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Encyclopedia > The Tower of Babel
"The Confusion of Tongues" by Gustave Doré
"The Confusion of Tongues" by Gustave Doré

According to the narrative in Genesis Chapter 11 of the Bible, the Tower of Babel was a tower built by a united humanity in order to reach the heavens. To prevent the project from succeeding, God confused their languages so that each spoke a different language. They could no longer communicate with one another and the work could not proceed. After that time, people moved away to different parts of Earth. The story is used to explain the existence of many different languages and races. The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Doré photographed by Felix Nadar. ... This article is about Genesis, the first book of the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament). ... The Bible (sometimes The Book, Good Book, Word of God, The Word, or Scripture), from Greek (τα) βιβλια, (ta) biblia, (the) books, is the classical name for the Hebrew Bible of Judaism or the combination of the Old Testament and New Testament of Christianity (The Bible actually refers to at least two... This article incorporates text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, which is in the public domain. ... A tower is a high structure, usually man-made. ... [[{{{diversity_link}}}|Diversity]] {{{diversity}}} Binomial name Homo sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 Trinomial name {{{trinomial}}} Type Species {{{type_species}}} Subspecies Homo sapiens idaltu (extinct) Homo sapiens sapiens [[Image:{{{range_map}}}|{{{range_map_width}}}|]] Synonyms {{{synonyms}}} Homo (genus). ... Michelangelos interpretation of Heaven Heaven is an afterlife concept found in many religions or spiritual philosophies. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and derived henotheistic forms. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Validity of human races. ...

Contents


Narrative

The story is found in Genesis 11:1-9 as follows:

1 Now the entire earth was of one language and uniform words. 2 And it came to pass when they traveled from the east, that they found a valley in the land of Shinar and settled there. 3 And they said to one another, "Come, let us make bricks and fire them thoroughly"; so the bricks were to them for stones, and the clay was to them for mortar. 4 And they said, "Come, let us build ourselves a city and a tower with its top in the heavens, and let us make ourselves a name, lest we be scattered upon the face of the entire earth". 5 And the Lord descended to see the city and the tower that the sons of man had built. 6 And The LORD said, "Lo! [they are] one people, and they all have one language, and this is what they have commenced to do. Now, will it not be withheld from them, all that they have planned to do? 7 Come, let us descend and confuse their language, so that one will not understand the language of his companion". 8 And the Lord scattered them from there upon the face of the entire earth, and they ceased building the city. 9 Therefore, He named it Babel, for there the Lord confused the language of the entire earth, and from there the Lord scattered them upon the face of the entire earth.

Shinar (שנער) is a broad designation applied to Mesopotamia that occurs eight times in the Hebrew Bible. ...

Historicity

Linguistic context

"The Tower of Babel" by Pieter Brueghel the Elder
Enlarge
"The Tower of Babel" by Pieter Brueghel the Elder

The name Babylon is from Akkadian Bāb-ilu, which means Gate of God. Its Hebrew version however, Babel, sounds similar to balal, which means to confuse or confound in Hebrew. Download high resolution version (1061x800, 196 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1061x800, 196 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Bruegels The Painter and The Connoisseur drawn c. ... Babylon is the Greek variant of Akkadian Babilu, an ancient city in Mesopotamia (Location: 32°32′11″N, 44°25′15″E, modern Al Hillah, Iraq). ... Hebrew is a Semitic language of the Afro-Asiatic language family spoken by more than 6 million people, mainly in Israel, the West Bank, the United States and by Jewish communities around the world. ...


According to the documentary hypothesis, the passage derives from the Jahwist source, a writer whose work is full of puns, and like many of the other puns in the Jahwist text, the element of the story concerning the scattering of languages may just be a folk etymology for the name Babel, attached to a more historic story of a collapsing tower. The documentary hypothesis is a hypothesis proposed by many historians and academics in the field of linguistics and source criticism that the Five Books of Moses (the Torah) are in fact a combination of documents from different sources rather than authored by one individual. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Jehovist. ... A pun (also known as paronomasia) is a figure of speech which consists of a deliberate confusion of similar words or phrases for rhetorical effect, whether humorous or serious. ... Folk etymology (or popular etymology) is a linguistic term for a category of false etymology which has grown up in popular lore, as opposed to one which arose in scholarly usage. ...


Historical linguistics thoroughly rejects the idea of a single original language, certainly at least not before 10,000 BC, well before the existence of Babylon where the tale of Babel is set. Throughout history, several authors have claimed that some language was the original one and the rest were corruptions, and each time has been disputed by the academic community. This has been the case with Hebrew, and with Basque (as proposed by Larramendi). Historical linguistics (also diachronic linguistics or comparative linguistics) is primarily the study of the ways in which languages change over time, by means of examining languages which are recognizably related through similarities such as vocabulary, word formation, and syntax, as well as the surviving records of ancient languages. ... The Adamic language is a term for the hypothetical language believed by some to have been spoken by all humans from the creation of Adam until the time of the Tower of Babel (as related in the Bible). ... Hebrew is a Semitic language of the Afro-Asiatic language family spoken by more than 6 million people, mainly in Israel, the West Bank, the United States and by Jewish communities around the world. ... Basque (native name: Euskara) is the language spoken by the Basque people who inhabit the Pyrenees in North-Central Spain and the adjoining region of South-Western France. ...


A large construction project in the ancient world might have used pressed labour from a diverse set of conquered or subject populations, and the domain of the empires covering Babylon would have contained some non-Semitic languages, such as Hurrian, Kassite, Sumerian, and Elamite, among others. There is a similar story to that of the Tower of Babel in Sumerian mythology called Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta, where the two rival gods, Enki and Enlil end up confusing the tongues of all humankind as collateral damage arising from their argument. The word Hurrian may refer to: An ancient people of the Near East, the Hurrians. ... The Kassites were a mountain tribe of obscure origins speaking an Indo-European language who conquered Mesopotamia, bringing the Old Babylonian era to an end and for the first time welding together the network of independent, feuding city-states into a territory that can be called Babylonia. ... Sumer (or Shumer, Sumeria, Shinar, native ki-en-gir) formed the southern part of Mesopotamia from the time of settlement by the Sumerians until the time of Babylonia. ... Elamite is an extinct language, which was spoken in the ancient Elamite Empire. ... Chaldean mythology is the collective name given to Sumerian, Assyrian and Babylonian mythologies, although Chaldea did not comprehend the whole territory inhabited by those peoples. ... This article is in need of attention. ... Enlil was the name of a chief deity in Babylonian religion, perhaps pronounced and sometimes rendered in translations as Ellil in later Akkadian. ...


Traditionally, the peoples listed in chapter 10 were understood as having been scattered over the face of the Earth from Shinar only following the abandonment of the Tower, as an explanation of the circumstances of cultural splitting, midway through the Table of Nations. However, Genesis 10:5 notes that "the isles of the Gentiles [were] divided in their lands; every one after his tongue", apparently contradicting the subsequent Babel story, which begins "Now the entire earth was of one language and uniform words" (Genesis 11:1). While the traditional view is reported in older commentaries and religious works, modern criticism generally considers Genesis 10 to strongly contradict Genesis 11, and regards it in the light of the documentary hypothesis. This mediaeval map, which abstracts that societys known world to a cross inscribed within an orb, remakes geography in the service of Christian iconography and identifies the three known continents as populated by descendents of Shem (Sem), Ham (Cham) and Japheth (Iafeth) The Table of Nations is an extensive... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... The documentary hypothesis is a hypothesis proposed by many historians and academics in the field of linguistics and source criticism that the Five Books of Moses (the Torah) are in fact a combination of documents from different sources rather than authored by one individual. ...


The Tower

Construction of the Tower of Babel in the Maciejowski Bible
Construction of the Tower of Babel in the Maciejowski Bible

In 440 BC Herodotus wrote, Tower of Babel in the Maciejowski Bible (fol 3r) http://www1. ... Tower of Babel in the Maciejowski Bible (fol 3r) http://www1. ... The Israelites are repulsed from Hai (fol. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 490s BC 480s BC 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC - 440s BC - 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC Years: 445 BC 444 BC 443 BC 442 BC 441 BC - 440 BC - 439 BC 438 BC... Bust of Herodotus Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: Ἡροδοτος, Herodotos) was a historian who lived in the 5th century BC (484 BC-ca. ...

Babylon's outer wall is the main defence of the city. There is, however, a second inner wall, of less thickness than the first, but very little inferior to it in strength. The center of each division of the town was occupied by a fortress. In the one stood the palace of the kings, surrounded by a wall of great strength and size: in the other was the sacred precinct of Jupiter Belus, a square enclosure two furlongs [402 m] each way, with gates of solid brass; which was also remaining in my time. In the middle of the precinct there was a tower of solid masonry, a furlong [201 m] in length and breadth, upon which was raised a second tower, and on that a third, and so on up to eight. The ascent to the top is on the outside, by a path which winds round all the towers. When one is about half-way up, one finds a resting-place and seats, where persons are wont to sit some time on their way to the summit. On the topmost tower there is a spacious temple, and inside the temple stands a couch of unusual size, richly adorned, with a golden table by its side. There is no statue of any kind set up in the place, nor is the chamber occupied of nights by any one but a single native woman, who, as the Chaldeans, the priests of this god, affirm, is chosen for himself by the deity out of all the women of the land.

This, Tower of Jupiter Belus, is believed to refer to the Akkadian god Bel, whose name has been romanised by Herodotus to Jupiter Belus. It is likely that it corresponds to the giant ziggurat to Marduk (Etemenanki), an ancient ziggurat which was abandoned, falling into ruin due to earthquakes, and lightning damaging the clay. This huge ziggurat, and its downfall is thought by most academics to have inspired the story of the Tower of Babel. Babylon is the Greek variant of Akkadian Babilu, an ancient city in Mesopotamia (Location: 32°32′11″N, 44°25′15″E, modern Al Hillah, Iraq). ... Belus in Latin or Belos in accurate Greek transliteration is one of: Persons Ba‘al: a title (lord) in northwest Semitic languages, often applied to particular gods. ... The 5 furlong (1006 m) post on Epsom Downs A furlong is a measure of distance within Imperial units and U.S. customary units. ... Chaldean can refer to an ancient people of lower Mesopotamia and their culture, or a contemporary Christian people living mostly in Iraq, Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Iran, as well as a relativley widespread diaspora concentrated in the western world. ... Bel, signifying lord or master, is a title rather than a genuine name, applied to various gods in Babylonian relgion. ... Adjective Jovian Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure 70 kPa Hydrogen ~86% Helium ~14% Methane 0. ... Dur-Untash, or Choqa zanbil, built in 13th century BC by Untash Napirisha, is one of the worlds best preserved ziggurats. ... Marduk [märdook] (Sumerian spelling in Akkadian AMAR.UTU solar calf; Biblical Merodach) was the name of a late generation god from ancient Mesopotamia and patron deity of the city of Babylon, who, when Babylon permanently became the political center of the Euphrates valley in the time of Hammurabi... Categories: Historical stubs | Babylonia ...


In c. 570 BC Nebuchadnezzar, seeking to restore the ziggurat, wrote of its ruinous state, Nebuchadnezzar (or Nebudchadrezzar) II (ca. ...

A former king built [the Temple of the Seven Lights of the Earth ], but he did not complete its head. Since a remote time, people had abandoned it, without order expressing their words. Since that time earthquakes and lightning had dispersed its sun-dried clay; the bricks of the casing had split, and the earth of the interior had been scattered in heaps. Merodach, the great lord, excited my mind to repair this building. I did not change the site, nor did I take away the foundation stone ? as it had been in former times. So I founded it, I made it; as it had been in ancient days, I so exalted the summit.

One recent theory claims that the actual remains of the Tower of Babel are the much older ruins of the Ziggurat of Eridu rather than of Babylon, just south of Ur. The main reasons for this association are the larger size of the ruins, the older age of the ruins, and the fact that one title of Eridu was NUN.KI (mighty place), which later became a title of Babylon. This article may be confusing for some readers, and should be edited to enhance clarity. ... For the hypothetical planet Marduk, see Marduk (planet). ... Eridu (or Eridug) was an ancient city seven miles southwest of Ur . ... UR, Ur, or ur can refer to several things: The City of Ur Ur, the first known continent Royal Game of Ur Unreal the computer game Ur is the name of a minor Gnostic deity. ...


In other scripture

The destruction

It is not mentioned in the Genesis account that God directly destroyed the efforts of the builders; presumably, the building fell into disrepair. However, several other ancient versions (eg. Book of Jubilees) do state the tradition that God overturned the tower with a great wind. According to Cornelius Alexander (frag. 10) and Abydenus (frags. 5 and 6), the tower was overthrown by the winds; according to Yaqut (i, 448 f.) and the Lisan el-'Arab (xiii. 72), mankind were swept together by winds into the plain afterwards called "Babil", and were scattered again in the same way (see further D. B. Macdonald in the Jewish Encyclopaedia). The Book of Jubilees expands and reworks material found in Genesis to Exodus 15. ... Yaqut (Yaqut ibn-Abdullah al-Hamawi) (1179 - 1229) was an Arab biographer and geographer. ... Babil is the Arabic name of Babylon. ... The Jewish Encyclopedia was an encyclopedia originally published between 1901 and 1906 by Funk and Wagnalls. ...


Jubilees

Tower of Babel.
Tower of Babel.

The Book of Jubilees, known to have been in use between at least 200 BC and 90 AD, contains one of the most detailed accounts found anywhere of the Tower. Image File history File links Tower_of_babel. ... Image File history File links Tower_of_babel. ... The Book of Jubilees expands and reworks material found in Genesis to Exodus 15. ...

And they began to build, and in the fourth week they made brick with fire, and the bricks served them for stone, and the clay with which they cemented them together was asphalt which comes out of the sea, and out of the fountains of water in the land of Shinar. And they built it: forty and three years were they building it; its breadth was 203 bricks, and the height [of a brick] was the third of one; its height amounted to 5433 cubits and 2 palms, and [the extent of one wall was] thirteen stades [and of the other thirty stades]. (Jubilees 10:20-21, Charles' 1913 translation)

Midrash

Rabbinic literature offers many different accounts of other causes for building the Tower of Babel, and of the intentions of its builders. It was regarded in the Mishnah as a rebellion against God. Some later midrash record that the builders of the Tower, called "the generation of secession" in the Jewish sources, said: "God has no right to choose the upper world for Himself, and to leave the lower world to us; therefore we will build us a tower, with an idol on the top holding a sword, so that it may appear as if it intended to war with God" (Gen. R. xxxviii. 7; Tan., ed. Buber, Noah, xxvii. et seq.). Rabbinic literature, in the broadest sense, can mean the entire spectrum of Judaisms rabbinic writing/s throughout history. ... This article incorporates text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, which is in the public domain. ... Midrash (pl. ...


The building of the Tower was meant to bid defiance not only to God, but also to Abraham, who exhorted the builders to reverence. The passage mentions that the builders spoke sharp words against God, not cited in the Bible, saying that once every 1,656 years, heaven tottered so that the water poured down upon the earth, therefore they would support it by columns that there might not be another deluge (Gen. R. l.c.; Tan. l.c.; similarly Josephus, "Ant." i. 4, § 2). Abraham (אַבְרָהָם Father/Leader of many, (circa 1700 BCE) Standard Hebrew Avraham, Tiberian Hebrew ; Arabic ابراهيم ; Geez አብርሃም ) is regarded as a patriarch of Israelite religion, recognized by Judaism and later Christianity, and a very important prophet in Islam. ...


Some among that sinful generation even wanted to war against God in heaven (Talmud Sanhedrin 109a.) They were encouraged in this wild undertaking by the fact that arrows which they shot into the sky fell back dripping with blood, so that the people really believed that they could wage war against the inhabitants of the heavens (Sefer ha-Yashar, Noah, ed. Leghorn, 12b). According to Josephus and Midrash Pirke R. El. xxiv., it was mainly Nimrod who persuaded his contemporaries to build the Tower, while other rabbinical sources assert, on the contrary, that Nimrod separated from the builders. Sefer haYashar, Hebrew ספר הישר (also transliterated Sēper haiYāšār), Book of the Upright, often only half-translated into English as Book of Jasher or as Book of Jashar. ... Josephus (c. ... For other uses, see the disambiguation page Nimrod. ...


Apocalypse of Baruch

The Third Apocalypse of Baruch, known only from Greek and Slavonic copies, seems to allude to the Tower, and may be consistent with Jewish tradition. In it, Baruch is first taken (in a vision) to see the resting place of the souls of "those who built the tower of strife against God, and the Lord banished them." Next he is shown another place, and there, occupying the form of dogs, The Apocalypse of Baruch is a Jewish apocryphal or pseudepigraphical text written in the late 1st century CE, after the fall of Jerusalem to the Romans in 70 CE, which seemed to the author to signify the imminent end of the world (the apocalypse). ...

Those who gave counsel to build the tower, for they whom thou seest drove forth multitudes of both men and women, to make bricks; among whom, a woman making bricks was not allowed to be released in the hour of child-birth, but brought forth while she was making bricks, and carried her child in her apron, and continued to make bricks. And the Lord appeared to them and confused their speech, when they had built the tower to the height of four hundred and sixty-three cubits. And they took a gimlet, and sought to pierce the heaven, saying, Let us see (whether) the heaven is made of clay, or of brass, or of iron. When God saw this He did not permit them, but smote them with blindness and confusion of speech, and rendered them as thou seest. (Greek Apocalypse of Baruch, 3:5-8)

Qur'an

Though not mentioned by name, the Qur'an has a story with similarities to the Biblical story of the Tower of Babel, though set in the Egypt of Moses. In Suras 28:38 and 40:36-37 Pharaoh asks Haman to build him a clay tower so that he can mount up to heaven and confront the God of Moses. The Quran (Arabic , literally the recitation; also called or The Noble Quran; or transliterated Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ... Pharaoh (Hebrew פַּרְעֹה (without niqqud: פרעה), Standard Hebrew Parʿo, Tiberian Hebrew Parʿōh, Arabic فرعون) is a title used to refer to the kings (of godly status) in ancient Egypt. ... Haman is a name that is applied to different personages in different religious traditions: Haman (Bible), appears in the Book of Esther and is the main villain in the Jewish holiday of Purim. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and derived henotheistic forms. ... Moses or Moshe (מֹשֶׁה, Standard Hebrew , Tiberian Hebrew , Syriac ܡܘܫܐ , Arabic موسى , Ethiopic ሙሴ Musse, Latin ), son of Amram (Imran in Arabic) and his wife, Jochebed, a Levite. ...


Book of Mormon

The Book of Mormon records some information about the tower in the Book of Ether that agrees with the Bible. According to the book, a group called the Jaredites left without their language being confused and settled in North America. The Jaredites however, cannot be confirmed in any other ancient literature found to date. Book of Mormon: Another Testament of Jesus Christ (The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints edition) The Book of Mormon is one of four sacred texts of Mormonism, which also include the Bible, Pearl of Great Price, and Doctrine and Covenants. ... The Book of Ether is one of books that make up the Book of Mormon. ... The Bible (sometimes The Book, Good Book, Word of God, The Word, or Scripture), from Greek (τα) βιβλια, (ta) biblia, (the) books, is the classical name for the Hebrew Bible of Judaism or the combination of the Old Testament and New Testament of Christianity (The Bible actually refers to at least two... The Jaredites are an alleged ancient people of the Americas, whose existence is mainly accepted by Latter Day Saints. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America North America is a continent in the northern hemisphere bordered on the north by the Arctic Ocean, on the east by the North Atlantic Ocean, on the south by the Caribbean Sea, and on the west by the...


Popular culture and Modern influence

It has become a potent symbol of overambitious projects destined to end in confusion, and a potent motif generating images of unfinished buildings reaching towards the sky, throughout religious art. In mediaeval English culture, the motif of overambitious projects became referred to as castles in the sky, one of many references to the Tower of Babel. Hubris or hybris (Greek hýbris) referred in Ancient Greece to exaggerated pride or self-confidence often resulting in fatal retribution. ...


In Music

In the song "Der Schacht Von Babel" from the album Ende Neu by Einsurzende Neubauten. Instead of building the Tower of Babel skywards in Der Schacht von Babel, it is dug deep into the earth as a shaft or tunnel. The Babel story can also serve as a creationary myth of a sort, related to genetics and evolutionary theory. The second song on Elton John's autobiographical album "Captain Fantastic and the Brown Dirt Cowboy" is called "Tower of Babel" in accordance with the Western Country style of the album. Rocker and poetess Patti Smith makes frequent use of Babel-related imagery in her work. Patti Smith is often confused with Patty Smyth - the former lead singer of the band Scandal. ...


In the Gorillaz music video for "Feel Good, Inc.", it has been suggested that the Tower in the sky represents the Tower of Babel, symbolizing hedonism and excess arrogance, as the Gorillaz had felt that they experienced from immense success. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


In literature

The Babel legend has appeared regularly in western literature and art since the middle ages - for a chronology see The Virtual Babel Encyclopedia. The image of language multiplication as a curse instead of enriching has been used in the promotion of international auxiliary languages. However, in Douglas Adams' science fiction series The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy, a "Babel fish" is a fictional fish that one can insert into one's ear, and thus be able to understand any language in the universe. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Chronology is the science of locating events in time. ... An international auxiliary language (sometimes abbreviated as IAL or auxlang) is a language used (or to be used in the future) for communication between people from different nations who do not share a common native language. ... Douglas Noël Adams in an undated publicity photograph by Jill Furmanovsky. ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... The cover of the first novel in the Hitchhikers series, from a late 1990s printing. ... Anatomy of a babel fish as explained in the BBC TV series The Babel fish is a fictional species of fish in The Hitchhikers Guide to the Galaxy by Douglas Adams. ... The Three Graces, here in a painting by Sandro Botticelli, were the goddesses of charm, beauty, nature, human creativity and fertility in Greek mythology. ...


In the 1927 and 2001 film versions of Metropolis, the newly-rebuilt Tower of Babel (known in the 2001 anime film version as the Ziggurat) is the symbol of the titular grand city-state and the center of human imperial power. In the 2001 anime film version, the superhuman robot clone of Duke Red's daughter, Tima is to sit on her throne to activate the Ziggurat's revolutionary solar superweapon of mass destruction in order to achieve the goal of reaching the stars and domination of the entire Earth. Like the Tower of Babel, the new Tower/Ziggurat was destroyed. Metropolis Metropolis is a science fiction film produced in Germany set in a futuristic urban dystopia. ... Metropolis, also known as Osamu Tezukas Metropolis is a manga by Osamu Tezuka and an anime movie based off of the manga. ... Weapons of Mass Destruction is also the name of rapper Xzibits 2004 album. ...


Robert Sawyer's Quintaglio Ascension Trilogy alludes to the Tower of Babel when discussing the engineering difficulties of a space elevator. And it has been suggested in Neal Stephenson's science fiction book Snow Crash that the line, "Go to, let us build us a city and a tower, whose top may reach unto heaven", (or "Come, let us build us a city, and a tower with its top in the sky", New JPS Translation) actually refers to the sky charts painted in the top of the ziggurats of ancient Babylon. Snow Crash also speculates much more on the Tower's real meanings: according to the book, the Tower of Babel was a metaphor. Following the spreading of the Asherah virus, which made evolution in the Sumerian society practically non-existent, the god Enki (portrayed as a priest who happens to be the first hacker in history), as a counter-measure, produces a nam-shub -- a spell that stops everyone from speaking the Sumerian language. This way, the Asherah virus, which used oral and verbal means of transmission, was stopped. Robert J. Sawyer (born April 29, 1960) is a Canadian science fiction writer, dubbed the dean of Canadian science fiction by The Ottawa Citizen newspaper in 1999. ... ... A space elevator would consist of a cable attached to the surface and reaching outwards into space. ... Neal Stephenson (b. ... Snow Crash, US version cover shot, illustrated by Bruce Jensen. ... Astrology: the study of the positions of the celestial objects relative to the Earth and how these positions affect happenings on the lives of cultures, nations and the natural environment. ... Dur-Untash, or Choqa zanbil, built in 13th century BC by Untash Napirisha, is one of the worlds best preserved ziggurats. ... For the small research submarine, see Asherah (submarine). ... This article is in need of attention. ... The Sumerian language of ancient Sumer was spoken in Southern Mesopotamia from at least the 4th millennium BC. Sumerian was replaced by Akkadian as a spoken language around 2000 BC, but continued to be used as a sacred, ceremonial and scientific language in Mesopotamia until about 1 AD. Then, it...


Some recent commentators (e.g. Rabbi Eliyahu Eliezer Dessler) have claimed similarities between the materialistic stance of the "tower builders" and the dialectic materialism of communism. Rabbi Eliyahu Eliezer Dessler (1892-1953) was an influential Orthodox Jewish thinker of the 20th century. ... Dialectical materialism is the philosophical basis of Marxism as defined by later Communists and their Parties (sometimes called orthodox Marxism). ... Communism refers to a theoretical system of social organization and a political movement based on common ownership of the means of production. ...


Ted Chiang's award-winning short story "Tower of Babylon" depicts the events that might have occurred if the Tower of Babel project had been completed. Ted Chiang (born 1967) is an American science fiction writer. ...


In computer and video games

In the video game Xenogears a structure known as Babel Tower is a massive ruined tower that stretches miles and miles into air from an island in the southern world. The mysterious tower is actually a piece of a massive spaceship that crash landed on the planet which the game takes place on. The tower was sealed and no one was permitted to enter or go near it by the corrupt and false Ethos Church in order to keep people ignorant of their true origins on the planet. Xenogears (ゼノギアス Zenogiasu) is a role-playing game released on the Sony PlayStation. ...


In the video game Final Fantasy IV a structure known as the Tower of Bab-il is the tallest building on the world-map. It streches from the underworld through a hole in the surface and far into the sky. The Tower of Bab-il uses the power of Eight Elemental Crystals to activate the Giant of Bab-il and open the way to the moon. Final Fantasy IV (ファイナルファンタジーIV in Japanese, or Fainaru Fantajī IV using romanization), often abbreviated to FF4, is a console role-playing game developed and published by Square Co. ...


The Tower of Babel is the eighth and last mission of the second episode (The Shores of Hell) of the video game Doom and consists of a battle against the Cyberdemon. Doom (or DOOM) is a 1993 computer game by id Software that is among the landmark titles in the first-person shooter genre. ...


In Prince of Persia: The Two Thrones, the Tower of Babel makes an appearance. The Prince must climb the tower from the outside.


In the video game Doshin the Giant (released only in Japan and Europe), the Tower of Babel is the last monument the villagers build for the Giant. It blocks out the sun, and causes the whole island to sink into the ocean, but not before the Giant tries to help the villagers in trying to stop the tower from falling on them. Doshin the Giant (巨人のドシン in Japanese) is a Nintendo God Simulation game for the Nintendo 64DD released in Japan on December 1, 1999. ...


In Serious Sam: Second Encounter, the Tower of Babel is home to the second boss. It appears as an extremly tall ziggurat, but you are not allowed to climb it.


In MegaMan X: Command Mission, the location of the final boss battle is the Orbital Elevator Babel.


A depiction of something like the Tower of Babel is featured on one of the covers of Civilization III as well as on its menu screen and introduction video. Sid Meiers Civilization III is the best turn-based strategy computer game by Firaxis Games, the sequel to Sid Meiers Civilization II. Also called Civ 3 for short, the game is the third generation of the original Civilization. ...


The Tower of Babel is also mentioned in relation to Etemenanki, referred to as Etamnanki or ETAK in the PC game Freespace 2. The ETAK project is one that allows communication between the human race and Shivans via modulated quantum pulses. Categories: Historical stubs | Babylonia ... Descent: Freespace Screenshot Freespace 2 Screenshot FS2_Open Screenshot Descent: FreeSpace is a space simulation computer game series developed by Volition Inc. ...


Painkiller: The Tower of Babel is the battleground in levels three and five of chapter four, and also where you fight the fourth general, Alastor.


The Tower of Babel was also the last level in the Super Nintendo game, Illusion of Gaia. It can be seen on the world map, and played through. The European SNES design is identical to the Super Famicom. ... Illusion of Gaia was an role-playing game (RPG) released on January 1, 1994 for the Super Nintendo Entertainment System (SNES). ...


See also

This article incorporates text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, which is in the public domain. ... The confusion of tongues (confusio linguarum) is the fragmentation of human languages after the collapse of the Tower of Babel (Genesis 11:1-9). ... Babylon is the Greek variant of Akkadian Babilu, an ancient city in Mesopotamia (Location: 32°32′11″N, 44°25′15″E, modern Al Hillah, Iraq). ... Babylonia, named for the city of Babylon, was an ancient state in Mesopotamia (in modern Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... Dur-Untash, or Choqa zanbil, built in 13th century BC by Untash Napirisha, is one of the worlds best preserved ziggurats. ... Categories: Historical stubs | Babylonia ... Anatomy of a babel fish as explained in the BBC TV series The Babel fish is a fictional species of fish in The Hitchhikers Guide to the Galaxy by Douglas Adams. ... In the Quran, Haman was a notable companion of the Pharaoh in Moses time, whom he asked to build him a tower so he could go up to the heavens and try to see the god of Moses, in whom he disbelieved. ... The Wikipedia logo. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Tower of Babel - Academic Kids (1795 words)
"The Tower of Babel" by Pieter Brueghel the Elder
This, "Tower of Jupiter Belus" (the latinized spelling of Akkadian Bel), possibly corresponding to the Etemenanki ziggurat to Marduk is thought to have inspired the story of the Tower of Babel.
In the 1927 and 2001 film versions of Metropolis, the newly-rebuilt Tower of Babel (known in the 2001 anime film version as the Ziggurat) is the symbol of the titular grand city-state and the center of human imperial power.
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Tower of Babel (1075 words)
Babel interpreted by the inspired writer as referring to the confusion of tongues.
Babel with the ruins of the Birs-Nimrud, in Borsippa, situated on the
Generally the corners of these towers faced the four points of the compass, while in Egypt this position was held by the sides of the pyramids.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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