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Encyclopedia > The Story of Civilization
The Story of Civilization
Author Will Durant
Ariel Durant
Language English
Subject(s) History
Publisher Simon and Schuster
Released 1935-1975
ISBN ISBN 0-671-21988-X

The Story of Civilization by Will and Ariel Durant (ISBN 0-671-21988-X) is an eleven-volume set of books. It was written over a lifetime, and it totals two million words. The series is incomplete: in the first book of the series (Our Oriental Heritage, which covers the history of the East through 1933), Mr. Durant stated that he wanted to include the history of the West through the early 20th century. However, the series ends with The Age of Napoleon since the Durants died before any additional volumes could be completed. William Durant William James Durant (November 5, 1885–November 7, 1981) was an American philosopher, historian, and writer. ... Ariel Durant, born Chaya Kaufman, (May 10, 1898_October 25, 1981) was the co-author of The Story of Civilization. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... History studies the past in human terms. ... Jean-François Millet Le Semeur (The Sower) Simon & Schuster logo, circa 1961. ... William Durant William James Durant (November 5, 1885–November 7, 1981) was an American philosopher, historian, and writer. ... Ariel Durant, born Chaya Kaufman, (May 10, 1898_October 25, 1981) was the co-author of The Story of Civilization. ... The term Eastern world refers very broadly to the various cultures, social structures and philosophical systems of the East, namely Asia (including China, India, Japan, and surrounding regions). ... The term Western World or the West (also on rare occasions called the Occident) can have multiple meanings depending on its context (i. ...

Contents

Series Outline

Image File history File links Egypt. ... Image File history File links Egypt. ... The Great Pyramid is the oldest and the largest of the three pyramids in the Giza Necropolis bordering what is now Cairo, Egypt in Africa. ... The Fourth dynasty of Egypt was the second of the four dynasties considered forming the Old Kingdom. ... The Great Sphinx at Giza, Egypt The Great Sphinx of Giza is a large half-human, half-lion Sphinx statue in Egypt, on the Giza Plateau at the west bank of the Nile River, near modern-day Cairo (). It is one of the largest single-stone statues on Earth, and... (Redirected from 2500 BC) (26th century BC - 25th century BC - 24th century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2900 - 2334 BC -- Mesopotamian wars of the Early Dynastic period 2494 BC -- End of Fourth Dynasty, start of Fifth Dynasty in Egypt. ...

I. Our Oriental Heritage (1935)

This volume covers "The Orient." In 1935, this term referred to all of history east of Greece or earlier than Homer. Oriental redirects here. ... Homer (Greek: , Hómēros) was a legendary early Greek poet and aoidos (singer) traditionally credited with the composition of the Iliad and the Odyssey. ...

  1. The Establishment of Civilization
    1. The Conditions of Civilization
    2. The Economic Elements of Civilization
    3. The Political Elements of Civilization
    4. The Moral Elements of Civilization
    5. The Mental Elements of Civilization
    6. The Prehistoric Beginnings of Civilization
  2. The Near East
    1. Sumeria
    2. Egypt
    3. Babylonia
    4. Assyria
    5. A Motley of Nations
    6. Judea
    7. Persia
  3. India and Her Neighbors
    1. The Foundations of India
    2. Buddha
    3. From Alexander to Aurangzeb
    4. The Life of the People
    5. The Paradise of the Gods
    6. The Life of the Mind
    7. The Literature of India
    8. Indian Art
    9. A Christian Epilogue
  4. The Far East
    1. The Age of the Philosophers
    2. The Age of the Poets
    3. The Age of the Artists
    4. The People and the State
    5. Revolution and Renewal
  5. Japan
    1. The Makers of Japan
    2. The Political and Moral Foundations
    3. The Mind and Art of Old Japan
    4. The New Japan
Bust of Pericles after Cresilas, Altes Museum, Berlin
Bust of Pericles after Cresilas, Altes Museum, Berlin

Cities are a major hallmark of human civilization. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Prehistoric man. ... The Near East is a term commonly used by archaeologists, geographers and historians, less commonly by journalists and commentators, to refer to the region encompassing the Levant (modern Israel, Jordan, Syria and Lebanon), Turkey, Mesopotamia (Iraq and eastern Syria). ... Sumer (or Šumer, Sumerian ki-en-gir[1], Egyptian Sanhar[2]) was one of the early civilizations of the Ancient Near East, located in the southern part of Mesopotamia (southeastern Iraq) from the time of the earliest records in the mid 4th millennium BC until the rise of Babylonia in... Babylonia, named for its capital city, Babylon, was an ancient state in the south part of Mesopotamia (in modern Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ... Map of the southern Levant, c. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and at times extending into central and mid-east Asia. ... This article is about the History of South Asia. ... Standing Buddha sculpture, ancient region of Gandhara, northern Pakistan, 1st century CE, Musée Guimet. ... Alexander the Great (Greek: ,[1] Megas Alexandros; July 356 BC–June 11, 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, king of Macedon (336–323 BC), was one of the most successful military commanders in history. ... Aurangzeb (Persian: ‎, English: ) (November 3, 1618 – March 3, 1707), also known as Alamgir I, was the ruler of the Mughal Empire from 1658 until 1707. ... Indian literature is generally acknowledged, but not wholly established, as the oldest in the world. ... A miniature, Kishengarh, Jaipur, Rajasthan The vast scope of the art of India intertwines with the cultural history, religions and philosophies which place art production and patronage in social and cultural contexts. ... Christians believe that Jesus is the mediator of the New Covenant (see Hebrews 8:6). ... The far east as a cultural block includes East Asia, Southeast Asia, Northeast Asia and South Asia. ... Bronze statue of Amida Buddha at Kotokuin in Kamakura (1252 CE) Japanese art covers a wide range of art styles and media, including ancient pottery, sculpture in wood and bronze, ink painting on silk and paper, and a myriad of other types of works of art. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (997x1264, 162 KB) Summary Photo by User:Adam Carr, May 2006 Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (997x1264, 162 KB) Summary Photo by User:Adam Carr, May 2006 Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Cresilas, a Cretan sculptor of Cydonia. ... Berlin, Old Museum, June 2003 The Altes Museum or Old Museum was originally for the Prussian Royal familys art collection, built in Berlin in a neoclassical style by architect Karl Friedrich Schinkel between 1823 and 1830. ... Berlin is the capital city and one of the sixteen states of the Federal Republic of Germany. ...

II. The Life of Greece (1939)

This volume covers Ancient Greece. Ancient Greece is a period in Greek history that lasted for around one thousand years. ...

  1. Aegean Prelude: 3500-1000 BC
    1. Crete
    2. Before Agamemnon
    3. The Heroic Age
  2. The Rise of Greece: 1000-480 BC
    1. Sparta
    2. Athens
    3. The Great Migration
    4. The Greeks in the West
    5. The Gods of Greece
    6. The Common Culture of Early Greece
    7. The Struggle for Freedom
  3. The Golden Age: 480-399 BC
    1. Pericles and the Democratic Experiment
    2. Work and Wealth in Athens
    3. The Morals and Manners of the Athenians
    4. The Art of Periclean Greece
    5. The Advancement of Learning
    6. The Conflict of Philosophy and Religion
    7. The Literature of the Golden Age
    8. The Suicide of Greece
  4. The Decline and Fall of Greek Freedom: 399-322 BC
    1. Philip
    2. Letters and Arts in the Fourth Century
    3. The Zenith of Philosophy
    4. Alexander
  5. The Hellenistic Dispersion: 322-146 BC
    1. Greece and Macedonia
    2. Hellenism and the Orient
    3. Egypt and the West
    4. Books
    5. The Art of the Dispersion
    6. The Climax of Greek Science
    7. The Surrender of Philosophy
    8. The Coming of Rome
Epilogue: Our Greek Heritage

Look up Aegean Sea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... (36th century BC - 35th century BC - 34th century BC - other centuries) (5th millennium BC - 4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC) Events ? - Formation of the Sahara Desert 3450 (?) - Stage IId of the Naqada culture in Egypt Significant persons Inventions, discoveries, introductions ? _ Irrigation in Egypt ? - First use of Cuneiform (script) Categories... (Redirected from 1000 BC) Centuries: 12th century BC - 11th century BC - 10th century BC Decades: 1050s BC 1040s BC 1030s BC 1020s BC 1010s BC - 1000s BC - 990s BC 980s BC 970s BC 960s BC 950s BC Events and Trends 1006 BC - David becomes king of the ancient Israelites (traditional... For the famous World War II battle, see: Battle of Crete For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... The so-called Mask of Agamemnon. Discovered by Heinrich Schliemann in 1876 at Mycenae. ... The Heroic Age was the period of Greek mythological history that lay between the purely divine events of the Theogony and Titanomachy and the advent of historical time after the Trojan War. ... (Redirected from 1000 BC) Centuries: 12th century BC - 11th century BC - 10th century BC Decades: 1050s BC 1040s BC 1030s BC 1020s BC 1010s BC - 1000s BC - 990s BC 980s BC 970s BC 960s BC 950s BC Events and Trends 1006 BC - David becomes king of the ancient Israelites (traditional... Events King Xerxes I of Persia sets out to conquer Greece. ... Coordinates 37°4′ N 22°26′ E Country Greece Periphery Peloponnese Prefecture Laconia Population 18,184 source (2001) Area 84. ... A view of the Acropolis of Athens during the Ottoman period, showing the buildings which were removed at the time of independence The History of Athens is the longest of any city in Europe: Athens has been continuously inhabited for at least 3,000 years. ... The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the ancient Greeks, concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and their own cult and ritual practices. ... Events King Xerxes I of Persia sets out to conquer Greece. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC - 390s BC - 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC Years: 404 BC 403 BC 402 BC 401 BC 400 BC - 399 BC - 398 BC 397 BC... Pericles or Perikles (c. ... The speakers platform in the Pnyx, the meeting ground of the assembly where all the great political struggles of Athens were fought during the Golden Age. Here Athenian statesmen stood to speak, such as Pericles and Aristides in the 5th century BC and Demosthenes and Aeschines in the 4th... Nickname: City of Athena or Cradle of Democracy Location of the city of Athens (red dot) within the Prefecture of Athens and Periphery of Attica Coordinates: Country Greece Peripheries Attica Prefecture Athens Founded circa 2000 BC Mayor Nikitas Kaklamanis Area    - City 38. ... The Charioteer of Delphi, Delphi Archaeological Museum. ... Ancient Greek literature refers to literature written in the Greek language until the 4th century AD. // This period of Greek literature stretches from Homer until the 4th century and the rise of Alexander the Great. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC - 390s BC - 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC Years: 404 BC 403 BC 402 BC 401 BC 400 BC - 399 BC - 398 BC 397 BC... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC - 320s BC - 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 327 BC 326 BC 325 BC 324 BC 323 BC - 322 BC - 321 BC 320 BC 319... Philip II of Macedon (Macedonia) (382 BC - 336 BC), King of Macedon (ruled 359 BC - 336 BC), was the father of Alexander the Great (Alexander III of Macedon) and Philip III of Macedon. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 4th century BC started on January 1, 400 BC and ended on December 31, 301 BC. // Overview Events Bust of Alexander the Great in the British Museum. ... Classical (or early) Greek philosophy focused on the role of reason and inquiry. ... Alexander the Great (Greek: ,[1] Megas Alexandros; July 356 BC–June 11, 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, king of Macedon (336–323 BC), was one of the most successful military commanders in history. ... The Hellenistic period of Greek history was the period between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the annexation of the Greek peninsula and islands by Rome in 146 BC. Although the establishment of Roman rule did not break the continuity of Hellenistic society and culture, which... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC - 320s BC - 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 327 BC 326 BC 325 BC 324 BC 323 BC - 322 BC - 321 BC 320 BC 319... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC - 140s BC - 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC Years: 151 BC 150 BC 149 BC 148 BC 147 BC - 146 BC - 145 BC 144 BC... The Ptolemaic system of celestial motion, from Harmonia Macrocosmica, 1661. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Gaius Julius Caesar was one of the best and most famous Roman Emperors. ...

III. Caesar and Christ (1944)

  1. Introduction: Origins
    1. Etruscan Prelude: 800-508 BC
  2. The Republic: 508-30 BC
    1. The Struggle for Democracy: 508-264 BC
    2. Hannibal Against Rome: 264 BC-202 BC
    3. Stoic Rome: 508-202 BC
    4. The Greek Conquest: 201 BC-146 BC
  3. The Revolution: 145-30 BC
    1. The Agrarian Revolt: 145-78 BC
    2. The Oligarchic Reaction: 77]]-60 BC
    3. Literature Under the Revolution: 145-30 BC
    4. Caesar: 100-44 BC
    5. Antony: 44-30 BC
  4. The Principate: 30 BC-AD 192
    1. Augustan Statesmanship: 30 BC-AD 14
    2. The Golden Age: 30 BC-AD 18
    3. The Other Side of Monarchy: AD 14-96
    4. The Silver Age: AD 14-96
    5. Rome at Work: AD 14-96
    6. Rome and Its Art: 30 BC-AD 96
    7. Epicurean Rome: 30 BC-AD 96
    8. Roman Law: 146 BC-AD 192
    9. The Philosopher Kings: AD 96-180
    10. Life and Thought in the Second Century: AD 96-192
  5. The Empire: AD 146-AD 192
    1. Italy
    2. Civilizing the West
    3. Roman Greece
    4. The Hellenistic Revival
    5. Rome and Judea: 132 BC-AD 135
  6. The Youth of Christianity: 4 BC-AD 325
    1. Jesus: 4 BC-AD 30
    2. The Apostles: AD 30-95
    3. The Growth of the Church: AD 96-305
    4. The Collapse of the Empire: AD 193-305
    5. The Triumph of Christianity: AD 306-325
Epilogue
The Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem, a city considered holy by Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.
The Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem, a city considered holy by Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.

Map showing the extent of the Etruscan civilization and the twelve Etruscan League cities. ... Centuries: 10th century BC - 9th century BC - 8th century BC Decades: 850s BC 840s BC 830s BC 820s BC 810s BC - 800s BC - 790s BC 780s BC 770s BC 760s BC 750s BC Events and Trends 804 BC - Hadad-nirari IV of Assyria conquers Damascus. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC - 460s BC - 450s BC Events and Trends 509 BC - Foundation of the Roman Republic 508 BC - Office of pontifex maximus created... See also Roman Republic (18th century) and Roman Republic (19th century). ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC - 460s BC - 450s BC Events and Trends 509 BC - Foundation of the Roman Republic 508 BC - Office of pontifex maximus created... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC - 30s BC - 20s BC 10s BC 0s 10s 20s Years: 35 BC 34 BC 33 BC 32 BC 31 BC 30 BC 29 BC 28 BC 27 BC 26 BC... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC - 460s BC - 450s BC Events and Trends 509 BC - Foundation of the Roman Republic 508 BC - Office of pontifex maximus created... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC - 260s BC - 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC Years: 269 BC 268 BC 267 BC 266 BC 265 BC - 264 BC - 263 BC 262 BC... Hannibal Barca (247 BC – c. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC - 260s BC - 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC Years: 269 BC 268 BC 267 BC 266 BC 265 BC - 264 BC - 263 BC 262 BC... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 3rd century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC - 200s BC - 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC Years: 207 BC 206 BC 205 BC 204 BC 203 BC - 202 BC - 201 BC 200 BC 199 BC 198 BC 197 BC Events October... A restored Stoa in Athens. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC - 460s BC - 450s BC Events and Trends 509 BC - Foundation of the Roman Republic 508 BC - Office of pontifex maximus created... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 3rd century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC - 200s BC - 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC Years: 207 BC 206 BC 205 BC 204 BC 203 BC - 202 BC - 201 BC 200 BC 199 BC 198 BC 197 BC Events October... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC - 200s BC - 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC Years: 206 BC 205 BC 204 BC 203 BC 202 BC - 201 BC - 200 BC 199 BC... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC - 140s BC - 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC Years: 151 BC 150 BC 149 BC 148 BC 147 BC - 146 BC - 145 BC 144 BC... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC - 140s BC - 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC Years: 150 BC 149 BC 148 BC 147 BC 146 BC - 145 BC - 144 BC 143 BC... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC - 30s BC - 20s BC 10s BC 0s 10s 20s Years: 35 BC 34 BC 33 BC 32 BC 31 BC 30 BC 29 BC 28 BC 27 BC 26 BC... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC - 140s BC - 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC Years: 150 BC 149 BC 148 BC 147 BC 146 BC - 145 BC - 144 BC 143 BC... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC - 70s BC - 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC Years: 83 BC 82 BC 81 BC 80 BC 79 BC - 78 BC - 77 BC 76 BC 75... Oligarchy (Greek , Oligarkhía) is a form of government where political power effectively rests with a small, elite segment of society (whether distinguished by wealth, family or military prowess). ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC - 70s BC - 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC Years: 82 BC 81 BC 80 BC 79 BC 78 BC - 77 BC - 76 BC 75 BC 74... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC - 60s BC - 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC Years: 65 BC 64 BC 63 BC 62 BC 61 BC 60 BC 59 BC 58 BC 57... Latin literature, the body of written works in the Latin language, remains an enduring legacy of the culture of ancient Rome. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC - 140s BC - 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC Years: 150 BC 149 BC 148 BC 147 BC 146 BC - 145 BC - 144 BC 143 BC... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC - 30s BC - 20s BC 10s BC 0s 10s 20s Years: 35 BC 34 BC 33 BC 32 BC 31 BC 30 BC 29 BC 28 BC 27 BC 26 BC... Gaius Julius Caesar was one of the best and most famous Roman Emperors. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC - 100s BC - 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC Years: 105 BC 104 BC 103 BC 102 BC 101 BC - 100 BC - 99 BC 98 BC 97 BC 96 BC 95... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 0s Years: 49 BC 48 BC 47 BC 46 BC 45 BC 44 BC 43 BC 42 BC 41 BC... Bust of Mark Antony Marcus Antonius (Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N[1]) ( January 14 83 BC–August 1, 30 BC), known in English as Mark Antony, was a Roman politician and general. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 0s Years: 49 BC 48 BC 47 BC 46 BC 45 BC 44 BC 43 BC 42 BC 41 BC... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC - 30s BC - 20s BC 10s BC 0s 10s 20s Years: 35 BC 34 BC 33 BC 32 BC 31 BC 30 BC 29 BC 28 BC 27 BC 26 BC... The Principate is, according to its etymological derivation from the Latin word princeps, meaning chief or first, the political regime dominated by such a political leader, whether or not he is formally head of state and/or head of government. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC - 30s BC - 20s BC 10s BC 0s 10s 20s Years: 35 BC 34 BC 33 BC 32 BC 31 BC 30 BC 29 BC 28 BC 27 BC 26 BC... Dionysius Exiguus invented Anno Domini years to date Easter. ... Commodus assassinated by a wrestler named Narcissus at the behest of Commodus concubine, chamberlain and Praetorian prefect. ... Augustus (Latin: IMP•CAESAR•DIVI•F•AVGVSTVS;[1] September 23, 63 BC–August 19, AD 14), known as Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus (English Octavian; Latin: C•IVLIVS•C•F•CAESAR•OCTAVIANVS) for the period of his life prior to 27 BC, was the first and among the most important of... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC - 30s BC - 20s BC 10s BC 0s 10s 20s Years: 35 BC 34 BC 33 BC 32 BC 31 BC 30 BC 29 BC 28 BC 27 BC 26 BC... Events First year of tianfeng era of the Chinese Xin Dynasty. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC - 30s BC - 20s BC 10s BC 0s 10s 20s Years: 35 BC 34 BC 33 BC 32 BC 31 BC 30 BC 29 BC 28 BC 27 BC 26 BC... Ë‘ This article is about the year 18. ... Places where monarchies maintain rule appear in blue. ... Events First year of tianfeng era of the Chinese Xin Dynasty. ... For other uses, see number 96. ... Events First year of tianfeng era of the Chinese Xin Dynasty. ... For other uses, see number 96. ... Events First year of tianfeng era of the Chinese Xin Dynasty. ... For other uses, see number 96. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC - 30s BC - 20s BC 10s BC 0s 10s 20s Years: 35 BC 34 BC 33 BC 32 BC 31 BC 30 BC 29 BC 28 BC 27 BC 26 BC... For other uses, see number 96. ... Epicureanism is a system of philosophy based upon the teachings of Epicurus (c. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC - 30s BC - 20s BC 10s BC 0s 10s 20s Years: 35 BC 34 BC 33 BC 32 BC 31 BC 30 BC 29 BC 28 BC 27 BC 26 BC... For other uses, see number 96. ... Roman law is the legal system of ancient Rome. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC - 140s BC - 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC Years: 151 BC 150 BC 149 BC 148 BC 147 BC - 146 BC - 145 BC 144 BC... Commodus assassinated by a wrestler named Narcissus at the behest of Commodus concubine, chamberlain and Praetorian prefect. ... Philosopher-kings are the hypothetical rulers of Platos utopian Kallipolis. ... For other uses, see number 96. ... For other uses, see number 180. ... The 2nd century is the period from 101 - 200 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... For other uses, see number 96. ... Commodus assassinated by a wrestler named Narcissus at the behest of Commodus concubine, chamberlain and Praetorian prefect. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Events Change of era name from Yongxi (1st year) to Benchu era of the Chinese Han Dynasty Change of emperor from Han Zhidi to Han Huandi of the Chinese Han Dynasty Births April 11 - Septimius Severus, Roman emperor Deaths Han Zhidi, emperor of Chinese Han Dynasty, poisoned Categories: 146 ... Commodus assassinated by a wrestler named Narcissus at the behest of Commodus concubine, chamberlain and Praetorian prefect. ... The term Western World or the West (also on rare occasions called the Occident) can have multiple meanings depending on its context (i. ... The term Hellenistic (derived from HéllÄ“n, the Greeks traditional self-described ethnic name) was established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen to refer to the spreading of Greek culture over the non-Greek peoples that were conquered by Alexander the Great. ... Map of the southern Levant, c. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC - 130s BC - 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC Years: 137 BC 136 BC 135 BC 134 BC 133 BC - 132 BC - 131 BC 130 BC... For other uses, see number 135. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC - 0s BC - 0s 10s 20s 30s 40s 9 BC 8 BC 7 BC 6 BC 5 BC 4 BC 3 BC 2 BC 1 BC 1 2 Events Archelaus becomes... Events May 20 - First Council of Nicaea - first Ecumenical Council of the Christian Church: The Nicene Creed is formulated, the date of Easter is discussed. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC - 0s BC - 0s 10s 20s 30s 40s 9 BC 8 BC 7 BC 6 BC 5 BC 4 BC 3 BC 2 BC 1 BC 1 2 Events Archelaus becomes... Events The Sermon on the Mount (according to proponents of the 33 theory) April 7 - Crucifixion of Jesus (suggested date, but it is also suggested that he died on April 3, AD 33) Births Quintus Petillius Cerialis, brother-in-law of Vespasian Deaths April 7 - Judas Iscariot, disciple of Jesus... The Twelve Apostles (, apostolos, Liddell & Scott, Strongs G652, someone sent forth/sent out) were men that according to the Synoptic Gospels and Christian tradition, were chosen from among the disciples (students) of Jesus for a mission. ... Events The Sermon on the Mount (according to proponents of the 33 theory) April 7 - Crucifixion of Jesus (suggested date, but it is also suggested that he died on April 3, AD 33) Births Quintus Petillius Cerialis, brother-in-law of Vespasian Deaths April 7 - Judas Iscariot, disciple of Jesus... Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 0s BC - 0s - 10s - 20s - 30s - 40s - 50s - 60s - 70s - 80s - 90s - 100s Years: 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 // Events Frontinus is appointed superintendent of the aqueducts (curator aquarum) in Rome. ... Fourth-century inscription, representing Christ as the Good Shepherd. ... For other uses, see number 96. ... Events May 1 - Diocletian and Maximian, emperors of Rome, retire from office. ... Romulus Augustus was deposed as Western Roman Emperor in 476 while still young. ... Events June 1 – Roman Emperor Didius Julianus is assassinated in his palace. ... Events May 1 - Diocletian and Maximian, emperors of Rome, retire from office. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Events July 25 - Constantine I proclaimed Roman Emperor by his troops. ... Events May 20 - First Council of Nicaea - first Ecumenical Council of the Christian Church: The Nicene Creed is formulated, the date of Easter is discussed. ... Let me know if you want to use it, and credit by Wayne McLean (Jgritz) File links The following pages link to this file: Dome of the Rock User:Jgritz/photos Image:Dome of the rock distance. ... Let me know if you want to use it, and credit by Wayne McLean (Jgritz) File links The following pages link to this file: Dome of the Rock User:Jgritz/photos Image:Dome of the rock distance. ... The Dome of the Rock in the center of the Temple Mount, or Mount Moriah The Dome of the Rock (Arabic: مسجد قبة الصخرة, translit. ... Hebrew יְרוּשָׁלַיִם (Yerushalayim) (Standard) Yerushalayim or Yerushalaim Arabic commonly القـُدْس (Al-Quds); officially in Israel أورشليم القدس (Urshalim-Al-Quds) Name Meaning Hebrew: (see below), Arabic: The Holiness Government City District Jerusalem Population 724,000 (2006) Jurisdiction 123,000 dunams (123 km²) Mayor Uri Lupolianski Web Address www. ...

IV. The Age of Faith (1950)

This volume covers the Middle Ages. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ...

  1. The Byzantine Zenith: AD 325-565
    1. Julian the Apostate: 332-63
    2. The Triumph of the Barbarians: 325-476
    3. The Progress of Christianity: 364-451
    4. Europe Takes Form: 325-529
    5. Justinian: 527-65
    6. Byzantine Civilization: 337-565
    7. The Persians: 224-641
  2. Islamic Civilization: AD 569-1258
    1. Mohammed: 569-632
    2. The Koran
    3. The Sword of Islam: 632-1058
    4. The Islamic Scene: 632-1058
    5. Thought and Art in Eastern Islam: 632-1058
    6. Western Islam: 641-1086
    7. The Grandeur and Decline of Islam: 1058-1258
  3. Judaic Civilization: AD 135-1300
    1. The Talmud: 135-500
    2. The Medieval Jews: 500-1300
    3. The Mind and Heart of the Jew: 500-1300
  4. The Dark Ages: AD 566-1095
    1. The Byzantine World: 566-1095
    2. The Decline of the West: 566-1066
    3. The Rise of the North: 566-1066
    4. Christianity in Conflict: 529-1085
    5. Feudalism and Chivalry: 600-1200
  5. The Climax of Christianity: 1095-1300
    1. The Crusades: 1095-1291
    2. The Economic Revolution: 1066-1300
    3. The Recovery of Europe: 1095-1300
    4. Pre-Renaissance Italy: 1057-1308
    5. The Roman Catholic Church: 1095-1294
    6. The Early Inquisition: 1000-1300
    7. Monks and Friars: 1095-1300
    8. The Morals and Manners of Christendom: 700-1300
    9. The Resurrection of the Arts: 1095-1300
    10. The Gothic Flowering: 1095-1300
    11. Medieval Music: 326-1300
    12. The Transmission of Knowledge: 1000-1300
    13. Abélard: 1079-1142
    14. The Adventure of Reason: 1120-1308
    15. Christian Science: 1095-1300
    16. The Age of Romance: 1100-1300
    17. Dante: 1265-1321
Epilogue: The Medieval Legacy
Venus of Urbino by Titian, one of the Renaissance's most distinguished artists
Venus of Urbino by Titian, one of the Renaissance's most distinguished artists

Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... Events May 20 - First Council of Nicaea - first Ecumenical Council of the Christian Church: The Nicene Creed is formulated, the date of Easter is discussed. ... Events January 22 - Eutychius is deposed as Patriarch of Constantinople by John Scholasticus. ... Flavius Claudius Iulianus (331–June 26, 363), was a Roman Emperor (361–363) of the Constantinian dynasty. ... Events Constantine the Great emperor of the Roman Empire, engaged the Visigoths in battle and was victorious. ... Events Perisapora is destroyed by Emperor Julian. ... Look up Barbarian in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Events May 20 - First Council of Nicaea - first Ecumenical Council of the Christian Church: The Nicene Creed is formulated, the date of Easter is discussed. ... Events August - The usurper Basiliscus is deposed and Zeno is restored as Eastern Roman Emperor. ... The history of Christianity concerns the history of the Christian religion and the Church, from Jesus and his Twelve Apostles to contemporary times. ... Events February 28 - Valentinian I is elected Roman emperor by the army. ... Events April 7 - The Huns sack Metz June 20 - Attila, king of the Huns is defeated at Troyes by Aëtius in the Battle of Chalons. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... Events May 20 - First Council of Nicaea - first Ecumenical Council of the Christian Church: The Nicene Creed is formulated, the date of Easter is discussed. ... For other uses, see number 529. ... Justinian depicted on one of the famous mosaics of the Basilica of San Vitale. ... This article is about the year. ... Events January 22 - Eutychius is deposed as Patriarch of Constantinople by John Scholasticus. ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... Events February 6 - Julius is elected pope. ... Events January 22 - Eutychius is deposed as Patriarch of Constantinople by John Scholasticus. ... The Persians are an Iranian people who speak the Persian language and share a common culture and history. ... Events Shah Artashir I wins Persian independence from Parthia and establishes the Sassanid dynasty. ... Events Founding of the city of Fostat, later Cairo, in Egypt. ... Muslim history began in Arabia with Muhammads first purported visions in the 7th century. ... Events The Nubian kingdom of Alodia is converted to Christianity, according to John of Ephesus. ... For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ... For other persons named Muhammad, see Muhammad (name). ... Events The Nubian kingdom of Alodia is converted to Christianity, according to John of Ephesus. ... Events Abu Bakr becomes first caliph or Successor of the Prophet, leader of Islam Abu Bakr defeats Mosailima in the Battle of Akraba. ... The Qurān [1] (Arabic: ‎, literally the recitation; also called The Noble Qurān; also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Events Abu Bakr becomes first caliph or Successor of the Prophet, leader of Islam Abu Bakr defeats Mosailima in the Battle of Akraba. ... Events March 17 - King Lulach I of Scotland is killed in battle against his cousin and rival Malcolm Canmore, who later becomes King of Scotland as Malcolm III of Scotland. ... Events Abu Bakr becomes first caliph or Successor of the Prophet, leader of Islam Abu Bakr defeats Mosailima in the Battle of Akraba. ... Events March 17 - King Lulach I of Scotland is killed in battle against his cousin and rival Malcolm Canmore, who later becomes King of Scotland as Malcolm III of Scotland. ... Islamic art is the art of Islamic people, cultures, and countries. ... Events Abu Bakr becomes first caliph or Successor of the Prophet, leader of Islam Abu Bakr defeats Mosailima in the Battle of Akraba. ... Events March 17 - King Lulach I of Scotland is killed in battle against his cousin and rival Malcolm Canmore, who later becomes King of Scotland as Malcolm III of Scotland. ... Events Founding of the city of Fostat, later Cairo, in Egypt. ... Events Domesday Book is completed in England Emperor Shirakawa of Japan starts his cloistered rule Imam Ali Mosque is rebuilt by the Seljuk Malik Shah I after being destroyed by fire. ... Events March 17 - King Lulach I of Scotland is killed in battle against his cousin and rival Malcolm Canmore, who later becomes King of Scotland as Malcolm III of Scotland. ... For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ... Jewish history is the history of the Jewish people, faith, and culture. ... For other uses, see number 135. ... Events February 22 - Jubilee of Pope Boniface VIII. March 10 - Wardrobe accounts of King Edward I of Englanddo (aka Edward Longshanks) include a reference to a game called creag being played at the town of Newenden in Kent. ... The first page of the Vilna Edition of the Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Berachot, folio 2a The Talmud (Hebrew: תלמוד) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history. ... For other uses, see number 135. ... Events Possible date for the Battle of Mons Badonicus: Romano-British and Celts defeat an Anglo-Saxon army that may have been led by the bretwalda Aelle of Sussex (approximate date; suggested dates range from 490 to 510) Note: This battle may have influenced the legend of King Arthur. ... Events Possible date for the Battle of Mons Badonicus: Romano-British and Celts defeat an Anglo-Saxon army that may have been led by the bretwalda Aelle of Sussex (approximate date; suggested dates range from 490 to 510) Note: This battle may have influenced the legend of King Arthur. ... Events February 22 - Jubilee of Pope Boniface VIII. March 10 - Wardrobe accounts of King Edward I of Englanddo (aka Edward Longshanks) include a reference to a game called creag being played at the town of Newenden in Kent. ... Events Possible date for the Battle of Mons Badonicus: Romano-British and Celts defeat an Anglo-Saxon army that may have been led by the bretwalda Aelle of Sussex (approximate date; suggested dates range from 490 to 510) Note: This battle may have influenced the legend of King Arthur. ... Events February 22 - Jubilee of Pope Boniface VIII. March 10 - Wardrobe accounts of King Edward I of Englanddo (aka Edward Longshanks) include a reference to a game called creag being played at the town of Newenden in Kent. ... ‹ The template below has been proposed for deletion. ... Events Births Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib, uncle of Muhammad Deaths Chen Wen Di, Chinese ruler of the Chen Dynasty Theodosius I, Patriarch of Alexandria. ... Events The country of Portugal is established for the second time. ... Events Births Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib, uncle of Muhammad Deaths Chen Wen Di, Chinese ruler of the Chen Dynasty Theodosius I, Patriarch of Alexandria. ... Events The country of Portugal is established for the second time. ... Events Births Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib, uncle of Muhammad Deaths Chen Wen Di, Chinese ruler of the Chen Dynasty Theodosius I, Patriarch of Alexandria. ... Events January 6 - Harold II is crowned September 20 - Battle of Fulford September 25 - Battle of Stamford Bridge September 29 - William of Normandy lands in England at Pevensey. ... Political map of the Nordic countries and associated territories. ... Events Births Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib, uncle of Muhammad Deaths Chen Wen Di, Chinese ruler of the Chen Dynasty Theodosius I, Patriarch of Alexandria. ... Events January 6 - Harold II is crowned September 20 - Battle of Fulford September 25 - Battle of Stamford Bridge September 29 - William of Normandy lands in England at Pevensey. ... For other uses, see number 529. ... Events May 25 - Alfonso VI of Castile takes Toledo, Spain back from the Moors. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste. ... Woman under the Safeguard of Knighthood, allegorical Scene. ... The population of the Earth rises to about 208 million people. ... Events University of Paris receives charter from Philip II of France The Kanem-Bornu Empire was established in northern Africa around the year 1200 Mongol victory over Northern China — 30,000,000 killed Births Al-Abhari, Persian philosopher and mathematician (died 1265) Ulrich von Liechtenstein, German nobleman and poet (died... The history of Christianity concerns the history of the Christian religion and the Church, from Jesus and his Twelve Apostles to contemporary times. ... Events The country of Portugal is established for the second time. ... Events February 22 - Jubilee of Pope Boniface VIII. March 10 - Wardrobe accounts of King Edward I of Englanddo (aka Edward Longshanks) include a reference to a game called creag being played at the town of Newenden in Kent. ... The Siege of Antioch, from a medieval miniature painting, during the First Crusade. ... Events The country of Portugal is established for the second time. ... For broader historical context, see 1290s and 13th century. ... Events January 6 - Harold II is crowned September 20 - Battle of Fulford September 25 - Battle of Stamford Bridge September 29 - William of Normandy lands in England at Pevensey. ... Events February 22 - Jubilee of Pope Boniface VIII. March 10 - Wardrobe accounts of King Edward I of Englanddo (aka Edward Longshanks) include a reference to a game called creag being played at the town of Newenden in Kent. ... Events The country of Portugal is established for the second time. ... Events February 22 - Jubilee of Pope Boniface VIII. March 10 - Wardrobe accounts of King Edward I of Englanddo (aka Edward Longshanks) include a reference to a game called creag being played at the town of Newenden in Kent. ... Events King Macbeth I of Scotland is killed in battle against Malcolm Canmore. ... Events Henry VII is elected as king of the Holy Roman Empire. ... The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic Church (see terminology below) is the Christian Church in full communion with the Bishop of Rome, currently Pope Benedict XVI. It traces its origins to the original Christian community founded by Jesus Christ and led by the Twelve Apostles, in particular Saint Peter. ... Events The country of Portugal is established for the second time. ... For broader historical context, see 1290s and 13th century. ... Inquisition (capitalized I) is broadly used, to refer to things related to judgment of heresy by the Roman Catholic Church. ... Europe in 1000 The year 1000 of the Gregorian Calendar was the last year of the 10th century as well as the last year of the first millennium. ... Events February 22 - Jubilee of Pope Boniface VIII. March 10 - Wardrobe accounts of King Edward I of Englanddo (aka Edward Longshanks) include a reference to a game called creag being played at the town of Newenden in Kent. ... Munichs city symbol celebrates its founding by Benedictine monks—and the origin of its name A monk is a person who practices religious asceticism, the conditioning of mind and body in favor of the spirit. ... A friar is a member of a religious mendicant order of men. ... Events The country of Portugal is established for the second time. ... Events February 22 - Jubilee of Pope Boniface VIII. March 10 - Wardrobe accounts of King Edward I of Englanddo (aka Edward Longshanks) include a reference to a game called creag being played at the town of Newenden in Kent. ... This T-and-O map, which abstracts the known world to a cross inscribed within an orb, remakes geography in the service of Christian iconography. ... // Events Saint Adamnan convinces 51 kings to adopt Cáin Adomnáin defining the relationship between women and priests. ... Events February 22 - Jubilee of Pope Boniface VIII. March 10 - Wardrobe accounts of King Edward I of Englanddo (aka Edward Longshanks) include a reference to a game called creag being played at the town of Newenden in Kent. ... Byzantine monumental Church mosaics are a crowning glory of Medieval Art. ... Events The country of Portugal is established for the second time. ... Events February 22 - Jubilee of Pope Boniface VIII. March 10 - Wardrobe accounts of King Edward I of Englanddo (aka Edward Longshanks) include a reference to a game called creag being played at the town of Newenden in Kent. ... Königsberg Cathedral Gothic architecture is a style of architecture, particularly associated with cathedrals and other churches, which flourished in Europe during the high and late medieval period. ... Events The country of Portugal is established for the second time. ... Events February 22 - Jubilee of Pope Boniface VIII. March 10 - Wardrobe accounts of King Edward I of Englanddo (aka Edward Longshanks) include a reference to a game called creag being played at the town of Newenden in Kent. ... A musician plays the vielle in a 14th century medieval manuscript. ... Events September 14 - Discovery of the (alleged) True Cross by Vatican City, where St. ... Events February 22 - Jubilee of Pope Boniface VIII. March 10 - Wardrobe accounts of King Edward I of Englanddo (aka Edward Longshanks) include a reference to a game called creag being played at the town of Newenden in Kent. ... Europe in 1000 The year 1000 of the Gregorian Calendar was the last year of the 10th century as well as the last year of the first millennium. ... Events February 22 - Jubilee of Pope Boniface VIII. March 10 - Wardrobe accounts of King Edward I of Englanddo (aka Edward Longshanks) include a reference to a game called creag being played at the town of Newenden in Kent. ... Abaelardus and Heloïse surprised by Master Fulbert, by Romanticist painter Jean Vignaud (1819) Pierre Abélard (in English, Peter Abelard) or Abailard (1079 – April 21, 1142) was a French scholastic philosopher and logician. ... Events Persian astronomer, Omar Khayyám, computed the length of the year as 365. ... Events End of the reign of Emperor Sutoku, emperor of Japan Emperor Konoe ascends to the throne of Japan Henry the Lion becomes Duke of Saxony Births Farid od-Din Mohammad ebn Ebrahim Attar, Persian mystical poet (died 1220) Hugh III, Duke of Burgundy (died 1192) Bornin1142, a GameFAQs user... It has been suggested that reasoning be merged into this article or section. ... Events Welcher of Malvern creates a system of measurement for the earth using degrees, minutes, and seconds of latitude and longitude. ... Events Henry VII is elected as king of the Holy Roman Empire. ... The history of science in the Middle Ages refers to the discoveries in the field of natural philosophy throughout the Middle Ages - the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history. ... Events The country of Portugal is established for the second time. ... Events February 22 - Jubilee of Pope Boniface VIII. March 10 - Wardrobe accounts of King Edward I of Englanddo (aka Edward Longshanks) include a reference to a game called creag being played at the town of Newenden in Kent. ... As a literary genre, romance or chivalric romance refers to a style of heroic prose and verse narrative current in Europe from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance. ... Events William II of England dies in a hunting accident - Henry I becomes King of England King Henry I proclaims the Charter of Liberties, one of the first examples of a constitution. ... Events February 22 - Jubilee of Pope Boniface VIII. March 10 - Wardrobe accounts of King Edward I of Englanddo (aka Edward Longshanks) include a reference to a game called creag being played at the town of Newenden in Kent. ... Dante in a fresco series of famous men by Andrea del Castagno, ca. ... For broader historical context, see 1260s and 13th century. ... Events Births September 29 - John of Artois, Count of Eu, French soldier (d. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3200x2290, 631 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): The Story of Civilization Venus of Urbino ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3200x2290, 631 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): The Story of Civilization Venus of Urbino ... Titians self-portrait, 1566. ... Look up artist in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

V. The Renaissance (1953)

This volume covers the Renaissance. Raphael was famous for depicting illustrious figures of the Classical past with the features of his Renaissance contemporaries. ...

  1. Prelude: 1300-77
    1. The Age of Petrarch and Boccaccio: 1304-75
    2. The Popes in Avignon: 1309-77
  2. The Florentine Renaissance: 1378-1534
    1. The Rise of the Medici: 1378-1464
    2. The Golden Age: 1464-92
    3. Savonarola and the Republic: 1492-1534
  3. Italian Pageant: 1378-1534
    1. Milan
    2. Leonardo da Vinci
    3. Tuscany and Umbria
    4. Mantua
    5. Ferrara
    6. Venice and Her Realm
    7. Emilia and the Marches
    8. The Kingdom of Naples
  4. The Roman Renaissance: 1378-1521
    1. The Crisis in the Church: 1378-1521
    2. The Renaissance Captures Rome: 1447-92
    3. The Borgias
    4. Julius II: 1503-13
    5. Leo X: 1513-21
  5. Debacle
    1. The Intellectual Revolt
    2. The Moral Release
    3. The Political Collapse: 1494-1534
  6. Finale: 1534-76
    1. Sunset in Venice
    2. The Waning of The Renaissance
  7. Envoi
Luther at age 46
Luther at age 46

Events February 22 - Jubilee of Pope Boniface VIII. March 10 - Wardrobe accounts of King Edward I of Englanddo (aka Edward Longshanks) include a reference to a game called creag being played at the town of Newenden in Kent. ... // Events January 17 – Pope Gregory XI enters Rome. ... From the c. ... Giovanni Boccaccio Giovanni Boccaccio (June 16, 1313 – December 21, 1375) was an Italian author and poet, a friend and correspondent of Petrarch, an important Renaissance humanist in his own right and author of a number of notable works including On Famous Women, the Decameron and his poetry in the vernacular. ... Events 20 July - Fall of Stirling Castle: Edward I of England takes the last rebel stronghold in the Wars of Scottish Independence. ... Events October 24 - Valdemar IV of Denmark dies and is succeeded by his grandson Olaf III of Denmark. ... The Papal palace in Avignon In the history of the Roman Catholic Church, the Avignon Papacy was the period from 1309 to 1377 during which seven popes, all French, resided in Avignon: Pope Clement V: 1305–1314 Pope John XXII: 1316–1334 Pope Benedict XII: 1334–1342 Pope Clement VI... Events August 15 - The city of Rhodes surrenders to the forces of the Knights of St. ... // Events January 17 – Pope Gregory XI enters Rome. ... Florences skyline Florences skyline at night from Piazza Michaelangelo Florence (Italian: ) is the capital city of the region of Tuscany, Italy. ... Raphael was famous for depicting illustrious figures of the Classical past with the features of his Renaissance contemporaries. ... Events March - John Wyclif tried to gain public favour by laying his theses before parliament, and then made them public in a tract. ... 1534 (MDXXXIV) was a common year in the 16th century. ... The Medici coat of arms The Medici family was a powerful and influential Florentine family from the 13th to 17th century. ... Events March - John Wyclif tried to gain public favour by laying his theses before parliament, and then made them public in a tract. ... Events February - Christian I of Denmark and Norway who was also serving as King of Sweden is declared deposed from the later throne. ... Events February - Christian I of Denmark and Norway who was also serving as King of Sweden is declared deposed from the later throne. ... Not to be confused with 1492: Conquest of Paradise. ... Girolamo Savonarola by Fra Bartolomeo, c. ... Not to be confused with 1492: Conquest of Paradise. ... 1534 (MDXXXIV) was a common year in the 16th century. ... Events March - John Wyclif tried to gain public favour by laying his theses before parliament, and then made them public in a tract. ... 1534 (MDXXXIV) was a common year in the 16th century. ... Milan (Italian: ; Lombard: Milán (listen)) is the main city of northern Italy, located in the plains of Lombardy. ... The Mona Lisa Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (April 15, 1452 – May 2, 1519) was an Italian polymath: scientist, mathematician, engineer, inventor, anatomist, painter, sculptor, architect, musician, and writer. ... Tuscany (Italian: ) is one of the 20 Regions of Italy. ... Umbria is a region of central Italy, bordered by Tuscany to the west, the Marche to the east and Lazio to the south. ... Mantua (in Italian Mantova, in the local dialect of Emiliano-Romagnolo language Mantua) is an important city in Lombardy, Italy and capital of the province with the same name. ... Ferrara is a city in Emilia-Romagna, Italy, capital city of the province of Ferrara. ... Map of the Venetian Republic, circa 1000 CE. The republic is in dark red, borders in light red. ... The word Emilia may have many meanings: The name Emilia originated in Italy, and is sometimes confused with the similar-sounding name Amelia. Emilia is an historical region of Italy, now merged with Romagna to form the Emilia-Romagna administrative region. ... // The Marche (plural, originally le marche de Ancona = the Marches of Ancona) are a region of Central Italy, bordering Emilia-Romagna north, Tuscany to the north-west, Umbria to west, Abruzzo and Latium to the south and the Adriatic Sea to the east. ... The Kingdom of Naples was born out of the division of the Kingdom of Sicily after the Sicilian Vespers rebellion of 1282. ... Nickname: The Eternal City Motto: SPQR: Senatus PopulusQue Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area    - City 1285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban... Raphael was famous for depicting illustrious figures of the Classical past with the features of his Renaissance contemporaries. ... Events March - John Wyclif tried to gain public favour by laying his theses before parliament, and then made them public in a tract. ... Events January 3 - Pope Leo X excommunicates Martin Luther in the papal bull Decet Romanum Pontificem. ... The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic Church (see terminology below) is the Christian Church in full communion with the Bishop of Rome, currently Pope Benedict XVI. It traces its origins to the original Christian community founded by Jesus Christ and led by the Twelve Apostles, in particular Saint Peter. ... Events March - John Wyclif tried to gain public favour by laying his theses before parliament, and then made them public in a tract. ... Events January 3 - Pope Leo X excommunicates Martin Luther in the papal bull Decet Romanum Pontificem. ... Nickname: The Eternal City Motto: SPQR: Senatus PopulusQue Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area    - City 1285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban... Events March 6 - Nicholas V becomes Pope. ... Not to be confused with 1492: Conquest of Paradise. ... Borja (better known by the Italian spelling of the name, Borgia) was an influential Spanish family during the Renaissance. ... Pope Julius II Julius II, né Giuliano della Rovere (December 5, 1443 - February 21, 1513), was pope from 1503 to 1513. ... 1503 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1513 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Pope Leo X Leo X, né Giovanni di Lorenzo de Medici (December 11, 1475 - December 1, 1521), was the only pope who has bestowed his own name upon his age, and one of the few whose original extraction has corresponded in some measure with the splendour of the pontifical dignity. ... 1513 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 3 - Pope Leo X excommunicates Martin Luther in the papal bull Decet Romanum Pontificem. ... 1494 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1534 (MDXXXIV) was a common year in the 16th century. ... A finale is a closing part, act or movement of a dramatic or musical composition, or more generally any event or procedure with a dramatically concluding effect. ... 1534 (MDXXXIV) was a common year in the 16th century. ... Events May 5 - Peace of Beaulieu or Peace of Monsieur (after Monsieur, the Duc dAnjou, brother of the King, who negotiated it). ... Venice (Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venezsia) is the capital of region Veneto, and has a population of 271,663 (census estimate January 1, 2004). ... Raphael was famous for depicting illustrious figures of the Classical past with the features of his Renaissance contemporaries. ... Download high resolution version (600x645, 471 KB)Print quality version of Luther46. ... Download high resolution version (600x645, 471 KB)Print quality version of Luther46. ... Luther is a surname, and may refer to: Bill Luther, American politician Bobbi Sue Luther Charles Luther Frank Luther Hans Luther (15th century) Hans Luther, German politician and Chancellor of Germany Karl Theodor Robert Luther Margarethe Luther Martin Luther, German theologian and Augustinian monk who inspired and began the Protestant...

VI. The Reformation (1957)

This volume covers the Protestant Reformation. Reformation redirects here. ...

  1. From Wyclif to Luther: 1300-1517
    1. The Roman Catholic Church: 1300-1517
    2. England, Wyclif, Chaucer, and the Great Revolt: 1308-1400
    3. France Besieged: 1300-1461
    4. Gallia Phoenix: 1453-1515
    5. England in the Fifteenth Century: 1399-1509
    6. Episode in Burgundy: 1363-1515
    7. Middle Europe: 1300-1460
    8. The Western Slavs: 1300-1516
    9. The Ottoman Tide: 1300-1516
    10. Portugal Inaugurates the Commercial Revolution: 1300-1517
    11. Spain: 1300-1517
    12. The Growth of Knowledge: 1300-1517
    13. The Conquest of the Sea: 1492-1517
    14. Erasmus the Forerunner: 1469-1517
    15. Germany on the Eve of Luther: 1453-1517
  2. The Religious Revolution: 1517-64
    1. Luther: The Reformation in Germany: 1517-24
    2. The Social Revolution: 1522-36
    3. Zwingli: The Reformation in Switzerland: 1477-1531
    4. Luther and Erasmus: 1517-36
    5. The Faiths at War: 1525-60
    6. John Calvin: 1509-64
    7. Francis I and the Reformation in France: 1515-59
    8. Henry VIII and Cardinal Wolsey: 1509-29
    9. Henry VIII and Thomas More: 1529-35
    10. Henry VIII and the Monasteries: 1535-47
    11. Edward VI and Mary Tudor: 1547-58
    12. From Robert Bruce to John Knox: 1300-1561
    13. The Migrations of Reform: 1517-60
  3. The Strangers in the Gate: 1300-1566
    1. The Unification of Russia: 1300-1584
    2. The Genius of Islam: 1258-1520
    3. Suleiman the Magnificent: 1520-66
    4. The Jews: 1300-1564
  4. Behind the Scenes: 1517-1564
    1. The Life of the People
    2. Music: 1300-1564
    3. Literature in the Age of Rabelais
    4. Art in the Age of Holbein
    5. Science in the Age of Copernicus
  5. The Counter Reformation: 1517-65
    1. The Church and Reform
    2. The Popes and the Council
Epilogue: Renaissance, Reformation, and Enlightenment

Wycliffe may also refer to Wycliffe Bible Translators John Wycliff (or Wycliffe) (1328 - December 31, 1384) was an English theologian and early proponent of reform in the Roman Catholic Church during the 14th century. ... Luther is a surname, and may refer to: Bill Luther, American politician Bobbi Sue Luther Charles Luther Frank Luther Hans Luther (15th century) Hans Luther, German politician and Chancellor of Germany Karl Theodor Robert Luther Margarethe Luther Martin Luther, German theologian and Augustinian monk who inspired and began the Protestant... Events February 22 - Jubilee of Pope Boniface VIII. March 10 - Wardrobe accounts of King Edward I of Englanddo (aka Edward Longshanks) include a reference to a game called creag being played at the town of Newenden in Kent. ... January 22 - Battle of Ridanieh: The Turkish forces of Selim I defeat the main Mamluk army in Egypt under Touman Bey. ... The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic Church (see terminology below) is the Christian Church in full communion with the Bishop of Rome, currently Pope Benedict XVI. It traces its origins to the original Christian community founded by Jesus Christ and led by the Twelve Apostles, in particular Saint Peter. ... Events February 22 - Jubilee of Pope Boniface VIII. March 10 - Wardrobe accounts of King Edward I of Englanddo (aka Edward Longshanks) include a reference to a game called creag being played at the town of Newenden in Kent. ... January 22 - Battle of Ridanieh: The Turkish forces of Selim I defeat the main Mamluk army in Egypt under Touman Bey. ... Geoffrey Chaucer (c. ... Events Henry VII is elected as king of the Holy Roman Empire. ... Events Henry IV quells baron rebellion and executes The Earls of Kent, Huntingdon and Salisbury for their attempt to have Richard II of England restored as King Jean Froissart writes the Chronicles Medici family becomes powerful in Florence, Italy Births December 25 - John Sutton, 1st Baron Dudley, Lord Lieutenant of... Events February 22 - Jubilee of Pope Boniface VIII. March 10 - Wardrobe accounts of King Edward I of Englanddo (aka Edward Longshanks) include a reference to a game called creag being played at the town of Newenden in Kent. ... Events February 2 - Battle of Mortimers Cross - Yorkist troops led by Edward, Duke of York defeat Lancastrians under Owen Tudor and his son Jasper Tudor, Earl of Pembroke in Wales. ... April 2 - Mehmed II begins his siege of Constantinople (Ä°stanbul). ... 1515 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Events September 30 - Accession of Henry IV of England October 13 - Coronation of Henry IV of England November 1 - Accession of John VI, Duke of Brittany Births William Canynge, English merchant (approximate date; died 1474) Zara Yaqob, Emperor of Ethiopia (died 1468) Deaths January 4 - Nicolau Aymerich, Catalan theologian and... 1509 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... région of Bourgogne, see Bourgogne. ... Centuries: 13th century - 14th century - 15th century Decades: 1310s 1320s 1330s 1340s 1350s - 1360s - 1370s 1380s 1390s 1400s 1410s Years: 1358 1359 1360 1361 1362 - 1363 - 1364 1365 1366 1367 1368 See also: 1363 state leaders Events Magnus II, King of Sweden, is deposed by Albert of Mecklenburg. ... 1515 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Central Europe The Alpine Countries and the Visegrád Group (Political map, 2004) Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... Events February 22 - Jubilee of Pope Boniface VIII. March 10 - Wardrobe accounts of King Edward I of Englanddo (aka Edward Longshanks) include a reference to a game called creag being played at the town of Newenden in Kent. ... Events The first Portuguese navigators reach the coast of modern Sierra Leone. ... The West Slavs are Slavic peoples speaking West Slavic languages. ... Events February 22 - Jubilee of Pope Boniface VIII. March 10 - Wardrobe accounts of King Edward I of Englanddo (aka Edward Longshanks) include a reference to a game called creag being played at the town of Newenden in Kent. ... // Events March - With the death of Ferdinand II of Aragon, his grandson Charles of Ghent becomes King of Spain as Carlos I. July - Selim I of the Ottoman Empire declares war on the Mameluks and invades Syria. ... Motto: دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem: Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299-1326) Bursa (1326-1365) Edirne (1365-1453) Constantinople (Istanbul) (1453-1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–1922 Mehmed VI... Events February 22 - Jubilee of Pope Boniface VIII. March 10 - Wardrobe accounts of King Edward I of Englanddo (aka Edward Longshanks) include a reference to a game called creag being played at the town of Newenden in Kent. ... // Events March - With the death of Ferdinand II of Aragon, his grandson Charles of Ghent becomes King of Spain as Carlos I. July - Selim I of the Ottoman Empire declares war on the Mameluks and invades Syria. ... The Commercial Revolution was a period of European economic expansion, colonialism, and mercantilism which lasted from approximately 1520 until 1650. ... Events February 22 - Jubilee of Pope Boniface VIII. March 10 - Wardrobe accounts of King Edward I of Englanddo (aka Edward Longshanks) include a reference to a game called creag being played at the town of Newenden in Kent. ... January 22 - Battle of Ridanieh: The Turkish forces of Selim I defeat the main Mamluk army in Egypt under Touman Bey. ... Events February 22 - Jubilee of Pope Boniface VIII. March 10 - Wardrobe accounts of King Edward I of Englanddo (aka Edward Longshanks) include a reference to a game called creag being played at the town of Newenden in Kent. ... January 22 - Battle of Ridanieh: The Turkish forces of Selim I defeat the main Mamluk army in Egypt under Touman Bey. ... Events February 22 - Jubilee of Pope Boniface VIII. March 10 - Wardrobe accounts of King Edward I of Englanddo (aka Edward Longshanks) include a reference to a game called creag being played at the town of Newenden in Kent. ... January 22 - Battle of Ridanieh: The Turkish forces of Selim I defeat the main Mamluk army in Egypt under Touman Bey. ... Not to be confused with 1492: Conquest of Paradise. ... January 22 - Battle of Ridanieh: The Turkish forces of Selim I defeat the main Mamluk army in Egypt under Touman Bey. ... Desiderius Erasmus in 1523 Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus (also Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam) (October 27, probably 1466 – July 12, 1536) was a Dutch humanist and theologian. ... Events July 26 - Battle of Edgecote Moor October 17 - Prince Ferdinand of Aragon wed princess Isabella of Castile. ... January 22 - Battle of Ridanieh: The Turkish forces of Selim I defeat the main Mamluk army in Egypt under Touman Bey. ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... April 2 - Mehmed II begins his siege of Constantinople (Ä°stanbul). ... January 22 - Battle of Ridanieh: The Turkish forces of Selim I defeat the main Mamluk army in Egypt under Touman Bey. ... Reformation redirects here. ... January 22 - Battle of Ridanieh: The Turkish forces of Selim I defeat the main Mamluk army in Egypt under Touman Bey. ... Events March 27 — Naples bans kissing in public under the penalty of death June 22 — Fort Caroline, the first French attempt at colonizing the New World September 10 — The Battle of Kawanakajima Ottoman Turks invade Malta Modern pencil becomes common in England Conquistadors crossed the Pacific Spanish founded a colony... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... January 22 - Battle of Ridanieh: The Turkish forces of Selim I defeat the main Mamluk army in Egypt under Touman Bey. ... Events March 1, 1524/5 - Giovanni da Verrazano lands near Cape Fear (approx. ... Events January 9 - Adrian Dedens becomes Pope Adrian VI. February 26 - Execution by hanging of Cuauhtémoc, Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlan under orders of conquistador Hernán Cortés. ... Year 1536 was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Huldrych (or Ulrich) Zwingli (January 1, 1484 – October 11, 1531) was the leader of the Protestant Reformation in Switzerland, and founder of the Swiss Reformed Churches. ... Events January 5 - Battle of Nancy - Charles the Bold of Burgundy is again defeated, and this time is killed. ... January 26 - Lisbon, Portugal is hit by an earthquake - thousands die. ... January 22 - Battle of Ridanieh: The Turkish forces of Selim I defeat the main Mamluk army in Egypt under Touman Bey. ... Year 1536 was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Events January 21 - The Swiss Anabaptist Movement was born when Conrad Grebel, Felix Manz, George Blaurock, and about a dozen others baptized each other in the home of Manzs mother on Neustadt-Gasse, Zürich, breaking a thousand-year tradition of church-state union. ... Events February 27 - The Treaty of Berwick, which would expel the French from Scotland, is signed by England and the Congregation of Scotland The first tulip bulb was brought from Turkey to the Netherlands. ... John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism or Reformed theology. ... 1509 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 27 — Naples bans kissing in public under the penalty of death June 22 — Fort Caroline, the first French attempt at colonizing the New World September 10 — The Battle of Kawanakajima Ottoman Turks invade Malta Modern pencil becomes common in England Conquistadors crossed the Pacific Spanish founded a colony... Francis I (François Ier in French) (September 12, 1494 – March 31, 1547), called the Father and Restorer of Letters (le Père et Restaurateur des Lettres), was crowned King of France in 1515 in the cathedral at Reims and reigned until 1547. ... 1515 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 15 - Elizabeth I of England is crowned in Westminster Abbey. ... Silver groat of Henry VIII, minted ca. ... Thomas Wolsey, (circa March 1471-1475 – November 28 or November 29, 1530), born Thomas Wulcy in Ipswich, Suffolk, England, was a powerful English statesman and a cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. ... 1509 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Events April 22 - Treaty of Saragossa divides the eastern hemisphere between Spain and Portugal, stipulating that the dividing line should lie 297. ... There are also several institutions named Thomas More College. ... Events April 22 - Treaty of Saragossa divides the eastern hemisphere between Spain and Portugal, stipulating that the dividing line should lie 297. ... Events January 18 - Lima, Peru founded by Francisco Pizarro April - Jacques Cartier discovers the Iroquois city of Stadacona, Canada (now Quebec) and in May, the even greater Huron city of Hochelaga June 24 - The Anabaptist state of Münster (see Münster Rebellion) is conquered and disbanded. ... Monastery of St. ... Events January 18 - Lima, Peru founded by Francisco Pizarro April - Jacques Cartier discovers the Iroquois city of Stadacona, Canada (now Quebec) and in May, the even greater Huron city of Hochelaga June 24 - The Anabaptist state of Münster (see Münster Rebellion) is conquered and disbanded. ... Year 1547 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Edward VI (12 October 1537 – 6 July 1553) became King of England, King of France (in practice only the town and surrounding district of Calais) and Ireland on 28 January 1547, and crowned on 20 February, at just nine years of age. ... Mary Tudor can refer to any of the following: Mary Tudor (queen consort of France) Mary I of England Category: ... Year 1547 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Events January 7 - French troops led by Francis, Duke of Guise take Calais, the last continental possession of England July 13 - Battle of Gravelines: In France, Spanish forces led by Count Lamoral of Egmont defeat the French forces of Marshal Paul des Thermes at Gravelines. ... Robert I, King of Scots, usually known as Robert the Bruce (July 11, 1274 – June 7, 1329, reigned 1306 – 1329), was, according to a modern biographer (Geoffrey Barrow), a great hero who lived in a minor country. ... For other persons named John Knox, see John Knox (disambiguation). ... Events February 22 - Jubilee of Pope Boniface VIII. March 10 - Wardrobe accounts of King Edward I of Englanddo (aka Edward Longshanks) include a reference to a game called creag being played at the town of Newenden in Kent. ... // Events The Edict of Orleans suspends the persecution of the Huguenots. ... January 22 - Battle of Ridanieh: The Turkish forces of Selim I defeat the main Mamluk army in Egypt under Touman Bey. ... Events February 27 - The Treaty of Berwick, which would expel the French from Scotland, is signed by England and the Congregation of Scotland The first tulip bulb was brought from Turkey to the Netherlands. ... Events February 22 - Jubilee of Pope Boniface VIII. March 10 - Wardrobe accounts of King Edward I of Englanddo (aka Edward Longshanks) include a reference to a game called creag being played at the town of Newenden in Kent. ... Events January 7 - Pius V becomes Pope Selim II succeeds Suleiman I as Sultan of the Ottoman Empire Religious rioting in the Netherlands signifies the beginning of the Eighty Years War in the Netherlands. ... Events February 22 - Jubilee of Pope Boniface VIII. March 10 - Wardrobe accounts of King Edward I of Englanddo (aka Edward Longshanks) include a reference to a game called creag being played at the town of Newenden in Kent. ... 1584 was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ... mary elline m. ... Suleiman I (Ottoman:سليمان Sulaymān, Turkish: Süleyman; the long name is Kanuni Sultan Süleyman in Turkish) (November 6, 1494 – September 5/6, 1566), was the tenth Sultan from the House of Osman of the Ottoman Empire, and its longest-serving, reigning from 1520 to 1566. ... mary elline m. ... Events January 7 - Pius V becomes Pope Selim II succeeds Suleiman I as Sultan of the Ottoman Empire Religious rioting in the Netherlands signifies the beginning of the Eighty Years War in the Netherlands. ... Events February 22 - Jubilee of Pope Boniface VIII. March 10 - Wardrobe accounts of King Edward I of Englanddo (aka Edward Longshanks) include a reference to a game called creag being played at the town of Newenden in Kent. ... Events March 27 — Naples bans kissing in public under the penalty of death June 22 — Fort Caroline, the first French attempt at colonizing the New World September 10 — The Battle of Kawanakajima Ottoman Turks invade Malta Modern pencil becomes common in England Conquistadors crossed the Pacific Spanish founded a colony... January 22 - Battle of Ridanieh: The Turkish forces of Selim I defeat the main Mamluk army in Egypt under Touman Bey. ... Events March 27 — Naples bans kissing in public under the penalty of death June 22 — Fort Caroline, the first French attempt at colonizing the New World September 10 — The Battle of Kawanakajima Ottoman Turks invade Malta Modern pencil becomes common in England Conquistadors crossed the Pacific Spanish founded a colony... Events February 22 - Jubilee of Pope Boniface VIII. March 10 - Wardrobe accounts of King Edward I of Englanddo (aka Edward Longshanks) include a reference to a game called creag being played at the town of Newenden in Kent. ... Events March 27 — Naples bans kissing in public under the penalty of death June 22 — Fort Caroline, the first French attempt at colonizing the New World September 10 — The Battle of Kawanakajima Ottoman Turks invade Malta Modern pencil becomes common in England Conquistadors crossed the Pacific Spanish founded a colony... François Rabelais François Rabelais (ca. ... Hans Holbein is the name of two German Renaissance painters: Hans Holbein the Elder (1460-1524) Hans Holbein the Younger (c. ... Nicolaus Copernicus (February 19, 1473 – May 24, 1543) was the astronomer who formulated the first modern heliocentric theory of the solar system. ... The Counter-Reformation or the Catholic Reformation was a strong reaffirmation of the doctrine and structure of the Catholic Church, climaxing at the Council of Trent, partly in reaction to the growth of Protestantism. ... January 22 - Battle of Ridanieh: The Turkish forces of Selim I defeat the main Mamluk army in Egypt under Touman Bey. ... // Events March 1 - the city of Rio de Janeiro is founded. ... The Council of Trent is the Nineteenth Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Galileo. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Galileo. ... KDFSAJFKASJDKFJASDKLJFDKLASJFLKJASKLFJLAKSJFLKSJALFKJSKLJFto the Sun-centered solar system which Galileo supported. ... Giusto Sustermans was a Flemish painter in the Baroque style. ...

VII. The Age of Reason Begins (1961)

This volume covers the Age of Reason The Age of Reason is either Thomas Paines book The Age of Reason. ...

  1. The English Ecstasy: 1558-1648
    1. The Great Queen: 1558-1603
    2. Merrie England: 1558-1625
    3. On the Slopes of Parnassus: 1558-1603
    4. William Shakespeare: 1564-1616
    5. Mary Queen of Scots: 1542-87
    6. James VI and I: 1567-1625
    7. The Summons to Reason: 1558-1649
    8. The Great Rebellion: 1625-49
  2. The Faiths Fight For Power: 1556-1648
    1. Alma Mater Italia: 1564-1648
    2. Grandeur and Decadence of Spain: 1556-1665
    3. The Golden Age of Spanish Literature: 1556-1665
    4. The Golden Age of Spanish Art: 1556-1682
    5. The Duel for France: 1559-74
    6. Henry IV: 1553-1610
    7. Richelieu: 1585-1642
    8. France Beneath the Wars: 1559-1643
    9. The Revolt of the Netherlands: 1558-1648
    10. From Rubens to Rembrandt: 1555-1660
    11. The Rise of the North: 1559-1648
    12. The Islamic Challenge: 1566-1648
    13. Imperial Armageddon: 1564-1648
  3. The Tentatives of Reason: 1558-1648
    1. Science in the Age of Galileo: 1558-1648
    2. Philosophy Reborn: 1564-1648

This article is about the cultural movement known as the English Renaissance. ... Events January 7 - French troops led by Francis, Duke of Guise take Calais, the last continental possession of England July 13 - Battle of Gravelines: In France, Spanish forces led by Count Lamoral of Egmont defeat the French forces of Marshal Paul des Thermes at Gravelines. ... 1648 (MDCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603) was Queen of England, Queen of France (in name only), and Queen of Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death. ... Events January 7 - French troops led by Francis, Duke of Guise take Calais, the last continental possession of England July 13 - Battle of Gravelines: In France, Spanish forces led by Count Lamoral of Egmont defeat the French forces of Marshal Paul des Thermes at Gravelines. ... King James I of England/VII of Scotland, the first monarch to rule the Kingdoms of England and Scotland at the same time Events March - Samuel de Champlain, French explorer, sails to Canada March 24 - Elizabeth I of England dies and is succeeded by her cousin King James I of... Events January 7 - French troops led by Francis, Duke of Guise take Calais, the last continental possession of England July 13 - Battle of Gravelines: In France, Spanish forces led by Count Lamoral of Egmont defeat the French forces of Marshal Paul des Thermes at Gravelines. ... Events March 27 - Prince Charles Stuart becomes King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland. ... Events January 7 - French troops led by Francis, Duke of Guise take Calais, the last continental possession of England July 13 - Battle of Gravelines: In France, Spanish forces led by Count Lamoral of Egmont defeat the French forces of Marshal Paul des Thermes at Gravelines. ... King James I of England/VII of Scotland, the first monarch to rule the Kingdoms of England and Scotland at the same time Events March - Samuel de Champlain, French explorer, sails to Canada March 24 - Elizabeth I of England dies and is succeeded by her cousin King James I of... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Events March 27 — Naples bans kissing in public under the penalty of death June 22 — Fort Caroline, the first French attempt at colonizing the New World September 10 — The Battle of Kawanakajima Ottoman Turks invade Malta Modern pencil becomes common in England Conquistadors crossed the Pacific Spanish founded a colony... == {| align=right cellpadding=3 id=toc style=margin-left: 15px; |- | align=center colspan=2 | Years: 1613 1614 1615 - 1616 - 1617 1618 1619 |- | align=center colspan=2 | Decades: 1580s 1590s 1600s - 1610s - 1620s 1630s 1640s |- tall> 16th century - 17th century - 18th century |} randomised 1616 was a leap year starting on Friday... Mary I (Mary Stuart, popularly known as Mary, Queen of Scots); (December 8, 1542 – February 8, 1587) was Queen of Scots (the monarch of the Kingdom of Scotland) from December 14, 1542 to July 24, 1567. ... Events War resumes between Francis I of France and Emperor Charles V. This time Henry VIII of England is allied to the Emperor, while James V of Scotland and Sultan Suleiman I are allied to the French. ... 1587 was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... James VI and I (James Stuart) (June 19, 1566 – March 27, 1625) was King of Scots, King of England, and King of Ireland. ... Events The Duke of Alva arrives in the Netherlands with Spanish forces to suppress unrest there. ... Events March 27 - Prince Charles Stuart becomes King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland. ... It has been suggested that reasoning be merged into this article or section. ... Events January 7 - French troops led by Francis, Duke of Guise take Calais, the last continental possession of England July 13 - Battle of Gravelines: In France, Spanish forces led by Count Lamoral of Egmont defeat the French forces of Marshal Paul des Thermes at Gravelines. ... // Events January 30 - King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland is beheaded. ... The English Civil War consisted of a series of armed conflicts and political machinations that took place between Parliamentarians (known as Roundheads) and Royalists (known as Cavaliers) between 1642 and 1651. ... Events March 27 - Prince Charles Stuart becomes King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland. ... // Events January 30 - King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland is beheaded. ... Events January 16 - Abdication of Emperor Charles V. His son, Philip II becomes King of Spain, while his brother Ferdinand becomes Holy Roman Emperor January 23 - The Shaanxi earthquake, the deadliest earthquake in history, occurs with its epicenter in Shaanxi province, China. ... 1648 (MDCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Events March 27 — Naples bans kissing in public under the penalty of death June 22 — Fort Caroline, the first French attempt at colonizing the New World September 10 — The Battle of Kawanakajima Ottoman Turks invade Malta Modern pencil becomes common in England Conquistadors crossed the Pacific Spanish founded a colony... 1648 (MDCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Events January 16 - Abdication of Emperor Charles V. His son, Philip II becomes King of Spain, while his brother Ferdinand becomes Holy Roman Emperor January 23 - The Shaanxi earthquake, the deadliest earthquake in history, occurs with its epicenter in Shaanxi province, China. ... 1665 (MDCLXV) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Spanish literature may refer to: literature composed in the Spanish language literature of Spain in any of the languages of Spain It may include Spanish poetry, prose and novels. ... Events January 16 - Abdication of Emperor Charles V. His son, Philip II becomes King of Spain, while his brother Ferdinand becomes Holy Roman Emperor January 23 - The Shaanxi earthquake, the deadliest earthquake in history, occurs with its epicenter in Shaanxi province, China. ... 1665 (MDCLXV) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Events January 16 - Abdication of Emperor Charles V. His son, Philip II becomes King of Spain, while his brother Ferdinand becomes Holy Roman Emperor January 23 - The Shaanxi earthquake, the deadliest earthquake in history, occurs with its epicenter in Shaanxi province, China. ... Events March 11 – Chelsea hospital for soldiers is founded in England May 6 - Louis XIV of France moves his court to Versailles. ... January 15 - Elizabeth I of England is crowned in Westminster Abbey. ... Year 1574 was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Henry IV (French: Henri IV; December 13, 1553 – May 14, 1610), was the first monarch of the Bourbon dynasty in France. ... // Events June 26 - Christs Hospital in London gets a Royal Charter July 6 - Edward VI of England dies July 10 - Lady Jane Grey is proclaimed Queen of England - for the next nine days July 18 - Lord Mayor of London proclaims Queen Mary as the rightful Queen - Lady Jane Grey... // Events January 7 - Galileo Galilei discovers the Galilean moons of Jupiter. ... Cardinal Richelieu was the French chief minister from 1624 until his death. ... 1585 was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar. ... Events January 4 - Charles I attempts to arrest five leading members of the Long Parliament, but they escape. ... January 15 - Elizabeth I of England is crowned in Westminster Abbey. ... // Events January 21 - Abel Tasman discovers Tonga February 6 - Abel Tasman discovers the Fiji islands. ... Combatants Dutch rebels Spanish Empire The Eighty Years War, or Dutch Revolt (1566[1]–1648), was the revolt of the Seventeen Provinces in the Netherlands against the Spanish (Habsburg) empire. ... Events January 7 - French troops led by Francis, Duke of Guise take Calais, the last continental possession of England July 13 - Battle of Gravelines: In France, Spanish forces led by Count Lamoral of Egmont defeat the French forces of Marshal Paul des Thermes at Gravelines. ... 1648 (MDCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Rubens and Isabella Brant in the Honeysuckle Bower Alte Pinakothek Peter Paul Rubens (June 28, 1577 – May 30, 1640) was the most popular and prolific Flemish and European painter of the 17th century. ... Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn (July 15, 1606– October 4, 1669) is generally considered one of the greatest painters and printmakers in European art history and the most important in Dutch history. ... Events Russia breaks 60 year old truce with Sweden by attacking Finland February 2 - Diet of Augsburg begins February 4 - John Rogers becomes first Protestant martyr in England February 9 - Bishop of Gloucester John Hooper is burned at the stake May 23 - Paul IV becomes Pope. ... // Events January 1 - Colonel George Monck with his regiment crosses from Scotland to England at the village of Coldstream and begins advance towards London in support of English Restoration. ... Northern Europe is marked in dark blue Northern Europe is a name of the northern part of the European continent. ... January 15 - Elizabeth I of England is crowned in Westminster Abbey. ... 1648 (MDCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Events January 7 - Pius V becomes Pope Selim II succeeds Suleiman I as Sultan of the Ottoman Empire Religious rioting in the Netherlands signifies the beginning of the Eighty Years War in the Netherlands. ... 1648 (MDCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Events March 27 — Naples bans kissing in public under the penalty of death June 22 — Fort Caroline, the first French attempt at colonizing the New World September 10 — The Battle of Kawanakajima Ottoman Turks invade Malta Modern pencil becomes common in England Conquistadors crossed the Pacific Spanish founded a colony... 1648 (MDCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Events January 7 - French troops led by Francis, Duke of Guise take Calais, the last continental possession of England July 13 - Battle of Gravelines: In France, Spanish forces led by Count Lamoral of Egmont defeat the French forces of Marshal Paul des Thermes at Gravelines. ... 1648 (MDCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... KDFSAJFKASJDKFJASDKLJFDKLASJFLKJASKLFJLAKSJFLKSJALFKJSKLJFto the Sun-centered solar system which Galileo supported. ... Events January 7 - French troops led by Francis, Duke of Guise take Calais, the last continental possession of England July 13 - Battle of Gravelines: In France, Spanish forces led by Count Lamoral of Egmont defeat the French forces of Marshal Paul des Thermes at Gravelines. ... 1648 (MDCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Events March 27 — Naples bans kissing in public under the penalty of death June 22 — Fort Caroline, the first French attempt at colonizing the New World September 10 — The Battle of Kawanakajima Ottoman Turks invade Malta Modern pencil becomes common in England Conquistadors crossed the Pacific Spanish founded a colony... 1648 (MDCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (580x824, 90 KB)King Louis XIV of France painted by Hyacinthe Rigaud 1701 The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (580x824, 90 KB)King Louis XIV of France painted by Hyacinthe Rigaud 1701 The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Louis XIV King of France and Navarre By Hyacinthe Rigaud (1701) Hyacinthe Rigaud (July 20, 1659-December 27, 1743) was a French painter. ... Events January 18 - Frederick I becomes King of Prussia. ...

VIII. The Age of Louis XIV (1963)

This volume overs the period of Louis XIV of France. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

  1. The French Zenith: 1643-1715
    1. The Sun Rises: 1643-84
    2. The Crucible of Faith: 1643-1715
    3. The King and the Arts: 1643-1715
    4. Molière: 1622-73
    5. The Classic Zenith in French Literature: 1643-1715
    6. Tragedy in the Netherlands: 1649-1715
  2. England: 1649-1714
    1. Cromwell: 1649-60
    2. Milton: 1608-74
    3. The Restoration: 1660-85
    4. The Glorious Revolution: 1685-1714
    5. From Dryden to Swift: 1660-1714
  3. The Periphery: 1648-1715
    1. The Struggle for the Baltic: 1648-1721
    2. Peter the Great: 1698-1725
    3. The Changing Empire: 1648-1715
    4. The Fallow South: 1648-1715
    5. The Jewish Enclaves: 1564-1715
  4. The Intellectual Adventure: 1648-1715
    1. From Superstition to Scholarship: 1648-1715
    2. The Scientific Quest: 1648-1715
    3. Isaac Newton: 1642-1727
    4. English Philosophy: 1648-1715
    5. Faith and Reason in France: 1648-1715
    6. Spinoza: 1632-77
    7. Leibniz: 1646-1716
  5. France Against Europe: 1683-1715
    1. The Sun Sets
Voltaire, portrait after Nicholas de Largilliere
Voltaire, portrait after Nicholas de Largilliere

// Events January 21 - Abel Tasman discovers Tonga February 6 - Abel Tasman discovers the Fiji islands. ... // Events July 24 - Spanish treasure fleet of ten ships under admiral Ubilla leave Havana, Cuba for Spain. ... // Events January 21 - Abel Tasman discovers Tonga February 6 - Abel Tasman discovers the Fiji islands. ... Events France under Louis XIV makes Truce of Ratisbon separately with the Empire and Spain. ... // Events January 21 - Abel Tasman discovers Tonga February 6 - Abel Tasman discovers the Fiji islands. ... // Events July 24 - Spanish treasure fleet of ten ships under admiral Ubilla leave Havana, Cuba for Spain. ... // Events January 21 - Abel Tasman discovers Tonga February 6 - Abel Tasman discovers the Fiji islands. ... // Events July 24 - Spanish treasure fleet of ten ships under admiral Ubilla leave Havana, Cuba for Spain. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Events January 1 - In the Gregorian calendar, January 1 is declared as the first day of the year, instead of March 25. ... 1673 (MDCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... // Events January 21 - Abel Tasman discovers Tonga February 6 - Abel Tasman discovers the Fiji islands. ... // Events July 24 - Spanish treasure fleet of ten ships under admiral Ubilla leave Havana, Cuba for Spain. ... // Events January 30 - King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland is beheaded. ... // Events July 24 - Spanish treasure fleet of ten ships under admiral Ubilla leave Havana, Cuba for Spain. ... // Events January 30 - King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland is beheaded. ... Battle of Gangut, by Maurice Baquoi, 1724-27. ... Oliver Cromwell (April 25, 1599–September 3, 1658) was an English military and political leader best known for making England a republic and leading the Commonwealth of England. ... // Events January 30 - King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland is beheaded. ... // Events January 1 - Colonel George Monck with his regiment crosses from Scotland to England at the village of Coldstream and begins advance towards London in support of English Restoration. ... For other persons named John Milton, see John Milton (disambiguation). ... Events March 18 - Sissinios formally crowned Emperor of Ethiopia May 14 - Protestant Union founded in Auhausen. ... Events February 19 - England and the Netherlands sign the Treaty of Westminster. ... King Charles II, the first monarch to rule after the English Restoration. ... // Events January 1 - Colonel George Monck with his regiment crosses from Scotland to England at the village of Coldstream and begins advance towards London in support of English Restoration. ... Events February 6 - James Stuart, Duke of York becomes King James II of England and Ireland and King James VII of Scotland. ... The Revolution of 1688, commonly known as the Glorious Revolution, was the overthrow of James II of England in 1688 by a union of Parliamentarians and the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau (William of Orange). ... Events February 6 - James Stuart, Duke of York becomes King James II of England and Ireland and King James VII of Scotland. ... Battle of Gangut, by Maurice Baquoi, 1724-27. ... John Dryden John Dryden (August 19 {August 9 O.S.}, 1631 - May 12 {May 1 O.S.}, 1700) was an influential English poet, literary critic, translator and playwright, who dominated the literary life of Restoration England to such a point that the period came to be known in literary circles... Jonathan Swift Jonathan Swift (November 30, 1667 – October 19, 1745) was an Irish priest, satirist, essayist, political pamphleteer, and poet, famous for works like Gullivers Travels, A Modest Proposal, A Journal to Stella, The Drapiers Letters, The Battle of the Books, and A Tale of a Tub. ... // Events January 1 - Colonel George Monck with his regiment crosses from Scotland to England at the village of Coldstream and begins advance towards London in support of English Restoration. ... Battle of Gangut, by Maurice Baquoi, 1724-27. ... 1648 (MDCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... // Events July 24 - Spanish treasure fleet of ten ships under admiral Ubilla leave Havana, Cuba for Spain. ... The three Baltic states: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania The terms Baltic countries, Baltic Sea countries, Baltic states, and Balticum refer to slightly different combinations of countries in the general area surrounding the Baltic Sea. ... 1648 (MDCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... // Events Pope Innocent XIII becomes pope Johann Sebastian Bach composes the Brandenburg Concertos April 4 - Robert Walpole becomes the first prime minister of Britain September 10 - Treaty of Nystad is signed, bringing an end to the Great Northern War November 2 - Peter I is proclaimed Emperor of All the Russias... Peter was a tall figure, with an extremely striking build of 2. ... Events January 4 - Palace of Whitehall in London is destroyed by fire. ... Events February 8 - Catherine I became empress of Russia February 20 - The first reported case of white men scalping Native Americans takes place in New Hampshire colony. ... 1648 (MDCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... // Events July 24 - Spanish treasure fleet of ten ships under admiral Ubilla leave Havana, Cuba for Spain. ... 1648 (MDCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... // Events July 24 - Spanish treasure fleet of ten ships under admiral Ubilla leave Havana, Cuba for Spain. ... Events March 27 — Naples bans kissing in public under the penalty of death June 22 — Fort Caroline, the first French attempt at colonizing the New World September 10 — The Battle of Kawanakajima Ottoman Turks invade Malta Modern pencil becomes common in England Conquistadors crossed the Pacific Spanish founded a colony... // Events July 24 - Spanish treasure fleet of ten ships under admiral Ubilla leave Havana, Cuba for Spain. ... 1648 (MDCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... // Events July 24 - Spanish treasure fleet of ten ships under admiral Ubilla leave Havana, Cuba for Spain. ... 1648 (MDCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... // Events July 24 - Spanish treasure fleet of ten ships under admiral Ubilla leave Havana, Cuba for Spain. ... 1648 (MDCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... // Events July 24 - Spanish treasure fleet of ten ships under admiral Ubilla leave Havana, Cuba for Spain. ... Sir Isaac Newton, (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727) [ OS: 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727][1] was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, and alchemist, regarded by many as the greatest figure in the history of science. ... Events January 4 - Charles I attempts to arrest five leading members of the Long Parliament, but they escape. ... Events 1727 to 1800 - Lt. ... 1648 (MDCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... // Events July 24 - Spanish treasure fleet of ten ships under admiral Ubilla leave Havana, Cuba for Spain. ... 1648 (MDCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... // Events July 24 - Spanish treasure fleet of ten ships under admiral Ubilla leave Havana, Cuba for Spain. ... Benedictus de Spinoza or Baruch de Spinoza (Hebrew: ברוך שפינוזה) (lived November 24, 1632 – February 21, 1677) was a Dutch philosopher of Jewish origin, considered one of the great rationalists of 17th-century philosophy and, by virtue of his magnum opus the posthumous Ethics, one of the definitive ethicists. ... See also: 1632 (novel) Events February 22 - Galileos Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems is published July 23 - 300 colonists for New France depart Dieppe November 8 - Wladyslaw IV Waza elected king of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth after Zygmunt III Waza death November 16 - Battle of Lützen... 1677 (MDCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ... 1646 (MDCXLVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... // Events August 5 - In the Battle of Peterwardein 40. ... Events June 6 - The Ashmolean Museum opens as the worlds first university museum. ... // Events July 24 - Spanish treasure fleet of ten ships under admiral Ubilla leave Havana, Cuba for Spain. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (664x750, 90 KB) Voltaire, portrait by Nicolas de Largilliere This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years or... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (664x750, 90 KB) Voltaire, portrait by Nicolas de Largilliere This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years or... François-Marie Arouet (21 November 1694 – 30 May 1778), better known by the pen name Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer, essayist, deist and philosopher known for his wit, philosophical writings, and defense of civil liberties, including freedom of religion and the right to a fair trial. ...

IX. The Age of Voltaire (1965)

This volume covers the period of "the enlightenment, as exemplified by Voltaire. François-Marie Arouet (21 November 1694 – 30 May 1778), better known by the pen name Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer, essayist, deist and philosopher known for his wit, philosophical writings, and defense of civil liberties, including freedom of religion and the right to a fair trial. ...

  1. France: The Regency
  2. England: 1714-56
    1. The People
    2. The Rulers
    3. Religion and Philosophy
    4. Literature and the Stage
    5. Art and Music
  3. France: 1723-56
    1. The People and the State
    2. Morals and Manners
    3. The Worship of Beauty
    4. The Play of the Mind
    5. Voltaire in France
  4. Middle Europe: 1713-56
    1. The Germany of Bach
    2. Frederick the Great and Maria Theresa
    3. Switzerland and Voltaire
  5. The Advancement of Learning: 1715-89
    1. The Scholars
    2. The Scientific Advance
    3. Medicine
  6. The Attack Upon Christianity: 1730-74
    1. The Atheists
    2. Diderot and the Encyclopedie
    3. Diderot Proteus
    4. The Spreading Campaign
    5. Voltaire and Christianity
    6. The Triumph of the Philosophes

Régence is the French word for (and root of the English word) regency (see that article). ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the King/Queen Capital London (de facto) Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2006 est. ... Battle of Gangut, by Maurice Baquoi, 1724-27. ... 1756 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... Old book bindings at the Merton College library. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Allegory of Music on the Opéra Garnier Music is an art form that involves organized sounds and silence. ... Events February 16 - Louis XV of France attains his majority Births February 24 - John Burgoyne, British general (d. ... 1756 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... François-Marie Arouet (21 November 1694 – 30 May 1778), better known by the pen name Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer, essayist, deist and philosopher known for his wit, philosophical writings, and defense of civil liberties, including freedom of religion and the right to a fair trial. ... // Events April 11 - War of the Spanish Succession: Treaty of Utrecht June 23 - French residents of Acadia given one year to declare allegiance to Britain or leave Nova Scotia Canada first Orrery built by George Graham Ongoing events Great Northern War (1700-1721) War of the Spanish Succession (1702-1713... 1756 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... In music, the BACH motif is the sequence of notes B flat, A, C, B natural. ... Frederick the Great Frederick II of Prussia (Friedrich der Große, Frederick the Great, January 24, 1712 – August 17, 1786) was the Hohenzollern king of Prussia 1740–86. ... Maria Theresa, Holy Roman Empress, Archduchess of Austria, Queen of Hungary and Bohemia The worlds most famous coin, a silver thaler of Maria Theresa, dated 1780 Maria Theresa (German: ; May 13, 1717–November 29, 1780) was (reigning) Archduchess of Austria and Queen of Hungary and Bohemia. ... François-Marie Arouet (21 November 1694 – 30 May 1778), better known by the pen name Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer, essayist, deist and philosopher known for his wit, philosophical writings, and defense of civil liberties, including freedom of religion and the right to a fair trial. ... // Events July 24 - Spanish treasure fleet of ten ships under admiral Ubilla leave Havana, Cuba for Spain. ... 1789 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Part of a scientific laboratory at the University of Cologne. ... medicines, see medication and pharmacology. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Events Pope Clement XII elected September 17 - Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Ahmed III (1703-1730) to Mahmud I (1730-1754) Anna Ivanova (Anna I of Russia) became czarina Births April 16 - Henry Clinton, British general (d. ... Chesma Column in Tsarskoe Selo, commemorating the end of the Russo-Turkish War. ... The 18th-century French author Baron dHolbach was one of the first self-described atheists. ... Portrait of Diderot by Louis-Michel van Loo, 1767 Denis Diderot (October 5, 1713 – July 31, 1784) was a French philosopher and writer. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... Portrait of Diderot by Louis-Michel van Loo, 1767 Denis Diderot (October 5, 1713 – July 31, 1784) was a French philosopher and writer. ... François-Marie Arouet (21 November 1694 – 30 May 1778), better known by the pen name Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer, essayist, deist and philosopher known for his wit, philosophical writings, and defense of civil liberties, including freedom of religion and the right to a fair trial. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... The philosophes (French for philosophers) were a group of intellectuals of the 18th century Enlightenment. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Jean-Jacques Rousseau, 1712 – July 2, 1778) was a Genevan philosopher of the Enlightenment whose political ideas influenced the French Revolution, the development of socialist theory, and the growth of nationalism. ...

X. Rousseau and Revolution (1967)

This volume centers on Jean-Jacques Rousseau and his times. It received the Pulitzer Prize for General Non-Fiction in 1968. Jean-Jacques Rousseau, 1712 – July 2, 1778) was a Genevan philosopher of the Enlightenment whose political ideas influenced the French Revolution, the development of socialist theory, and the growth of nationalism. ... The gold medal awarded for Public Service in Journalism The Pulitzer Prize is an American award regarded as the highest national honor in print journalism, literary achievements, and musical compositions. ... 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday. ...

  1. Prelude
    1. Rousseau Wanderer: 1712-56
    2. The Seven Years' War: 1756-63
  2. France Before the Deluge: 1757-74
    1. The Life of the State
    2. The Art of Life
    3. Voltaire Patriarch: 1758-78
    4. Rousseau Romantic: 1756-62
    5. Rousseau Philosopher
    6. Rousseau Outcast: 1762-67
  3. The Catholic South: 1715-89
    1. Italia Felix: 1715-59
    2. Portugal and Pombal: 1706-82
    3. Spain and the Enlightenment: 1700-88
    4. Vale, Italia: 1760-89
    5. The Enlightenment in Austria: 1756-90
    6. Music Reformed
    7. Mozart
  4. Islam and the Slavic East: 1715-96
    1. Islam: 1715-96
    2. Russian Interlude: 1725-62
    3. Catherine the Great: 1762-96
    4. The Rape of Poland: 1715-95
  5. The Protestant North: 1756-89
    1. Frederick's Germany: 1756-86
    2. Kant: 1724-1804
    3. Roads to Weimar: 1733-87
    4. Weimar in Flower: 1775-1805
    5. Goethe Nestor: 1805-32
    6. The Jews: 1715-89
    7. From Geneva to Stockholm
  6. Johnson's England: 1756-89
    1. The Industrial Revolution
    2. The Political Drama: 1756-92
    3. The English People: 1756-89
    4. The Age of Reynolds: 1756-90
    5. England's Neighbors: 1756-89
    6. The Literary Scene: 1756-89
    7. Samuel Johnson: 1709-84
  7. The Collapse of Feudal France: 1774-89
    1. The Final Glory: 1774-83
    2. Death and the Philosophers: 1774-1807
    3. On the Eve: 1774-89
    4. The Anatomy of Revolution: 1774-89
    5. The Political Debacle: 1783-89
  8. Envoi
Napoleon in His Study by Jacques-Louis David (1812)
Napoleon in His Study by Jacques-Louis David (1812)

// Events Treaty of Aargau signed between Catholic and Protestants. ... 1756 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Combatants Kingdom of Prussia Kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland Electorate of Hanover Kingdom of Portugal Brunswick Hesse-Kassel Holy Roman/Austrian Empire Kingdom of France Russian Empire Kingdom of Sweden Kingdom of Spain Electorate of Saxony Kingdom of Naples and Sicily Kingdom of Sardinia The Seven Years War (1754... 1756 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1763 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1757 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Chesma Column in Tsarskoe Selo, commemorating the end of the Russo-Turkish War. ... François-Marie Arouet (21 November 1694 – 30 May 1778), better known by the pen name Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer, essayist, deist and philosopher known for his wit, philosophical writings, and defense of civil liberties, including freedom of religion and the right to a fair trial. ... 1758 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1778 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1756 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1762 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1762 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1767 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... // Events July 24 - Spanish treasure fleet of ten ships under admiral Ubilla leave Havana, Cuba for Spain. ... 1789 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... // Events July 24 - Spanish treasure fleet of ten ships under admiral Ubilla leave Havana, Cuba for Spain. ... 1759 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Coat of Arms Pombal (pron. ... Events March 27 - Concluding that Emperor Iyasus I of Ethiopia had abdicated by retiring to a monastery, a council of high officials appoint Tekle Haymanot I Emperor of Ethiopia May 23 - Battle of Ramillies September 7 - The Battle of Turin in the War of Spanish Succession - forces of Austria and... 1782 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The Age of Enlightenment came to Spain in the eighteenth century with the accession of King Philip V, the first Spanish king of the French Bourbon dynasty. ... Events January 1 - Russia accepts Julian calendar. ... 1788 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1760 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1789 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1756 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1790 (MDCCXC) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Mozart redirects here. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... // Events July 24 - Spanish treasure fleet of ten ships under admiral Ubilla leave Havana, Cuba for Spain. ... Year 1796 (MDCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... // Events July 24 - Spanish treasure fleet of ten ships under admiral Ubilla leave Havana, Cuba for Spain. ... Year 1796 (MDCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Events February 8 - Catherine I became empress of Russia February 20 - The first reported case of white men scalping Native Americans takes place in New Hampshire colony. ... 1762 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Catherine II of Russia Catherine II of Russia, called the Great (Russian: Екатерина II Великая, Yekaterina II Velikaya; 2 May [O.S. 21 April] 1729–17 November [O.S. 6 November] 1796) — sometimes referred to as an epitome of the enlightened despot — reigned as Empress of Russia from June 28, 1762 until... 1762 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1796 (MDCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... // Events July 24 - Spanish treasure fleet of ten ships under admiral Ubilla leave Havana, Cuba for Spain. ... 1795 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... 1756 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1789 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Frederick II of Prussia (German: ; January 24, 1712 – August 17, 1786) of Hohenzollern dynasty, ruled the Kingdom of Prussia from 1740 to 1786. ... 1756 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1786 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804), was a German philosopher from Königsberg in East Prussia (now Kaliningrad, Russia). ... Events January 14 - King Philip V of Spain abdicates the throne February 20 - The premiere of Giulio Cesare, an Italian opera by George Frideric Handel, takes place in London June 23 - Treaty of Constantinople signed. ... 1804 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The city hall Goethe and Schiller in front of the Deutsche Nationaltheater Weimar is a city in Germany. ... Events February 12 - British colonist James Oglethorpe founds Savannah, Georgia. ... Year 1787 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The city hall Goethe and Schiller in front of the Deutsche Nationaltheater Weimar is a city in Germany. ... ... 1805 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Johann Wolfgang Goethe  , IPA: , later von Goethe, (28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832) was a German polymath: he was a poet, novelist, dramatist, humanist, scientist, theorist, painter, and for ten years chief minister of state for the duchy of Weimar. ... 1805 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1832 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... // Events July 24 - Spanish treasure fleet of ten ships under admiral Ubilla leave Havana, Cuba for Spain. ... 1789 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Geneva (pronunciation //; French: Genève //, German:   //, Italian: Ginevra, Romansh: Genevra) is the second most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich), and is the most populous city of Romandy (the French-speaking part of Switzerland). ...   (IPA: ; UN/LOCODE: SE STO) is the capital of Sweden, and consequently the site of its Government and Parliament as well as the residence of the Swedish head of state, King Carl XVI Gustaf. ... For other persons named Samuel Johnson, see Samuel Johnson (disambiguation). ... 1756 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1789 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... A Watt steam engine. ... 1756 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1756 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1789 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Sir Joshua Reynolds Sir Joshua Reynolds (July 16, 1723–February 23, 1792) was the most important and influential of eighteenth-century English painters, specialising in portraits and promoting the Grand Style in painting which depended on idealization of the imperfect. ... 1756 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1790 (MDCCXC) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1756 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1789 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1756 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1789 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... For other persons named Samuel Johnson, see Samuel Johnson (disambiguation). ... // Events January 12 - Two-month freezing period begins in France - The coast of the Atlantic and Seine River freeze, crops fail and at least 24. ... 1784 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste. ... Chesma Column in Tsarskoe Selo, commemorating the end of the Russo-Turkish War. ... 1789 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Chesma Column in Tsarskoe Selo, commemorating the end of the Russo-Turkish War. ... 1783 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Chesma Column in Tsarskoe Selo, commemorating the end of the Russo-Turkish War. ... 1807 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Chesma Column in Tsarskoe Selo, commemorating the end of the Russo-Turkish War. ... 1789 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Chesma Column in Tsarskoe Selo, commemorating the end of the Russo-Turkish War. ... 1789 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1783 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1789 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Download high resolution version (625x927, 102 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (625x927, 102 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Napoleon I Bonaparte, Emperor of the French, King of Italy, Mediator of the Swiss Confederation and Protector of the Confederation of the Rhine (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a general of the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... Self portrait of Jacques-Louis David (1794) Jacques-Louis David (August 30, 1748 – December 29, 1825) was a highly influential French painter in the Neoclassical style. ...

XI. The Age of Napoleon (1975)

This volume centers on Napoleon I of France and his times. Napoleon I Bonaparte, Emperor of the French, King of Italy, Mediator of the Swiss Confederation and Protector of the Confederation of the Rhine (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a general of the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from...

  1. The French Revolution: 1789-99
    1. The Background of Revolution: 1774-89
    2. The National Assembly: May 4, 1789-September 30, 1791
    3. The Legislative Assembly: October 1, 1791-September 20, 1792
    4. The Convention: September 21, 1792-October 26, 1795
    5. The Directory: November 2, 1795-November 9, 1799
    6. Life Under the Revolution: 1789-99
  2. Napoleon Ascendant: 1799-1811
    1. The Consulate: November 11, 1799-May 18, 1804
    2. The New Empire: 1804-07
    3. The Mortal Realm: 1807-11
    4. Napoleon Himself
    5. Napoleonic France: 1800-1815
    6. Napoleon and the Arts
    7. Literature versus Napoleon
    8. Science and Philosophy under Napoleon
  3. Britain: 1789-1812
    1. England at Work
    2. English Life
    3. The Arts in England
    4. Science in England
    5. English Philosophy
    6. Literature in Transition
    7. The Lake Poets: 1770-1850
    8. The Rebel Poets: 1788-1824
    9. England's Neighbors: 1789-1815
    10. Pitt, Nelson, and Napoleon: 1789-1812
  4. The Challenged Kings: 1789-1812
    1. Iberia
    2. Italy and Its Conquerors: 1789-1813
    3. Austria: 1780-1812
    4. Beethoven: 1770-1827
    5. Germany and Napoleon: 1786-1811
    6. The German People: 1789-1812
    7. German Literature: 1789-1815
    8. German Philosophy: 1789-1815
    9. Around the Heartland: 1789-1812
    10. Russia: 1796-1812
  5. Finale: 1811-1815
    1. To Moscow: 1811-12
    2. To Elba: 1813-14
    3. To Waterloo: 1814-15
    4. To St. Helena
    5. To the End
    6. Afterward: 1815-40

i heart kate young The French Revolution was a period of major political and social change in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to... 1789 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1799 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Chesma Column in Tsarskoe Selo, commemorating the end of the Russo-Turkish War. ... 1789 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The National Constituent Assembly (French: Assemblée nationale constituante) was formed from the National Assembly on July 9, 1789, during the first stages of the French Revolution. ... 1789 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1791 (MDCCXCI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... During the French Revolution, the Legislative Assembly was the legislature of France from 1 October 1791 to September 1792. ... 1791 (MDCCXCI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about a legislative body and constitutional convention during the French Revolution. ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1795 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Executive Directory (in French Directoire exécutif), commonly known as the Directory (or Directoire) held executive power in France from November 2, 1795 until November 10, 1799: following the Convention and preceding the Consulate. ... 1795 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1799 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1789 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1799 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1799 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1811 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... A title used by Napoleon Bonaparte following his seizure of power in France. ... 1799 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1804 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1804 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1807 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1807 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1811 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Napoleon I Bonaparte, Emperor of the French, King of Italy, Mediator of the Swiss Confederation and Protector of the Confederation of the Rhine (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a general of the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... // ON MAY 5 1853 MR.FADER HAD SEX WITH A MAN NAME MR WIEN THEN THEY HAD SON NAMEDMRS COTURE AND MR MANOOGIAN WENT INTO MRS HASKELLS OFFICE NAKED AND DANCED AROUND AND MASTERBATED ON HER CHEST AND SHE LICKED IT OFF THEN THEY HAD ORAL SEEX WITH NAPLOEAN OF... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... 1789 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... For the overture by Tchaikovsky, see 1812 Overture; For the wars, see War of 1812 (USA - United Kingdom) or Patriotic War of 1812 (France - Russia) For the Siberia Airlines plane crashed over the Black Sea on October 4, 2001, see Siberia Airlines Flight 1812 1812 was a leap year starting... The Lake Poets all lived in the Lake District of England at the turn of the nineteenth century. ... Battle of Chesma, by Ivan Aivazovsky. ... 1850 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1788 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1789 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... William Pitt the Younger (28 May 1759 – 23 January 1806) was a British politician of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. ... Vice-Admiral Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson, KB (29 September 1758 – 21 October 1805) was an English admiral famous for his participation in the Napoleonic Wars, most notably in the Battle of Trafalgar, where he lost his life. ... 1789 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... For the overture by Tchaikovsky, see 1812 Overture; For the wars, see War of 1812 (USA - United Kingdom) or Patriotic War of 1812 (France - Russia) For the Siberia Airlines plane crashed over the Black Sea on October 4, 2001, see Siberia Airlines Flight 1812 1812 was a leap year starting... 1789 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... For the overture by Tchaikovsky, see 1812 Overture; For the wars, see War of 1812 (USA - United Kingdom) or Patriotic War of 1812 (France - Russia) For the Siberia Airlines plane crashed over the Black Sea on October 4, 2001, see Siberia Airlines Flight 1812 1812 was a leap year starting... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe. ... 1789 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1813 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1780 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... For the overture by Tchaikovsky, see 1812 Overture; For the wars, see War of 1812 (USA - United Kingdom) or Patriotic War of 1812 (France - Russia) For the Siberia Airlines plane crashed over the Black Sea on October 4, 2001, see Siberia Airlines Flight 1812 1812 was a leap year starting... 1820 portrait by Joseph Karl Stieler Beethoven redirects here. ... Battle of Chesma, by Ivan Aivazovsky. ... Naval Battle of Navarino by Carneray 1827 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1786 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1811 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1789 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... For the overture by Tchaikovsky, see 1812 Overture; For the wars, see War of 1812 (USA - United Kingdom) or Patriotic War of 1812 (France - Russia) For the Siberia Airlines plane crashed over the Black Sea on October 4, 2001, see Siberia Airlines Flight 1812 1812 was a leap year starting... 1789 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... 1789 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... Heartland is a geopolitical term, used to refer to a central area of Eurasia that is remote and inaccessible from the periphery. ... 1789 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... For the overture by Tchaikovsky, see 1812 Overture; For the wars, see War of 1812 (USA - United Kingdom) or Patriotic War of 1812 (France - Russia) For the Siberia Airlines plane crashed over the Black Sea on October 4, 2001, see Siberia Airlines Flight 1812 1812 was a leap year starting... Year 1796 (MDCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... For the overture by Tchaikovsky, see 1812 Overture; For the wars, see War of 1812 (USA - United Kingdom) or Patriotic War of 1812 (France - Russia) For the Siberia Airlines plane crashed over the Black Sea on October 4, 2001, see Siberia Airlines Flight 1812 1812 was a leap year starting... 1811 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... Location Position of Moscow in Europe Government Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 1,081 km² Population  - City (2007)    - Density 10,469,000   8537. ... 1811 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... For the overture by Tchaikovsky, see 1812 Overture; For the wars, see War of 1812 (USA - United Kingdom) or Patriotic War of 1812 (France - Russia) For the Siberia Airlines plane crashed over the Black Sea on October 4, 2001, see Siberia Airlines Flight 1812 1812 was a leap year starting... Elba (bottom centre) from space, February 1994. ... 1813 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1814 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Combatants France Prussia Allied army: -United Kingdom -United Netherlands -Hannover -Nassau -Brunswick Commanders Napoléon Bonaparte Michel Ney Duke of Wellington Gebhard von Blücher Strength 73,000 67,000 Allies 60,000 Prussian (48,000 engaged by about 18:00) Casualties 25,000 dead or wounded 22,000 dead... 1814 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... 1840 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ...

Criticism

The Story of Civilization has been criticized for simplifications, rash judgements colored by personal convictions, and story-telling, and described as a careless dabbling in historical scholarship. Professor J. H. Plumb's opinion on the series was that “historical truth… can rarely be achieved outside the professional world [of historians].”[1]. However, Durant’s purpose in writing the series was not to create a definitive scholarly production but to make a large amount of information accessible and comprehensible to the educated public in the form of a comprehensive "composite history." Like Wikipedia, the series has been banned as a source for the game show Jeopardy! due to its frequent errors.[citation needed] Wikipedia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Jeopardy! is a popular international television quiz game show, originally devised by Merv Griffin, who also created Wheel of Fortune. ...


Given the massive undertaking in creating these 11 volumes over 50 years, errors and incompleteness have occured; yet for an attempt as large in breadth of time and scope as this, there are no similar works to compare.


Footnotes

  1. ^ J. H. Plumb, New York Review of Books; quoted in Arnold Beichman, “Is History Only for the Historians?” The Christian Science Monitor, 28 October 1965.

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Philosophy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (6992 words)
In The Story of Philosophy, Will Durant lists logic, aesthetics, ethics, politics, and metaphysics, but there are many places where these subjects overlap, and there are many philosophical ideas that cannot be placed neatly into only one of these categories.
The medieval period of philosophy came with the collapse of Roman civilization and the dawn of Christianity, Islam, and rabbinic Judaism.
The medieval period brought Christian scholastic philosophy, with writers such as Augustine of Hippo, Boethius, Anselm, Robert Grosseteste, Albertus Magnus, Roger Bacon, Bonaventure, Thomas Aquinas, John Duns Scotus, William of Ockham, Nicholas of Cusa, and Francisco Suárez.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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