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Encyclopedia > The Tragedy of King Richard the third
Frontispage of the First Quarto Richard The Third.
Frontispage of the First Quarto Richard The Third.

The Tragedy of King Richard the third is William Shakespeare's version of the short career of Richard III of England, who receives a singularly unflattering depiction. The play is sometimes interpreted as a tragedy (as it is called in its earliest quarto); however, it more correctly belongs among the histories, as it is in the First Folio. It is a Shakespearean attempt to adapt history into theatre. It picks up the story from Henry VI, Part III and is the conclusion of the series that stretches back to Richard II. It is the second longest of Shakespeare's 38 plays, after Hamlet. The length is generally seen as a drawback and the play is rarely performed unabridged. It is often shortened by cutting out various peripheral characters. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (718x1200, 222 KB) http://emc. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (718x1200, 222 KB) http://emc. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Richard III (2 October 1452–22 August 1485) was King of England from 1483 until his death. ... Henry VI Part III is the third of William Shakespeares plays set during the lifetime of King Henry VI of England, and prepares the ground for one of his best-known and most controversial plays: the tragedy of King Richard III (Richard III of England). ... Title page of Richard II, from the fifth quarto, published in 1615. ... The Tragicall Historie of Hamlet, Prince of Denmarke is a tragedy by William Shakespeare and is one of his best-known and most-quoted plays. ...


Richard III is believed to be one of Shakespeare's earliest plays, preceded only by the three parts of Henry VI and perhaps his earliest comedies. It is believed to have been written ca. 1592-3. The precise chronology of Shakespeares plays as they were first written and performed is difficult to determine, as there is no authoritative record and many of the plays were performed many years before they were published. ...

Contents

Performance and Publication

Richard III was entered into the Register of the Stationers Company on October 20, 1597 by the bookseller Andrew Wise; Wise published the first quarto later that year, with printing done by Valentine Simmes. A second quarto followed in 1598, this one with an attribution to Shakespeare on its title page. Q3 appeared in 1602, Q4 in 1605, Q5 in 1612 and Q6 in 1622; obviously, it was a popular play. It next appeared in the First Folio in 1623. The Stationers Register was a journal maintained by the Stationers Company of London. ... The Worshipful Company of Stationers and Newspaper Makers is one of the Livery Companies of the City of London. ... Events 17 January - A court case in Guildford recorded evidence that a certain plot of land was used for playing “kreckett” (i. ... The size of a specific book is measured from the head to tail of the spine, and from edge to edge across the covers. ... This page is about the year. ... 1605 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Events January 20 - Mathias becomes Holy Roman Emperor. ... Events January 1 - In the Gregorian calendar, January 1 is declared as the first day of the year, instead of March 25. ... The title page of the First Folio with the famous engraved portrait of Shakespeare by Martin Droeshout The First Folio is the name given by modern scholars to the first published collection of William Shakespeares plays; its actual title is Mr. ... Events August 6 - Pope Urban VIII is elected to the Papacy. ...


The earliest certain performance occurred on Saturday, November 17, 1633, when Charles I and Queen Henrietta Maria watched it on the Queen's birthday. Yet plainly it had been performed many times before that. The Diary of Philip Henslowe records a popular play he calls Buckingham, peformed in Dec. 1593 and Jan. 1594; this might have been Shakespeare's play. Events February 13 - Galileo Galilei arrives in Rome for his trial before the Inquisition. ... Charles I King of England, Scotland and Ireland Charles I (19 November 1600–30 January 1649) was King of England, Scotland and Ireland from 27 March 1625, until his death. ... Henrietta Maria Henrietta Maria (November 25, 1609 - September 10, 1669) was Queen Consort of England, Scotland and Ireland (June 13, 1625 - January 30, 1649) through her marriage to Charles I. The U.S. state of Maryland (in Latin, Terra Maria) was so named in her honour by Cæcilius Calvert... Philip Henslowe (c 1550 - January 6, 1616) was an Elizabethan theatrical entrepreneur. ... Events May 18 - Playwright Thomas Kyds accusations of heresy lead to an arrest warrant for Christopher Marlowe. ... Events February 27 - Henry IV is crowned King of France at Rheims. ...


Colley Cibber produced the most successful of the Restoration adaptations of Shakepeare with his version of Richard III, at Drury Lane starting in 1700. Cibber himself played the role till 1739, and his version was on stage for the next century and a half. (It contained the immortal line "Off with his head; so much for Buckingham" — possibly the most famous Shakespearean line that Shakespeare didn't write.) The original Shakespearean version returned in a production at Sadler's Wells Theatre in 1845.[1] Colley Cibber, actor, playwright, Poet Laureate, first British actor-manager, and head Dunce of Alexander Popes Dunciad. ... King Charles II, the first monarch to rule after the English Restoration. ... The present-day Theatre Royal in Drury Lane, sketched when it was new, in 1813. ... Events January 1 - Russia accepts Julian calendar. ... // About the number 1739 1739 is the smallest integer that can be written as sum of three perfect cubes, in two ways. ... Sadlers Wells theatre, 2005 Sadlers Wells Theatre is located on Rosebery Avenue, Clerkenwell, London. ... 1845 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


Synopsis

The play begins with Richard describing the accession to the throne of his brother, King Edward IV of England, eldest son of the late Richard, Duke of York. Edward IV (April 28, 1442 – April 9, 1483) was King of England from March 4, 1461 to April 9, 1483, with a break of a few months in the period 1470–1471. ... This article is about Richard, Duke of York, father of King Edward IV. For the article about Edward IVs son who was imprisoned in the Tower of London see: Richard, Duke of York (Prince in the Tower). ...

Now is the winter of our discontent
made glorious summer by this son of York

The speech reveals Richard's jealousy and ambition, as his brother, King Edward the Fourth rules the country successfully. Richard is an ugly hunchback, describing himself as "rudely stamp'd" and "deformed, unfinish'd", who cannot "strut before a wanton ambling nymph." He responds to the anguish of his condition with an outcast's credo: "I am determined to prove a villain / And hate the idle pleasures of these days." Richard plots to have his brother Clarence, who stands before him in the line of succession, conducted to the Tower of London over a prophecy that "G of Edward's heirs the murderer shall be" - which the king interprets as referring to George of Clarence (although the audience later realise that it was actually a reference to Richard of Gloucester). In Greek mythology, a nymph is any member of a large class of female nature entities, either bound to a particular location or landform or joining the retinue of a god or goddess. ... In Latin, the word credo means I believe. ... One popular concept of the villain, meant to mimic the purposely distinctive visage of villains from silent films of the early 20th century. ... The Tower of London, seen from the River Thames, with a view of the water gate called Traitors Gate. ...


Richard next ingratiates himself with "the Lady Anne" -- Anne Neville, widow of the Lancastrian Edward of Westminster, Prince of Wales. Richard confides to the audience, "I'll marry Warwick's youngest daughter. What though I kill'd her husband and his father?" Despite her prejudice against him, Anne is won over by his pleas and agrees to marry him. This episode implies Richard's supreme skill in the art of insincere flattery. Anne Neville (June 11, 1456–March 16, 1485) was Queen consort of King Richard III of England 1483-1485. ... Edward of Westminster (October 13, 1453 – May 4, 1471) was the only Prince of Wales ever to die in battle. ... The Prince of Wales Feathers. This Heraldic badge of the Heir Apparent is derived from the ostrich feathers borne by Edward, the Black Prince. ... Richard Neville, jure uxoris 16th Earl of Warwick and suo jure 6th Earl of Salisbury (22 November 1428 – April 14, 1471), is known as Warwick the Kingmaker. Warwick was the richest man in England outside of the Royal Family. ...


The atmosphere at court is poisonous: the established nobles are at odds with the upwardly-mobile relatives of Queen Elizabeth, a hostility fueled by Richard's machinations. Queen Margaret, Henry VI's widow, returns in defiance of her banishment and warns the squabbling nobles about Richard. The nobles, Yorkists all, reflexively unite against this last Lancastrian, and the warning falls on deaf ears. Margaret of Anjou (March 23, 1429 - August 25, 1482) was the Queen consort of Henry VI of England from 1445 to 1471, and a major proponent in the Wars of the Roses. ...


Edward IV, weakened by a reign dominated by physical excess, soon dies, leaving as Protector his brother Richard, who sets about removing the final obstacles to his ascension. He meets his nephew, the young Edward V, who is en route to London for his coronation accompanied by relatives of Edward's widow. These Richard arrests and (eventually) beheads, and the young prince and his brother are coaxed into an extended stay at the Tower of London. Edward V (4 November 1470 – 1483?) was the King of England from 9 April 1483 until his deposition two months later. ... The Tower of London, seen from the River Thames, with a view of the water gate called Traitors Gate. ...


Assisted by his cousin Buckingham (Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham), Richard mounts a PR campaign to present himself as a preferable candidate to the throne, appearing as a modest, devout man with no pretensions to greatness. Lord Hastings, who objects to Richard's ascension, is arrested and executed on a trumped-up charge. The other lords are cajoled into accepting Richard as king, in spite of the continued survival of his nephews (the Princes in the Tower). Henry Stafford Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham (4 September 1454–2 November 1483) played a major role in Richard III of Englands rise and fall. ... William Hastings, 1st Baron Hastings of Hungerford (~1431 - 1483) became one of the great powers of the realm during the reign of Edward IV of England, but after being found for conspiracy against one time companion, Richard III, was executed a week later. ... The Princes in the Tower, Edward V of England (1470–1483?) and Richard of Shrewsbury, 1st Duke of York (1473–1483?), were the two young sons of Edward IV of England and Elizabeth Woodville who were declared illegitimate by the Act of Parliament known as Titulus Regius. ...


His new status leaves Richard sufficiently confident to dispose of his nephews. Buckingham conditions his consent for the princes' deaths on receiving a land grant, which Richard rejects, leaving Buckingham fearful for his life. As the body count rises, the increasingly paranoid Richard loses what popularity he had; he soon faces rebellions led first by Buckingham and subsequently by the invading Earl of Richmond (Henry VII of England). Both sides arrive for a final battle at Bosworth Field. Prior to the battle, Richard is visited by the ghosts of those whose deaths he has caused, all of whom tell him to Despair and die!. He awakes screaming for 'Jesu' (Jesus) to help him, slowly realizing that he is all alone in the world and that even he hates himself. Richard's language and undertones of self-remorse seem to indicate that, in the final hour, he is repentant for his evil deeds, however, it is too late. Henry VII (January 28, 1457 – April 21, 1509), King of England, Lord of Ireland (August 22, 1485 – April 21, 1509), was the founder and first patriarch of the Tudor dynasty. ... Combatants King Richard III of England, Yorkist Henry Tudor, Earl of Richmond, Lancastrian Commanders Richard III of England† Nominally, Richmond in practice, the Earl of Oxford Strength 6,000 (king had 15,500 but Lord Thomas Stanley with 4,000 and his brother, Sir William Stanley with 2,500 betrayed... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ...


As the battle commences, Richard gives arguably the least motivational pep-talk in English literature ("Let not our babbling dreams affright our souls; Conscience is but a word that cowards use... March on, join bravely, let us to't pell mell; If not to heaven, then hand in hand to hell...."). Lord Stanley (who happens to be Richmond's step-father) and his followers desert, leaving Richard at a disadvantage. Richard is soon unhorsed on the field at the climax of the battle, and utters the often-quoted line, A horse, a horse, my kingdom for a horse! He is defeated in the final "hunting of the boar", so to speak, and Richmond succeeds as Henry VII, even going so far as to marry a York, effectively ending the War of the Roses (to the evident relief of everyone involved).


In dramatic terms, perhaps the most important (and, arguably, the most entertaining) feature of the play is the sudden alteration in Richard's character. For the first 'half' of the play, we see him as something of an anti-hero, causing mayhem and enjoying himself hugely in the process: In literature and film, an anti-hero is a central or supporting character that has some of the personality flaws and ultimate fortune traditionally assigned to villains but nonetheless also have enough heroic qualities or intentions to gain the sympathy of readers or viewers. ...

I do mistake my person all this while;
Upon my life, she finds, although I cannot,
Myself to be a marvellous proper man.
I'll be at charges for a looking-glass;

Almost immediately after he is crowned, however, his personality and actions take a darker turn. He turns against loyal Buckingham ("I am not in the giving vein"), he falls prey to self-doubt ("I am in so far in blood, that sin will pluck on sin;"); now he sees shadows where none exist and visions of his doom to come ("Despair & die").


Depiction of Richard

Shakespeare's depiction of Richard and his "reign of terror" is unflattering, and modern historians find it a distortion of historical truth. Shakespeare's "history" plays were not, of course, intended to be historically accurate, but were designed for entertainment. As with Macbeth, Richard's supposed villainy is depicted as extreme in order to achieve maximum dramatic effect. In addition, many previous writers had depicted Richard as a villain, and Shakespeare was thus following tradition. Macbeth is also a Scottish clan. ...


Nevertheless, it is important to question why this particular king became a symbol of villainy during the Elizabethan period. Critics have argued that this dark depiction of Richard developed because the ruling monarch of Shakespeare's time, Elizabeth I, was the granddaughter of Henry VII of England the Lancastrian Earl of Richmond, who had defeated the last Yorkist king and started the Tudor dynasty, and Shakespeare's play thus presents the version of Richard that the ruling family would have wanted to see.[citation needed] The Elizabethan Era is the period associated with the reign of Queen Elizabeth I (1558 - 1603) and is often considered to be a golden age in English history. ... Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603) was Queen of England, Queen of France (in name only), and Queen of Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death. ... Henry VII (January 28, 1457 – April 21, 1509), King of England, Lord of Ireland (August 22, 1485 – April 21, 1509), was the founder and first patriarch of the Tudor dynasty. ... The Tudor dynasty or House of Tudor (Welsh: Tudur) was a series of five monarchs of Welsh origin who ruled England and Ireland from 1485 until 1603. ...


Shakespeare's main source for his play was the chronicle of Raphael Holinshed but it also seems likely that he drew on the work of Sir Thomas More author of the unfinished 'History of King Richard III' published by John Rastell after More's death. Rastell, More's brother-in-law, compiled the text from two work-in-progress manuscripts, one in English and one in Latin in different stages of composition. More's work is not a history in the modern sense. It is a highly coloured and literary account which contains accurate and invented details in (arguably) roughly equal portions. More had many sources available for his account (most of whom, like his patron Cardinal John Morton, were extremely hostile to the old regime) but like Shakespeare his main source is his own imagination: over a third of the text consists of invented speeches. Raphael Holinshed (died c. ... Sir Thomas More (7 February 1478 — 6 July 1535), posthumously known also as Saint Thomas More, was an English lawyer, author, and statesman. ... John Rastell (or Rastall) (d. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... This article is about the 15th century English Bishop, for other uses see John Morton (disambiguation). ...


Richard III is the culmination of the cycle of "Wars of the Roses" plays. In Henry VI Part II and Henry VI Part III, Shakespeare had already begun the process of building Richard's character into that of a ruthless villain, even though Richard could not possibly have been involved in some of the events depicted. He participates in battles in which historically he would still have been a boy. From an overview of the cycle, it can be seen that Shakespeare's inaccuracy works both ways. Lancaster York For other uses see Wars of the Roses (disambiguation) The Wars of the Roses (1455 - 1485) was a series of civil wars fought over the throne of England between adherents of the House of Lancaster and the House of York. ... The play we know as King Henry VI Part II was originally known as The First Part of the Contention betwixt the Two Famous Houses of York and Lancaster. ... Henry VI Part III is the third of William Shakespeares plays set during the lifetime of King Henry VI of England, and prepares the ground for one of his best-known and most controversial plays: the tragedy of King Richard III (Richard III of England). ...


Historical context

Shakespeare is not famous for his historical accuracy; this play is representative of his work in that respect. Queen Margaret did not in fact survive to see Richard's accession to the throne; her inclusion in the play is purely dramatic, providing first a warning to the other characters about Richard's true nature (which they of course ignore to their cost) and then a chorus-like commentary on how the various tragedies affecting the House of York reflect justice for the wrongs Richard performed against both Yorkists and Lancastrians ("I had an Edward, till a Richard killed him; I had a Henry, till a Richard kill'd him. Thou hadst an Edward, till a Richard kill'd him; Thou hadst a Richard, till a Richard kill'd him..."). Margaret of Anjou (March 23, 1429 - August 25, 1482) was the Queen consort of Henry VI of England from 1445 to 1471, and a major proponent in the Wars of the Roses. ...


It is perhaps strange that in presenting the cycle of vengeance Shakespeare omitted the fact that the real-life Richard himself had a son who died prematurely, which some contemporary historians viewed as divine retribution for the fate of Edward's sons - which of course Margaret would claim as retribution for the fate of her son. Shakespeare's Tudor patrons might have welcomed this additional demonstration of Richard's wickedness.


Comedic elements

Despite the high violence of the play and the villainous nature of the title character, Shakespeare manages to infuse this play with a surprising amount of comic material. Much of the humor rises from the dichotomy between what we know Richard's character to be and how Richard tries to appear. The prime example is perhaps the portion of Act III, Scene 1, where Richard is forced to "play nice" with the young and mocking Duke of York. Other examples appear in Richard's attempts at acting, first in the matter of justifying Hastings' death and later in his coy response to being offered the crown.


Richard himself also provides some dry remarks in evaluating the situation, as when his plan to marry the Queen Elizabeth's daughter: "Murder her brothers, then marry her; Uncertain way of gain...."


Other examples of humor in this play include Clarence's ham-fisted and half-hearted murderers, and the Duke of Buckingham's report on his attempt to persuade the Londoners to accept Richard ("...I bid them that did love their country's good cry, God save Richard, England's royal king!" Richard: "And did they so?" Buckingham: "No, so God help me, they spake not a word....")


Puns, a Shakespearean staple, are especially well-represented in the scene where Richard tries to persuade Queen Elizabeth to woo her daughter on his behalf.


Film versions

The most famous player of the part in recent times was Laurence Olivier in his 1955 film version. His inimitable rendition has been satirised by many comedians including Peter Cook and Peter Sellers. Sellers, who had aspirations to do the role straight, appeared in a 1965 TV special on The Beatles' music by reciting "A Hard Day's Night" in the style of Olivier's Richard III. The first series of the BBC television comedy Blackadder in part parodies the Olivier film, visually (as in the crown motif), Peter Cook's performance as a Richard who is a jolly, loving monarch but nevertheless oddly reminiscent of Olivier's rendition, and by mangling Shakespearean text ("Now is the summer of our sweet content made o'ercast winter by these Tudor clouds...") Laurence Kerr Olivier, Baron Olivier, OM (22 May 1907–11 July 1989) was an Academy Award, Golden Globe, BAFTA and four-time Emmy winning English actor, director, and producer. ... Richard III is a 1955 British movie, directed by and starring Laurence Olivier. ... Peter Edward Cook (17 November 1937–9 January 1995) was an English satirist, writer and comedian who is widely regarded as the leading figure in the British satire boom of the 1960s. ... Richard Henry Peter Sellers, CBE (8 September 1925 – 24 July 1980) was an English comedian, actor, and performer, who came to prominence on the BBC radio series The Goon Show and later became a film star. ... The Beatles were a highly influential English rock band from Liverpool. ... A Hard Days Night sold over one million copies within just five weeks of its release as a single in the United States. ... The British Broadcasting Corporation, usually known as the BBC (and also informally known as the Beeb or Auntie) is one of the largest broadcasting corporations in the world in terms of audience numbers, employing 26,000 staff in the UK alone and with a budget of more than £4 billion. ... For other uses, see Blackadder (disambiguation). ... In art, a motif is a repeated idea, pattern, image, or theme. ...


More recently, Richard III has been brought to the screen by Sir Ian McKellen (1995) in an abbreviated version set in a 1930s fascist England, and by Al Pacino in the 1996 documentary, Looking for Richard. In the 1976 film The Goodbye Girl, Richard Dreyfuss' character, an actor, gives a memorable performance as a homosexual Richard in a gay stage production of the play. In 2002 the story of Richard III was re-told in a movie about gang culture called The Street King. Sir Ian Murray McKellen CBE, (born May 25, 1939) is a veteran English stage and screen actor, the recipient of a Tony Award and two Oscar nominations. ... Richard III is a 1995 film adaptation of William Shakespeares play Richard III, starring Sir Ian McKellen, Annette Bening, Jim Broadbent, and Robert Downey Jr. ... Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... Alfredo James Al Pacino (born April 25, 1940) is an Academy Award, Emmy Award and Tony Award-winning American stage and film actor. ... 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... 1996 documentary directed by and starring Al Pacino, both a staging of William Shakespeares Richard III and a broader examination of Shakespeares continuing role and relevance in popular culture. ... The Goodbye Girl is a 1977 film about an actor who sublets an apartment from another actor, who neglects to tell his former girlfriend, the current occupant. ... Dreyfuss in The Goodbye Girl Richard Stephen Dreyfuss (born October 29, 1947) is an Oscar-winning American actor. ... Since its coinage, the word homosexuality has acquired multiple meanings. ...


The 2006 version, Richard III, stars Scott M. Anderson and David Carradine. Another 2006 film version of Richard III is part of the independent film-noir titled Purgatory, a retelling of three classic Shakespeare tales, including Richard III. Richard III (2006) is an upcoming film directed by Scott M. Anderson, based upon the play by William Shakespeare. ... David Carradine in April, 2005 David Carradine (born John Arthur Carradine on December 8, 1936 in Hollywood, California) is an American actor. ... This still from The Big Combo (1955) demonstrates the visual style of film noir at its most extreme. ...


Dramatis personae

(Links are to articles on the historical personages, who may not precisely correspond to Shakespeare's portrayal of them.)

Edward IV (April 28, 1442 – April 9, 1483) was King of England from March 4, 1461 to April 9, 1483, with a break of a few months in the period 1470–1471. ... Edward V (4 November 1470 – 1483?) was the King of England from 9 April 1483 until his deposition two months later. ... King Edward V and the Duke of York in the Tower of London by Paul Delaroche This article is about Richard, Duke of York, son of King Edward IV who was imprisoned in the Tower of London. ... George (Plantagenet), Duke of Clarence (October 21, 1449 - February 18, 1478) was the third son of Richard, Duke of York and Cecily Neville, and the brother of King Edward IV of England. ... Richard III (2 October 1452–22 August 1485) was King of England from 1483 until his death. ... Richard III (2 October 1452–22 August 1485) was King of England from 1483 until his death. ... Edward (Plantagenet), Earl of Warwick, (February 25, 1475-November 28, 1499) was the son of George, Duke of Clarence, and a potential claimant to the throne during the reigns of both King Richard III of England (1483 - 1485) and his successor, Henry VII of England (1485 - 1509). ... Henry VII (January 28, 1457 – April 21, 1509), King of England, Lord of Ireland (August 22, 1485 – April 21, 1509), was the founder and first patriarch of the Tudor dynasty. ... Thomas Bourchier (ca. ... Arms of the see of Canterbury The Archbishop of Canterbury is the senior clergyman of the established Church of England and symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... Dr Thomas Rotherham (1423 - 1500) was an English cleric and minister. ... This article is about the 15th century English Bishop, for other uses see John Morton (disambiguation). ... Henry Stafford Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham (4 September 1454–2 November 1483) played a major role in Richard III of Englands rise and fall. ... John Howard, 1st Duke of Norfolk. ... Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk (c. ... Anthony Rivers, 2nd Earl Rivers (1442?- June 25, 1483) was an English nobleman, courtier, and writer. ... Thomas Grey, 1st Marquess of Dorset (1457 – September 20, 1501) was the eldest son of Elizabeth Woodville and consequently a stepson of Edward IV of England. ... Richard Grey (1458? – June 13(?), 1483) was son to John Grey, 2nd Baron Ferrers of Groby, and Elizabeth Woodville, later Queen Consort to King Edward IV of England. ... John de Vere, 13th Earl of Oxford (1443 – 10 March 1513) was one of the principal Lancastrian commanders during the English Wars of the Roses. ... William Hastings, 1st Baron Hastings of Hungerford (~1431 - 1483) became one of the great powers of the realm during the reign of Edward IV of England, but after being found for conspiracy against one time companion, Richard III, was executed a week later. ... Thomas Stanley, 1st Earl of Derby Thomas Stanley, 1st Earl of Derby, KG (1435 - July 29, 1504), an English nobleman, inherited his fathers titles, including that of king of the Isle of Man, in 1459. ... Francis Lovell, Viscount Lovell (1454 - 1487(?)), a supporter of Richard III and son of John, 8th Baron Lovell, probably knew Richard from a young age and was to be a life-long friend and supporter of the future king. ... Thomas Vaughan (c. ... Sir Richard Ratcliffe (died 1485) was a close confidant of Richard III of England. ... Sir William Catesby (1450-1485) was a prominent member of the group that supported Richard III of England during his brief reign. ... James Tyrrell (c. ... Sir James Blount (d. ... Sir William Brandon (1426 – August 22, 1485) was a son of a senior Sir William Brandon of Wangford, Suffolk (d. ... Sir Robert Brackenbury was one of Richard III of Englands close associates. ... Christopher Urswick was a priest and confessor of Margaret Beaufort. ... Dr. Ralph Shaa (sometimes called John Shaa) (died 1484) was a 15th century British theologian, the half-brother of the Lord Mayor of London, who played a minor but pivotal role in the War of the Roses by preaching a sermon in 1483 which claimed that Edward IV had already... Blue Plaque to Sir Edmund Shaa, by Mottram Church Sir Edmund Shaa (born Mottram in Longdendale, Greater Manchester, died London 20 April 1488) was a goldsmith, and Lord Mayor of London in 1482. ... Elizabeth Woodville or Wydville (c. ... Margaret of Anjou (March 23, 1429 - August 25, 1482) was the Queen consort of Henry VI of England from 1445 to 1471, and a major proponent in the Wars of the Roses. ... Cecily Neville (3 May 1415 – 31 May 1495), Duchess of York, was called the Rose of Raby (because she was born at Raby Castle in Durham, England) and Proud Cis (because of her pride and a temper that went with it). ... Anne Neville (June 11, 1456–March 16, 1485) was Queen consort of King Richard III of England 1483-1485. ... Margaret Pole (1473 - 1541), Countess of Salisbury, was the daughter of George, Duke of Clarence, brother of Edward IV and Isabella Neville . ...

Richard III in popular culture

  • John Lydon, frontman for the legendary British punk band, the Sex Pistols, claimed to have modelled his "Johnny Rotten" persona on Olivier's famous characterization of Richard III.
  • In Jasper Fforde's The Eyre Affair, published in 2001, Richard III is given the same treatment as The Rocky Horror Show, complete with props and obtuse prompt lines.
  • In Spike Jonze's film, Being John Malkovich, Malkovich, playing himself, appears in one scene as Richard III in production for a small theatre company.
  • Lines from the play have been quoted or misquoted in many contexts, including:

John Joseph Lydon (born January 31, 1956), also known as Johnny Rotten, is an English rock musician. ... The Sex Pistols were an iconic and highly influential English punk band, formed in London in 1975. ... Jasper Fforde Jasper Fforde (born in London on 11 January 1961) is a novelist and aviator living in Wales. ... The Rocky Horror Show is a long running stage musical (in London initially, on June 16, 1973) which inspired the movie The Rocky Horror Picture Show. ... Spike Jonze (born Adam Spiegel on October 22, 1969), is an American director of offbeat music videos and commercials, and an Academy Award-nominated director and producer in film and television, most notably the 1999 black comedy film Being John Malkovich and the 2002 film Adaptation. ... Being John Malkovich is a 1999 film written by Charlie Kaufman and directed by Spike Jonze. ... Serialized in Weekly Shonen Jump Original run August 2001 – (ongoing) No. ... Tite Kubo Pen name Tite Kubo (久保 帯人 Kubo Taito), real name Noriaki Kubo (久保 宣章 Kubo Noriaki, born June 26, 1977) is a manga-ka. ... Digimon Tamers ), aka Digimon: season three (2001) is the third animated series based on the Digimon franchise. ... The British Broadcasting Corporation, usually known as the BBC (and also informally known as the Beeb or Auntie) is one of the largest broadcasting corporations in the world in terms of audience numbers, employing 26,000 staff in the UK alone and with a budget of more than £4 billion. ... Red Dwarf is a cult British sci-fi sitcom that ran for eight television series on BBC2 between 1988 and 1999, and has since achieved a global cult following. ... Red Green The Red Green Show is a television comedy that has aired on the CBC in Canada and on PBS in the United States from 1991 through the present (as of 2005). ... Family Guy is an American animated television series about a nuclear family in the suburb of Quahog (IPA or ), Rhode Island. ... Smiths redirects here. ... The Queen Is Dead is the third studio album of The Smiths. ...

Note

  1. ^ F. E. Halliday, A Shakespeare Companion 1564-1964, Baltimore, Penguin, 1964; pp. 102 and 414.

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Richard III (play)
  • Richard the Third - plain vanilla text from Project Gutenberg
  • The Tragedie of Richard the Third - HTML version of this title.
  • Full text of Shakespeare's play - annotated with excerpts from the standard biography to provide comparison with the historical Richard III, from the Richard III Society, American Branch.
  • Painting of 'David Garrick as Richard III' by William Hogarth at the Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool.
The complete works of William Shakespeare
Tragedies: Romeo and Juliet | Macbeth | King Lear | Hamlet | Othello | Titus Andronicus | Julius Caesar | Antony and Cleopatra | Coriolanus | Troilus and Cressida | Timon of Athens
Comedies: A Midsummer Night's Dream | All's Well That Ends Well | As You Like It | Cymbeline | Love's Labour's Lost | Measure for Measure | The Merchant of Venice | The Merry Wives of Windsor | Much Ado About Nothing | Pericles, Prince of Tyre | Taming of the Shrew | The Comedy of Errors | The Tempest | Twelfth Night, or What You Will | The Two Gentlemen of Verona | The Two Noble Kinsmen | The Winter's Tale
Histories: King John | Richard II | Henry IV, Part 1 | Henry IV, Part 2 | Henry V | Henry VI, part 1 | Henry VI, part 2 | Henry VI, part 3 | Richard III | Henry VIII
Poems and Sonnets: Sonnets | Venus and Adonis | The Rape of Lucrece | The Passionate Pilgrim | The Phoenix and the Turtle | A Lover's Complaint
Apocrypha and Lost Plays Edward III | Sir Thomas More | Cardenio (lost) | Love's Labour's Won (lost) | The Birth of Merlin | Locrine | The London Prodigal | The Puritan | The Second Maiden's Tragedy | Richard II, Part I: Thomas of Woodstock | Sir John Oldcastle | Thomas Lord Cromwell | A Yorkshire Tragedy | Fair Em | Mucedorus | The Merry Devil of Edmonton | Arden of Faversham | Edmund Ironside
See also: Shakespeare on screen | Titles based on Shakespeare | Characters | Problem Plays | Ghost characters | Reputation | New Words | Influence on English Language | Authorship Question

 
 

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