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Encyclopedia > The War of the Worlds (novel)
The War of the Worlds
Modern US popular paperback edition
Modern US popular paperback edition
Author H. G. Wells
Country United Kingdom
Language English
Genre(s) Science fiction, Novel
Publisher
Released 1898
Media Type Print (Hardcover & Paperback) & E-book
ISBN NA

The War of the Worlds (1898), by H. G. Wells, is an early science fiction novel (or novella) which describes an invasion of England by aliens from Mars. It is one of the best-known depictions of an alien invasion of Earth. Image File history File links HGWells_WarOfTheWorlds_mod. ... Herbert George Wells (September 21, 1866 – August 13, 1946) was an English writer best known for such science fiction novels as The Time Machine, The War of the Worlds, The Invisible Man, and The Island of Doctor Moreau. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... A novel (from French nouvelle Italian novella, new) is an extended, generally fictional narrative in prose. ... A hardcover (or hardback or hardbound) book is bound with rigid protective covers (typically of cardboard covered with cloth or heavy paper) and a stitched spine. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... An e-book (also: eBook, ebook), sometimes called an electronic book, is an electronic (or digital) equivalent of a conventional printed book. ... 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Herbert George Wells (September 21, 1866 – August 13, 1946) was an English writer best known for such science fiction novels as The Time Machine, The War of the Worlds, The Invisible Man, and The Island of Doctor Moreau. ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... A novel (from French nouvelle Italian novella, new) is an extended, generally fictional narrative in prose. ... A novella is a short novel; a narrative work of prose fiction somewhat longer than a short story but shorter than a novel. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2005 est. ... The Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico, currently used by the SETI project in the search for extraterrestrial life Extraterrestrial life is life that may exist and originate outside the planet Earth, the only place in the universe currently known by humans to support life. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... The alien invasion is a common theme in science fiction stories and film, in which a technologically-superior extraterrestrial society invades Earth with the intent to replace human life, or to enslave it under a colonial system, or in some cases, to use humans as food. ...

Contents

Plot summary

As the story begins, the unnamed narrator (essentially a fictionalised version of Wells) has been invited to an observatory in Ottershaw by a "noted astronomer" named Ogilvy. There he witnesses an explosion on the surface of the planet Mars, one of a series of such events that arouses much interest in the scientific community. A short time later, a "meteor" is seen landing on Horsell Common, near London. The narrator's home is close by, and he is among the first to discover the object is a space-going cylinder launched from Mars. The cylinder opens, disgorging the Martians: bulky tentacled creatures that begin setting up strange machinery in the cylinder's impact crater. A human deputation moves towards the crater waving a white flag of truce and is incinerated by a laser-like Heat-Ray. Ottershaw is a village in the Runnymede and Weybridge district of Surrey, England about 25 miles to the south-west of London. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... Photo of a burst of meteors with extended exposure time A meteor is the visible path of a meteoroid that enters the Earths (or another bodys) atmosphere, commonly called a shooting star or falling star. ... Horsell in Surrey is a village on the outskirts of Woking, probably best known because of its association with the story The War of the Worlds, written by H. G. Wells. ... In The War of the Worlds, H.G. Wells describes the Martians as octopus-like creatures; the body consists of only a head with eyes, v-shaped lipless beak-like mouth, and two brunches with a total of 16 tentacles. ... Tentacles can refer to the elongated flexible organs that are present in some animals, especially invertebrates, and sometimes to the hairs of the leaves of some insectivorous plants. ... German troops after surrendering to the U.S. Third Army carry the white flag (WW2 photo). ... // Experiment using a (likely argon) laser. ... In H. G. Wellss classic science fiction novel The War of the Worlds, Heat-Rays are the primary offensive weapon used by the Martians. ...

A statue erected in Woking town centre of a tripod inspired by the book.
A statue erected in Woking town centre of a tripod inspired by the book.

After the attack, the narrator takes his wife to Leatherhead to stay with relatives until the Martians are killed, but upon returning home, he sees firsthand what the Martians have been assembling: towering three-legged "fighting-machines" armed with the Heat-Ray and a chemical weapon: "the Black Smoke". The tripods smash through the army units now positioned around the crater and attack the surrounding communities. The narrator meets a retreating artilleryman, who tells him that another cylinder has landed between Woking and Leatherhead, cutting the narrator off from his wife. The two men try to escape together, but are separated during a Martian attack on Shepperton. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 582 KB) Summary This is a statue of a Tripod inspired by the book The War of the Worlds and errected as a tribute to the books author Herbert Wells. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 582 KB) Summary This is a statue of a Tripod inspired by the book The War of the Worlds and errected as a tribute to the books author Herbert Wells. ... Statistics Population: 9,685[1] Ordnance Survey OS grid reference: TQ1656 Administration District: Mole Valley D.C. Shire county: Surrey Region: South East England Constituent country: England Sovereign state: United Kingdom Other Ceremonial county: Surrey Historic county: Surrey Services Police force: Surrey Police Fire and rescue: {{{Fire}}} Ambulance: South East... Martian tripods drawn by Warwick Goble. ... Chemical warfare is warfare (and associated military operations) using the toxic properties of chemical substances to kill, injure or incapacitate an enemy. ... The term Black Smoke is also sometimes used to refer to The Monster from the television series Lost. ... Historically, artillery (from French artillerie) refers to any engine used for the discharge of projectiles during war. ... Woking is a large town and local government district with borough status in the west of Surrey in South East England. ... Shepperton is a small town in Middlesex in the borough of Spelthorne, in England. ...


More cylinders land across the English countryside, and a frantic mass evacuation of London begins; among the fleeing swarms of humanity is the narrator's brother, who eventually gains passage on a ship, crossing the English Channel to safety. One of the tripods is destroyed in the Shepperton battle by an artillery barrage and two more are brought down in Tillingham Bay by the torpedo ram HMS Thunder Child before the vessel is sunk, but soon all organised resistance has been beaten down and the Martians hold sway over much of southern England. Map of the English Channel Satellite view of the English Channel The English Channel (French: La Manche (IPA: ), the sleeve) is the part of the Atlantic Ocean that separates the island of Great Britain from northern France and joins the North Sea to the Atlantic. ... A torpedo ram is a type of warship combining design elements from the cruiser and the monitor, intended to provide small and inexpensive weapon systems for coastal defence and other littoral combat. ... HMS Thunder Child was the fictional ironclad torpedo ram of the Royal Navy destroyed by Martian fighting machines in H. G. Wellss The War of the Worlds. ...


The narrator becomes trapped in a half-destroyed building overlooking the crater of one of the later Martian landing sites and covertly witnesses the Martians close at hand, including their use of captured humans as a food supply through the direct transfusion of their blood. He is not alone; with him is a curate whose intellect and reason have been damaged by the trauma of the attacks and whose irrational behaviour finally causes him to be discovered and dragged away by the Martians. The narrator barely avoids the same fate, and the Martians eventually abandon their encampment. The narrator then travels into a deserted London where he discovers that the invaders have abruptly succumbed to terrestrial disease-causing microbes, to which they have no immunity. The narrator is unexpectedly reunited with his wife, and they, along with the rest of humanity, set out to face the new and expanded universe the war has thrust upon them. From the Latin curatus (compare Curator), a curate is a person who is invested with the care, or cure (cura), of souls of a parish. ...


The alternate ending

The book contains a thoroughly worked-out alternative ending, presented through the vision of an artilleryman which the hero meets in his wanderings: the Martians would rule Earth for generations to come; most humans (especially the "soft" middle classes towards whom complete contempt is shown) would soon get used to being domestic animals; a nucleus of daring humans would hide out in tunnels and sewers, and would have about the same place in the Martian-dominated ecology as rats in the previous human ecology; but after the passage of generations, these defiant humans would learn to duplicate the Martian weapons and destroy the invaders. The artilleryman's ambition is eventually exposed as nothing more than one man's delusion of grandeur — he has no means to set about the project, and shows a complete lack of determination to complete even the simple and short term goals that would set the rest of his plans in motion.


Endings by other authors

John Christopher's trilogy The Tripods tries to write in full this alternate ending. Many of the details are different — Christopher's invaders come from another solar system rather than Mars, and they do not use humans as food, but intend to eliminate humanity; still, Wells's basic scheme — a successful alien invasion, the conquerors striding over the Earth for many generations in huge tripedal machines, and a daring small band of humans hiding in caves and tunnels eventually defeating them against all odds — is faithfully followed by Christopher. Samuel Youd (born February 12, 1922 in Lancashire) is a British science fiction author. ... The Tripods title, seemingly computer-generated, but made using traditional animation The Tripods is series of novels written by Samuel Youd (under the pen name John Christopher) beginning in the late 1960s. ...


Robert A. Heinlein took up the same theme, in a slightly more humorous way, in his The Number of the Beast where the heroes visit several different versions of Mars. One of them is the home planet of Martians who managed to hold on to the conquered Earth. The heroes encounter tribes of humans living in the Martian wilds, descendants of captive humans who had been transported to Mars by the conquerors and there managed to escape. Also on Mars, the wild humans still speak cockney English — while the Martians' obedient slaves seem descended mainly from upper-class Englishmen. This article is becoming very long. ... Book cover The Number of the Beast is a science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein published in 1980 (ISBN 0-44-913070-3). ... Cockneys are, in the present-day sense of the word, white working-class inhabitants of London. ...


Sequence of events

Martian war machines loom over the River Thames in an illustration by Warwick Goble.
Martian war machines loom over the River Thames in an illustration by Warwick Goble.

Ten Martian landings are mentioned in the novel commencing in June "early in the twentieth century": Image File history File links Download high resolution version (500x767, 120 KB)Illustration from War of the Worlds as published in Pearsons Magazine, 1897 Scanned by User:Rayay Aug 22 2005 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (500x767, 120 KB)Illustration from War of the Worlds as published in Pearsons Magazine, 1897 Scanned by User:Rayay Aug 22 2005 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this... The Thames (pronounced []) is a river flowing through southern England, in its lower reaches flowing through London into the sea. ... An illustration by Warwick Goble for Beauty and the Beast, 1913. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999...

  • First Martian Landing (Day 1): Horsell Common.
  • Second Martian Landing (Day 2): Addlestone Golf links.
  • Third Martian Landing (Day 3): Pyrford.
  • Fourth Martian Landing (Day 4): Bushey Heath.
  • Fifth Martian Landing (Day 5): Sheen.
  • Sixth Martian Landing (Day 6): Wimbledon.
  • Seventh Martian Landing (Day 7): Primrose Hill, London.
  • 8th, 9th, 10th Landings (Days 8, 9, 10): landing sites not mentioned in the book - presumably within London.

The duration of the war is three weeks: Horsell in Surrey is a village on the outskirts of Woking, probably best known because of its association with the story The War of the Worlds, written by H. G. Wells. ... Addlestone is a town in the Runnymede Borough of Surrey, England. ... Pyrford is a village in Surrey. ... Map sources for Bushey at grid reference TQ132952 Bushey (population 24,000) is a town in the Hertsmere borough of Hertfordshire in the East of England. ... Sheen is a place in southwest London nearby to Barnes, Roehampton and Putney to the east and Richmond to the west. ... Wimbledon (pronounced ) is a suburb of London, part of the London Borough of Merton and located seven miles (11. ... Primrose Hill. ... London (pronounced ) is the capital city of England and the United Kingdom. ...

  • On Days 1 and 2, the Martians secure their initial bridgehead around Woking.
  • On Day 3, they begin first major offensives of the invasion (the Battle of Weybridge/Shepperton and begin the attack on London).
  • Day 4 sees the great panic and exodus from London.
  • On Day 5, the narrator is imprisoned by the fifth Martian landing.
  • On Day 6, the city of London is entirely occupied by the Martians.
  • Day 7 sees the Battle of Southend and the sacrifice of the Thunder Child.
  • During Days 8 to 18, the narrator watches the Martians while still trapped.
  • Day 10 is the approximate date on which Leatherhead (the town to which the narrator had sent his wife for safety) is destroyed by a Martian, killing everyone. Fortunately, his wife escapes before the attack and they are reunited after the Martians' destruction.
  • On days 19 and 20, the narrator makes his way to London.
  • In the early morning of day 21, the Martians are found dead.

Woking is a large town and local government district with borough status in the west of Surrey in South East England. ... Combatants United Kingdom Martians Commanders Brigadier-General Marvin † Ullachda(Martian War Commander)Zethnok Strength 8th Hussars, 12th Horse Artillery 5 fighting-machines Casualties Both towns destroyed, sizeable civilian and military casualties and total loss of materiel 1 fighting-machine lost, remaining fighting-machines retired to Horsell Common The Battle of... Combatants United Kingdom Martians Commanders unknown unknown Strength 115 Artillery Batteries 7 fighting-machines Casualties Total loss of materiel, heavy civilian and military casualties no fighting-machines lost In H. G. Wells fictional classic, The War of the Worlds, London fell to the Martian invaders. ... The Sacrifice of Thunder Child was a fictitious battle described in H. G. Wellss The War of the Worlds. ... Statistics Population: 9,685[1] Ordnance Survey OS grid reference: TQ1656 Administration District: Mole Valley D.C. Shire county: Surrey Region: South East England Constituent country: England Sovereign state: United Kingdom Other Ceremonial county: Surrey Historic county: Surrey Services Police force: Surrey Police Fire and rescue: {{{Fire}}} Ambulance: South East... London (pronounced ) is the capital city of England and the United Kingdom. ...

Scientific predictions and accuracy

In 1898, Italian astronomers observed natural features on Mars and called them canali (Italian for "channels"), fuelling the belief that there was some sort of intelligent extraterrestrial life on the planet. An astronomer or astrophysicist is a person whose area of interest is astronomy or astrophysics. ... Map of Mars by Giovanni Schiaparelli. ...


Wells depicts the Martians firing spacecraft to Earth from a giant space gun, a common representation of space travel in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, bearing similarity to the modern spacecraft propulsion concept of mass drivers. A remote camera captures a close-up view of a Space Shuttle Main Engine during a test firing at the John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Mississippi Spacecraft propulsion is used to change the velocity of spacecraft and artificial satellites, or in short, to provide delta-v. ... A mass driver for lunar launch (artists conception) A mass driver or electromagnetic catapult is a method of spacecraft propulsion that would use a linear motor to accelerate payloads up to high speeds. ...


Military theorists of that era had many speculations of building a "fighting-machine" or "land dreadnought" (as the Royal Navy called this hypothetical machine on which some experiments were made just before the First World War). Wells's concept of the Martian tripods, fast-moving and equipped with Heat-Rays and black smoke, represents an ultimate end to these speculations, although Wells also presents less fantastic depiction of the armoured fighting vehicle in his short story "The Land Ironclads". [1] [2] The sixth HMS Dreadnought of the British Royal Navy was the first battleship to have a uniform main battery, rather than having a secondary battery of smaller guns. ... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore the Senior Service). ... An armoured fighting vehicle (AFV) is a military vehicle, equipped with protection against hostile attacks and often mounted weapons. ... Written in 1904 by HG Wells, The Land Ironclads is a short story set in a war similar to the First World War. ...


On a different field, the book explicitly suggests that the Martians' anatomy may reflect the far future development of mankind itself — i.e. that with the increasing development of machines, the body is largely discarded and what remains is essentially a brain that "wears" a different (mechanical) body for every need, just as humans wear the clothes appropriate to a particular weather or work.


A further development of that idea, that the Martians have given up their stomachs and digestive tracts and instead they subsist by introducing the blood of other creatures into their veins, is sometimes criticised on biological grounds.[citation needed]


Interpretations

H.G. Wells was a strong supporter of the theory of evolution, and saw every species as being engaged in a constant, and often brutal struggle for survival. In the book, the Martian/mankind conflict is portrayed as a similar struggle, but on a larger scale. The book explores the morality inherent in social Darwinism, an ideology of some prominence at the time. In 1832, while travelling on the Beagle, naturalist Charles Darwin collected giant fossils in South America. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


The science fiction author Isaac Asimov argued that the book was intended as an indictment of European colonial actions in Africa, Asia, Australasia, and the Americas. In the mindset of the time, European technological superiority was seen as evidence of all-round superiority, and thus Europeans were more qualified to administer colonised regions than their native inhabitants. The novel challenges this perspective by depicting the Martian invasion as unjust, regardless of the Martian technological superiority. Wells himself introduces this theme in the novel's first chapter: Isaac Asimov, Ph. ... See colony and colonisation for examples of colonialism which do not refer to Western colonialism. ...

"And before we judge them [the Martians] too harshly, we must remember what ruthless and utter destruction our own species has wrought, not only upon animals, such as the vanished bison and the dodo, but upon its own inferior races. The Tasmanians, in spite of their human likeness, were entirely swept out of existence in a war of extermination waged by European immigrants, in the space of fifty years. Are we such apostles of mercy as to complain if the Martians warred in the same spirit?"—Chapter I, "The Eve of the War"

There is a small autobiographical element to the book: Wells seems to have taken great pleasure in the fictional devastation of locations where he had spent an unhappy childhood. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Animal rights activist David McKnight, writing in the November 2004 issue of Human and Animal Rights, noted that at least five vegetarians and animal rights activists known to him were substantially influenced to take their stance by reading Wells's book, which vividly conveys human beings' horror at becoming in effect the Martians' food animals. The logo of the Great Ape Project, which is campaigning for a Declaration on Great Apes. ... Human and Animal Rights is (or was) a radical Animal Rights publication. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Vegetarianism For plant-eating, non-human animals, see Herbivore. ...


The book could also be seen as a message that planet Earth was not as safe as it seemed. More broadly, this book illustrates the potential disaster that young civilizations can face in an outside context problem. Earth (IPA: , often referred to as the Earth, Terra, the World or Planet Earth) is the third planet in the solar system in terms of distance from the Sun, and the fifth largest. ... An Outside Context Problem or an OCP is any problem outside a given organisation or societys experience, with an immediate, ubiquitous and lasting impact upon an entire culture or civilisation. ...


Unanswered questions

  • The narrator comments that on the fourth or fifth night of his imprisonment in the rubble of the fifth Martian landing, he heard two sets of six distinct reports - sounding like heavy guns firing. No explanation is ever given for this event, although one might assume that it is the British army or navy attacking the tripods with artillery.
  • There is no description of the aftermath of the Southend engagement (Martians vs HMS Thunder Child), so it was not explained if the three supporting ironclads did any damage to the third Martian fighting machine.
  • After the Thunder Child incident, no account of the narrator's brother is given, although it can be inferred that he survived to tell the narrator of the events he witnessed. (The original edition, published in Pearson's Magazine, indicates that he married one of his female companions from the London Exodus.)
  • No information on the landing sites of the eighth, ninth, and tenth Martian invasion ships were given. The only information given is that the site of the seventh landing was "the final and largest" base.
  • The narrator's name and his brother's name are never revealed. Some altered versions say he was H. G. Wells and that his brother is Wells's brother Frank.

HMS Thunder Child was the fictional ironclad torpedo ram of the Royal Navy destroyed by Martian fighting machines in H. G. Wellss The War of the Worlds. ... Herbert George Wells (September 21, 1866 – August 13, 1946) was an English writer best known for such science fiction novels as The Time Machine, The War of the Worlds, The Invisible Man, and The Island of Doctor Moreau. ...

Relation to Invasion Literature

Reserchers have noted the connection between Wells' book and the sub-genre known as "invasion literature" which was very common in the West - and particularly in Britain - in the decades before the First World War, and which reflected the increasing feeling of anxiety and insecurity as international tensions escalated towards the coming war. The Battle of Dorking (1871) triggered an explosion of invasion literature. ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ...


Most such books had plots concerned with human armies invading each other's country, with British books mostly depicting German and/or French invading armies on British soil. Still, there were noted many plot similarities between Wells' book and The Battle of Dorking (1871) by George Tomkyns Chesney: in both books, a ruthless ememy makes a devastating surprise attack, with the British armed forces helpless to stop its relentless advance; and both works contain many passages written in the author's own voice which seem designed to try and shake Britons out of the complacent self-satisfaction of the Victorian age. The Battle of Dorking (1871) triggered an explosion of invasion literature. ... Sir George Tomkyns Chesney (April 30, 1830-March 31, 1895), British Army general, brother of Colonel Charles Cornwallis Chesney, was born at Tiverton, Devon, on April 30, 1830. ... Queen Victoria (shown here on the morning of her Ascension to the Throne, 20 June 1837) gave her name to the historic era The Victorian Era of Great Britain marked the height of the British industrial revolution and the apex of the British Empire. ...


There are also similarities between Wells' book and the widely successful The Great War in England in 1897 published four years earlier (1894) by William Le Queux, where an invading French army penetrates to the heart of London - though Le Queux's book is written in a spirit of jingoistic nationalism opposite to Wells' tone. Written by William Le Queux and published by Tower Publishing Co. ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... William Tufnell Le Queux (1864 - 1927) was a British journalist and writer. ...


Adaptations

The War of the Worlds has been adapted numerous times for radio, film, TV and video games.

Sherlock Holmes War of the Worlds is a sub-sequel to The War of the Worlds, written by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle. ... Orson Welles radio adaptation of H. G. Wells classic novel The War of the Worlds was performed by Mercury Theatre on the Air as a Halloween special on October 30, 1938. ... The War of the Worlds (1953) was produced by George Pál (the second of three H. G. Wells science fiction stories to be filmed by Pál) and directed by Byron Haskin from a script by Barré Lyndon, and starred Gene Barry, Les Tremayne and Ann Robinson. ... Jeff Waynes Musical Version of The War of the Worlds was a 1978 concept album by Jeff Wayne and others, retelling the story of The War of the Worlds by H. G. Wells. ... War of the Worlds is a television program that ran for two seasons, from 1988 to 1990. ... An arcade game based H.G. Wells War of the Worlds. ... Jeff Waynes The War of the Worlds is a Real-time strategy game developed by Rage Software Limited and released in 1998. ... The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen is a comic book limited series written by Alan Moore and illustrated by Kevin ONeill, published under the Americas Best Comics imprint of DC Comics. ... War of the Worlds is a 2005 science fiction film based on H. G. Wells original novel of the same name. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... H.G. Wells War of the Worlds (also going by the title of Invasion) is one of three film adaptations of The War of the Worlds novel released in 2005. ... H.G. Wells The War of the Worlds comic is an adaptation of H. G. Wells The War of the Worlds by Ian Edginton and DIsraeli. ...

Influence

The theme of alien invasion has remained popular ever since the story's initial publishing, some recent examples being Footfall by Larry Niven and Jerry Pournelle, the "Worldwar" series by Harry Turtledove, and the film Independence Day. Tim Burton's farcical Mars Attacks! shares many themes with The War of the Worlds, particularly the unexpected and inglorious demise of the Martian invaders. The alien invasion is a common theme in science fiction stories and film, in which a technologically-superior extraterrestrial society invades Earth with the intent to replace human life, or to enslave it under a colonial system, or in some cases, to use humans as food. ... Footfall is a 1985 science fiction novel written by Larry Niven and Jerry Pournelle. ... Larry Niven Laurence van Cott Niven (born April 30, 1938) is a US science fiction author. ... Jerry Pournelle at the 2006 Stanford Singularity Summit Jerry Pournelle, (born August 7, 1933) is an American essayist, journalist and science fiction author who contributed for many years to the computer magazine Byte. ... Worldwar is a series of four alternate history science fiction novels by Harry Turtledove. ... Harry Turtledove at Worldcon 2005 in Glasgow Harry Norman Turtledove (born June 14, 1949), is a historian and prolific novelist who has written historical fiction, fantasy, and science fiction works. ... Independence Day (also known as its promotional abbreviation ID4) is an American science fiction movie about an attempted alien takeover of Earth. ... Timothy William Burton (born August 25, 1958 in Burbank, California) is an American film director, writer and designer known for his off-beat and quirky style. ... Mars Attacks! is a comedy science fiction film by Tim Burton based on the popular card series Mars Attacks. ...


The idea of powered armor and mecha also originated in The War of the Worlds. The AT-AT walkers in The Empire Strikes Back were roughly based on the idea of walking war machines. Tripod-like machines called Striders employed by the Combine from the computer game Half Life 2 along with other themes bear striking resemblance to those mentioned in the book. The Sentinels from the Matrix trilogy are also machines with many tentacles, and are seen grabbing humans (though only to throw them to their deaths) during the siege of Zion as shown in The Matrix Revolutions. Conceptual drawing of an exoskeleton produced by the U.S Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. ... One common feature of logos used by MEChA chapters, an Eagle holding a lit stick of dynamite and a maquahuitl. ... The All Terrain Armored Transport (AT-AT), also called the Imperial Walker, was a major part of the Galactic Empires army in the fictional Star Wars universe. ... Movie poster Star Wars Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back is the sequel to the first released Star Wars movie, and the second film released in the original trilogy. ... This is a list of humanoid and synthetic forces employed by the Combine empire in Half-Life 2, a 2004 first-person shooter. ... The Combine is a powerful alien race and empire from Valve Corporations 2004 first-person shooter computer game Half-Life 2. ... Half-Life 2 is a first-person shooter computer game and the highly anticipated sequel to Half-Life developed by Valve Software. ... The Matrix series consists primarily of three films, The Matrix, The Matrix Reloaded and The Matrix Revolutions. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ...


The Tripods is a sci-fi trilogy for young adults written between 1967 and 1968 by John Christopher. It depicts the Earth after it has been overcome by aliens in three-legged machines. Humanity has been enslaved, and the books focus on the struggle by some teenagers to free the world of alien domination. The Tripods title, seemingly computer-generated, but made using traditional animation The Tripods is series of novels written by Samuel Youd (under the pen name John Christopher) beginning in the late 1960s. ... Samuel Youd (born February 12, 1922 in Lancashire) is a British science fiction author. ... The Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico, currently used by the SETI project in the search for extraterrestrial life Extraterrestrial life is life that may exist and originate outside the planet Earth, the only place in the universe currently known by humans to support life. ...


The alternate ending of the novel and its aftermath has popularized the scenario where the remnants of humanity have to pull together to take back the Earth. Along with Christopher's Tripods, L. Ron Hubbard's Battlefield Earth and the 1980s television miniseries and series V are other notable examples where the story starts sometime after a successful alien invasion of Earth; instead focusing on the determination of a few humans using guerilla tactics to defeat the alien occupation and the obstacles they must face both from the aliens and fellow humans alike. In such stories, the aliens tend to get far more character development than the faceless monsters originally depicted in the Wells novel. This allows room for subplots told on both sides. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, the lead section of this article may need to be expanded. ... Battlefield Earth is the title of both a science fiction novel written by Scientology founder L. Ron Hubbard, and a film adaptation of the novel produced by and starring John Travolta. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... V was a 1983 U.S. science fiction television miniseries written and directed by Kenneth Johnson and first shown on NBC. It starred Jane Badler, Marc Singer, Faye Grant, Michael Ironside, Michael Durrell, Jenny Sullivan, Richard Herd, Peter Nelson, David Packer, Blair Tefkin, Diane Civita and Robert Englund. ... Guerrilla (also called a partisan) is a term borrowed from Spanish (from guerra meaning war) used to describe small combat groups. ...


Sequels by other authors

A number of people have written follow-up stories, often telling how the invasion went in places other than Britain. Two notable stories of this type are:

War of the Worlds: Global Dispatches, edited by Kevin J. Anderson, is an anthology of such stories (ISBN 0-553-10353-9). Howard Waldrop (born September 15, 1946) in Houston, Mississippi, and got his degree from the University of Texas. ... Walter Jon Williams (born 15 October 1953) is an American writer, primarily of science fiction. ... Kevin J. Anderson (born March 27, 1962) is an American science fiction author. ...


Within six weeks of the novel's original 1897 magazine serialization, the New York Journal American began running a sequel, Edison's Conquest of Mars by Garrett P. Serviss, about an Earth counterattack against the Martians, led by Thomas Edison. 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... The New York Journal American was a newspaper purchased by William Randolph Hearst in 1895 (at the time called the New York Morning Journal, then the New York Journal). ... Edisons Conquest of Mars, by Garrett P. Serviss, is one of the earliest science fiction stories. ... Strike Thomas Alva Edison (February 11, 1847 – October 18, 1931) was an American inventor and businessman who developed many devices which greatly influenced life in the 20th century. ...


Eric Brown wrote a short story, "Ulla, Ulla" (2002) about an expedition to Mars, finding the truth behind H.G. Wells' novel. Eric Brown (born May 25, 1960) is a science fiction author who has written (amongst others) Meridian Days (1992) and Engineman (1994). ...


A French-Canadian author, Jean-Pierre Guillet, wrote a sequel to the book called La Cage de Londres, ("The Cage of London"). After the aliens were defeated, they plotted revenge, and came back prepared to finally enslave humanity, and breed it for their bloody needs. The Cage of London is one of those breeding sites.


In the novel W. G. Grace's Last Case by Willie Rushton, W. G. Grace and Doctor Watson avert a second Martian invasion by attacking the Martian fleet on the far side of the moon with "bombs" containing influenza germs. William George Rushton, commonly known as Willie Rushton (August 18, 1937–December 11, 1996) was a British cartoonist, satirist, comedian, actor and performer. ... William Gilbert WG Grace (July 18, 1848 – October 23, 1915) was an English cricketer who, by his extraordinary skills, made cricket perhaps the first modern spectator sport, and who developed most of the techniques of modern batting. ... Dr. Watson (left) and Sherlock Holmes, by Sidney Paget. ...


Manly and Wade Wellamn, who wrote Sherlock Holmes' War of the Worlds which describes Sherlock Holmes's adventures during the Martian occupation of London, turned the Martians into simple vampires, who suck and ingest human blood. Sherlock Holmes War of the Worlds is a sub-sequel to The War of the Worlds, written by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle. ...


The comic book Scarlet Traces begins a decade later with Great Britain utilising the Martians' technology, and ironic to the allegory of Wells' novel, have become more powerful because of it. Eventually, this leads up to a counter-invasion aimed for Mars. Scarlet Traces is a set of stories written by Ian Edginton, drawn by DIsraeli and published by Dark Horse Comics. ...


Other references

In the comic version of The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen, the invasion by the Martians is told from the perspective of The League, who are instructed to contact Doctor Moreau so that they can unleash H-142, a biological weapon that is a hybrid of anthrax and streptococcus upon the Martians. The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen is a comic book limited series written by Alan Moore and illustrated by Kevin ONeill, published under the Americas Best Comics imprint of DC Comics. ... // The Island of Doctor Moreau is an 1896 science fiction novel written by H. G. Wells, addressing ideas of society and community, human nature and identity, religion, Darwinism, eugenics, and the dangers of unchecked and irresponsible scientific research. ... Biological warfare, also known as germ warfare, is the use of any organism (bacteria, virus or other disease-causing organism) or toxin found in nature, as a weapon of war. ... Streptococcus, a genus of spherical, Gram-positive bacteria of the phylum Firmicutes. ...


In the 1970's, Marvel Comics had a character named Killraven Warrior of the Worlds who (in an alternate timeline) fought H. G. Wells' Martians after their second invasion of Earth. He first appeared in Amazing Adventures volume 2 #18. Marvel Comics is an American comic book line published by Marvel Entertainment, Inc. ... Jonathan Raven, better known as Killraven, the Warrior of the Worlds, is a freedom fighter in a post-apocalyptic alternate future (Earth-691) of the fictional Marvel Universe. ... Amazing Adventures is the name of several anthology-format comic book series, all but one published by Marvel Comics. ...


In 1975, Manly Wade Wellman and his son Wade Wellman published Sherlock Holmes' War of the Worlds in which Holmes, Doctor Watson, and Professor Challenger experience the events described in the original H.G. Wells novel. Manly Wade Wellman (May 21, 1903 - April 5, 1986) was an American writer of fiction and non-fiction. ... Dr. Watson (left) and Sherlock Holmes, by Sidney Paget. ... Professor Challenger (sitting) as illustrated by Harry Rountree in Conan Arthur Doyles short story The Poison Belt in Strand Magazine. ...


In 1978, Toshihiro Nishikado working at Taito designed the aliens for the popular arcade video game Space Invaders based on the description of the octopus-like Martians from the original Wells novel, according to an October 2005 interview with the British gaming magazine Edge. This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... The Taito Corporation (タイトー株式会社, taitou kabushikigaisha) TYO: 9646 is a Japanese developer of video game software and arcade hardware. ... A video arcade (known as an amusement arcade in the United Kingdom) is a place where people play arcade video games. ... It has been suggested that Multiplayer Video Games be merged into this article or section. ... Space Invaders is an arcade video game designed by Toshihiro Nishikado in 1978. ... Edge is a multi-format computer and video game magazine published by Future Publishing in the United Kingdom. ...


In one episode of Invader Zim GIR watchs a movie that features an alien invasion being defeated by germs. Invader Zim is an American animated television series created by comic book writer/artist Jhonen Vasquez and aired on Nickelodeon. ...


The Aparoid boss in the second level of the video game Star Fox: Assault seems to be a spoof on a tripod.


See also

The Battle of Dorking (1871) triggered an explosion of invasion literature. ...

External links

Wikisource has original text related to this article:

Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Project Gutenberg (often abbreviated as PG) is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive, and distribute cultural works. ...

Bibliography

  • Roth, Christopher F. (2005) "Ufology as Anthropology: Race, Extraterrestrials, and the Occult." In E.T. Culture: Anthropology in Outerspaces, ed. by Debbora Battaglia. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press.

  Results from FactBites:
 
War Of The Worlds invasion: The complete War Of The Worlds website (747 words)
Even Sherlock Holmes has locked horns with the Martians in Sherlock Holmes' War Of The Worlds, but the common thread is a fasination with a planet that has in equal measure, forever tantilised and terrified human minds.
George Pal was the first director to bring The War Of The Worlds to the big screen in 1953 and just last year Steven Spielberg and Tom Cruise re-imagined the invasion with a massive budget that brought the Tripods vividly to life for the first time.
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The novel challenges this perspective by depicting the Martian invasion as unjust, regardless of the Martian technological superiority.
War of the Worlds: Global Dispatches, edited by Kevin J. Anderson, is an anthology of such stories (ISBN 0-553-10353-9).
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