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Encyclopedia > The Three August Ones and the Five Emperors
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The Three August Ones and the Five Emperors
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The Three August Ones and Five Emperors (Chinese: 三皇五帝; pinyin: sānhuáng wǔdì; Wade-Giles: san-huang wu-ti) were mythological rulers of China during the period from 2500 BC to 2205 BC, which is the time preceding the Xia dynasty. China is one of the worlds oldest continuous major civilizations, with written records dating back about 3,500 years and with 5,000 years being commonly used by Chinese as the age of their civilization. ... The Xia Dynasty (Hanyu Pinyin: Xia, Wade-Giles: Hsia, Chinese: 夏朝), ca. ... Shang Dynasty (Chinese: 商朝) or Yin Dynasty (殷代) (1600 BC - 1046 BC) followed the legendary Xia Dynasty and preceded the Zhou Dynasty (1122 BC - 256 BC) in China. ... The Zhou Dynasty (周朝; Wade-Giles: Chou Dynasty) (late 10th century BC to late 9th century BC - 256 BC) followed the Shang (Yin) Dynasty and preceded the Qin Dynasty in China. ... The Spring and Autumn Period (Chinese: 春秋時代; pinyin: ) represented an era in Chinese history between 722 BC and 481 BC. The period takes its name from the Spring and Autumn Annals, a chronicle of the period whose authorship was traditionally attributed to Confucius. ... Alternative meaning: Warring States Period (Japan) The Warring States Period (traditional Chinese: 戰國時代, simplified Chinese: 战国时代 pinyin Zhànguó Shídài) takes place from sometime in the 5th century BC to the unification of China by Qin in 221 BC. It is nominally considered to be the second part of the Eastern... The Qin Dynasty (秦朝 Pinyin Qín, Wade-Giles Chin; 221 BC - 207 BC) was preceded by the Zhou Dynasty and followed by the Han Dynasty in China. ... Han commanderies and kingdoms AD 2. ... Wang Mang (王莽, pinyin: Wáng Măng) (45 BC–October 6, 23) was a Han Dynasty official who seized the throne from the Liu family and founded Xin Dynasty (新朝, meaning new dynasty), ruling AD 8–23. ... Han commanderies and kingdoms AD 2. ... The Three Kingdoms period (Simplified Chinese: 三国; Traditional Chinese: 三國; Pinyin Sānguó) is a period in the history of China. ... The Jin Dynasty (晉 pinyin jìn, 265-420) followed the Three Kingdoms and preceded the Southern and Northern Dynasties in China. ... The Sixteen Kingdoms, or less commonly the Sixteen States, were a collection of numerous short-lived sovereignities in the China proper and neighboring areas from AD 304 to 439 after the retreat of the Jin Dynasty (265-420) to South China and before the establishment of the Northern Dynasties. ... This article is about China. ... The Sui Dynasty (隋朝 Hanyu Pinyin: Suí, 581-618) followed the Southern and Northern Dynasties and preceded the Tang Dynasty in China. ... The Tang Dynasty (唐朝 pinyin: tángcháo; 618–907) followed the Sui Dynasty and preceded the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period in China. ... Wu Zetian (武則天) (625 - December 16, 705), personal name Wu Zhao (武曌), was the only female emperor in the history of China, founding her own dynasty, the Zhou (周), and ruling under the name Emperor Shengshen (聖神皇帝) from 690 to 705. ... Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms (Traditional Chinese: 五代十國 Simplified Chinese: 五代十国 Hanyu pinyin: Wǔdàishíguó) (907-960) was a period of political upheaval in China, between the Tang Dynasty and Song Dynasty. ... The Song Dynasty (Chinese: 宋朝) was a ruling dynasty in China from 960-1279. ... The Liao Dynasty (T: 遼朝 S: 辽朝 pinyin: Liáo Cháo), 907-1125, sometimes also known as the Kingdom or Empire of the Khitan, was founded by the Yelü (耶律 Yēlǜ) family of the Khitan tribes in the final years of the Tang Dynasty, although Yelü Abaoji did not declare an... See Xia for other meanings of the Chinese character 夏 xià. ... The Jin Dynasty (金 pinyin: Jīn 1115-1234; Anchu in Jurchen), also known as the Jurchen dynasty, was founded by the Wanyan (完顏 Wányán) clan of the Jurchen, the ancestors of the Manchus who established the Qing Dynasty some 500 years later. ... The Yuan Dynasty (Mongolian: Dai Ön Yeke Mongghul Ulus; Chinese: 大元大蒙古帝国) lasting officially from 1271 to 1368, also called the Mongol Dynasty, was the name given to the significant ruling family of Borjigin in Asia. ... The Ming Dynasty (Chinese: 明朝; Pinyin: míng cháo also called 大明帝国 The Great Ming Empire) was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644, though claims to the Ming throne (now collectively called the Southern Ming) survived until 1662. ... The Qing Dynasty (Manchu: daicing gurun; Chinese: 清朝; pinyin: qÄ«ng cháo; Wade-Giles: ching chao), sometimes known as the Manchu Dynasty, was founded by the Manchu clan Aisin Gioro, in what is today northeast China expanded into China proper and the surrounding territories of Inner Asia, establishing... The Republic of China succeeded the Qing Dynasty in China and ruled mainland China from 1912 to 1949. ... The Peoples Republic of China was proclaimed in the aftermath of the Communist Partys triumph in the Chinese Civil War by Mao Zedong on October 1, 1949 with Beijing as capital. ... The rise of Deng Xiaoping Maos death in September 1976 removed the great helmsman from the scene. ... Recovery in the 1990s After the June 4th Incident, a large number of overseas Chinese students were granted political refuge almost unconditionally by foreign governments. ... The Fourth Generation of Leaders and the 16th CPC Congress In November 2002 Jiang Zemin stepped down from the powerful Politburo Standing Committee of the Communist Party of China to make way for a younger fourth generation of leadership led by Hu Jintao. ... Pinyin (拼音, pīnyīn) literally means join (together) sounds (a less literal translation being phoneticize, spell or transcription) in Chinese and usually refers to Hànyǔ Pīnyīn (汉语拼音, literal meaning: Han language pinyin), which is a system of romanization (phonetic notation and transliteration to roman script) for Standard Mandarin used in the... Wade-Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization (phonetic notation and transliteration) system for the Chinese language based on Mandarin. ... Chinese mythology is the mythology of Chinese civilization. ... (Redirected from 2500 BC) (26th century BC - 25th century BC - 24th century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2900 - 2334 BC -- Mesopotamian wars of the Early Dynastic period 2494 BC -- End of Fourth Dynasty, start of Fifth Dynasty in Egypt. ... (Redirected from 2205 BC) (24th century BC - 23rd century BC - 22nd century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2334 - 2279 BC (short chronology) Sargon of Akkads conquest of Mesopotamia 2217 - 2193 BC - Nomadic invasions of Akkad 2205 BC - Foundation of the Xia... The Xia Dynasty (Hanyu Pinyin: Xia, Wade-Giles: Hsia, Chinese: 夏朝), ca. ...


The Three August Ones

The Three August Ones, sometimes known as the Three Sovereigns, were said to be god-kings or demigods who used their magical powers to improve the lives of their people. Because of their lofty virtue they lived to a great age and ruled over a period of great peace.


The Three August Ones are ascribed various identities in different Chinese historical texts. The Records of the Grand Historian by Sima Qian states that they were: The Records of the Grand Historian or the Records of the Grand Historian of China was the magnum opus of Sima Qian, in which he recounted Chinese history from the time of the mythical Yellow Emperor until his own time. ... Sima Qian (circa 145—90 BC) was a Prefect of the Grand Scribes (太史令) of the Han Dynasty. ...

  • The Heavenly King (天皇), who ruled for 18,000 years
  • The Earthly King (地皇), who ruled for 11,000 years
  • The Human King (泰皇 or 人皇), who ruled for 45,600 years

The Yundou shu (運斗樞) and Yuanming bao (元命苞) identify them as:

Fuxi and Nüwa are the god and goddess husband and wife credited with being the ancestors of humankind after a devastating flood and Shennong is the god who invented farming and is the first to use herb for medical use. Fu Hsi (伏羲; pinyin fú xī; Pao-hsi), was the mythical First Emperor of China. ... In Chinese mythology, Nüwa (Traditional Chinese: 女媧 Simplified Chinese: 女娲 Pinyin: nÇšwā) is mythological character best known for reproducing people after a great calamity. ... Shennong (Traditional: 神農; Simplified: 神农; Pinyin: Shen2 nong2) is a legendary emperor and culture hero of Chinese mythology who is believed to have lived some 5,000 years ago and who taught the ancient peoples of the practices of agriculture. ...


The Shangshu dazhuan (尚書大傳) and Baihu tongyi (白虎通義) replace Nüwa with Suiren (燧人), the inventor of fire. The Diwang shiji (帝王世紀) replaces Nüwa with the Yellow Emperor (黄帝), the supposed ancestor of all Chinese people. Yellow Emperor The Yellow Emperor or Huáng Dì (黄帝) is a legendary Chinese sovereign and cultural hero who is said to be the ancestor of all Chinese. ...


The Five Emperors

The Five Emperors were legendary, morally perfect sage-kings. According to the Records of the Grand Historian they were:

Yao and Shun are also known as the Two Emperors, and, along with Yu (禹), founder of the Xia dynasty, were considered to be model rulers and moral examplars by Confucians in later Chinese history. The Shangshu xu (尚書序) and Diwang shiji include Shaohao (少昊) instead of the Yellow Emperor. Yellow Emperor The Yellow Emperor or Huáng Dì (黄帝) is a legendary Chinese sovereign and cultural hero who is said to be the ancestor of all Chinese. ... Zhuanxu (颛顼, pinyin: Zhuānxū), also known as Gaoyang (高陽) is a legendary monarch of ancient China. ... Emperor Yao (Traditional Chinese:堯, Simplified Chinese:尧) (2337 - 2258 BC) was a semi-mythical Chinese ruler, one of the Three August Ones and the Five Emperors. ... The Emperor Shun (舜) (2258-2211 BC) was a lengendary leader of prehistoric China, among the Three August Ones and the Five Emperors. ... Yu (禹, often called Da Yu 大禹 Yu the Great) was the legendary first Chinese monarch of the Xia Dynasty, considered as the founder of the dynasty. ... The Xia Dynasty (Hanyu Pinyin: Xia, Wade-Giles: Hsia, Chinese: 夏朝), ca. ... Confucianism (儒家 Pinyin: rújiā The School of the Scholars), sometimes translated as the School of Literati, is an East Asian ethical, religious and philosophical system originally developed from the teachings of Confucius. ... Shaohao (少昊) is credited by some as being one of the Five Emperors of ancient Chinese mythology. ...


The Song of Chu (楚辭) identifies the Five Emperors as directional gods:

  • Shaohao (east)
  • Zhuanxu (north)
  • Yellow Emperor (centre)
  • Shennong (west)
  • Fuxi (south)

The Book of Rites (禮記) equates the Five Emperors with the Five Lineages (五氏), which comprise: The Classic of Rites (禮記 Lǐ Jì, or Liki) was one of the Five Classics of Confucianism; it described social forms, ancient rites, and court ceremonies. ...

  • Youchao-shi (有巢氏)
  • Suiren-shi (燧人氏)
  • Fuxi (伏羲氏)
  • Nüwa (女媧氏)
  • Shennong (神農氏)

The first historical emperor of China was Qin Shi Huang, who coined a new term for "emperor" (huangdi) by combining the titles of "august one" (huang) and "sage-king" (di). The emperor or huangdi (皇帝 in pinyin: huang2 di4) of China was the head of government and head of state of China from the Qin dynasty in 221 B.C. until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911. ... Qin Shi Huang (秦始皇) (November or December 260 BC - September 10, 210 BC), personal name Zheng, was king of the Chinese State of Qin from 247 BC to 221 BC, and then the first emperor of a unified China from 221 BC to 210 BC, ruling under the name First...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Three August Ones and Five Emperors - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (411 words)
The Three August Ones and Five Emperors (Chinese: 三皇五帝; Hanyu Pinyin: sānhuáng wǔdì; Wade-Giles: san-huang wu-ti) were mythological rulers of China during the period from c.
The Three August Ones, sometimes known as the Three Sovereigns, were said to be god-kings or demigods who used their magical powers to improve the lives of their people.
In one sense of the word, the first historical emperor of China was Qin Shi Huang (秦始皇), who coined a new term for "emperor" (huangdi 皇帝) by combining the titles of "august one" (huang 皇) and "god-king" (di 帝).
Chinese mythology - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2063 words)
Huang Di (黄帝) - Huang Di, literally meaning, and commonly known as, the "Yellow Emperor", is often regarded as the first sovereign of the Chinese nation.
Also known as Yu Huang Shang-ti, his name means “the August Personage of Jade.” He is considered to be the first god and to be in charge of all the gods and goddesses.
Meanwhile, the myths of the benevolent rulers of the past, in the form of the Three August Ones and Five Emperors became a part of the Confucian political philosophy of Primitivism.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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