of Horror IV is the fifth episode of The Simpsons fifth season, first aired on October 28, 1993. ... Night Gallery was Rod Serlings follow-up to The Twilight Zone, airing on NBC from 1970 to 1973. ... Treehouse of Horror XVII is, as the name indicates, the seventeenth Treehouse of Horror episode of The Simpsons. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Maurice LaMarche (born March 30, 1958) is a Canadian voice actor and former stand up comedian. ... This article describes both the animated television series, and the characters from that series. ... is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The year 2007 in television involves some significant events. ... For other uses, see Cold case (disambiguation). ... is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This is a list of television-related events in 1956. ... I Love Lucy is a popular American situation comedy, starring Lucille Ball, Desi Arnaz, Vivian Vance and William Frawley. ... This is a list of television-related events in 1997. ... For other uses, see HBO (disambiguation). ... Perversions of Science was a science fiction/horror television series that ran on the cable channel HBO for one series. ... This article is about the actor. ... Jason Michael Lee (born April 25, 1970) is an American actor and professional skateboarder. ... Adventures in Odyssey, commonly abbreviated AIO or simply Odyssey, is an Evangelical Christian-themed radio drama/comedy series created by Phil Lollar and Steve Harris for Focus on the Family in 1987. ... Metal Gear Solid 3: Snake Eater (commonly abbreviated MGS3) is a stealth-based game directed by Hideo Kojima, developed and published by Konami for the PlayStation 2. ... Para-Medic is a fictional character in the video game Metal Gear Solid 3: Snake Eater. ... Entertaining Comics was headed by William Gaines but is better known by its publishing name of EC Comics. ... Weird Science was part of the EC Comics line in the early 1950s. ... DC Comics is an American comic book and related media company. ... Superman is a fictional character and comic book superhero , originally created by American writer Jerry Siegel and Canadian artist Joe Shuster and published by DC Comics. ... Queen are an English rock band formed in 1972 in London by guitarist Brian May, lead vocalist Freddie Mercury, and drummer Roger Taylor, with bassist John Deacon joining the following year. ... Radio Ga Ga is a song performed and recorded by the band Queen, written by their drummer Roger Taylor. ... There are several well-known people named Roger Taylor, including: Two drummers in the rock world: Roger Meddows-Taylor, drummer for Queen and also a solo artist, born 1949 Roger Andrew Taylor, drummer for Duran Duran, born 1960 Other: Roger Taylor, author of epic fantasy Hawklan series Roger Taylor, a...

See also

An editor has expressed a concern that the subject of the article does not satisfy the notability guideline or one of the following guidelines for inclusion on Wikipedia: Biographies, Books, Companies, Fiction, Music, Neologisms, Numbers, Web content, or several proposals for new guidelines. ... A false document is a form of verisimilitude that attempts to create in the reader (viewer, audience, etc. ... A hoax is an attempt to trick an audience into believing that something false is real. ... The War of the Worlds (1898), by H. G. Wells, is an early science fiction novel which describes an invasion of England by aliens from Mars. ... Martian tripods drawn by Warwick Goble. ... The Brookings Report is the informal name for a study commisioned from the Brookings Institute by NASA officials in 1960. ...

Sources

  • Cantril, Handley, Howard Koch, Hazel Gaudet, Herta Herzog, H. G. Wells. The Invasion from Mars: A Study in the Psychology of Panic. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. 1940. ISBN 0691093997 (1982)
  • Hand, Richard J. Terror on the Air!: Horror Radio in America, 1931-1952. Jefferson, North Carolina: Macfarlane & Company. 2006. ISBN 0786423676
  • Koch, Howard. (1970). The Panic Broadcast: Portrait of an Event. Boston, Massachusetts: Little, Brown & Company. ISBN 0316500607
  • Ruppelt, Edward J. The Report on Unidentified Flying Objects. Garden City, New York: Doubleday. 1956. ISBN 096653123X (2002)

Edward J. Ruppelt (1922 - 1960) was a United States Air Force officer probably best-known for his involvement in Project Blue Book, a formal governmental study of unidentified flying objects. ...

Further reading

External links

Internet Archive headquarters is in the Presidio, a former US military base in San Francisco. ...

References

  1. ^ a b Hand, Richard J. (2006). Terror on the Air!: Horror Radio in America, 1931-1952. Jefferson, North Carolina: Macfarlane & Company, 7. ISBN 0-786-42367-6. 
  2. ^ Radio Beat: Oct. 30, 1938 - The broadcast that scared a nation
  3. ^ 2X2L - double cRoss to hell: Council on Foreign Relations Experiments in Fear. Retrieved on 2007-11-10.
  4. ^ "War of the Worlds". Radio Lab. 2008-03-07. No. 3, season 4.
  5. ^ Grammy Awards and Nominations for 1989. Tribune Company (1989). Retrieved on 2007-07-31.
  6. ^ Don Moore (1992). THE DAY THE MARTIANS LANDED or stories they never tell on HCJB. Retrieved on 2007-11-10.
  7. ^ Blanksten, George I. "Ecuador." Britannica Book of the Year. 1st ed. 1 vols. Toronto: R. R. Donnelly & Sons Co., 1950. pp 238
  8. ^ Merike Kungla (31.03.2006). Viglata Viglast ja sajandi vembust (PDF) (Estonian) 10–11. Linnaleht. Retrieved on 2007-11-10.
  9. ^ The Central Park Zoo Scare of 1874. h2g2. BBC (August 2004). Retrieved on 2007-11-10.
  10. ^ Hey Arnold!: "Arnold's Halloween". IMDb. Retrieved on 2007-11-10.
The Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) is an influential and independent, nonpartisan foreign policy membership organization founded in 1921 and based at 58 East 68th Street (corner Park Avenue) in New York City, with an additional office in Washington, D.C. Through its membership, meetings, and studies, it has been... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Radio Lab is a radio show airing on National Public Radio, hosted by Jad Abumrad and Robert Krulwich. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... H2G2 is also an acronym for the The Hitchhikers Guide to the Galaxy. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Internet Movie Database (IMDb) [1] is an online database of information about actors, movies, television shows, television stars and video games. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The War of the Worlds (1898), by H. G. Wells, is an early science fiction novel which describes an invasion of England by aliens from Mars. ... Herbert George Wells (September 21, 1866 – August 13, 1946), better known as H. G. Wells, was an English writer best known for such science fiction novels as The Time Machine, The War of the Worlds, The Invisible Man, The First Men in the Moon and The Island of Doctor Moreau. ... Combatants United Kingdom Martians Commanders Brigadier-General Marvin † Ullachda(Martian War Commander)Zethnok Strength 8th Hussars, 12th Horse Artillery 5 fighting-machines Casualties Both towns destroyed, sizeable civilian and military casualties and total loss of materiel 1 fighting-machine lost, remaining fighting-machines retired to Horsell Common The Battle of... Combatants United Kingdom Martians Commanders unknown unknown Strength 115 Artillery Batteries 7 fighting-machines Casualties Total loss of materiel, heavy civilian and military casualties no fighting-machines lost In H. G. Wells fictional classic, The War of the Worlds, London fell to the Martian invaders. ... Combatants United Kingdom Martians Commanders unknown † none Strength 1 ironclad torpedo ram, Thunder Child 3 fighting-machines, Casualties Thunder Child lost 2 fighting-machines lost, fate of third unknown HMS Thunder Child is the fictional ironclad torpedo ram of the Royal Navy destroyed by Martian fighting-machines in H. G... In The War of the Worlds, H.G. Wells describes the Martians as octopus-like creatures; the body consists of only a head with eyes, v-shaped lipless beak-like mouth, and two brunches with a total of 16 tentacles. ... The term Black Smoke is also sometimes used to refer to The Monster from the television series Lost. ... The Embankment-machine (also known as the Digging Machine) was an automated machine used by the Martians in The War of the Worlds by H.G. Wells. ... This article refers to the tool of travel. ... In H. G. Wells science fiction classic The War of the Worlds, the Martian Invaders used two primary machines, the fighting-machine and the handling-machine. ... The Heat-Ray is the primary offensive weapon used by the Martians in the H. G. Wellss classic science fiction novel The War of the Worlds. ... The red weed (also referred to as the red creeper) is a plant native to Mars in The War of the Worlds. ... Martian tripods drawn by Warwick Goble. ... Grovers Mill is an unincorporated area within West Windsor Township, New Jersey made famous in Orson Welles 1938 radio broadcast of The War of the Worlds where it was depicted as ground zero for a Martian invasion. ... The Night That Panicked America is an American made-for-television movie that was originally broadcast on the ABC network on October 31, 1975. ... The War of the Worlds (also sometimes known as H.G. Wells The War of the Worlds) is a 1953 science fiction film produced by George Pál and directed by Byron Haskin from a script by Barré Lyndon based on the H. G. Wells novel of the same name. ... H.G. Wells The War of the Worlds is one of three film adaptations of H. G. Wells classic novel released in 2005. ... H.G. Wells War of the Worlds (also going by the title of Invasion and H.G. Wells The Worlds in War ) is one of three film adaptations of The War of the Worlds novel released in 2005. ... War of the Worlds is a 2005 science fiction disaster film based on H. G. Wells original novel starring Tom Cruise. ... Jeffrey Jeff Wayne is a musician mostly known for his musical version of H. G. Wells The War of the Worlds. ... For other uses, see The War of the Worlds (disambiguation). ... Highlights from Jeff Waynes Musical Version of The War of the Worlds is a compilation album by Jeff Wayne. ... Jeff Waynes The War of the Worlds is a Real-time strategy game developed by Rage Software Limited and released in 1998. ... War of the Worlds is a television program that ran for two seasons, from 1988 to 1990. ... Mor-Tax is the name of the planet in which the aliens from the first season of War of the Worlds TV series originate. ... The Advocacy, leaders of the Mor-Taxan forces invading Earth Mor-Taxans are the inhabitants of the fictional planet Mor-Tax, in the first season of the War of the Worlds television series. ... This article is a list of War of the Worlds episodes. ... Edisons Conquest of Mars, by Garrett P. Serviss, is one of the many science fiction novels published in the nineteenth century. ... Jonathan Raven, better known as Killraven, the Warrior of the Worlds, is a freedom fighter in a post-apocalyptic alternate future (Earth-691) of the fictional Marvel Universe. ... In the fictional Marvel Comics multiverse, Earth 691 or Earth-691 is the name used to identify a secondary continuity inhabited by Killraven and the Guardians of the Galaxy. ... Cover to Sherlock Holmess War of the Worlds Sherlock Holmess War of the Worlds is a sub-sequel to The War of the Worlds, written by Manly Wade Wellman and his son, Wade Wellman and published in 1975. ... Rainbow Mars is a science fiction novel by Larry Niven, in which humans from Earth visit the Mars and find it populated by the creations of Edgar Rice Burroughs, Ray Bradbury, C.S. Lewis, H.G. Wells, and Stanley Weinbaum - in short, all the great acience fiction writers who have... The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen, Volume II is a comic book limited series written by Alan Moore and illustrated by Kevin ONeill, published under the Americas Best Comics imprint of DC Comics. ... Scarlet Traces is a set of stories written by Ian Edginton, drawn by DIsraeli and published by Dark Horse Comics. ... The Martian War: A Thrilling Eyewitness Account of the Recent Invasion As Reported by Mr. ... The Time Ships is a 1995 science fiction novel by Stephen Baxter. ... In 1953, H. G. Wellss science fiction novel The War of the Worlds was made into a film, with its location and characters moved to an American setting, much as in the infamous 1938 Orson Welles radio broadcast version. ... H.G. Wells The War of the Worlds is a comic adaptation of H. G. Wells The War of the Worlds by Ian Edginton and DIsraeli. ... The Space Machine (ISBN 0-575-03994-9) is a science fiction novel authored by English writer Christopher Priest. ... An arcade game based H.G. Wells War of the Worlds. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
The War of the Worlds (radio) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2970 words)
This approach to radio drama had never been done before (at least not with as much continued verisimilitude), and the innovative format has been cited as a key factor in the confusion that would follow.
Because of the panic in the 1930s and 1940s associated with this radio play, U.S. TV networks have deemed it necessary to post bulletins to their viewing audience to inform them some TV stories were in fact fictional drama, and not really happening.
The War of the Worlds Murder[5] by Max Allan Collins was published by Berkley in 2005, blending fact and fiction for an exciting tale where Orson Welles is accused of murder and teams with The Shadow writer Walter Gibson to clear his name.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m