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Encyclopedia > The Tempest (play)
Miranda and Ferdinand, Angelica Kauffmann, 1782.
Miranda and Ferdinand, Angelica Kauffmann, 1782.
For other uses, see The Tempest.
For other uses, see Tempest.

The Tempest is traditionally considered to be William Shakespeare's last play. Its first known performance was on November 1, 1611 at Whitehall Palace in London. It would also have been performed at the Globe Theatre and the Blackfriars Theatre. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x1590, 298 KB) Please see the file description page for further information. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x1590, 298 KB) Please see the file description page for further information. ... Angelica Kauffmann Miranda and Ferdinand in The Tempest, 1782. ... The Tempest is the title of: A play by William Shakespeare A painting by Giorgione A Star Trek: Deep Space Nine novel It is also the nickname often attached to the Sonata No. ... A tempest is a violent storm. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 60 days remaining. ... Events June 23 - Henry Hudsons crew maroons him, his son and 7 others in a boat November 1 - At Whitehall Palace in London, William Shakespeares romantic comedy The Tempest is presented for the first time. ... The Palace of Whitehall was the main residence of the English monarchs in London from 1530 until 1698 when all except Inigo Jones 1622 Banqueting House was destroyed by fire. ... This article is about the British city. ... The modern reconstruction of the Globe Theatre, in London. ... Blackfriars Theatre was the name of two separate theatres in the City of London, built on grounds previously belonging to a Dominican monastery. ...


The Tempest belongs to the class of plays commonly grouped as Shakespeare's Late Romances. In these plays, Shakespeare shows a concern with family ties and reconciliation in a mythic setting. The late romances, often simply called the romances are a grouping of William Shakespeares later plays, including Pericles, Prince of Tyre, Cymbeline, The Winters Tale, and The Tempest. ... The word mythology (Greek: μυθολογία, from μυθος mythos, a story or legend, and λογος logos, an account or speech) literally means the (oral) retelling of myths – stories that a particular culture believes to be true and that use supernatural events or characters to explain the nature of the universe and humanity. ...


It is the only one of William Shakespeare's plays in which he generally abides by the prescribed unities of classical drama. Unity of place is achieved by setting the play on a remote island and unity of time is achieved by having all the action take place within the space of a few hours, although unity of action is not precisely observed. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... ... Panoramic view of the Greek theater at Epidaurus Greek theatre or Greek Drama is a theatrical tradition that flourished in ancient Greece between c. ...


One author notes: "Why Shakespeare observed the three unities in The Tempest is not known. In most of his other plays, events occur on several days and characters visit numerous settings. Some scholars have suggested that, because The Tempest contains so much fantasy, Shakespeare may have wanted to observe the unities to help audiences suspend their disbelief. Others have pointed to criticism that Shakespeare received for ignoring the unities; they say he may have wanted to prove once and for all that he could follow rules if he felt like it."[1]

Contents


Plot

Prospero and Miranda from a painting by William Maw Egley. Circa 1850.
Prospero and Miranda from a painting by William Maw Egley. Circa 1850.

The sorcerer Prospero, rightful Duke of Milan, and his daughter, Miranda, have been stranded for twelve years on an island in the Adriatic, after Prospero's jealous brother Antonio—helped by Alonso, the King of Naples—deposed him and set him adrift with the three-year-old Miranda. Possessed of magic powers due to his great learning and prodigious library, Prospero is reluctantly served by a sprite, Ariel, whom he had rescued from imprisonment in a tree. Ariel was trapped therein by the African witch Sycorax, who had been exiled to the island years before and died prior to Prospero's arrival; Prospero maintains Ariel's loyalty by repeatedly promising to release the "airy spirit" from servitude, but continually defers that promise to a vague, future date. The witch's son Caliban, a deformed monster and the only non-spiritual inhabitant before the arrival of Prospero, was initially adopted and raised by the Milanese sorcerer. He taught Prospero how to survive on the island, while Prospero and Miranda taught Caliban religion and their own language. Following an alleged attempt to "violate" Miranda (the references by both Prospero and Caliban are ambiguous, and whether he attempted to rape Miranda, sought to woo her, or had successfully seduced her is left up to the reader's imagination) he had been compelled by Prospero to serve as the sorcerer's slave, carrying wood and gathering pig nuts. In slavery Caliban has come to view Prospero as a usurper, and grown to resent both the magus and his daughter for what he believed to be their betrayal of his trust; Prospero and Miranda in turn view Caliban with contempt and disgust. Image File history File links File links The following pages link to this file: Prospero ... Magic (also called magick to distinguish it from stage magic) is a supposed way of influencing the world through supernatural, mystical, or paranormal means. ... Prospero is the protagonist in The Tempest, a play by William Shakespeare. ... Milan (Italian: Milano; Milanese: Milán) is the main city of northern Italy, and is located in the plains of Lombardy, the most populated and developed region in Italy. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Naples (Italian Napoli, Neapolitan Nàpule, from Greek Νέα Πόλις - Néa Pólis - meaning New City; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is the largest city in southern Italy and capital of Campania Region and the Province of Naples. ... The term sprite is a general term referring to a number of legendary creatures. ... Ariel is a fictional sprite who appears in William Shakespeares play The Tempest. ... Sycorax is a fictional character mentioned though not seen in William Shakespeares play The Tempest. ... Caliban is a fictional character in William Shakespeares The Tempest, a deformed monster who is the slave of Prospero. ...


The play opens as Prospero, having divined that his brother, Antonio, is on a ship passing close by the island (having returned from the nuptials of Alonso's daughter Claribel with the King of Tunis), has raised a storm (the tempest of the title) which causes the ship to run aground. Also on the ship are Antonio's friend and fellow conspirator, King Alonso, Alonso's brother Sebastian, Alonso's royal advisor Gonzalo, and Alonso's son, Ferdinand. Prospero, by his spells, contrives to separate the survivors of the wreck into several groups and Alonso and Ferdinand are separated, and believe one another dead. Three plots then alternate through the play. In one, Caliban falls in with Stephano and Trinculo, two drunken crew members, whom he believes to have come from the moon, and drunkenly attempts to raise a rebellion against Prospero (which ultimately fails). In another, Prospero works to establish a romantic relationship between Ferdinand and Miranda; the two fall immediately in love, but Prospero worries that "too light winning [may] make the prize light", and so compels Ferdinand to become his servant so that his affection for Miranda will be confirmed. He also decides that after his plan to exact vengeance on his betrayers has come to fruition, he will break and bury his staff, and "drown" his book of magic. In the third subplot, Antonio and Sebastian conspire to kill Alonso and his advisor Gonzalo. When they attempt to murder them they are thwarted by Ariel, at Prospero's command. Ariel appears to the three "men of sin" as a harpy, reprimanding them for their betrayal of Prospero. Alonso, Sebastian and Antonio are deeply affected while Gonzalo is unruffled. Prospero manipulates the course of his enemies' path through the island, drawing them closer and closer to him. In the conclusion, all the main characters are brought together before Prospero. He forgives Alonso, neglects to mention his brother's betrayal of him, or Sebastian's attempted betrayal of Alonso, and finally uses his magic to ensure that everyone returns to Italy. However, the final decision is left to the imagination of the audience of whether he deserves to return or not. Trinculo can refer to: Trinculo, a character in William Shakespeares play The Tempest. ...


Sources

Prospero and Miranda by William Hogarth. Circa 1728.
Prospero and Miranda by William Hogarth. Circa 1728.

The Tempest is one of the few Shakespeare plays for which there is no definitive source for the overall narrative. However, some of the words and images in the play seem to derive from a report by William Strachey of the real-life shipwreck of the Sea Venture in 1609 on the islands of Bermuda of sailors travelling toward Virginia. Strachey's report was written in 1610; although it was not printed until 1625, it circulated widely in manuscript and Shakespeare may have taken the idea of the shipwreck and some images from it. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x1534, 220 KB) Description: Title: de: Gemälde nach Shakespeares Â»Sturm«, Szene: Prospero und Miranda Technique: de: Öl auf Leinwand Dimensions: de: 80 × 101,5 cm Country of origin: de: Großbritanien Current location (city): de: Wakefield Current location (gallery): de... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x1534, 220 KB) Description: Title: de: Gemälde nach Shakespeares Â»Sturm«, Szene: Prospero und Miranda Technique: de: Öl auf Leinwand Dimensions: de: 80 × 101,5 cm Country of origin: de: Großbritanien Current location (city): de: Wakefield Current location (gallery): de... William Hogarth, self-portrait, 1745 William Hogarth (November 10, 1697 – October 26, 1764) was a major English painter, engraver, pictorial satirist, and editorial cartoonist who has been credited as a pioneer in western sequential art. ... William Strachey (1572-1621) was an English writer and barrister, whose writings are among the primary sources for the history the English colonization of North America, and as one of the only narratives describing Powhatan society. ... The Sea Venture was a 17th century ship which may have been the inspiration for Shakespeares The Tempest. ... // Events April 4 – King of Spain signs an edit of expulsion of all moriscos from Spain April 9 – Spain recognizes Dutch independence May 23 - Official ratification of the Second Charter of Virginia. ... Official language(s) English Capital Largest city Richmond Virginia Beach Area  Ranked 35th  - Total 110,862 km²  - Width 320 km  - Length 690 km  - % water 7. ... // Events January 7 - Galileo Galilei discovers the Galilean moons of Jupiter. ... Events March 27 - Prince Charles Stuart becomes King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland. ...


The play draws heavily from the the tradition of the Romance (see Romance (genre)), which featured a fictitious narrative set far away from ordinary life. It was typically based around themes such as the supernatural, wandering, exploration and discovery. Romances were often set in coastal regions, and typically featured exotic, fantastical locations; they featured themes of transgression and redemption, loss and retrieval, exile and reunion. As a result, while The Tempest was originally listed as a comedy in the First Folio of Shakespeare's plays, subsequent editors have chosen to list it as a romance. As a literary genre, romance refers to a style of heroic prose and verse narrative current in Europe from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


The overall form of the play is modelled heavily on traditional Italian commedia dell'arte performances, which sometimes featured a magus and his daughter, their supernatural attendants, and a number of rustics. The commedia often featured a clown-figure known as "Arlecchino" (or his predecessor, "Zanni") and his partner "Brighella," who bear a striking resemblance to Stephano and Trinculo; a lecherous Napolese hunch-back named "Pulcinella," who corresponds to Caliban; and the clever and beautiful "Isabella," whose wealthy and manipulative father, "Pantalone," constantly seeks a suitor for her, thus mirroring the relationship between Miranda and Prospero. Karel Dujardins set his closely-observed scene of a travelling troupes makeshift stage against idealized ruins in the Roman Campagna: dated 1657 (Louvre Museum) Commedia Dellarte (Italian: comedy of professional artists also interpreted as comedy of humors), also known as Extemporal Comedy, was a form of improvisational theater... The Three Wise Men are given the names Gaspar, Melchior, and Balthasar in this Romanesque mosaic from the Basilica of St Apollinarius in Ravenna, Italy. ...


In addition, one of Gonzalo's speeches is derived from 'On Cannibals', an essay by Montaigne that praises the society of the Caribbean natives; and much of Prospero's renunciative speech is taken word for word from a speech by Medea in Ovid's Metamorphoses. Michel Eyquem de Montaigne (February 28, 1533 - September 13, 1592) was an influential French Renaissance writer, generally considered to be the inventor of the personal essay. ... Central America and the Caribbean (detailed pdf map) The Caribbean, (Spanish: Caribe; French: Caraïbe or more commonly Antilles; Dutch: Cariben or Caraïben, or more commonly Antillen) or the West Indies, is a group of islands and countries which are in or border the Caribbean Sea which lies on... Medea by Evelyn De Morgan. ... Engraved frontispiece of George Sandyss 1632 London edition of Publius Ovidius Naso (Sulmona, March 20, 43 BC â€“ Tomis, now Constanta AD 17) Roman poet known to the English-speaking world as Ovid, wrote on topics of love, abandoned women, and mythological transformations. ... Cover of George Sandyss 1632 edition of The Metamorphoses by the Roman poet Ovid is a poem in fifteen books that describes the creation and history of the world in terms of Greek and Roman mythology. ...


Themes / Tropes

Tempe-

The play repeatedly extols the virtues of temperance. Prospero repeatedly urges Ferdinand and Miranda to not indulge in lust but be temperate in their love, warning Ferdinand that "If thou dost break her virgin knot before / All sanctimonious ceremonies may / With full and holy rite be minister'd.../ Sour-ey'd disdain, and discord, shall bestrew / The union of your bed". Similarly, the masque with which Prospero entertains the couple centres around Juno, goddess of chaste marriage, and explicitly excludes Venus and Cupid, deities of lust. The masque concludes with "watery naiads" joining with "sunburned sicklemen", in an allegorisation of the idea that humours - associated with the elements - need to be balanced in order to create a virtuous temperament, in the individual or in a union: water and fire balance each other out. Costume for a Knight, by Inigo Jones: the plumed helmet, the heroic torso in armour and other conventions were still employed for opera seria in the 18th century. ... Juno can refer to: Space exploration, rockets Juno (spacecraft), NASA mission to Jupiter. ... Statue of Venus in the British Museum. ... Cupidon (French for Cupid), by William-Adolphe Bouguereau, 1875. ... --65. ... The four humours were four fluids that were thought to permeate the body and influence its health. ... Several ancient Classical Element ideas exist. ...


The play likewise warns against intemperance; most noticeably with the drunkards Stephano and Trinculo being brought to justice, but also through Prospero's punishment of Caliban when the latter attempted to rape Miranda. Prospero himself - whose magic is repeatedly linked with alcohol - is said to be "with anger so distemper'd", and learns through the play the need to control his violent temper, ultimately clearing the sky of the tempest, which had been its principal manifestation.


The Theatre

The Tempest is overtly concerned with its own nature as a play, frequently drawing links between Prospero's Art and theatrical illusion. The shipwreck was a "spectacle" "performed" by Ariel; Antonio and Sebastian are "cast" in a "troop" to "act"; Miranda's eyelids are "fringed curtains". Prospero is even made to refer to the Globe Theatre when claiming the whole world is an illusion: "the great globe... shall dissolve... like this insubstantial pageant". Ariel frequently disguises himself as figures from Classical mythology, for example a nymph, a harpy and Ceres, and acts as these in a masque and anti-masque that Prospero creates. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The modern reconstruction of the Globe Theatre, in London. ... Classical mythology usually refers to the religious legends and practices of classical antiquity: Greek mythology; Roman mythology; Greek religion; and Roman religion. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... A medieval depiction of a Harpy. ... In Roman mythology, Ceres was the goddess of growing plants (particularly cereals) and of motherly love. ... Costume for a Knight, by Inigo Jones: the plumed helmet, the heroic torso in armour and other conventions were still employed for opera seria in the 18th century. ...


Early critics saw this constant allusion to the theatre as an indication that Prospero was meant to represent Shakespeare; the character's renunciation of magic thus signalling Shakespeare's farewell to the stage. This theory has fallen into disfavour; but certainly The Tempest is interested in the way that, like Prospero's "Art", the theatre can be both an immoral occupation and yet morally transformative for its audience. It has been suggested that Drama (art form) be merged into this article or section. ...


Kingship

The concept of usurping a monarch occurs frequently throughout the play: Antonio usurped Prospero; Caliban accuses Prospero of having usurped him upon the latter's arrival on the island; Sebastian plots to kill and overthrow his brother the King of Naples; Stephano has designs to depose Prospero and set himself up as "king o'the isle." As such, the play is simultaneously concerned with what constitutes virtuous kingship, presenting the audience with various possibilities. In the twentieth century, post-colonialist literary critics were extremely interested in this aspect of the play, seeing Caliban as representative of the natives invaded and oppressed by Imperialism. This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Magic

Magic is a pivotal theme in the Tempest, as it is the one device that is used above all other to make the plot hold together. Prospero commands so much power in the play because of his ability to use magic and to control the spirit Ariel, and with magic, he creates The Tempest itself, as well as controlling all the happenings on the island, eventually bringing all his old enemies to him to be reconciled. Magic is also used to create a lot of the imagery in the play, with scenes such as the masque, the opening scene, and the enchanting music of Ariel. Ariel is a fictional sprite who appears in William Shakespeares play The Tempest. ...

Prospero and Ariel from a painting by William Hamilton.
Prospero and Ariel from a painting by William Hamilton.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (543x764, 201 KB) William Hamilton: Prospero and Ariel (from Shakespeares The Tempest), 1797 Gallery: Alte Nationalgalerie Berlin, A III 589 File links The following pages link to this file: The Tempest (play) ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (543x764, 201 KB) William Hamilton: Prospero and Ariel (from Shakespeares The Tempest), 1797 Gallery: Alte Nationalgalerie Berlin, A III 589 File links The following pages link to this file: The Tempest (play) ... Several people have been known by the name William Hamilton; William is often shortened to Will or Bill. ...

Colonialism

In Shakespeare's day, most of the world was still being discovered, stories were coming back from far off Islands, with myths about the Cannibals of the Caribbean, faraway Edens, and distant Tropical Utopias. With the character Caliban (whose name is a rough anagram of Cannibal), Shakespeare offers an in-depth discussion into the morality of colonialism. Different views are discussed, with examples including Gonzalo's Utopia, Prospero's enslavement of Caliban and Caliban's resentment of this. Caliban is also shown as one of the most natural characters in the play, being very much in touch with the natural world (and far nobler than his two old world friends Stephano and Trinculo). The various meanings of Eden: Garden of Eden Eden programming language Garden of Eden pattern, a term used in cellular automata Eden is the name of a film. ... It has been suggested that utopianism be merged into this article or section. ... Caliban is a fictional character in William Shakespeares The Tempest, a deformed monster who is the slave of Prospero. ... Cannibalism is the act or practice of eating members of the same species, e. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Prospero is the protagonist in The Tempest, a play by William Shakespeare. ... Stephano is the name of a drunkard from William Shakespeares The Tempest. ... Trinculo can refer to: Trinculo, a character in William Shakespeares play The Tempest. ...

... the isle is full of noises,
Sounds and sweet airs, that give delight and hurt not.
Sometimes a thousand twangling instruments
will hum about mine ears

Shakespeare's treatment of this subject matter is thought to have been influenced by Montaigne's essay "Of Cannibals" which was published in 1603 and discussed the values of societies that had not been affected by European civilisation.


Nature vs Nurture

Throughout the tempest humanity and its actions are questioned, the foremost of these questions are the motives behind these actions and whether it was a natural instinct or a characters unique moral stance that caused them to react to situations on an isolated island, where outside influence is limited.


The main indicator of the nature/nurture clash is the juxtoposition of Miranda and Caliban, both characters have spent their lives on the island, surrounded by the same enviornment and both were taught by Prospero, however Caliban's mother, Sycorax, is often mentioned as a "foul witch" and "blue-ey'd hag", so it can be argued that Caliban's attempt to rape miranda came from his natural moral vacuum passed down from his mother. In contrast to this is Miranda's gentle nature, arisen from the same tutorige Caliban received, this shows natures dominance over nurture. Prospero is the protagonist in The Tempest, a play by William Shakespeare. ...


Another juxtoposition showing the nature/nurture clash is that of Prospero and his brother Sebastian, both born from the same mother their natures are equal, however Prospero's main focus of life was learning and knoledge, he had no ambition for power, shown in his willingness to pass matters of the state over to his brother, however Sebastian was willing to betray his brother for more power and continues to play the betrayor on the island, convincing Antonio to kill the king of Naples in order to steal his power from him, this shows nurtures dominance over nature.


In this way shakespeare leaves the nature/nurture debate open ended for the audiance to decide upon.


List of Characters

  • Alonso, King of Naples
  • Sebastian, his brother
  • Prospero, the right Duke of Milan (the story's protagonist)
  • Antonio, his brother, the usurping Duke of Milan
  • Ferdinand, son to the King of Naples
  • Gonzalo, an honest, optimistic old councillor
  • Adrian and Francisco, lords
  • Caliban, deformed slave of Prospero and son of Sycorax
The name is suggestive of "Carib(be)an", and - given looser 17th century spelling - an anagram of "cannibal", both of which come from the same word. Both implications suggest he is representative of the natives of the New World, and a reference to one of Shakespeare's sources: the essay Des Cannibales by Montaigne.
The name is linked to the Italian verb "trincare" meaning, as can still be heard, "to drink"; appropriate as he is one of the two drunkards of the play.
  • Stephano, a drunken butler (sometimes Stefano)
"Stephan" means "King" in Greek; appropriate as the play concerns itself with the notion of kingship, which this character is used to parody. Shakespeare also may have named him Stephano to suggest a popular rhyme - alluded to by Trinculo and sung in Othello - that begins "King Stephen was an a worthy peer/ His breeches cost him but a crown"; ironic as Stephano's ambition to rule the island is thwarted when he starts stealing clothes (his breeches cost him his "crown"); likewise Prospero lost his crown when he turned his attention to his Art, symbolised by a cloak.
  • Master of a ship
  • Boatswain
  • Mariners
  • Miranda, daughter to Prospero, often called "a wonder".
The name comes from the Latin root "mira-", to wonder. All other words in the play that come from the same root (admired, miracle, etc), can be understood to be referring to Miranda.
The name is certainly suggestive of the "air" element, directly opposing the character to Caliban, who is called "thou earth" by Prospero. In Hebrew the name means "lion of God" - it is therefore interesting that Ariel's voice is once mistaken for the roar of lions.
  • Iris
  • Ceres
  • Juno
  • Nymphs
  • Reapers
  • Spirits

(mentioned but never seen:) Prospero is the protagonist in The Tempest, a play by William Shakespeare. ... Caliban is a fictional character in William Shakespeares The Tempest, a deformed monster who is the slave of Prospero. ... Carte dAmérique, Guillaume Delisle, c. ... Essays is the title of a book written by Michel de Montaigne that was first published in 1580. ... Michel Eyquem de Montaigne (February 28, 1533 - September 13, 1592) was an influential French Renaissance writer, generally considered to be the inventor of the personal essay. ... Trinculo can refer to: Trinculo, a character in William Shakespeares play The Tempest. ... Stephano is the name of a drunkard from William Shakespeares The Tempest. ... Othello and Desdemona in Venice by Théodore Chassériau (1819–1856) Othello: The Moor of Venice is a tragedy by Shakespeare written around 1603. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Ariel is a fictional sprite who appears in William Shakespeares play The Tempest. ...

  • Sycorax a witch, and mother of Caliban.
The name includes the Latin for "raven", with which she is frequently linked in the play. The stresses individually sound like "sick" and "wracks"; sickness and "wracking" people being two of the more insiduous ways Prospero uses his own magic.
  • Claribel daughter to Alonso
Her name comes from the French "clair et belle": "clear and beautiful" - words which can only describe musical notes, the weather, and bodies of water. She is thus the symbolic opposite to the titular tempest, which disrupts the weather, disturbs the sea and creates discordant sounds - and therefore has been absented from the play's action before it has begun.

Adaptations

See also Shakespeare on screen (The Tempest).

Sir William Davenant and John Dryden adapted a deeply cut version of The Tempest, "corrected" for Restoration audiences and adorned with music set by Matthew Locke, Giovanni Draghi, Pelham Humfrey, Pietro Reggio, James Hart and John Banister. Dryden's remarks, in the Preface to his opera Albion and Albanius give an indication of the struggle later 17th century critics had with the elusive masque-like character of a play that fit no preconceptions. Albion and Albinius was first conceived as a prologue to the adapted Shakespeare (in 1680), then extended into an entertainment on its own. In Dryden's view, The Tempest Laurence Oliviers Richard III. This is a list of movies and television programmes based on the works of William Shakespeare. ... William Davenant Sir William Davenant (February 28, 1606 - April 7, 1668), also spelled DAvenant, was an English poet and playwright. ... John Dryden John Dryden (August 9, 1631 – May 12, 1700) was an influential English poet, literary critic, and playwright who dominated the literary life of Restoration England to such a point that the period came to be known as the Age of Dryden. ... King Charles II The English Restoration or simply Restoration was an episode in the history of Great Britain beginning in 1660 when the monarchy was restored under King Charles II after the English Civil War. ... Matthew Locke (ca. ... Pelham Humfrey (or Humphrey, Humfreys etc; 1647-74) was an English composer whose early death, at the age of 27, probably deprived the country of a significant and influential talent. ... Albion and Albanius was one of the first English operas (The Siege of Rhodes being considered the first). ...

"...is a tragedy mixed with opera, or a drama, written in blank verse, adorned with scenes, machines, songs, and dances, so that the fable of it is all spoken and acted by the best of the comedians... It cannot properly be called a play, because the action of it is supposed to be conducted sometimes by supernatural means, or magic; nor an opera, because the story of it is not sung." (Dryden, Preface to Albion and Albinius).

The Tempest has inspired numerous later works, including short poems such as that by Robert Browning, and the long poem The Sea and the Mirror by W. H. Auden. John Dryden and William D'Avenant adapted it for the Restoration stage, adding characters and plotlines and removing much of the play's "mythic resonance". The title of the novel Brave New World, by Aldous Huxley is also taken explicitly from Miranda's dialogue in this play: Robert Browning Robert Browning (May 7, 1812 – December 12, 1889) was an English poet and playwright. ... Christopher Isherwood (left) and W.H. Auden (right), photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1939 Wystan Hugh Auden (February 21, 1907 – September 29, 1973) was an English poet, often cited as one of the most influential of the 20th century. ... John Dryden John Dryden (August 9, 1631 – May 12, 1700) was an influential English poet, literary critic, and playwright who dominated the literary life of Restoration England to such a point that the period came to be known as the Age of Dryden. ... Sir William Davenant (February, 1606 - April 7, 1668), also spelled DAvenant, was an english poet and playwright. ... The Tempest, or The Enchanted Island is a comedy adapted by John Dryden and William DAvenant from Shakespeares great comedy The Tempest. ... King Charles II The English Restoration or simply Restoration was an episode in the history of Great Britain beginning in 1660 when the monarchy was restored under King Charles II after the English Civil War. ... Book cover of Brave New World. ... Aldous Leonard Huxley (July 26, 1894 – November 22, 1963) was a British writer who emigrated to the United States. ...

O, wonder!
How many goodly creatures are there here!
How beauteous mankind is! O brave new world
That has such people in't! (V.i.181-4)

The 1956 science-fiction film Forbidden Planet was inspired by the play, especially with regards to the motives (but not names) of several of the characters, but the story replaces Caliban with a 'Monster from the id' and Ariel with Robby the Robot. In turn, Joss Whedon's movie Serenity picked up many of the themes, and some of the names, of both Forbidden Planet and The Tempest, especially the exploration of the appropriate scope of control of other people. Forbidden Planet is a classic 1956 science fiction film and a subsequent novelization by W.J. Stuart. ... A film poster for Forbidden Planet showing Robby. ... Joss Whedon Joss Hill Whedon (born June 23, 1964) is a writer, director, executive producer, and creator of several television series, most famously Buffy the Vampire Slayer, Angel, and Firefly. ... Serenity is a film written and directed by Joss Whedon. ...


The 1968 Star Trek episode entitled " Requiem for Methuselah" also was also inspired by the play. The starship Enterprise as it appeared on Star Trek Star Trek is a culturally significant science fiction television series created by Gene Roddenberry in the 1960s. ... Requiem for Methuselah is a third season episode of Star Trek: Original Series, first broadcast February 14, 1969. ...


A cheeky stage musical adaptation, entitled Return to the Forbidden Planet (London, 1990) successfully merged the plot of the film with more Shakespearean characters and dialogue. Return to the Forbidden Planet is a musical by director Bob Carlton based on Shakespeares The Tempest and the 1950s science fiction film Forbidden Planet (which itself drew its plot loosely from The Tempest). ...


In 1979 British filmmaker Derek Jarman delivered a visually lush screen version of the play. The 1982 film Tempest, directed by Paul Mazursky, is a comedy loosely based on the play starring John Cassavetes, Gena Rowlands, Raul Julia, Susan Sarandon and Molly Ringwald. John Cassavetes John Nicholas Cassavetes (December 9, 1929 - February 3, 1989) was a Greek American actor, screenwriter, and director. ... Gena Rowlands (born June 19, 1930) is an American actress. ... Raúl Rafael Juliá y Arcelay (March 9, 1940 - October 24, 1994) was a Puerto Rican actor who lived and worked for many years in the United States. ... Sarandon in The Banger Sisters Susan Sarandon (born October 4, 1946) is an Academy Award-winning American actress. ... Ringwald in 1986 Molly Ringwald (born February 18, 1968) is an American actress. ...


In the early 1980s an Australian surf rock adaptation, "Beach Blanket Tempest", was written by Dennis Watkins and Chris Harriott. It has been produced a number of times, mostly in Australia. In the early 1960s, one of the most popular forms of rock and roll was surf rock. ...


In 1991, Peter Greenaway directed Prospero's Books a film adaptation in which Prospero speaks all the lines. Peter Greenaway Peter Greenaway (b. ... Prosperos Books (1991) is a movie written and directed by Peter Greenaway based on Shakespearean themes. ...


In 1994 Garen Ewing wrote and illustrated a black and white comic strip adaptation. Garen Ewing (b. ...


In 1994 Tad Williams published the novel Caliban's Hour in which Caliban tracks a now-grown Miranda to her home in Italy and insists on recounting his own version of events and exacting revenge. Notable for its sympathetic presentation of Caliban and its representation of Ariel as a fallen angel. Robert Paul Tad Williams (born March 14, 1957) is the author of several fantasy and science fiction novels, including Tailchasers Song; the Memory, Sorrow, and Thorn series; the Otherland series and The War of the Flowers. ...


In the 1998 version of Fantasy Island, Mr. Roarke (Malcolm McDowell), was assisted by a number of residents of the island, including a shape-shifter named Ariel and another named Cal. Tattoo and Mr. ... Malcolm McDowell, circa 1974 Malcolm McDowell (born June 13, 1943) is an English actor. ...


Lost, appears to be majorly influenced by Shakespeare's play "The Tempest", which is also about a group of people being brought to an island in a rather mystic fashion for unknown reasons. Lost is an American drama-mystery-adventure television series that follows the lives of the survivors of a plane crash on a mysterious tropical island. ...


The Tempest has also been the frame for multiple social commentary plays including Aime Cesaire's Une Tempete and Philip Osment's This Island's Mine. Aim Fernand David C saire (born June 20, 1913 in Basse-Pointe, Martinique) is a French poet and politician. ...


Theatrical Adaptations

  • The Tempest or, The Enchanted Island. By John Dryden and William Davenant. 1670
  • The Mock Tempest or the Enchanted Castle. By Thomas Duffet. 1675
  • The Tempest; An Opera. David Garrick. 1756
  • The Shipwreck. Anonymous. 1780
  • The Virgin Queen. Francis Godolphin Waldron. 1797
  • The Enchanted Isle. William and Robert Brough. 1848
  • Caliban. Ernest Renan. 1877
  • L’Eau de Jouvence. Ernest Renan. 1879
  • Une Tempête. Aimé Césaire. 1969
  • This Island’s Mine. Philip Osment. 1988
  • Return to the Forbidden Planet. Bob Carlton. Mid 1980s. A Rock musical. Originally billed as "Shakespeare's forgotton rock and roll masterpeice".

Musical Adaptations John Dryden John Dryden (August 9, 1631 – May 12, 1700) was an influential English poet, literary critic, and playwright who dominated the literary life of Restoration England to such a point that the period came to be known as the Age of Dryden. ... Ernest Renan (February 28, 1823–October 12, 1892) was a French philosopher and writer. ... Ernest Renan (February 28, 1823–October 12, 1892) was a French philosopher and writer. ... Aimé Fernand David Césaire (born June 20, 1913) is a Martinican author and politician. ... Return to the Forbidden Planet is a musical by director Bob Carlton based on Shakespeares The Tempest and the 1950s science fiction film Forbidden Planet (which itself drew its plot loosely from The Tempest). ... A rock opera or rock musical is a musical production in the form of an opera or a musical in a modern rock and roll style rather than more traditional forms. ...

Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (Russian: Пётр Ильич Чайкoвский Pëtr Ilič Čajkovskij) (7 May [O.S. 25 April] 1840 – 6 November [O.S. 25 October] 1893), also transliterated Piotr Ilitsch Tschaikowsky or Peter Ilich Tschaikowsky, was a Russian composer of the Romantic era. ... The Tempest, Symphonic Fantasia after Shakespeare Op. ... Soliloquy is an audible oratory or conversation with oneself. ... Loreena McKennitt Loreena McKennitt live on stage Loreena McKennitt, C.M., (b. ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International year of the Family. ... The Mask and Mirror is an album by Loreena McKennitt released in 1994. ...

External links

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Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikisource – The Free Library – is a Wikimedia project to build a free, wiki library of source texts, along with translations of source-texts into any language and other supporting materials. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo-en. ... Wikiquote logo Wikiquote is a sister project of Wikipedia, using the same MediaWiki software. ... Wikisource – The Free Library – is a Wikimedia project to build a free, wiki library of source texts, along with translations of source-texts into any language and other supporting materials. ... Project Gutenberg (often abbreviated as PG) is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive, and distribute cultural works. ...

Source

  • McCollum, John I. Jr., (1961). The Restoration Stage (in Houghton Mifflin Research Series, Cambridge, Mass: Riverside Press)
The works of William Shakespeare
Tragedies: Romeo and Juliet | Macbeth | King Lear | Hamlet | Othello | Titus Andronicus | Julius Caesar | Antony and Cleopatra | Coriolanus | Troilus and Cressida | Timon of Athens
Comedies: A Midsummer Night's Dream | All's Well That Ends Well | As You Like It | Cymbeline | Love's Labour's Lost | Measure for Measure | The Merchant of Venice | The Merry Wives of Windsor | Much Ado About Nothing | Pericles, Prince of Tyre | Taming of the Shrew | The Comedy of Errors | The Tempest | Twelfth Night, or What You Will | The Two Gentlemen of Verona | The Two Noble Kinsmen | The Winter's Tale
Histories: King John | Richard II | Henry IV, part 1 | Henry IV, part 2 | Henry V | Henry VI, part 1 | Henry VI, part 2 | Henry VI, part 3 | Richard III | Henry VIII
Poems and Sonnets: Sonnets | Venus and Adonis | The Rape of Lucrece | The Passionate Pilgrim | The Phoenix and the Turtle | A Lover's Complaint
Apocrypha and Lost Plays Edward III | Sir Thomas More | Cardenio (lost) | Love's Labour's Won (lost)
See also: Shakespeare on screen | Titles based on Shakespeare | Shakespearean characters | Shakespeare's reputation

  Results from FactBites:
 
The Tempest (play) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2616 words)
Unity of place is achieved by setting the play on a remote island and unity of time is achieved by having all the action take place within the space of a few hours, although unity of action is not precisely observed.
The play opens as Prospero, having divined that his brother, Antonio, is on a ship passing close by the island (having returned from the nuptials of Alonso's daughter Claribel with the King of Tunis), has raised a storm (the tempest of the title) which causes the ship to run aground.
Prospero commands so much power in the play because of his ability to use magic and to control the spirit Ariel, and with magic, he creates The Tempest itself, as well as controlling all the happenings on the island, eventually bringing all his old enemies to him to be reconciled.
Play Synopsis - The Tempest (6481 words)
Lastly, the play is regarded historically as a myth of the national soul, Prospero signifying Britain's severe, yet tolerant, religious and political instincts, Ariel typifying her inventive and poetical genius, and Caliban her colonizing spirit.
Psychologically, the tempest may be regarded as a condition of terrible internal disequilibrium, an intense ferment of the human consciousness which stirs the turbulent soul to its divinest depths and awakens it to the austere reality of the life of the spirit.
The central thought of the play is that the whole of existence is probationary and progressive, that true freedom consists in the service of fellow-men, that the way to the attainment of the wisdom of Adepts is untiring and selfless persistence in the effort of self-education.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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