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Encyclopedia > The Troubles

The Troubles (Irish: Na Trioblóidí) is a term used to describe the latest installment of periodic communal violence involving Republican and Loyalist paramilitary organisations, the Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC), the British Army and others in Northern Ireland from the late 1960s until the Belfast Agreement of 10 April 1998. The Troubles have been variously described as terrorism, ethnic conflict, a many-sided conflict, a guerrilla war, a low intensity conflict, and even a civil war. Troubles may refer to: Time of Troubles the 17th century political crisis in Russia Troubles (band) a UK post-rock band Troubles (novel) a novel by J G Farrell The Troubles is a term used to describe the latest installment of violence in Northern Ireland. ... Look up trouble in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... A paramilitary organization is a group of civilians trained and organized in a military fashion. ... The Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) was name of the police force in Northern Ireland from 1922 to 2001. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: ) is a part of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... The Belfast Agreement (also known as the Good Friday Agreement and, more rarely, as the Stormont Agreement) was a major political development in the Northern Ireland peace process. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... An ethnic war is a war between ethnic groups often as a result of ethnic nationalism. ... For other uses, see Conflict (disambiguation). ... Guerrilla warfare (also guerilla) is the unconventional warfare and combat with which small group combatants (usually civilians) use mobile tactics (ambushes, raids, etc) to combat a larger, less mobile formal army. ... Low intensity conflict (LIC) is the use of military forces applied selectively and with restraint to enforce compliance with the policies or objectives of the political body controlling the military force. ... A civil war is a war in which parties within the same culture, society or nationality fight against each other for the control of political power. ...

Contents

Overview

The Troubles consisted of about 30 years of repeated acts of intense violence between elements of Northern Ireland's nationalist community (principally Roman Catholic) and unionist community (principally Protestant). The conflict was caused by the disputed status of Northern Ireland within the United Kingdom and the domination of the minority nationalist community, and alleged discrimination against them, by the unionist majority. The violence was characterised by the armed campaigns of paramilitary groups. Most notable of these was the Provisional IRA campaign of 1969–1997 which was aimed at the end of British rule in Northern Ireland and the creation of a new, "all-Ireland", Irish Republic. Northern Ireland (Irish: ) is a part of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... Irish nationalism refers to political movements that desire greater autonomy or the independence of Ireland from Great Britain. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... In the Irish context, Unionists form a group of largely (though not exclusively) Protestant people in Ireland, of all social classes, who wish to see the continuation of the Act of Union, as amended by the Government of Ireland Act 1920, under which the Northern Ireland provincial state created in... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Propaganda poster of the Provisional IRA. From 1969 until 1997, the Provisional Irish Republican Army (Provisional IRA) conducted an armed campaign (or guerrilla war) in the United Kingdom aimed at overthrowing British rule in Northern Ireland to create a united Ireland. ...


In response to this campaign and the perceived erosion of both the British character and unionist domination of Northern Ireland, loyalist paramilitaries such as the Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) and Ulster Defence Association (UDA) launched their own campaigns against the nationalist population. The state security forces — the British Army and the police (the Royal Ulster Constabulary) — were also involved in the violence. The British government's point of view is that its forces were neutral in the conflict and trying to uphold law and order in Northern Ireland and the right of the people of Northern Ireland to democratic self-determination. Irish republicans, however, regarded the state forces as "combatants" in the conflict, using alleged collusion between the state forces and the loyalist paramilitaries as proof of this. The "Ballast" investigation by the Police Ombudsman has confirmed that British forces, and in particular the RUC, did collude with loyalist paramilitaries, were involved in murder, and did obstruct the course of justice when such claims had previously been investigated,[1] although the extent to which such collusion occurred is still hotly disputed, with Unionists claiming that reports of collusion are either false or highly exaggerated and that there were also instances of collusion between the authorities in the Republic of Ireland and Republican paramilitaries. See also the section below on Collusion - Security Forces and loyalist paramilitaries. In the Irish context, Unionists form a group of largely (though not exclusively) Protestant people in Ireland, of all social classes, who wish to see the continuation of the Act of Union, as amended by the Government of Ireland Act 1920, under which the Northern Ireland provincial state created in... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The Ulster Volunteer Force (more commonly referred to as the UVF) are a loyalist paramilitary group in Northern Ireland. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: ) is a part of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... A database query syntax error has occurred. ... A combatant (also referred to as an enemy combatant) is a soldier or guerrilla member who is waging war. ... Look up collusion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In the context of Irish politics, Unionists are people in Northern Ireland, who wish to see the continuation of the Act of Union 1800, as amended by the Government of Ireland Act 1920, under which Northern Ireland, created in that latter Act, remains part of the United Kingdom of Great... For other uses, see Troubles (disambiguation) and Trouble. ...


Alongside the violence, there was a political deadlock between the major political parties in Northern Ireland, including those who condemned violence, over the future status of Northern Ireland and the form of government there should be within Northern Ireland.


The Troubles were brought to an uneasy end by a peace process which included the declaration of ceasefires by most paramilitary organisations and the complete decommissioning of their weapons and the reform of the police and the corresponding withdrawal of Army troops from the streets and from sensitive border areas such as South Armagh and Fermanagh as agreed by the signatories to the Belfast Agreement (commonly known as the "Good Friday Agreement"). This reiterated the long-held British position, which had never before been fully acknowledged by successive Irish governments, that Northern Ireland will remain within the United Kingdom until a majority votes otherwise. On the other hand, the British Government recognised for the first time, as part of the prospective, the so-called "Irish dimension": the principle that the people of the island of Ireland as a whole have the right, without any outside interference, to solve the issues between North and South by mutual consent.[2] The latter statement was key to winning support for the agreement from nationalists and republicans. It also established a devolved power-sharing government within Northern Ireland (which had been suspended from 14 October 2002 until 8 May 2007), where the government must consist of both unionist and nationalist parties. When discussing the history of Northern Ireland, the peace process is generally considered to cover the events leading up to the 1994 IRA ceasefire, the end of most of the violence of The Troubles, the Belfast (or Good Friday) Agreement, and subsequent political developments. ... Statistics Province: Ulster County Town: Armagh Area: 1,254 km² Population (est. ... County Fermanagh (Fear Manach in Irish) is often referred to as Northern Irelands Lake District. ... The Belfast Agreement (also known as the Good Friday Agreement and, more rarely, as the Stormont Agreement) was a major political development in the Northern Ireland peace process. ...


Though the number of active participants in the Troubles was relatively small, and the paramilitary organizations that claimed to represent the communities were sometimes unrepresentative of the general population, the Troubles touched the lives of most people in Northern Ireland on a daily basis, while occasionally spreading to Great Britain and the Republic of Ireland. In addition, at several times between 1969 and 1998 it seemed possible that the Troubles would escalate into a full-scale civil war — for example in 1972 after the Bloody Sunday, or during the Hunger Strikes of 1980-1981, when there was mass, hostile mobilisation of the two communities. Many people today have had their political, social, and communal attitudes and perspectives shaped by the Troubles. A civil war is a war in which parties within the same culture, society or nationality fight against each other for the control of political power. ... // The Bogside area viewed from the city walls Bloody Sunday (Irish: Domhnach na Fola) is the term used to describe an incident in Derry, Northern Ireland, on 30 January 1972 in which 26 civil rights protesters were shot by members of the 1st Battalion of the British Parachute Regiment led... A mural in Derrys Bogside, commemorating Irish hunger strikers. ...


Background

Sir James Craig, later Viscount Craigavon
1st Prime Minister of Northern Ireland who famously said, "All I boast is that we are a Protestant Parliament and Protestant State" (in response to his Southern counterpart Éamon de Valera's assertion that Ireland was a "Catholic nation"). HMSO image

Image File history File links Sir James Craig, Lord Craigavon — first Prime Minister of Northern Ireland. ... Image File history File links Sir James Craig, Lord Craigavon — first Prime Minister of Northern Ireland. ... James Craig, 1st Viscount Craigavon (8 January 1871 - 24 November 1940) was a prominent Unionist politician and the first Prime Minister of Northern Ireland. ... Éamon de Valera (born with the name Edward George de Valera, IPA: [1][2]) (14 October 1882 – 29 August 1975) was one of the dominant political figures in 20th century Ireland. ... Her Majestys Stationery Office (usually abbreviated as HMSO) is part of the Cabinet Office of the United Kingdom. ...

Historic communal divisions 1609–1886

The origins of conflict between Catholics and Protestants in the north of Ireland lie in the British settler-colonial Plantation of Ulster in 1609, which confiscated native owned land and settled Ulster with (mainly Protestant) English and Scottish "planters". Conflict between the native Catholics and the "planters" led to two bloody ethno-religious conflicts between them in 1641-1653 and 1689-1691. The British Protestant political dominance in Ireland was ensured by victory in these wars and by the Penal Laws, which curtailed the religious, legal and political rights of anyone (including both Catholics and Dissenters, such as Presbyterians) who did not conform to the state church — the Anglican Church of Ireland. A family of Russian settlers in the Caucasus region, ca. ... The Plantation of Ulster was a planned process of colonisation which took place in the northern Irish province of Ulster during the early 17th century in the reign of James I of England. ... Statistics Area: 24,481 km² Population (2006 estimate) 1,993,918 Ulster (Irish: Cúige Uladh, IPA: ) forms one of the four traditional provinces of Ireland. ... Plantations in 16th and 17th century Ireland involved the seizure of land owned by the native Irish and granting of it to colonists (planters) from Britain. ... The Irish Confederate Wars were fought in Ireland between 1641 and 1653. ... For the context of this war see Jacobitism and Glorious Revolution. ... The Penal laws in Ireland (Irish: Na Péindlíthe) refers to a series of laws imposed under British rule that sought to discriminate against majority native Catholic population but also against Protestant dissenters in favour of the established Church of Ireland which recognised the English monarchy as its spiritual... Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ... The term Anglican describes those people and churches following the religious traditions of the Church of England, especially following the Reformation. ... The Church of Ireland (Irish: ) is an autonomous province of the Anglican Communion, operating seamlessly across the border between the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. ...


The breakdown of the Penal Laws, in the latter part of the eighteenth century heralded a renewed period of communal strife. In particular, the removal, in the 1780s, of restrictions on the ability of the Catholic Irish to rent land resulted in greater competition for it. With the Catholics now allowed to buy land and enter trades from which formerly they had been banned, Protestant "Peep O'Day Boys" attacks on that community increased.[3] In the 1790s Catholics in south Ulster organised as "The Defenders" and counter-attacked. This created polarisation between the communities and a dramatic reduction in reformers within the Protestant community, which had been increasingly receptive to ideas of democratic reform. Irish nationalism refers to political movements that desire greater autonomy or the independence of Ireland from Great Britain. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... The Defenders were a militant agrarian secret society in 18th century Ireland, who were involved in the 1798 rebellion. ...


Many Presbyterians, Catholics and liberal Protestants were involved in the Society of the United Irishmen, a nationalist movement inspired by the French Revolution, aimed at ending sectarian division in Ireland, and to the establishment of an Irish Republic, non-sectarian and independent of Britain. However, the United Irishmen's ideal was destroyed both by the failure of the Irish Rebellion of 1798 and the accompanying repression, and by continuing sectarian violence between Catholics and Protestants. Moreover, the more hardline Protestants were actively mobilised against the radicals by the Government. The Orange Order (founded in 1795) is a lasting manifestation of this movement. The effect was to separate Catholics and Protestants into permanently antagonistic camps. The Society of the United Irishmen was a political organisation in eighteenth century Ireland that sought independence from Great Britain. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Sectarianism is an adherence to a particular sect or party or denomination, it also usually involves a rejection of those not a member of ones sect. ... Depiction of the battle of Vinegar Hill The Irish Rebellion of 1798 (Éirí Amach 1798 in Irish), or 1798 rebellion as it is known locally, was an uprising in 1798, lasting several months, against the British dominated Kingdom of Ireland. ... Orange parade in Glasgow (1 June 2003) The Orange Institution, more commonly known as the Orange Order, is a Protestant fraternal organisation based predominantly in Northern Ireland and Scotland with lodges throughout the Commonwealth and in Canada and the United States. ...


The abolition of the Irish Parliament and incorporation of Ireland into the United Kingdom in 1801 provided a new political framework within which this dichotomy between both communities continued. Moreover, Presbyterians largely abandoned their previous attachment to radical republican politics and adopted a common identity with Anglicans as part of a "loyal" Protestant community. Catholic Emancipation in 1829, through political agitation by Daniel O'Connell, largely eliminated legal discrimination against Catholics (around 75% of Ireland's population), Jews and other dissenters. However O'Connell's long-term goal (for which the Emancipation was essential) was the Repeal of the 1801 Union. He even declared confidently, but incorrectly, on January 1, 1843 that Repeal would come about that year. O'Connell's pacifist, majoritarian nationalism played an increasingly important role in Irish politics as the century went on by pressing for the restoration of the Irish Parliament (self-government known as "Home Rule"). Most Protestants, afraid of being a minority in a Catholic-dominated Ireland, tended to support continuing rule from Britain. This article is about the legislature abolished in 1801. ... Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ... Catholic Emancipation was a process in Great Britain and Ireland in the late 18th century and early 19th century which involved reducing and removing many of the restrictions on Roman Catholics which had been introduced by the Act of Uniformity, the Test Acts and the Penal Laws. ... Daniel OConnell Daniel OConnell (6 August 1775 – 15 May 1847) (Irish: Dónal Ó Conaill), known as The Liberator or The Emancipator, was Irelands predominant political leader in the first half of the nineteenth century who championed the cause of the down-trodden Catholic population. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1843 (MDCCCXLIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


The conflict was now represented as one between those who supported the Act of Union, the Unionists, and those who opposed it, the Nationalists, as it remains to the present day. By 1886 this transition to a modern representation of the conflict was completed when the two communities had organised into mutually opposing nationalist and unionist parties. Initially, many nationalists were prepared to accept maintaining some links with Britain, with the idea of complete independence only commanding the support of a radical minority; however, throughout the late 19th and early 20th century, support for such a compromise declined. Act of Union can mean: United Kingdom The Act of Union is a name given to several acts passed by the English, Scottish and British Parliaments from 1536 onwards. ... Irish nationalism refers to political movements that desire greater autonomy or the independence of Ireland from Great Britain. ... In the Irish context, Unionists form a group of largely (though not exclusively) Protestant people in Ireland, of all social classes, who wish to see the continuation of the Act of Union, as amended by the Government of Ireland Act 1920, under which the Northern Ireland provincial state created in...


By this time, Ulster Unionism had also acquired an economic motive, since Ulster was the most industrialised part of Ireland and the one most dependent on free trade with Britain and its empire. The immediate roots of the present conflict are to be found in the early 20th century disputes over Home Rule and independence for Ireland. Devolution or Home rule is the pooling of powers from central government to government at regional or local level. ...


The partition of Ireland 1912–1925

By the second decade of the 20th century, Home Rule, or limited Irish self-government, was on the brink of being conceded due to the agitation of the Irish Parliamentary Party who at times held the balance of power in the Westminster parliament. Unionists, mostly Protestant and concentrated in Ulster, resisted both self-government and independence for Ireland, fearing for their future in an overwhelmingly Catholic country dominated by the Roman Catholic Church. In 1912, unionists led by Edward Carson signed the Ulster Covenant and pledged to resist Home Rule by force if necessary. To this end, they formed the paramilitary Ulster Volunteer Force and imported arms from Germany (the Easter Rising insurrectionists would do the same several years later). Nationalists formed the Irish Volunteers, whose ostensible goal was to ensure Home Rule after World War I in the event of British or Unionist recalcitrance. The Irish Volunteers, however, were gradually infiltrated by members of the Irish Republican Brotherhood (IRB), such as Patrick Pearse. The outbreak of the First World War in 1914 temporarily averted this crisis and delayed the resolution of the question of Irish independence. Home Rule, though actually passed in the British Parliament, was suspended for the duration of the war. The Irish Parliamentary Party (IPP) (commonly called the Irish Party) was formed in 1882 by Charles Stewart Parnell, the leader of the Nationalist Party, replacing the Home Rule League, as official parliamentary party for Irish nationalist Members of Parliament (MPs) elected to the House of Commons at Westminster within the... Edward Carson HMSO image The Right Honourable Edward Henry Carson, Baron Carson, PC (February 9, 1854 – October 22, 1935) was a leader of the Irish Unionists, a Barrister and a Judge. ... The Ulster Covenant was signed by hundreds of thousands of men all over Ulster, Ireland, on and before September 28, 1912, in protest of a Home Rule bill introduced in that same year. ... The Ulster Volunteer Force (more commonly referred to as the UVF) are a loyalist paramilitary group in Northern Ireland. ... Combatants Irish Volunteers, Irish Citizen Army, Irish Republican Brotherhood British Army Royal Irish Constabulary Commanders Patrick Pearse, James Connolly Brigadier-General Lowe General Sir John Maxwell Strength 1250 in Dublin, c. ... Irish Volunteers - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Devolution or Home rule is the pooling of powers from central government to government at regional or local level. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The Irish Republican Brotherhood (IRB) was a secret fraternal organisation dedicated to fomenting armed revolt against the British state in Ireland in the nineteenth century and early twentieth century. ... Patrick Henry Pearse (known to Irish nationalists as Pádraig Pearse; Irish: ; 10 November 1879 – 3 May 1916) was a teacher, barrister, poet, writer, nationalist and political activist who was one of the leaders of the Easter Rising in 1916. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


But the issue was inflamed by the staging of the nationalist Easter Rising in Dublin in 1916 by Irish Republican Brotherhood elements of the Irish Volunteers. Although the rebellion was put down, the executions of 15 of the Rising's leaders greatly radicalised Irish nationalists. The independence question came to a head in December 1918, when the separatist Sinn Féin party won a majority of seats in Ireland and set up the Dáil (Irish Parliament) in Dublin, essentially seceding from the United Kingdom, although at the time this was not recognised by the UK or any other country. At the same time, IRB volunteers, seeing themselves as the army of the Irish Republic, began armed attacks on state forces the following month (January 1919), killing two Catholic policemen who were transporting gelignite in Soloheadbeg, County Tipperary. Combatants Irish Volunteers, Irish Citizen Army, Irish Republican Brotherhood British Army Royal Irish Constabulary Commanders Patrick Pearse, James Connolly Brigadier-General Lowe General Sir John Maxwell Strength 1250 in Dublin, c. ... Dublin city centre at night WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Statistics Province: Leinster County: Dáil Éireann: Dublin Central, Dublin North Central, Dublin North East, Dublin North West, Dublin South Central, Dublin South East European Parliament: Dublin Dialling Code: 01, +353 1 Postal District(s): D1-24, D6W Area: 114. ... For pre-Arthur Griffith use of the political name, see Sinn Féin (19th century). ... Dáil Éireann[1] is the lower house of the Oireachtas (parliament) of the Republic of Ireland. ... Gelignite, also known as Blasting gelatin, is an explosive material consisting of collodion-cotton (a type of nitrocellulose or gun cotton) dissolved in nitroglycerine and mixed with wood pulp and sodium or potassium nitrate. ... Soloheadbeg is a small townland, some two miles outside Tipperary Town, near Limerick Junction. ... Statistics Province: Munster County Town: North: Nenagh South: Clonmel Code: North: TN South: TS Area: 4,303 km² Population (2006) 149,040[[1]] County Tipperary (Contae Thiobraid Árann in Irish) is a county in the Republic of Ireland, and situated in the province of Munster. ...


In 1920, during a guerrilla war in Ireland which pitted the Volunteers or Irish Republican Army (IRA) against British state forces, the Government of Ireland Act partitioned the island of Ireland into two separate jurisdictions, "Southern Ireland" and "Northern Ireland". The partition of Ireland was confirmed in the Anglo-Irish Treaty of 1921, which ended the guerrilla war in the south and created the Irish Free State, an all-but-independent Irish state (it became a Republic and fully independent in 1949). This settlement was an acknowledgment that the Irish people were deeply divided between Protestants, primarily concentrated in the ancient province of Ulster, who intended to remain part of the United Kingdom, and the overwhelmingly Catholic overall majority who now demanded independence from Britain. An Irish War of Independence memorial in Dublin The Anglo-Irish War (also known as the Irish War of Independence) was a guerrilla campaign mounted against the British government in Ireland by the Irish Republican Army under the proclaimed legitimacy of the First Dáil, the extra-legal Irish parliament... This article is about the historical army of the Irish Republic (1919–1922) which fought in the Irish War of Independence 1919–21, and the Irish Civil War 1922–23. ... An Act to Provide for the Better Government of Ireland, more usually the Government of Ireland Act 1920 (this is its official short title; the formal citation is 10 & 11 Geo. ... Royal motto: Dieu et mon droit (French: God and my right) Capital Dublin Head of State King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Head of Government Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, Chairman of the Provisional Government from Jan 1922. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: ) is a part of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... Signature page of the Anglo-Irish Treaty The Anglo-Irish Treaty, officially called the Articles of Agreement for a Treaty Between Great Britain and Ireland, was a treaty between the Government of the United Kingdom and representatives of the extra-judicial Irish Republic that concluded the Irish War of Independence. ... Territory of the Irish Free State Capital Dublin Language(s) Irish, English Government Constitutional monarchy Monarch  - 1922–1936 George V  - 1936–1936 George VI President of the Executive Council  - 1922–1932 W.T. Cosgrave  - 1932–1937 Eamon de Valera Legislature Oireachtas  - Upper house Seanad Éireann  - Lower house Dáil Éireann...


Northern Ireland remained in the United Kingdom, albeit under a separate system of government whereby it was given its own parliament and devolved government. This system was not requested by unionists, but was included in the settlement by a government keen to rid the Westminster parliament of "the Irish question" that had dominated it for many years. Nonetheless, unionists immediately embraced the new regime and saw Northern Ireland as a state governed in accordance with democratic principles, the rule of law, and in accordance with the will of a majority within its borders to remain part of the United Kingdom. Irish nationalists, however, saw the partition of Ireland as an illegal and arbitrary division of the island against the will of the vast majority of its people, and argued that the Northern Ireland state was neither legitimate nor democratic, but created with a deliberately gerrymandered Unionist majority. An Irish nationalist is generally one who seeks (greater) independence of Ireland from Great Britain, including since 1921 the goal of a United Ireland. ... The Partition of Ireland took place in May 1921. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The Gerry-Mander first appeared in this cartoon-map in the Boston Gazette, 26 March 1812 Gerrymandering is a form of redistricting in which electoral district or constituency boundaries are manipulated for an electoral advantage. ...


Nationalists within Northern Ireland, initially about 35% of its population,[citation needed] did not accept the legitimacy of the new state. The roots of the Troubles lie in the failure of the Unionist state to integrate the Catholic/nationalist population in Northern Ireland, most of whom favoured a united Ireland, and the refusal of the same nationalists to eschew political irredentism. irredentism is position advocating annexation of territories administered by another state on the grounds of common ethnicity and/or prior historical possession, actual or alleged. ...


Northern Ireland came into being in a violent manner — a total of 557 people being killed in political or sectarian violence from 1920–1922, during and after the Irish War of Independence. Of these, 303 were Catholics (including IRA members), 172 were Protestants and 82 were Royal Irish Constabulary (RIC) or British Army personnel. Belfast saw the majority of the violence, 452 people being killed there, of whom 267 were Catholics and 185 were Protestants.[4] (See also; Irish War of Independence in the North East.) Whereas elsewhere on the island this conflict was largely a confrontation between Irish Republican guerrillas and the British Police and Army, in the north it was marked by communal strife between Catholics and Protestants. The pattern of violence in the north was that loyalist groups (including the B-Specials auxiliary Police force) responded to IRA attacks on the security forces with killings of Catholics. Nationalists characterise this violence, especially that in Belfast, as a "pogrom" against their community. Combatants Irish Republic United Kingdom Commanders Michael Collins Richard Mulcahy Cathal Brugha Important local IRA leaders Henry Hugh Tudor Strength Irish Republican Army c. ... The Royal Irish Constabulary (RIC) was one of Irelands two police forces in the early twentieth century, alongside the Dublin Metropolitan Police. ... Combatants Irish Republic United Kingdom Commanders Michael Collins Richard Mulcahy Cathal Brugha Important local IRA leaders Henry Hugh Tudor Strength Irish Republican Army c. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Ulster Special Constabulary (USC) was a reserve force of the Royal Ulster Constabulary. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Statistics Province: Northern Ireland County: District: Belfast UK Parliament: Belfast North Belfast South Belfast East Belfast West European Parliament: Northern Ireland Dialling Code: 028, +44 28 posttown = Belfast Postal District(s): BT1-BT17, BT29 (part of), BT58 Area: 115 km² Population (2001) Website: www. ... Pogrom (from Russian: ; from громить IPA: - to wreak havoc, to demolish violently) is a form of riot directed against a particular group, whether ethnic, religious or other, and characterized by destruction of their homes, businesses and religious centers. ...


In 1920, for example, the IRA assassination of RIC district Inspector Swanzy in Lisburn outside a Protestant church following Sunday services resulted in the burning of large section of the Catholic quarter in the town. However, although a disproportionate number of the victims were Catholics (58% of victims from a community making up around 30% of the population in Belfast), both sides were guilty of atrocities, with almost half the victims being Protestants. Nationalists in the rest of Ireland organised a boycott of northern goods in response to the attacks on Catholics, while some (including Michael Collins in the new Irish Free State) had plans for a military assault on Northern Ireland.[5] This was interrupted by the Irish Civil War (1922–23) between Irish nationalist factions, and during this time the Northern state instead managed to consolidate its existence. Another legacy of the Irish Civil War, later to have a major impact on Northern Ireland, was the creation of a marginalised remnant of the Irish Republican Army, illegal in both Irish states and ideologically committed to overthrowing both of them by force of arms and re-establishing the Irish Republic of 1919–21. WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Statistics Province: Ulster County: District: Lisburn UK Parliament: Lagan Valley European Parliament: Northern Ireland Dialling Code: (+44) 02892 Post Town: Lisburn Postal District(s): BT27, BT28 Population (2001) 71,465 Website: www. ... Michael John (Mick) Collins (Irish: ; 16 October 1890 – 22 August 1922) was an Irish revolutionary leader, Minister for Finance in the Irish Republic, Director of Intelligence for the IRA, and member of the Irish delegation during the Anglo-Irish Treaty negotiations, both as Chairman of the Provisional Government and Commander... Territory of the Irish Free State Capital Dublin Language(s) Irish, English Government Constitutional monarchy Monarch  - 1922–1936 George V  - 1936–1936 George VI President of the Executive Council  - 1922–1932 W.T. Cosgrave  - 1932–1937 Eamon de Valera Legislature Oireachtas  - Upper house Seanad Éireann  - Lower house Dáil Éireann... The Irish Civil War (June 28, 1922 – May 24, 1923) was a conflict between supporters and opponents of the Anglo-Irish Treaty of December 6, 1921, which established the Irish Free State, precursor of todays Republic of Ireland. ... The original Irish Republican Army fought a guerrilla war against British rule in Ireland in the Irish War of Independence 1919-1921. ...


In 1925 many nationalists expected partition to be abolished, or least to have large parts of Northern Ireland ceded to the Free State, by a Boundary Commission. The Commission instead recommended only minor changes in the border, effectively making partition of Ireland permanent. At this point, the Irish Free State formally recognised and accepted (albeit reluctantly) the border. In 1937, Eamon de Valera laid claim to the whole island of Ireland as territory of the Free State in Articles 2 and 3 of the Constitution of Ireland. However, the articles stipulated that "pending the re-integration of the national territory" the southern state's borders were the same as those established in 1922.[6] The Boundary Commission was established by the Anglo-Irish Treaty that ended the Anglo-Irish War in 1921. ... Territory of the Irish Free State Capital Dublin Language(s) Irish, English Government Constitutional monarchy Monarch  - 1922–1936 George V  - 1936–1936 George VI President of the Executive Council  - 1922–1932 W.T. Cosgrave  - 1932–1937 Eamon de Valera Legislature Oireachtas  - Upper house Seanad Éireann  - Lower house Dáil Éireann... Eamon de Valera (born Edward George de Valera, sometimes Gaelicised Éamon de Bhailéara; October 14, 1882 – August 29, 1975), was an Irish politician, best known as a leader of Irelands struggle for independence from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in the early 20th century, and... Article 2 and Article 3 of Bunreacht na hÉireann, the constitution of the Republic of Ireland, were adopted with the constitution as a whole in 1937, but completely revised by means of the Nineteenth Amendment which took full effect in 1999. ...


Northern Ireland - A "Protestant State" 1925–1968

Each side established its own narratives to describe its perspective. Ulster Unionist Party Prime Minister of Northern Ireland James Craig talked of a "Protestant parliament and a Protestant State" in 1937, in response to his Southern counterpart Éamon de Valera's assertion in 1935 that Ireland was a "Catholic nation".[7] From a unionist perspective, Northern Ireland's nationalists were inherently disloyal and were determined to force them (Protestants and unionists) into a united Ireland. This threat was seen as necessitating preferential treatment of unionists in housing, employment and other fields. The prevalence of large families and a more rapid population growth among the Catholics was also seen as a threat. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Prime Minister of Northern Ireland was the head of the Government of Northern Ireland, appointed by the Governor of Northern Ireland under the Government of Ireland Act 1920. ... Sir James Craig, later Viscount Craigavon 1st Prime Minister of Northern Ireland. ... Éamon de Valera (born with the name Edward George de Valera, IPA: [1][2]) (14 October 1882 – 29 August 1975) was one of the dominant political figures in 20th century Ireland. ...


Former First Minister of Northern Ireland David Trimble admitted that Northern Ireland had been "a cold house for Catholics" during this period. Nonetheless, until the 1990s, unionist politicians were able to point to Northern Ireland's relative economic success compared with the Southern state (and the excessive influence of the Roman Catholic hierarchy over Government policy there) as a vindication of Northern Ireland's existence. From a nationalist perspective, continued discrimination against Catholics only proved that Northern Ireland was an inherently corrupt, British-imposed state. The controversial Republic of Ireland Taoiseach (Prime Minister) Charles Haughey, whose family had fled County Londonderry during the 1920s Troubles, described Northern Ireland as "a failed political entity". The unionist government ignored Edward Carson's warning in 1921 that alienating Catholics would make Northern Ireland inherently unstable. The First Minister of Northern Ireland (Ulster Scots: Heid Männystèr o Norlin Airlann) and the Deputy First Minister of Northern Ireland (Ulster Scots: Heid Männystèr Depute o Norlin Airlann) are the leaders of the Northern Ireland Executive, Northern Irelands home rule government set up in... The Lord Trimble William David Trimble, Baron Trimble, PC (born 15 October 1944), known as David Trimble, is a Northern Irish politician who served as leader of the Ulster Unionist Party (UUP) and the first First Minister of Northern Ireland. ... The Taoiseach (IPA: or ) — plural: Taoisigh ( or ), also referred to as An Taoiseach[1], is the head of government of Ireland or prime minister. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Statistics Province: Ulster County Town: Derry Area: 2,074 km² Population (est. ...


After the initial Troubles of the early 1920s, there were occasional incidents of sectarian unrest in Northern Ireland, a brief and ineffective IRA campaign in the 1940s, and another abortive IRA campaign in the 1950s, but by the early 1960s Northern Ireland was fairly stable. Northern Campaign 1942 - 1944 is a term used to describe attacks involving volunteers of the Irish Republican Army (IRA) during the period September 1942 - December 1942. ... The Border Campaign (December 12, 1956 - February 26, 1962) was an operation (codenamed Operation Harvest) carried out by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) against targets in Northern Ireland. ...


However, the fragility of this peace was demonstrated in 1966 by the emergence of the Ulster Volunteer Force, an illegal loyalist paramilitary organization, in response to a perceived revival of the IRA at the time of the 50th anniversary of the Easter Rebellion. The UVF, named after the 1912 anti-Home Rule militia, carried out three sectarian murders before the perpetrators were apprehended by the police and sentenced in the courts. The group remained in existence and would emerge again during the Troubles. One of these loyalists, Gusty Spence, after serving a lengthy sentence, would later apologize for his actions and become part of the mainstream of Northern Irish politics. The Ulster Volunteer Force (more commonly referred to as the UVF) are a loyalist paramilitary group in Northern Ireland. ... Combatants Irish Volunteers, Irish Citizen Army, Irish Republican Brotherhood British Army Royal Irish Constabulary Commanders Patrick Pearse, James Connolly Brigadier-General Lowe General Sir John Maxwell Strength 1250 in Dublin, c. ... Augustus Spence (born 28th June 1933) is a former member of the Ulster Volunteer Force and a leading loyalist politician. ...


Beginning of the Troubles

A mural depicting the Battle of the Bogside in 1969, by the 'Bogside Artists'.

The Troubles are often acknowledged to have begun in 1968, when widespread rioting and public disorder broke out at the marches of the Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association (NICRA). This group launched a peaceful civil rights campaign in 1967, which borrowed the language and symbology of the Civil Rights Movement of Dr. Martin Luther King in the United States. NICRA was seeking a redress of Catholic and nationalist grievances within Northern Ireland. Specifically, they wanted an end to the gerrymandering of electoral constituencies that produced unrepresentative local councils (particularly in Derry City) by putting virtually all Catholics in a limited number of electoral wards; the abolition of the rate-payer franchise in local government elections, which gave Protestants (who tended to be richer) disproportionate voting power; an end to perceived unfair allocation of jobs and housing; and an end to the Special Powers Act (which allowed for internment and other repressive measures) that was seen as being aimed at the nationalist community. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (600x800, 140 KB) Summary Picture taken by my freind, of a mural in south belfast, by the bogside artist. Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (600x800, 140 KB) Summary Picture taken by my freind, of a mural in south belfast, by the bogside artist. Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... A mural by the Bogside Artists in Derry of a young boy in a gas mask holding a petrol bomb during the Battle of the Bogside, August 1969. ... The Bogside Artists are a trio of mural painters, living and working in Northern Ireland. ... The Civil Rights Mural - The Beginning.[1] The Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association was an organisation which campaigned for civil rights in Northern Ireland during the late 1960s and early 1970s. ... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... Historically, the civil rights movement was a period of time around the world of approximately one generation (1954–1980) wherein there was much worldwide civil unrest and popular rebellion. ... “Martin Luther King” redirects here. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The Gerry-Mander first appeared in this cartoon-map in the Boston Gazette, 26 March 1812 Gerrymandering is a form of redistricting in which electoral district or constituency boundaries are manipulated for an electoral advantage. ... The Special Powers act enabled the Protestants of Ireland to lock up the Catholics without trial. ... Long Kesh Internment Camp was the main location for Operation Demetrius internees. ...


Initially, Terence O'Neill, the Prime Minister of Northern Ireland, reacted favourably to this moderate-seeming campaign and promised reforms of Northern Ireland. However, he was opposed by many hardline unionists, including William Craig and Ian Paisley who accused him of being a "sell out". Some Unionists immediately mistrusted the NICRA as an IRA “Trojan Horse”. Many resented the concept of Catholic equality in this "Protestant state". Violence broke out at several Civil Rights marches when Protestant loyalists attacked civil rights demonstrators with clubs. The Royal Ulster Constabulary, almost entirely Protestant, was widely accused of supporting the loyalists and of allowing the violence to occur. Terence Marne ONeill, Baron ONeill of the Maine, PC (10 September 1914–12 June 1990) was the fourth Prime Minister of Northern Ireland. ... The Right Honourable William Craig (b. ... Ian Richard Kyle Paisley MP MLA (born 6 April 1926) is the current First Minister of Northern Ireland. ... The original Irish Republican Army fought a guerrilla war against British rule in Ireland in the Irish War of Independence 1919-1921. ... 19th century etching of the Trojan Horse. ... The Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) was name of the police force in Northern Ireland from 1922 to 2001. ...


Much of the hostile loyalist reaction to the Civil Rights Movement was linked to the ability of leaders to provoke fear within the Unionist populace that the IRA was not only behind the NICRA, but was also planning a renewed armed campaign. In fact, the IRA was moribund, had few weapons, fewer members, negligible support, and was increasingly committed (out of necessity) to non-violent politics. The first bombing campaign of the Troubles (largely directed against power stations and other infrastructure) was staged by the Loyalist Ulster Volunteer Force in 1969 to try and implicate the IRA. The Ulster Volunteer Force (more commonly referred to as the UVF) are a loyalist paramilitary group in Northern Ireland. ...


Communal disturbances worsened throughout 1969, escalating in January after a march by the People's Democracy from Belfast to Derry was attacked by loyalists in Burntollet, County Londonderry. The RUC were accused of failing to protect the marchers. Barricades were erected in nationalist areas of Derry and Belfast in the following months. This disorder culminated in the Battle of the Bogside (August 12, 1969 - August 14, 1969) - a huge communal uprising in Derry between police and nationalists. The riot started in a confrontation between Catholic residents of the Bogside, police, and members of the Apprentice Boys of Derry who were due to march past the Bogside along the city walls. Peoples Democracy was a political organisation that, while supporting the campaign for civil rights for Northern Irelands Catholic minority stated that such rights could only be achieved through the establishment of a socialist republic in all of Ireland. ... Londonderry redirects here. ... Statistics Province: Ulster County Town: Derry Area: 2,074 km² Population (est. ... A mural by the Bogside Artists in Derry of a young boy in a gas mask holding a petrol bomb during the Battle of the Bogside, August 1969. ... is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... Londonderry redirects here. ... The Bogside is a nationalist neighbourhood outside the city walls of Derry, Northern Ireland. ... The Apprentice Boys Of Derry are a Protestant fraternal society with a worldwide membership, founded in 1814. ...


Rioting between police and loyalists on one side and Bogside residents on the other continued for two days before British troops were sent in to restore order. The "Battle" sparked vicious sectarian rioting in Belfast, Newry, Strabane and elsewhere, starting on August 14, 1969, which left many people dead and many homes burned. The riots began with nationalist demonstrations in support of the Bogside residents and escalated when a grenade was thrown at a police station. The RUC in response deployed armoured cars with Browning heavy machine guns and killed a nine year old boy in the nationalist Falls Road area of Belfast. Loyalist crowds attacked Catholic areas, burning down much of Bombay Street, Madrid Street and other Catholic streets (see Northern Ireland riots of August 1969). , Newry (from the Irish: Iúr Cinn Trá meaning The Yew Tree at the Head of the Strand, short form An tIúr, The Yew) is the fourth largest city in Northern Ireland and eighth on the island of Ireland. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Statistics Province: Ulster County: District: Strabane UK Parliament: West Tyrone European Parliament: Northern Ireland Dialling Code: 028, +44 28 Post Town: Strabane Postal District(s): BT82 Population (2006 est. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... Grenade may refer to: The well-known hand grenade commonly used by soldiers. ... Military armored cars A French VBL reconnaissance vehicle. ... Browning Arms Company was founded in Utah in 1927. ... The M2 machine gun with a tripod weighs 58 kg (128 lb). ... The Falls Road (Bóthar na bhFál in Irish, meaning road of the hedgerows) is the main road through West Belfast in Northern Ireland; from Divis Street and Castle Place in Belfast City Centre to Andersonstown in the suburbs. ... From August 13-17 1969, Northern Ireland was rocked by intensive sectarian rioting. ...


Nationalists alleged that the Royal Ulster Constabulary had aided, or at least not acted against, loyalists in these riots. The IRA had been widely criticized by its supporters for failing to defend the Catholic community during the Belfast troubles of August 1969, when seven people had been killed, about 750 injured and 1,505 Catholic families had been forced out of their homes — almost five times the number of dispossessed Protestant households. One Catholic priest reported that his parishioners were contemptuously calling the IRA "I Ran Away". The Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) was name of the police force in Northern Ireland from 1922 to 2001. ...


The government of Northern Ireland requested that the British Government deploy the British Army in Northern Ireland to restore order, possibly in response to somewhat exaggerated media reports that the Irish government were considering military intervention to protect Catholic areas in Derry. Nationalists initially welcomed the Army, often giving the soldiers tea and sandwiches, as they did not trust the police to act in an unbiased manner. But relations soured due to heavy-handedness by the Army, who were soon considered to be biased in favour of the Unionists. The Parliament Buildings of Northern Ireland The Executive Committee met there. ... The United Kingdom is a unitary state and a democratic constitutional monarchy. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ...


Many unionists see the civil rights movement as the cause of the Troubles. They argue that it led to a destabilisation of government and created a void filled later by paramilitary groups. Others, mainly (though not exclusively) nationalist, argue that the civil rights campaign and the opposition to it by Ian Paisley and other loyalists was merely a symptom of a sectarian system of government that was itself inherently corrupt and prone to collapse. Ian Richard Kyle Paisley MP MLA (born 6 April 1926) is the current First Minister of Northern Ireland. ...


The peak of violence and the collapse of Stormont

The years 1970–72 saw an explosion of political violence in Northern Ireland, peaking in the year 1972, when nearly 500 people lost their lives. There are several reasons why violence escalated in these years.


Unionists believe the main reason was the formation of the Provisional Irish Republican Army (Provisional IRA), a break-away from the older IRA. While the older IRA (the remnants of which became known as the Official IRA) had embraced non-violent civil agitation, the new Provisional IRA was determined to wage "armed struggle" against British rule in Northern Ireland. The new IRA was willing to take on a sectarian character as "defenders of the Catholic community", rather than seeking working-class unity across both communities which had become the aim of the "Officials". Unionists see this ongoing campaign as the main cause and sustaining element of the Troubles. Provisional Irish Republican Army (Irish name: Óglaigh na hÉireann) (PIRA; more commonly referred to as the IRA, the Provos, or by some of its supporters as the Army or the RA) is an Irish Republican, left wing[2] paramilitary organisation that, until the Belfast Agreement, sought to end Northern... The original Irish Republican Army fought a guerrilla war against British rule in Ireland in the Irish War of Independence 1919-1921. ... The term Official Irish Republican Army or Official IRA refers to one of the two organisations - the other being the Provisional Irish Republican Army - that emerged from the split in the then Irish Republican Army in 1969-70. ...


Nationalists argued that the upsurge in violence was caused by the disappointment of the hopes engendered by the civil rights movement and the repression subsequently directed at their community. They point to a number of events in these years to support this opinion. One such incident was the Falls Curfew in July 1970, when 3,000 troops imposed a curfew on the nationalist Lower Falls area of Belfast, firing more than 1,500 rounds of ammunition in gun battles with the IRA and killing four people. Another was the 1971 introduction of internment without trial — out of over 350 initial detainees, only 2 were Protestants and only 1 was a loyalist.[citation needed] Moreover, due to poor intelligence, very few of those interned were actually republican activists, but some went on to become republicans as a result of their unfortunate experiences. Between 1971 and 1975, 1,981 people were detained; 1,874 were Catholic/republican, while 107 were Protestant/loyalist. There were widespread allegations from the nationalist community of abuse and even torture of detainees. Most emotionally of all, nationalists also point to the fatal shootings of 14 apparently unarmed nationalist demonstrators by the British Army in Derry in January 1972 on what became known as Bloody Sunday. The Falls Curfew, also known as the Lower Falls Curfew or sometimes as the Rape of the Lower Falls, was a British Army operation on the Falls Road in Belfast, Northern Ireland between 3 July and 5 July 1970. ... Long Kesh Internment Camp was the main location for Operation Demetrius internees. ... Torture is defined by the United Nations Convention Against Torture as any act by which severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental, is intentionally inflicted on a person for such purposes as obtaining from him or a third person information or a confession, punishing him for an act he... // The Bogside area viewed from the city walls Bloody Sunday (Irish: Domhnach na Fola) is the term used to describe an incident in Derry, Northern Ireland, on 30 January 1972 in which 26 civil rights protesters were shot by members of the 1st Battalion of the British Parachute Regiment led...


The Provisional IRA (or "Provos", as they became known), formed in late 1969, soon established itself as more aggressive and militant in its response to attacks on the nationalist community by loyalists and the police, gaining much support in the nationalist ghettos in the early 1970s as "defenders" of those communities. Despite the increasingly reformist and Marxist politics of the Official IRA, they nonetheless began their own armed campaign in reaction to the ongoing violence and the deteriorating relationship between the Catholic community and the British military. From 1970 onwards, both the PIRA and OIRA engaged in armed confrontations with the British Army. Reformism (also called revisionism or revisionist theory) is the belief that gradual changes in a society can ultimately change its fundamental structures. ... Marxism is the political practice and social theory based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary, along with Friedrich Engels. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ...


By 1972, the Provisionals' campaign was of such intensity that they had already killed more than 100 soldiers, wounded 500 more and carried out 1,300 bombings, mostly against commercial targets that they considered “the artificial economy”. The bombing campaign killed many civilians, notably on Bloody Friday in July 1972, when 22 bombs were set off in the centre of Belfast. The Official IRA, who had never been fully committed to armed action, called off their campaign in June 1972. The Provisionals however, despite a temporary ceasefire in 1972 and talks with British officials, were determined to continue their campaign until the achievement of a united Ireland. The Belfast Bomb Blitz and Bloody Friday are among the names given to the bombings by the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) in and around Belfast, Northern Ireland aimed at causing economic damage on July 21, 1972. ...


The loyalist paramilitaries, including the Ulster Volunteer Force and the newly-founded Ulster Defence Association responded to the mushrooming violence with a campaign of sectarian assassination of nationalists, whom they identified simply as Catholics. Some of these murders were particularly gruesome, as in the case of the Shankill Butchers, who beat and tortured their victims before killing them. The PIRA were also guilty of sectarian murder. For example, in January 1976, they responded to the killings of six Catholic civilians by loyalists with the Kingsmill massacre of 1976, in which ten Protestant civilians were machine-gunned to death. Another feature of the political violence was the involuntary or forced displacement of both Catholics and Protestants from formerly mixed residential areas. For example, in Belfast, Protestants were forced out of Lenadoon, and Catholics were driven out of the Rathcoole estate and the Westvale neighborhood. In Derry City almost all the Protestants fled to the predominantly loyalist Fountain Estate and Waterside areas. The Ulster Volunteer Force (more commonly referred to as the UVF) are a loyalist paramilitary group in Northern Ireland. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Shankill Butchers were a group of Ulster Volunteer Force members in Belfast, Northern Ireland, who abducted Roman Catholics usually walking home from a night out, tortured and/or savagely beat them, and killed them, usually by cutting their throats. ... Provisional Irish Republican Army (Irish name: Óglaigh na hÉireann) (PIRA; more commonly referred to as the IRA, the Provos, or by some of its supporters as the Army or the RA) is an Irish Republican, left wing[2] paramilitary organisation that, until the Belfast Agreement, sought to end Northern... In the Kingsmill massacre on January 5, 1976, ten Protestant men were killed in South Armagh, Northern Ireland, by members of the Provisional Irish Republican Army, using the cover name South Armagh Republican Action Force. The victims were textile workers returning home to Bessbrook in a Ford Transit mini-bus...


The UK government in London, perceiving that the Northern Ireland administration was incapable of containing the security situation, suspended the unionist-controlled Stormont Home Rule government in 1972 and introduced "Direct Rule", from London. Their government addressed many of the concerns of the civil rights movement: re-drawing electoral boundaries to make them more representative, giving all citizens the vote in local elections, and transferring the power to allocate public housing to an independent Northern Ireland Housing Executive, for example. Direct Rule was initially intended as a short-term measure, the medium-term strategy being to restore self-government to Northern Ireland on a basis that was acceptable to both unionists and nationalists. Agreement proved elusive, however, and the Troubles continued throughout the 1970s and 1980s within a context of political deadlock. The Parliament of Northern Ireland was the home rule legislature created under the Government of Ireland Act 1920, which existed from June 7, 1921 to March 30, 1972, when it was suspended. ... Devolution or Home rule is the pooling of powers from central government to government at regional or local level. ...


The Sunningdale Agreement

In 1973, following the publication of a British White Paper, a new parliament, the Northern Ireland Assembly was established. Elections were held on 28 June 1973. In October of that year mainstream nationalist and unionist parties, along with the British and (Southern) Irish governments, negotiated the Sunningdale Agreement, which was intended to produce a political settlement within Northern Ireland, but with a so-called "Irish dimension" involving the Republic of Ireland. The agreement provided for "power-sharing" between nationalists and unionists and a "Council of Ireland" designed to encourage cross-border co-operation. Seamus Mallon, the Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP) politician, has pointed to the marked similarities between the Sunningdale Agreement and the Belfast Agreement of 1998. Famously, he characterised the latter as "Sunningdale for slow learners".[8] A white paper is an authoritative report. ... The Northern Ireland Assembly was a legislative assembly set up by the Government of the United Kingdom on 3 May 1973 to restore devolved government to Northern Ireland with a power-sharing executive made up of unionists and nationalists. ... The 1973 elections to the Northern Ireland Assembly took place following the publication of the British governments white paper Northern Ireland Constitutional Proposals which proposed a 78-member Northern Ireland Assembly, elected by proportional representation. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1973 (MCMLXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the 1973 Gregorian calendar. ... The Sunningdale Agreement on December 9, 1973, was an attempt to end the Northern Ireland troubles by forcing unionists to share power with nationalists. ... Seamus Mallon, MP Seamus Mallon (born on 17 August 1936) is a Northern Irish politician and former Deputy Leader of the nationalist Social Democratic and Labour Party. ... The Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP — Irish: Páirtí Sóisialta Daonlathach an Lucht Oibre) is the smaller of the two major nationalist parties in Northern Ireland. ... The Belfast Agreement (also known as the Good Friday Agreement and, more rarely, as the Stormont Agreement) was a major political development in the Northern Ireland peace process. ...


Unionism, however, was split over Sunningdale, which was also opposed by the IRA, whose goal remained nothing short of an end to Northern Ireland's existence as part of the United Kingdom. Many unionists opposed the concept of power-sharing, arguing that it was not feasible to share power with those (nationalists) who sought the destruction of the state. Perhaps more significant, however, was the unionist opposition to the "Irish dimension" and the Council of Ireland, which was perceived as being an all-Ireland parliament-in-waiting. The remarks by SDLP councillor Hugh Logue to an audience at Trinity College Dublin that Sunningdale was the tool "by which the Unionists will be trundled off to a united Ireland" ensured its defeat. The College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity of Queen Elizabeth near Dublin or more commonly Trinity College, Dublin (TCD) was founded in 1592 by Queen Elizabeth I, is the only constituent college of the University of Dublin, Irelands oldest university. ...


In January 1974, Brian Faulkner was narrowly deposed as Unionist Party leader by his own party and replaced by Harry West. A UK general election in February 1974 gave the anti-Sunningdale unionists the opportunity to test unionist opinion with the slogan "Dublin is only a Sunningdale away", and the result galvanised their opposition: they won 11 of the 12 seats, winning 58% of the vote with most of the rest going to nationalists and pro-Sunningdale unionists. Arthur Brian Deane Faulkner, Baron Faulkner of Downpatrick (February 18, 1921 - March 3, 1977) was the sixth and last Prime Minister of Northern Ireland from 1971 until 1972. ... Harry West Leader of the Ulster Unionist Party from 1974 to 1979. ...


Ultimately, however, the Sunningdale Agreement was brought down by mass action on the part of loyalists (primarily the Ulster Defence Association at that time over 20,000 strong) and Protestant workers, who formed the Ulster Workers' Council. They organised a general strike - the Ulster Workers' Council Strike. This stopped all business in Northern Ireland and cut off essential services such as water and electricity. Nationalists argue that the UK government did not do enough to break this strike and uphold the Sunningdale initiative. In the event, however, faced with such determined opposition, the pro-Sunningdale unionists resigned from the power-sharing government and the new regime collapsed. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Ulster Workers Council was a Loyalist workers organisation set up in Northern Ireland in 1974 as a more formalised successor to the Loyalist Association of Workers. ... A general strike is a strike action by an entire labour force in a city, region or country. ... The Ulster Workers Council (UWC) Strike was a general strike which took place between Wednesday 15 May 1974 and Tuesday 28 May 1974 in Northern Ireland. ...


The violence continued through the rest of the 1970s. The Provisional IRA declared a ceasefire in 1975 but returned to violence in 1976. By this time they had lost the hope that they had had in the early 1970s that they could force a rapid British withdrawal from Northern Ireland and instead developed a strategy known as the "Long War", which involved a less intense but more sustained campaign of violence that could continue indefinitely. The Official IRA ceasefire of 1972, however, became permanent, and the "Official" movement eventually evolved into the Workers Party, which rejected violence completely. A splinter from the "Officials" in 1974 - the Irish National Liberation Army, however, continued with a campaign of violence. The term Official Irish Republican Army or Official IRA refers to one of the two organisations - the other being the Provisional Irish Republican Army - that emerged from the split in the then Irish Republican Army in 1969-70. ... The Workers Party (in Irish Páirtí na nOibrithe) is an Irish left wing political party that evolved from Official Sinn Féin. ... The Irish National Liberation Army (INLA) is an Irish republican paramilitary organization which was formed on December 8, 1974. ...


By the late 1970s, war weariness was visible in both communities. One manifestation of this was the formation of group known as "Peace People", which won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1976. The Peace People organised large demonstrations calling for an end to paramilitary violence. However, their campaign lost momentum after they appealed to the nationalist community to provide information on the IRA to security forces. The Army and police were so unpopular in many nationalist areas that this was not seen as an objective stance. Lester B. Pearson after accepting the Nobel Peace Prize Image:Nobel-medal. ...


The Hunger Strikes and the emergence of Sinn Féin

An IRA mural in Belfast depicting the hunger strikes of 1981.
An IRA mural in Belfast depicting the hunger strikes of 1981.

Successive British Governments, having failed to achieve a political settlement, tried to "normalise" Northern Ireland. Aspects included the removal of internment without trial and the removal of political status for paramilitary prisoners. From 1976 onwards, paramilitaries were tried in juryless Diplock courts to avoid intimidation of jurors. On conviction, they were to be treated as ordinary criminals. Resistance to this policy among republican prisoners led to over 500 of them in the Maze prison going on the blanket protest and the dirty protest. Their protest culminated in hunger strikes in 1980 and 1981 aimed at the restoration of political status. Image File history File links Belfast_mural_13_(edited). ... Image File history File links Belfast_mural_13_(edited). ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Statistics Province: Northern Ireland County: District: Belfast UK Parliament: Belfast North Belfast South Belfast East Belfast West European Parliament: Northern Ireland Dialling Code: 028, +44 28 posttown = Belfast Postal District(s): BT1-BT17, BT29 (part of), BT58 Area: 115 km² Population (2001) Website: www. ... A mural in Derrys Bogside, commemorating Irish hunger strikers. ... Internment camp for Japanese in Canada during World War II Internment is the imprisonment or confinement[1] of people, commonly in large groups, without trial. ... The court system established by the Diplock report in December 1972, which was concerned with the problem of dealing with terrorist violence other than by internment. ... Her Majestys Prison (HMP) Maze (known colloqually as The Maze) is a disused prison sited at the former RAF station at Long Kesh (it is still called Long Kesh by many Irish Republicans) near Lisburn, nine miles outside Belfast, in County Antrim, Northern Ireland. ... The blanket protest was part of a dispute involving Provisional IRA and Irish National Liberation Army prisoners held in the Maze prison (Long Kesh) in Northern Ireland. ... The dirty protest was part of a dispute (see also Blanket protest) between Irish republican paramilitary prisoners and the prison authorities at the Maze prison (Long Kesh) and Armagh Womens Prison which ran from September 1976 until October 1981. ... A hunger strike is a method of non-violent resistance in which participants fast as an act of political protest or to achieve a goal such as a policy change. ...


In the 1981 Irish Hunger Strike, ten republican prisoners (seven from the PIRA and three from the Irish National Liberation Army) starved themselves to death. The first hunger striker to die, Bobby Sands was elected to Parliament on an Anti-H-Block ticket, as was his election agent Owen Carron, following Sands' death. The hunger strikes proved emotive events for the nationalist community - over 100,000 people attended Sands' funeral mass at St. Luke's, Twinbrook, West Belfast, and crowds also attended the subsequent funerals. A mural in Derrys Bogside, commemorating Irish hunger strikers. ... The Irish National Liberation Army (INLA) is an Irish republican paramilitary organization which was formed on December 8, 1974. ... Robert Gerard Sands (Irish: [1][2]), commonly known as Bobby Sands, (9 March 1954 – 5 May 1981), was a Provisional Irish Republican Army volunteer who died on hunger strike whilst in HM Prison Maze (also known as Long Kesh) for the possession of firearms. ... Anti H-Block was the political party label used by candidates standing in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland in support of the 1981 hunger strike. ... Owen Carron (born 1953) is an Irish republican activist and the former MP for Fermanagh and South Tyrone. ... Twinbrook is a Washington Metro station in Montgomery County, Maryland on the Red Line. ...


From an Irish republican perspective, the significance of these events was to demonstrate a potential for political and electoral strategy. In the wake of the hunger strikes, Sinn Féin, the PIRA's political wing, began to contest elections for the first time in both Northern Ireland and the Republic. In 1986, Sinn Féin recognised the legitimacy of the Irish Dáil, which caused a small group of hardline republicans to break away and form Republican Sinn Fein. Fianna Fáil - The Republican Party (Pronounced fee-na fall.) (English: Soldiers of Destiny) is the largest political party in the Republic of Ireland. ... For pre-Arthur Griffith use of the political name, see Sinn Féin (19th century). ... Dáil Éireann[1] is the lower house of the Oireachtas (parliament) of the Republic of Ireland. ... Republican Sinn Féin (RSF) is a minor political party operating in Ireland. ...


From a unionist perspective, the hunger strikes appeared to show that the nationalist community supported terrorism and this perception deepened sectarian antagonism.


The "Long War"

Paramilitary campaigns continued on both sides until the respective republican and loyalists ceasefires of 1994 ("non-authorised" killings such as vendettas or drugs-related killings still continue today). Fewer people were killed in the 1980s and 1990s than in the 1970s, but the duration and seemingly interminable nature of the political violence has left behind a very negative sociological legacy.


The PIRA's "Long War" was boosted by large donations of arms to them from Libya in 1986 (see Provisional IRA arms importation) due to Moammar Qaddafi's fury at Thatcher's government for assisting the Reagan government's bombing of Tripoli, which killed one of Qaddafi's children. Although they were now killing fewer soldiers, the PIRA's capacity for assassinations and bombings appeared boundless. Many of their operations were directed at local unionist targets such as off-duty policemen, part-time soldiers and Protestant civilians, such as those killed during the Remembrance Day massacre of 1987. The PIRA also targeted construction workers, cleaners, and other workers, both Catholics and Protestants, who were employed at jobs at police stations and Army bases. The Provisional Irish Republican Army imported large quantities of weapons and ammunition into Ireland for use in Northern Ireland since the early 1970s. ... Colonel Muammar al-Qaddafi Muammar Abu Minyar al-Qaddafi 1 (Arabic: معمر القذافي Mu`ammar al-Qadhdhāfī) (born 1942), leader of Libya since 1970 and a controversial Arab statesman. ... Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC (born October 13, 1925), former Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, in office from 1979 to 1990. ... President Reagan, with his Cabinet and staff, in the Oval Office (February 4, 1981) Headed by U.S. President Ronald Reagan from 1981 to 1989, the Reagan Administration was conservative, steadfastly anti-Communist and in favor of tax cuts and smaller government. ... Combatants United States Libya Commanders Ronald Reagan Muammar al-Gaddafi Casualties 1 F-111 2 aircrew KIA 3-5 IL-76 transport planes 14 Mig-23 Floggers 2 Helicopters[1] 15 Libyan civilians The United States bombing of Libya (code-named Operation El Dorado Canyon) comprised the joint United States... The Remembrance Day Massacre, Enniskillen One of the IRAs most notorious acts of violence during Northern Irelands Troubles. ...


In the mid to late 1980s loyalist paramilitaries including the Ulster Volunteer Force, the Ulster Defence Association and Ulster Resistance, imported arms and explosives from South Africa. The weapons obtained were divided between the UDA, the UVF, and Ulster Resistance and led to an escalation in the assassination of Catholics, although some of the weaponry (such as rocket propelled grenades) were hardly used due to loyalist incompetence. These killings were in response to the 1985 Anglo-Irish Agreement which gave the Irish government a "consultative role" in the internal government of Northern Ireland. The Ulster Volunteer Force (more commonly referred to as the UVF) are a loyalist paramilitary group in Northern Ireland. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Ulster Resistance was a paramilitary movement established by unionists in Northern Ireland on 10 November 1986 in opposition to the Anglo-Irish Agreement. ... An RPG-7 captured by the US Army RPG, or Rocket propelled grenade is a loose term describing hand-held, shoulder-launched anti-tank weapons capable of firing an unguided rocket equipped with an explosive warhead. ... The Anglo-Irish Agreement was an agreement between the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland which aimed to bring an end to the Troubles in Northern Ireland. ... The Government (Irish: ) is the cabinet that exercises executive authority in the Republic of Ireland. ...


Collusion - security forces and loyalist paramilitaries

An emotive and highly controversial aspect of the conflict has been the confirmed collusion between the state security forces and loyalist paramilitaries. Look up collusion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The UDR and loyalists

One problem highlighted by recently released documents (3 May 2006) by the pro-nationalist Irish News site, "Nuzhound" is that British Government documents from the early 1970s allegedly show overlapping membership between British Army units like the Ulster Defence Regiment (UDR) and loyalist paramilitary groups. The documents include a report titled "Subversion in the UDR" which details the problem. In 1973, is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Irish News is the only quality newspaper published in Northern Ireland. ... UDR Badge The Ulster Defence Regiment (UDR) was an infantry regiment of the British Army. ...

  • an estimated 5-15% of UDR soldiers were directly linked to loyalist paramilitary groups.
  • it was believed that the "best single source of weapons, and the only significant source of modern weapons, for Protestant extremist groups was the UDR."
  • it was feared that UDR troops were loyal to "Ulster" alone rather than to "Her Majesty's Government".
  • the British Government knew that UDR weapons were being used in the assassination and attempted assassination of Catholic civilians by loyalist paramilitaries.[9]

Despite knowing that over 200 weapons had been passed from British Army hands to loyalist paramilitaries by 1973, the British Government went on to increase the role of the UDR in "maintaining order" in Northern Ireland. This was part of the wider "Normalisation, Ulsterisation, and Criminalisation" strategy to quell the violence of the PIRA. Ulsterisation refers to a British Government strategy on the 1970s to pacify Northern Ireland during the conflict known as the The Troubles. ...


Special Patrol Group and the Glenane allegations

In the mid-1970s, a Royal Ulster Constabulary anti-terrorist unit, the Special Patrol Group (RUC), was implicated in aiding and participating in a number of sectarian murders in the mid-Ulster area, including the Reavey and O'Dowd killings of 1976. Two SPG members, John Weir and Billy McCaughey, were convicted in 1980 of a 1977 murder, an attack on pub in Keady, and the kidnap of a Catholic priest. They implicated their immediate colleagues in at least 11 other killings and alleged that they were part of a wider conspiracy involving the RUC Special Branch, British military intelligence, and the UVF.[10] The Special Patrol Group was stood down after the men's conviction. The nationalist Pat Finucane Centre has claimed that the group of British Army, RUC, UDR, and UVF members that Wier and McCaughey referred to, which they called the "Glenane gang", was responsible for 87 killings in the 1970s, including the Dublin and Monaghan bombings of 1974 and the Miami Showband killings of 1975.[11] The Special Patrol Group (SPG) in the Royal Ulster Constabulary was a police unit tasked with counter terrorism. ... The Reavey and ODowd killings were the killing of six Catholics in Armagh, Northern Ireland, by loyalist paramilitaries on January 4, 1976. ... William Billy McCaughey (1950-2006) was a member of the Royal Ulster Constabularys Special Patrol Group (SPG) and the illegal Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) in the 1970s. ... Keady is a large village in County Armagh in Northern Ireland, south of Armagh city and very close to the border with the Republic of Ireland. ... The Dublin and Monaghan Bombings on May 17, 1974 were a series of terrorist attacks on Dublin and Monaghan in the Republic of Ireland which left 33 people dead, and almost 300 injured, the largest number of casualties in any single day in The Troubles. ... The Miami Showband killings occurred in 1975 near Newry, in South Armagh, Northern Ireland when The Miami Showband musical group were traveling home to Dublin after a gig in Banbridge, Co. ...


Collusion in the 1980s and 1990s

Elements within the Army and police have been shown to have leaked intelligence to loyalists from the late 1980s to target republican activists. In 1992, a British agent within the UDA, Brian Nelson, revealed Army complicity in his activities which included murder and importing arms.[12][13] Factions within the British Army and RUC are known to have cooperated with Nelson and the UDA through the British Army Intelligence group called the Force Research Unit. Since the late 1990s, some loyalists have confirmed to journalists such as Peter Taylor that they received files and intelligence from security sources on Republican targets.[14][15] Brian Nelson may refer to: Brian Nelson, American screenwriter and producer Brian Nelson, British intelligence agent operating as the intelligence chief of the loyalist Ulster Defence Association paramilitary organization Brian Nelson, Drummer for California punk band Career Soldiers Category: ... The Force Research Unit is alleged to be a covert military intelligence organization established by the United Kingdom Ministry of Defence under the British Armys Special Intelligence Wing (SIW). ... Peter Taylor is a British journalist and documentary maker who has covered the Troubles in Northern Ireland for many years. ...


In a report released on the 22 January 2007, the Police Ombudsman Nuala O'Loan stated that UVF informers committed serious crimes, including murder, with the full knowledge of their handlers.[16] The report alleged that certain Special Branch officers created false statements, blocked evidence searches and "baby-sat" suspects during interviews. Democratic Unionist Party (DUP) councillor and former Police Federation chairman Jimmy Spratt said if the report "had had one shred of credible evidence then we could have expected charges against former Police Officers. There are no charges, so the public should draw their own conclusion, the report is clearly based on little fact".[17] However, Secretary of State for Northern Ireland Peter Hain said that he was "convinced that at least one prosecution will arise out of today's report".[18]. Peter Hain also said, "There are all sorts of opportunities for prosecutions to follow. The fact that some retired police officers obstructed the investigation and refused to co-operate with the Police Ombudsman is very serious in itself. There will be consequences for those involved and it is a matter for the relevant bodies to take up".[19] January 22 is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Nuala OLoan the Police Ombudsman for Northern Ireland Nuala OLoan is the first Police Ombudsman for Northern Ireland. ... Special Branch is the arm of the British, Irish and many Commonwealth police forces that deals with national security matters. ... “DUP” redirects here. ... The Secretary of State for Northern Ireland is the British cabinet minister who has responsibility for the government of Northern Ireland. ... Peter Gerald Hain PC MP (born February 16, 1950, Nairobi, Kenya) is a British Labour Party politician, Secretary of State for Northern Ireland and Secretary of State for Wales. ...


The chances of successful prosecutions would perhaps be very low, given the nature of the alleged crimes. Where evidence may have been destroyed, altered, or deliberately not gathered, it would be very hard to ground any kind of charge. Were this the case, DUP councillor and former Police Federation chairman Jimmy Spratt's statement would be invalid, as the alleged crimes specifically set out to frustrate the course of justice; and were successful in doing so, at least according to the conclusions of the Ballast Report.


Shoot-to-kill allegations

In addition, republicans allege that the security forces operated a policy of "shoot-to-kill" - killing rather than arresting IRA suspects. The security forces denied this and point out that in incidents such as the killing of eight IRA men at Loughgall in 1987, the paramilitaries who were killed were heavily armed. Others argue that incidents such as the shooting of three unarmed IRA members in Gibraltar by the SAS ten months later confirmed suspicions among republicans, and in the British and Irish media, of a tacit British "shoot-to-kill" policy of suspected IRA terrorists.[20] This article deals with the issue of a shoot-to-kill policy during The Troubles in Northern Ireland. ... The Provisional IRAs East Tyrone Brigade was one of the most active Republican paramilitary groups in Northern Ireland over the course of the Troubles. They are believed to have drawn their membership from right across the eastern side of County Tyrone as well as north Monaghan and south Londonderry. ... Loughgall is a town in County Armagh, Northern Ireland. ... The Special Air Service Regiment (SAS) is the principal special forces unit of the British Army. ...


The paramilitary ceasefires and peace process

Main article Northern Ireland peace process

When discussing the history of Northern Ireland, the peace process is generally considered to cover the events leading up to the 1994 IRA ceasefire, the end of most of the violence of The Troubles, the Belfast (or Good Friday) Agreement, and subsequent political developments. ...

The paramilitaries' activities

Since the late 1980s, Sinn Féin, led since 1983 by Gerry Adams, sought a negotiated end to the conflict (though the IRA continued its armed campaign), although Adams knew that this would be a very long process. In the 1970s he himself predicted that the war would last another 20 years. This was manifested in open talks with John Hume - the Social Democratic and Labour Party leader and secret talks with Government officials. The loyalists were also engaged in behind the scenes talks to end the violence, liaising with the British and Irish governments through Protestant clergy, in particular, the Presbyterian Rev. Roy Magee and Anglican Archbishop Robin Eames. After a prolonged period of political manoeuvring in the background, both loyalist and republican paramilitaries declared ceasefires in 1994. For pre-Arthur Griffith use of the political name, see Sinn Féin (19th century). ... Gerard Adams (Irish Gearóid Mac Ádhaimh[1]; born 6 October 1948) is an Irish Republican politician and abstentionist Westminster Member of Parliament for Belfast West. ... John Hume. ... The Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP — Irish: Páirtí Sóisialta Daonlathach an Lucht Oibre) is the smaller of the two major nationalist parties in Northern Ireland. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


The year leading up to the ceasefires was a particularly tense one, marked by atrocities. The UDA and UVF stepped up their killings of Catholics (for the first time killing more civilians than Republicans in a year in 1993). The IRA responded with the Shankill Road bombing in October 1993 that aimed to wipe out the UDA leadership, but in fact killed nine Protestant civilians. The UDA in turn retaliated with the Greysteel massacre and the shootings at Castlerock, County Londonderry. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Greysteel massacre occurred on the evening of the October 30, 1993 when three members of the Ulster Freedom Fighters, an Ulster Loyalist organisation headed by Johnny Adair, entered the Rising Sun Bar in Greysteel, County Londonderry. ...


On June 16, 1994, just before the ceasefires, the Irish National Liberation Army (INLA) killed two UVF members in a gun attack on the Shankill road. In revenge, three days later, the UVF killed six civilians in a shooting at a pub in Loughinisland, County Down. The IRA, in the remaining month before its ceasefire, killed four senior loyalists, three from the UDA and one from the UVF. There are various interpretations of the spike in violence before the ceasefires. One theory is that the loyalists feared the peace process represented an imminent "sellout" of the Union and ratcheted up their violence accordingly. Another explanation is that the republicans were "settling old scores" before the end of their campaigns and wanted to enter the political process from a position of military strength rather than weakness. is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar). ... The Irish National Liberation Army (INLA) is an Irish republican paramilitary organization which was formed on December 8, 1974. ... Loughinisland is a village in County Down, Northern Ireland. ... Statistics Province: Ulster County Town: Downpatrick Area: 2,448 km² Population (est. ...


Eventually, in August 1994, the Provisional IRA declared a ceasefire. The loyalist paramilitaries, temporarily united in the Combined Loyalist Military Command, reciprocated six weeks later. Although these ceasefires failed in the short run, they mark an effective end to large-scale political violence in the Troubles as it paved the way for the final ceasefire. A ceasefire is a temporary stoppage of a war or any armed conflict, where each side of the conflict agrees with the other to suspend aggressive actions. ... The Combined Loyalist Military Command was an umbrella body for Loyalist paramilitary groups in Northern Ireland set up in the early 1990s. ...


The second ceasefire

Less than two years after the signing of the Ceasefire the IRA revoked it on 9 February 1996. Later that day a half tonne bomb was exploded in the Canary Wharf area of London killing two people and doing £85 million in damage to the city's financial centre. Sinn Fein blamed the failure of the ceasefire on the UK government's refusal to begin all-party negotiations until the IRA decommissioned its weapons.[21] is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... Sinn Féin (in the Irish language ourselves or we ourselves; not as sometimes incorrectly translated, ourselves alone) is an Irish political party. ...

The destruction immediately following the attacks in South Quay
The destruction immediately following the attacks in South Quay

The attack was followed by several more, most notably the the Manchester Bombing which destroyed much of the centre of the city on 15 June 1996. It was the largest bomb attack in Great Britain since World War II, and while the attack avoided many fatalities due to the rapid response of the emergency services to an earlier telephone warning made to a local television station, over 200 people were still injured in the attack, many of them outside the established cordon. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 765 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (800 × 627 pixel, file size: 108 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)   This work is protected by British Crown copyright. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 765 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (800 × 627 pixel, file size: 108 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)   This work is protected by British Crown copyright. ... South Quay is a Docklands Light Railway station on the Isle of Dogs, in London. ... The devastation on Corporation Street after the bombing. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ...


The IRA reinstated their ceasefire in July 1997 as negotiations for the document that would become known as the Good Friday Agreement were starting without Sinn Féin. In September of the same year Sinn Féin signed The Mitchell Principles and was invited into the talks. The Mitchell Principles were six ground rules agreed by the Irish and British governments and the political parties in Northern Ireland regarding participation in talks on the future of the region. ...


The UVF was the first paramilitary grouping to split as a result of their ceasefire, spawning the Loyalist Volunteer Force (LVF) in 1996. In December 1997, the INLA assassinated LVF leader Billy Wright, leading to a series of revenge killings of Catholics by loyalist groups. In addition, two hardline splinter groups from the Provisional IRA, the Real IRA and the Continuity IRA, who rejected the Provisionals' ceasefire, continued a bombing campaign. The Loyalist Volunteer Force (LVF) is a loyalist terrorist group in Northern Ireland which broke away from the Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) and was led by the late Billy Wright. ... Billy Wright (July 7, 1960 – December 27, 1997) was a Northern Irish terrorist, a member of the Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) and leader of the extremist Loyalist Volunteer Force (LVF). ... Categories: Wikipedia cleanup | Organization stubs | Terrorist organizations in Northern Ireland | Rebellion ... The Continuity Irish Republican Army (CIRA) is an Irish republican paramilitary group that split from the Provisional IRA in 1986 in a dispute over the attendance of the elected representatives of Sinn Féin (the political party affiliated to the Provisional IRA) at Dáil Éireann (the lower house of...


In August 1998, a RIRA bomb in Omagh killed 29 civilians (and two unborn children). This bombing, the single worst of the entire Troubles, largely discredited "dissident" Republicans and their campaigns in the eyes of most nationalists. They are now small and uninfluential groups[citation needed]. The INLA also declared a ceasefire after the Belfast Agreement was passed in 1998. This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... , Omagh (from the Irish: An Ómaigh meaning The Sacred Plain) is the county town of County Tyrone in Northern Ireland, situated where the rivers Drumragh and Camowen meet to form the Strule. ...


Since then, most paramilitary violence has been directed inwards, at their "own" communities and at other factions within their organisations. The UDA, for example has come to blows with their fellow loyalists, the UVF on two occasions since 2000 and has also been torn apart repeatedly by internal feuding between "Brigade commanders" over power within the organisation and the proceeds of organised crime[citation needed].


On the Republican side, the tendency for internecine violence has been less marked[citation needed], but the Provisional IRA has been accused of killing at least one double-agent (Denis Donaldson) and its members have also been accused of intimidating and expelling Catholics, assaulting men and women, and, in the most extreme cases, killings of young men such as Robert McCartney, Matthew Ignatius Burns and Andrew Kearney. Denis Donaldson (left) pictured with Bobby Sands Denis Martin Donaldson (Belfast, Northern Ireland, 1950 – April 4, 2006 in Donegal, Republic of Ireland) was a member of the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) and Sinn Féin who was exposed in December 2005 as an informer in the employ of MI5... Robert McCartney (1971 – 31 January 2005) was the victim of a murder in Belfast, in Northern Ireland, carried out by members of the Provisional Irish Republican Army. ...


The Provisional IRA claimed to have decommissioned most of its weaponry as of August-September 2005, meaning that, if true, it would no longer have the capacity for large-scale armed actions in the immediate future.


The political process

After the ceasefires, talks began between the main political parties in Northern Ireland with the aim of establishing political agreement. These talks eventually produced the Belfast Agreement of 1998. This Agreement restored self-government to Northern Ireland on the basis of "power-sharing", and an executive was formed in 1999 consisting of the four main parties, including Sinn Féin. Other reforms included reform of the police (which was renamed as the Police Service of Northern Ireland and required to recruit a minimum quota of Catholics). The Belfast Agreement (also known as the Good Friday Agreement and, more rarely, as the Stormont Agreement) was a major political development in the Northern Ireland peace process. ... For pre-Arthur Griffith use of the political name, see Sinn Féin (19th century). ... The Police Service of Northern Ireland (Irish: Seirbhís Póilíneachta Thuaisceart na hÉireann) is the police service that covers Northern Ireland. ...


However, the power-sharing Executive and Assembly was suspended in 2002, when unionists withdrew following the exposure of a Provisional IRA spy ring within the Sinn Féin office (which was later revealed to have been started by an undercover British agent Denis Donaldson). This was on top ongoing tensions between unionists and Sinn Féin about Provisional IRA failure to disarm fully and sufficiently quickly. PIRA decommissioning has since been completed (in September 2005) to the satisfaction of most, but the Democratic Unionist Party (DUP) continued to be wary over republican claims that the "war was over". Denis Donaldson (left) pictured with Bobby Sands Denis Martin Donaldson (Belfast, Northern Ireland, 1950 – April 4, 2006 in Donegal, Republic of Ireland) was a member of the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) and Sinn Féin who was exposed in December 2005 as an informer in the employ of MI5... “DUP” redirects here. ...


A feature of Northern Irish politics since the Agreement has been the eclipse in electoral terms of the relatively moderate parties such as the Social Democratic and Labour Party and Ulster Unionist Party by more extreme parties - Sinn Féin and the DUP. The Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP — Irish: Páirtí Sóisialta Daonlathach an Lucht Oibre) is the smaller of the two major nationalist parties in Northern Ireland. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For pre-Arthur Griffith use of the political name, see Sinn Féin (19th century). ...


Similarly, although political violence is greatly reduced, sectarian animosity has not disappeared and residential areas are more segregated between Catholic nationalists and Protestant unionists than ever. Because of this, progress towards restoring the power-sharing institutions looks likely to be slow and tortuous. Though the "peace process" is slow-going, movements are forming to assist in this process and give those affected by The Troubles a voice in their communities. In particular, the Corrymeela Community in Ballycastle teaches the prejudice-reduction model that has been adopted by the Ulster Project International to improve relations between Protestant and Catholic families across the country. The Corrymeela Community in Ballycastle on the north coast of Northern Ireland is a Christian peace-building centre where young people and others from a divided society can meet and get to know each other as a first step to healing divisions. ... Ballycastle (Baile an Chaistil in Irish) is a small town in County Antrim in Northern Ireland. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Recently, Gerry Adams and Ian Paisley have announced the formation of a power-sharing government, hopefully ending the 5 year standoff.


The parades issue

Drumcree dispute map (enlarge to study)

Inter-communal tensions rise and violence often breaks out during the "marching season" when the Protestant Orange Order parades take place across Northern Ireland. The parades are held to commemorate William of Orange's victory in the Battle of the Boyne in 1690, which secured the Protestant Ascendancy and British rule in Ireland. One particular flashpoint that has caused repeated strife is the Garvaghy Road area in Portadown, where an Orange parade from Drumcree Church passes by a predominantly nationalist estate off the Garvaghy Road. This parade has now been banned indefinitely, following nationalist riots against the parade, and also loyalist counter-riots against its banning. In 1995, 1996 and 1997, there were several weeks of prolonged rioting throughout the North over the impasse at Drumcree. A number of people died in this violence, including a Catholic taxi driver, killed by the Loyalist Volunteer Force, and three (of four) nominally Catholic brothers (from a mixed-religion family) died when their house in Ballymoney was petrol-bombed. Download high resolution version (361x605, 18 KB)(Note that even though the picture says Unlike the rest of this site, this map is declared to be in the public domain. ... Download high resolution version (361x605, 18 KB)(Note that even though the picture says Unlike the rest of this site, this map is declared to be in the public domain. ... Orange parade in Glasgow (1 June 2003) The Orange Institution, more commonly known as the Orange Order, is a Protestant fraternal organisation based predominantly in Northern Ireland and Scotland with lodges throughout the Commonwealth and in Canada and the United States. ... William III of England (The Hague, 14 November 1650 – Kensington Palace, 8 March 1702; also known as William II of Scotland and William III of Orange) was a Dutch aristocrat and a Protestant Prince of Orange from his birth, Stadtholder of the main provinces of the Dutch Republic from 28... Combatants Jacobite Forces -6000 French troops, 19,000 Irish Catholic troops Williamite Forces -English, Scottish, Dutch, Danish, Huguenot and Ulster Protestant troops Commanders James VII and II William III of England Strength 25,000 36,000 Casualties ~1,500 ~750 William III (William of Orange) King of England, Scotland and... The Protestant Ascendancy refers to the political, economic, and social domination of Ireland by Anglican landowners, Church of Ireland clergy, and professionals during the 17th, 18th, and 19th century. ... Portadown (from the Irish: Port an Dúnáin meaning port of the fortress) is a town in County Armagh, Northern Ireland. ... Portadown (Port an Dúnáin in Irish) is a town in County Armagh, Northern Ireland. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: ) is a part of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... The Loyalist Volunteer Force (LVF) is a loyalist terrorist group in Northern Ireland which broke away from the Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) and was led by the late Billy Wright. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 55. ...


Disputes have also occurred in Belfast over parade routes along the heavily Catholic Ormeau and Crumlin Roads. Orangemen hold that to march their "traditional route" is their civil right. Nationalists argue that by parading through hostile areas, the Orange Order is being unnecessarily provocative. Symbolically, the ability to either parade or to block a parade is viewed as expressing ownership of "territory" and influence over the government of Northern Ireland.


Many commentators have expressed the view that the violence over the parades issue has provided an outlet for the violence of paramilitary groups who are otherwise on ceasefire.


Casualties: brief summary

Responsibility

Between 1969 and 2001, 3,523 people were killed as a result of the Troubles.


Approximately 60% of the victims were killed by republicans, 30% by loyalists and 10% by the British, Irish and Northern Irish security forces.

Responsibility for killing [6]
Responsible party No.
Republican Paramilitary Groups 2055
Loyalist Paramilitary Groups 1020
Security Forces 368
Persons unknown 80

Status

Most of those killed were civilians or members of the security forces, with smaller groups of victims identified with republican and loyalist paramilitary groups. It is often disputed whether some civilians were members of paramilitary organisations due to their secretive nature. Several PIRA paramilitaries were claimed to be civilians by CAIN but are now claimed by the IRA as their members, Padraig O'Seanachain for example.[22] At least three Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) members killed were also Ulster Defence Regiment (UDR) soldiers.[23] At least one civilian victim was an off-duty member of the TA.[24] The Ulster Volunteer Force (more commonly referred to as the UVF) are a loyalist paramilitary group in Northern Ireland. ... UDR Badge The Ulster Defence Regiment (UDR) was an infantry regiment of the British Army. ... The Territorial Army (TA) is the principal reserve force of the British Army, the land armed forces of the United Kingdom, and composed mostly of part-time soldiers paid at the same rate, while engaged on military activities, as their Regular equivalents. ...

Deaths by status of victim [7]
Status No.
Civilian 1855
Members of security forces (and reserves) 1123
of whom:
British Army 499
Royal Ulster Constabulary 301
Ulster Defence Regiment 197
Northern Ireland Prison Service 24
Garda Síochána (Republic of Ireland police) 9
Royal Irish Regiment 7
Territorial Army 7
English police forces 6
Royal Air Force 4
Royal Navy 3
Irish Army 1
Members of Republican Paramilitary Groups 394
Members of Loyalist Paramilitary Groups 151

The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... The Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) was name of the police force in Northern Ireland from 1922 to 2001. ... UDR Badge The Ulster Defence Regiment (UDR) was an infantry regiment of the British Army. ... The Northern Ireland Prison Service is an executive agency of the Northern Ireland Office (NIO) established on 1 April 1995. ... Garda Síochána na hÉireann (pronounced ; Irish for Peace Guard of Ireland, often rendered[1] as The Guardians of the Peace of Ireland) is the police force of the Republic of Ireland. ... The Royal Irish Regiment (27th (Inniskilling) 83rd and 87th and Ulster Defence Regiment), commonly just called the Royal Irish Regiment (R IRISH), is an infantry unit of the British Army and is the only remaining Irish regiment of the line. ... The Territorial Army (TA) is the principal reserve force of the British Army, the land armed forces of the United Kingdom, and composed mostly of part-time soldiers paid at the same rate, while engaged on military activities, as their Regular equivalents. ... A Police Constable of West Yorkshire Police on patrol The United Kingdom (UK) does not have one single police service serving the general public; with the exception of various special police forces and of Northern Ireland (which has one unified force, the Police Service of Northern Ireland (PSNI)), police forces... The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the air force branch of the British Armed Forces. ... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore the Senior Service). ... The Irish Army (Irish: Arm na hÉireann) is the main branch of the Irish Defence Forces[1] (Óglaigh na hÉireann). ...

Location

Most killings took place within Northern Ireland, especially Belfast, although surrounding counties, Dublin and large English cities (such as London and Birmingham) were affected, albeit to a lesser degree than in Northern Ireland itself. Occasionally, violence also took place in western Europe, especially against the British Army in Germany. Dublin city centre at night WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Statistics Province: Leinster County: Dáil Éireann: Dublin Central, Dublin North Central, Dublin North East, Dublin North West, Dublin South Central, Dublin South East European Parliament: Dublin Dialling Code: 01, +353 1 Postal District(s): D1-24, D6W Area: 114. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Birmingham (pron. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ...

Geographic distribution of deaths in Northern Ireland conflict[8]
Location No.
County Antrim 207
County Armagh 276
East Belfast 128
North Belfast 576
County Tyrone 339
West Belfast 623
County Down 243
County Fermanagh 112
Derry City 227
County Londonderry 123
Republic of Ireland 113
England 125
Continental Europe 18

Statistics Province: Ulster County Town: Antrim Area: 2,844 km² Population (est. ... Statistics Province: Ulster County Town: Armagh Area: 1,254 km² Population (est. ... East Belfast is a Parliamentary Constituency in the House of Commons and also an Assembly constituency in the Northern Ireland Assembly. ... Belfast North is a Parliamentary Constituency in the House of Commons and also an Assembly constituency in the Northern Ireland Assembly. ... Statistics Province: Ulster County Town: Omagh Area: 3,155 km² Population (est. ... West Belfast is a Parliamentary Constituency in the House of Commons and also an Assembly constituency in the Northern Ireland Assembly. ... Statistics Province: Ulster County Town: Downpatrick Area: 2,448 km² Population (est. ... Statistics Province: Ulster County Town: Enniskillen Area: 1,691 km² Population (est. ... Londonderry redirects here. ... Statistics Province: Ulster County Town: Derry Area: 2,074 km² Population (est. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto)1 Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Monarch Queen Elizabeth II... World map showing the location of Europe. ...

Chronological listing

Deaths related to Northern Ireland conflict (1969–2006).

Number of deaths listed as "conflict-related (uncertain if conflict-related)" ([9]).

Year No.
2006 3 (5)
2005 5 (7)
2004 2 (3)
2003 10 (3)
2002 11 (5)
2001 16
2000 19
1999 8
1998 55
1997 21
1996 18
1995 9
1994 64
1993 88
1992 89
1991 96
1990 81
1989 75
1988 104
1987 98
1986 61
1985 57
1984 69
1983 85
1982 110
1981 113
1980 80
1979 121
1978 81
1977 111
1976 295
1975 260
1974 294
1973 253
1972 479
1971 171
1970 26
1969 16

Additional statistics

Additional estimated statistics on the conflict[citation needed]
Incident No.
Injury 47,000
Shooting 37,000
Armed robbery 22,500
Persons imprisoned for paramilitary offences 19,600
Bombing and attempted bombing 16,200
Arson 2,200














Analytical perspectives

Religion, class and region

Religion and class are the two major determinants of political allegiance in Northern Ireland. Almost all Protestants are Unionists, and the overwhelming majority of Catholics are nationalists; many republicans. Working class Catholics and Protestants are more likely to support paramilitary groups and radical political parties on either side. Moreover, the paramilitaries have their strongholds in urban working-class areas and it is this social class which is the most segregated along sectarian lines. The term working class is used to denote a social class. ...


The radical political parties associated with paramilitaries have sometimes offered far more radical political analyses than the more middle-class and conservative parties. Sinn Féin, from the late 1970s, adopted a radical "anti-imperialist" perspective of the political situation, comparing it to "liberation struggles" elsewhere such as in the Palestinian Territories and South Africa. Their analysis also defined the conflict partly in terms of "class struggle", although unlike the Marxist Official IRA, they did not take this to mean that the loyalist working class were potential allies. Loyalists in the 1970s even advocated majoritarian forms of an "independent Ulster". There is little support for this idea today. In the 1980s, some loyalists, notably John McMichael of the UDA (who was assassinated by the PIRA), advocated a power-sharing, egalitarian solution to the conflict, which they released in a pamphlet titled, "Common Sense". For pre-Arthur Griffith use of the political name, see Sinn Féin (19th century). ... Anti-imperialism is a current within the political left advocating the collapse of imperialism. ... Class struggle is the active expression of class conflict looked at from any kind of socialist perspective. ... Marxism is the political practice and social theory based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary, along with Friedrich Engels. ... The term Official Irish Republican Army or Official IRA refers to one of the two organisations - the other being the Provisional Irish Republican Army - that emerged from the split in the then Irish Republican Army in 1969-70. ... Ulster nationalism seeks the independence of either Ulster or Northern Ireland from both the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland. ... ‘’’John McMichael’’’ (known as ‘Big John’) was a leading Northern Ireland Loyalist who rose to become the most prominent figure within the Ulster Defence Association. ...


It has been suggested by many loyalists that mainstream Unionists resisted reform and used the IRA scare tactic in part to maintain their political and economic power at the expense of both Nationalists as well as the impoverished Unionist/Loyalist communities. Parties such as the Ulster Unionist Party (UUP) maintained their dominance in part by using the "union" and IRA issues as a means to maintain voting unity from the working-class Unionists who, politically, gained little from the UUP's policies. It is argued, for example by the Progressive Unionist Party that one reason Loyalist paramilitary groups formed in such great numbers is the true disenfranchisement of the poorer Protestant segments of Northern Irish society. The Progressive Unionist Party (PUP) are a small political party from Northern Ireland. ...


Religious commitment is sometimes, but not normally, an indicator of extreme political views. For example, Ian Paisley and his supporters combine strict Presbyterianism with hardline unionist politics. Of the paramilitaries, Catholic piety is generally not combined with militant republicanism, and loyalist paramilitaries are rarely overtly religious. However, there have been prominent republican paramilitaries who have also publicly displayed their religious faith (such as Gerry McGeough, Sean Mac Stiofain, Anthony Mangan, and Billy McKee). Assassinated loyalist leader Billy Wright also prominently displayed his faith, but theology and religion (as opposed to communal identification based on religion) are not prominent in republican and loyalist ideologies. Ian Richard Kyle Paisley MP MLA (born 6 April 1926) is the current First Minister of Northern Ireland. ... Presbyterianism is a form of church government which is most prevalent within the Reformed branch of Protestant Western Christianity. ... Gerry McGeough (b. ... Seán Mac Stíofáin (17 February 1928- 18 May 2001) was an Irish republican and first chief of staff of the Provisional IRA. Sean MacStiofain // Although he used the Gaelicised version of his name in later life, Mac Stíofáin was born an only child as John... Billy McKee is an Irish Republican and was an original founding member and former leader of the Provisional Irish Republican Army[1]. // McKee was born in Belfast in the early 1920s. ... Billy Wright can refer to: Billy Wright (footballer) Billy Wright (terrorist) Billy Wright (musician) See also: William Wright Category: ... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ...


Region also plays role in determining the politics of people in Northern Ireland. Some areas, notably West Belfast, South Armagh, South Derry and much of County Tyrone, are noted for their hardline Irish republican politics. Other Catholic-dominated areas such as Derry City have a relatively moderate political tradition with a high level of support for the non-violent SDLP. Similarly, certain regions, notably East Belfast, the Portadown area and northern County Antrim are known for their staunchly pro-loyalist politics. West Belfast is a Parliamentary Constituency in the House of Commons and also an Assembly constituency in the Northern Ireland Assembly. ... Statistics Province: Ulster County Town: Armagh Area: 1,254 km² Population (est. ... Statistics Province: Ulster County Town: Omagh Area: 3,155 km² Population (est. ... Derry City can refer to: the Northern Ireland city of Derry/Londonderry and its local authority Derry City Council Derry City FC, an association football club playing in Northern Ireland. ... East Belfast is a Parliamentary Constituency in the House of Commons and also an Assembly constituency in the Northern Ireland Assembly. ... Portadown (from the Irish: Port an Dúnáin meaning port of the fortress) is a town in County Armagh, Northern Ireland. ... Statistics Province: Ulster County Town: Antrim Area: 2,844 km² Population (est. ...


Policing

Since the existence of Northern Ireland has been disputed by some since its inception, its means of coercion, its police force, has necessarily also been an area of dispute. Specifically, the issues surrounding policing in Northern Ireland concern the composition of the police force - i.e., whether it is representative of the population, its political orientation - whether it favours unionists over nationalists, and its role - whether it is primarily a service to uphold the rule of law, or it is a force with the goal of defending the Northern Ireland state.


The Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC), the police force in Northern Ireland, was since its inception, largely, though not totally, Protestant for a number of reasons. Catholics did not join in the numbers expected by the British when the force was first created. Some of those who did reported an unwelcoming working environment. Those Catholics who did join were also often targeted for assassination by the PIRA, yet a number of Catholics did join the RUC. One (James Flanagan) served as Chief Constable, and was later knighted, while the current leader of the Social Democratic and Labour Party, Mark Durkan, is the son of a Catholic RUC officer. Musicians Phil Coulter and Marilla Ness’ fathers were also policemen. The Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) was name of the police force in Northern Ireland from 1922 to 2001. ... Sir James Bernard Flanagan, KBE (15 January 1914–1999) was the first and only Roman Catholic Chief Constable of the Royal Ulster Constabulary. ... The Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP — Irish: Páirtí Sóisialta Daonlathach an Lucht Oibre) is the smaller of the two major nationalist parties in Northern Ireland. ... Mark Henry Durkan (born in 1960) is a Roman Catholic nationalist politician in Northern Ireland and the leader of the Social Democratic and Labour Party. ... Phil Coulter (born February 19, 1942) is a songwriter, performer and music producer from Derry, the second city of Northern Ireland. ...


The result was that critics of the unionist and loyalist communities portrayed the police force as a "unionist police force". Sinn Féin produced posters in the 1990s which said of the RUC, "90% Protestant, 100% unionist" and depicted an officer wearing an Orange sash.


Even more than the regular police force, this perception was widely held by nationalists about the B-Specials, a part time police force mobilised in times of emergency. The B-Specials were disbanded in 1970, but were replaced by the Ulster Defence Regiment - a locally recruited part-time unit of the British Army - intended for security duties in Northern Ireland. While the UDR killed only 8 people during the Troubles and often carried out security duties professionally and well, many of its members were found to have been involved with loyalist paramilitary groups and in a number of killings of Catholics nationalists. For this reason, the nationalists also viewed the UDR as a partisan force. The UDR were disbanded in 1992 and incorporated into the regular Royal Irish Regiment. The Ulster Special Constabulary (USC) was a reserve force of the Royal Ulster Constabulary. ... UDR Badge The Ulster Defence Regiment (UDR) was an infantry regiment of the British Army. ... In the British Army, there have been two regiments titled the Royal Irish Regiment. ...


One of the major social problems created by the Troubles was the takeover of law enforcement in certain areas by either republican or loyalists paramilitaries, who punished local criminals with beatings, kneecappings and even murder. One of the principle aims of the peace process, therefore, has been to re-establish the police as the sole enforcers of law and order. Knee-capping is a form of malicious wounding used by gangsters or terrorists to punish enemies, or as a drastic form of torture. ...


Sinn Féin entered the negotiations that led to the Belfast Agreement in 1998 with the demand that the RUC be disbanded. A policing review, part of the Good Friday Agreement, has led to some reforms of policing, including more rigorous accountability, measures to increase the number of Catholic officers, and the renaming of the RUC to the Police Service of Northern Ireland. The Belfast Agreement (also known as the Good Friday Agreement and, more rarely, as the Stormont Agreement) was a major political development in the Northern Ireland peace process. ... The Belfast Agreement (also known as the Good Friday Agreement and, more rarely, as the Stormont Agreement) was signed in Belfast on April 10, 1998 by the British and Irish Governments and endorsed by most Northern Ireland political parties. ... The Police Service of Northern Ireland (Irish: Seirbhís Póilíneachta Thuaisceart na hÉireann) is the police service that covers Northern Ireland. ...


While most of the reforms have been introduced, Sinn Féin continued, until January 2007, to withhold its support from the new Police Service of Northern Ireland until they are "implemented in full". Unionists and some moderate nationalists have voiced the fear that Sinn Féin wish to place former republican paramilitaries/operatives into the new Police Service of Northern Ireland (PSNI), something which, if true, would collapse the GFA, possibly permanently. For pre-Arthur Griffith use of the political name, see Sinn Féin (19th century). ... The Police Service of Northern Ireland (Irish: Seirbhís Póilíneachta Thuaisceart na hÉireann) is the police service that covers Northern Ireland. ...


In January 2007, a report by Police Ombudsman, Nuala O'Loan, found that Police Special Branch officers had co-operated with the UVF in a large number of murders in Belfast in the 1990s.[25] (see collusion section) Nuala OLoan the Police Ombudsman for Northern Ireland Nuala OLoan is the first Police Ombudsman for Northern Ireland. ...


Also in January 2007, Sinn Féin voted at a Special Árd Fheis to recognise the Police Service of Northern Ireland. They are now prepared, for the first time, to call on republicans to cooperate with the Police and for their supporters to join the PSNI. It remains to be seen whether or not this Árd Fheis decision will give the Peace Process the forward momentum that it needs to progress. An Ardfheis (pronounced ; plural Ardfheiseanna) (Irish: ) is an annual convention or special convention, usually of a political party. ...


Timeline

Main article: Chronology of the Northern Ireland Troubles

Considering that Northern Ireland has been ravaged by conflict for over thirty years, it would be simply impossible to include every single event that took place during that time. ...

Directory

Main Article: Directory of the Northern Ireland Troubles

The whole of Northern Ireland has, in some way, been caught up in the Troubles and subsequent peace process. ...

Responses to the Troubles in popular culture

Films about or related to the Troubles

Harrys Game is a British television series made by Yorkshire Television for ITV in 1982. ... Cal is a 1984 British film based on a novel written by Bernard MacLaverty who also wrote the script. ... Elephant is a 1989 short film directed by Alan Clarke. ... Hidden Agenda is the name of several different things: Hidden Agenda (game) is a computer game from 1988. ... In the Name of the Father is a 1993 film directed by Jim Sheridan based on the true life story of the Guildford Four, four people falsely convicted of the IRAs Guildford pub bombing. ... For the song of the same name by Geoff Stephens, see The Crying Game (song). ... For the song Some Mothers Son by The Kinks, see Arthur (Or the Decline and Fall of the British Empire) Some Mothers Son is a 1996 film written and directed by Irish filmmaker Terry George, co-written by Jim Sheridan, and based on the true story of the... The General may refer to: The General (locomotive), a locomotive stolen in the Great Locomotive Chase of the American Civil War The General (1927 film), a Buster Keaton film about the train chase The General (1998 film), a John Boorman drama about Dublin criminal mastermind Martin Cahill The General (novel... Bloody Sunday refers to several historical events (listed in chronological order): Bloody Sunday (1887), a demonstration in London against coercion in Ireland Bloody Sunday (1900), a day of high casualties in the Second Boer War Bloody Sunday (1905), a massacre in Saint Petersburg A violent event during the 1913 Dublin... , Omagh (from the Irish: An Ómaigh meaning The Sacred Plain) is the county town of County Tyrone in Northern Ireland, situated where the rivers Drumragh and Camowen meet to form the Strule. ... Breakfast on Pluto (1998) is a novel by Patrick McCabe. ...

Songs about or related to the Troubles

It is proposed that this article be deleted, because of the following concern: An article about a song that is already detailed in both the artists article and in the source album article. ... Megadeth is an American heavy metal band led by founder, frontman, and songwriter Dave Mustaine. ... Paul Joseph Brady (born May 19, 1947 in Strabane, County Tyrone, Northern Ireland) is an Irish singer/songwriter whose work straddles folk and pop. ... Clannad are a Grammy Award-winning Irish musical group, from Gweedore (Gaoth Dobhair), County Donegal. ... Olivers Army is a song written by Elvis Costello, originally performed by Elvis Costello and the Attractions and appearing on the album Armed Forces in 1979. ... Elvis Costello (born Declan Patrick MacManus August 25, 1954 in London) is an English musician, singer, and songwriter. ... Zombie is a protest song by the Irish band The Cranberries from the 1994 album No Need to Argue. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Sir Elton Hercules[1] John CBE[2] (born Reginald Kenneth Dwight on 25 March 1947) is a five-time Grammy and one-time Academy Award-winning English pop/rock singer, composer and pianist. ... This article or section includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... John Winston Ono Lennon, MBE (October 9, 1940 – December 8, 1980), (born John Winston Lennon, known as John Ono Lennon) was an iconic English 20th century rock and roll songwriter and singer, best known as the founding member of The Beatles. ... Yoko Ono Lennon (小野 洋子 Ono Yōko (ONO Yōko), born February 18, 1933) is a Japanese-American artist and musician. ... Boney M was a Eurodance, pop, and disco group, comprising four West Indian singers and dancers and masterminded by West German record producer Frank Farian, and who were successful during the 1970s. ... A typical sunrise, in New Zealand A sunrise through clouds over Oakland, California. ... The Divine Comedy (Italian: , later christened Divina by Giovanni Boccaccio), written by Dante Alighieri between 1308 and his death in 1321, is widely considered the central epic poem of Italian literature, and is seen as one of the greatest works of world literature. ... Marillion is a British Rock group. ... Give Ireland Back to the Irish is a Paul and Linda McCartney song written in response to the events of Bloody Sunday in Northern Ireland on January 30, 1972. ... Sir James Paul McCartney, MBE (born 18 June 1942) is an Academy Award and Grammy Award winning English singer, songwriter and multi-instrumentalist who first gained worldwide fame as one of the founding members of The Beatles. ... Ketevan Katie Melua (Georgian: , surname pronounced IPA: //; born 16 September 1984) is a British-Georgian singer and musician. ... Invisible Sun is a hit single by rock group The Police, released in 1981. ... The Police are a three-piece rock band consisting of singer/bassist Sting (Gordon Sumner), guitarist Andy Summers, and drummer Stewart Copeland. ... Streets of Sorrow/Birmingham Six is a political song by the Irish folk punk band The Pogues, written by Terry Woods and Shane MacGowan and included on the bands 1988 If I Should Fall from Grace with God album. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The Roches, a female vocal group of three songwriting sisters from New Jersey (Maggie, Terre and Suzzy Roche), known for their unusual and rich harmonies, quirky lyrics and casually comedic stage performances. ... Simple Minds is a rock band from Scotland, which had its greatest worldwide popularity from the mid-1980s to the early-1990s. ... Sinéad Marie Bernadette OConnor (born December 8, 1966) is a Grammy Award winning Irish singer and songwriter. ... Spandau Ballet was a popular English band in the 1980s. ... Stiff Little Fingers are a punk band from Belfast, Northern Ireland, formed in 1977. ... James Vernon Taylor (born March 12, 1948) is an American singer-songwriter and guitarist, born in Belmont, Massachusetts. ... Therapy? are an alternative metal band from Northern Ireland. ... Sunday Bloody Sunday is the third single and opening track from U2s 1983 album, War. ... Please is the fourth single from U2s 1997 album, Pop. ... Peace On Earth is the eighth track from U2s 2000 album, All That You Cant Leave Behind. ... U2 (IPA: /ju. ... XTC are an influential new wave band from Swindon, England. ... The Saw Doctors are a folk-rock band from Tuam, County Galway in the west of Ireland, named after the itinerant craftsmen who once traveled from sawmill to sawmill sharpening and repairing saws. ... Harvey Andrews (2005) Harvey Andrews (born Harvey John Andrews, May 7, 1943 in Birmingham) is a British folk music singer, songwriter, and poet. ... Phil Coulter (born February 19, 1942) is a songwriter, performer and music producer from Derry, the second city of Northern Ireland. ... Andrew Lloyd Webber, Baron Lloyd-Webber (born March 22, 1948) is a highly successful British composer of musical theatre. ... Fun Boy Three The Fun Boy Three were a short-lived but successful multi-racial English band which ran from 1981 to 1983 and was headed by singer Terry Hall after he left The Specials. ... The Adventures formed in Belfast in the 1980s and moved to London where they had hits in the UK charts during the 1980s and 90s. ... For other uses, see Silent Running (disambiguation). ... The Angelic Upstarts are an anti-fascist, socialist working class Oi! punk and skinhead band formed in South Shields, North-East England in 1977. ... Sham 69 are an English punk rock band from Hersham, Surrey. ... Gang of Four is an English post-punk group from Leeds. ... Michael Card (born April 11, 1957 in Madison, Tennessee) is a Contemporary Christian music (CCM) artist who couples folk-style melodies and instrumentation with lyrics that stem from intensive study of the Bible. ...

Poems about or related to the Troubles

James Simmons (1933 - 2001) was a poet, literary critic and songwriter from Northern Ireland. ... Look up Belfast confetti in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Ciaran Carson is a poet and novelist born in Belfast, Northern Ireland, in 1948. ... Seamus Justin Heaney (IPA: //) (born 13 April 1939) is an Irish poet, writer and lecturer from County derry, Northern Ireland. ... Seamus Justin Heaney (IPA: //) (born 13 April 1939) is an Irish poet, writer and lecturer from County derry, Northern Ireland. ...

Notes

  1. ^ The Ballast report: "... the Police Ombudsman has concluded that this was collusion by certain police officers with identified UVF informants.
  2. ^ Parliamentary debate: "The British government agree that it is for the people of the island of Ireland alone, by agreement between the two parts respectively, to exercise their right of self-determination on the basis of consent, freely and concurrently given, North and South, to bring about a united Ireland, if that is their wish."
  3. ^ Wright, Frank (1996) Ulster: Two Lands, One Soil, p 17.
  4. ^ English, Richard, Armed Struggle: a History of the IRA, pp.39-40
  5. ^ Hopkinson, Michael, Green Against Green, pp.83-88: An IRA "joint offensive was actually launched along the border in April-June 1922, but proved ineffective."
  6. ^ Collins, M.E., Ireland 1868-1966, p.364
  7. ^ Bardon, Jonathan (1992), A History of Ulster, p.538
  8. ^ Ó Ceallaigh, Daltún, Along The road to Irish unity? - Some sources strongly disagree with Mallon: "As one political scientist has put it, the remark about Good Friday being ‘Sunningdale for slow learners’ is 'as misleading as it is diverting, since the Agreement is a much more subtle and inclusive bargain than was reached at Sunningdale …' Also a European Studies expert has said: '… there are … significant differences between them [Sunningdale and Belfast], both in terms of content and the circumstances surrounding their negotiation, implementation, and operation.' More pertinently, it has been observed: 'In one sense, it could be argued that mainstream unionism could only lose in the talks and the question was really how much would be lost.'"
  9. ^ May 2, 2006 edition of the Irish News available here.
  10. ^ http://www.seeingred.com/Copy/2.1_CODE_weiraff.html
  11. ^ http://www.serve.com/pfc/sarmagh/sarmagh.html
  12. ^ BBC News
  13. ^ CAIN website
  14. ^ [1]
  15. ^ [2]
  16. ^ Statement by the Police Ombudsman for Northern Ireland on her investigations into the circumstances surrounding the death of Raymond McCord Junior and related matters
  17. ^ BBC News, Monday, 22 January 2007. Reaction to Ombudsman's report
  18. ^ BBC News, Monday, 22 January 2007. NI police colluded with killers
  19. ^ BBC News, Monday, 22 January 2007. Reaction to Ombudsman's report
  20. ^ Murder on the Rock by Maxine Williams - article also includes a list of suspected shoot-to-kill victims between 1982–1986.
  21. ^ [3]
  22. ^ Bloody Sunday victim did volunteer for us, says IRA The Guardian 19 May 2002
  23. ^ See the following quotes of 1975's chapter of Sutton chronology:[4]
    • 27 July 1975 William Hanna (46) Protestant
    Status: Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF), Killed by: Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) Also off duty Ulster Defence Regiment (UDR) member. Shot outside his home, Houston Park, Mourneview, Lurgan, County Armagh.
    • 31 July 1975 Harris Boyle (22) Protestant
    Status: Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF), Killed by: Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) Also Ulster Defence Regiment member. Killed in premature explosion while planting bomb on minibus belonging to Miami showband, Buskhill, near Newry, County Down.
    • 31 July 1975 Wesley Somerville (34) Protestant
    Status: Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF), Killed by: Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) Also Ulster Defence Regiment member. Killed in premature explosion while planting bomb on minibus belonging to Miami showband, Buskhill, near Newry, County Down.
  24. ^ Robert Dunseath, killed in the Teebane massacre was a member of the Royal Irish Rangers:
  25. ^ [5]
  26. ^ http://arts.guardian.co.uk/fridayreview/story/0,12102,880592,00.html
  27. ^ http://hometown. aol. co.uk/KHA200/Irish_History_Song.pdf

A Difficult Birth, Gillian Clarke In the British Army, there have been two regiments titled the Royal Irish Regiment. ...


Bibliography

  • David McKittrick, Seamus Kelters, Brian Feeney and Chris Thornton (1999), Lost Lives: The stories of the men, women and children who died as a result of the Northern Ireland troubles, Mainstream Publishing Company. ISBN 1-84018-227-X.
  • Greg Harkin and Martin Ingram (2004), Stakeknife: Britain's secret agents in Ireland, O'Brien Press
  • Richard English (2003), Armed Struggle: The History of the IRA, Oxford University Press,
  • Kevin Myers (2006), Watching the Door A Memoir 1971-1978, Lilliput Press, Dublin.
  • Tim Pat Coogan, 'Ireland in the Twentieth Century',Palgrave Macmillan (February 16, 2006), ISBN 140396842X

Martin Ingram is the pseudonym of an ex-British Army soldier who served in the Intelligence Corp and Force Research Unit (FRU). ... Steakknife (sometimes written as Steak knife or incorrectly as Stakeknife[1]) is the code name of a spy who infiltrated the Provisional IRA, at a high level, as a double agent working for the top secret British Force Research Unit. ...

See also

This page aims to list articles related to Northern Ireland. ... Northern Irish murals have become symbols of Northern Ireland, depicting the countys past and present divisions. ...

External links


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