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Encyclopedia > The Snow Maiden
Operas by Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov

The Maid of Pskov (1872)
May Night (1879)
The Snow Maiden (1881)
Mlada (1890)
Christmas Eve (1895)
Sadko (1896)
Mozart and Salieri (1897)
The Noblewoman Vera Sheloga (1898)
The Tsar's Bride (1898)
The Tale of Tsar Saltan (1900)
Servilia (1901)
Kashchey the Deathless (1902)
Pan Voyevoda (1903)
The Invisible City of Kitezh (1905)
The Golden Cockerel (1907)
Nikolai Andreyevich Rimsky-Korsakov Nikolai Andreyevich Rimsky-Korsakov (Russian: , Nikolaj Andreevič Rimskij-Korsakov), also Nikolay, Nicolai, and Rimsky-Korsakoff, (March 6 (N.S. March 18), 1844 – June 8 (N.S. June 21) 1908) was a Russian composer, one of five Russian composers known as The Five, and was later a... Image File history File links NARK.jpg‎ This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years or less. ... The Maid of Pskov (Russian: , Pskovityanka), also known as Ivan the Terrible, is an opera in three acts by Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov. ... May Night (Mayskaya noch in transliteration) is an opera in three acts by Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov to Russian libretto by the composer, based on Nikolay Gogol’s story Mayskaya noch, ili Utoplennitsa (May Night, or The Drowned Maiden) from his collection Evenings on a Farm near Dikanka. ... Mlada (Млада in Cyrillic) is an opera-ballet in four acts, composed in 1889-1890 by Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, to a libretto by Viktor Krylov that was originally written for an aborted project of the same name from 1872. ... Christmas Eve (Russian: , Noč pered Roždestvom), is an opera in four acts by Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov. ... Sadko in the Underwater Kingdom, a painting by Ilya Repin (1876) Sadko (Садко in Russian, Sadko in transliteration) is an opera in seven scenes by Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov to a Russian libretto by the composer with assistance from Vladimir Belsky, Vladimir Stasov, and others. ... Mozart and Salieri (Motsart i Sal’yeri in transliteration) is an opera in two acts by Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov to Russian libretto by the composer, based on a verse drama by Alexander Pushkin. ... The Noblewoman Vera Sheloga (Russian: , Bojarynja Vera Å eloga) is an opera in one act by Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov. ... The Tsars Bride (Russian: , Tsarskaya nevesta) is an opera in four acts by Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, the composers tenth opera. ... The Tale of Tsar Saltan (Сказка о царе Салтане in Russian, Skazka o care Saltane in transliteration) is an opera in four acts (six tableaux) with a prologue, by Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov to a Russian libretto by Vladimir Ivanovich Belsky, based on the poem of the same name by Aleksandr Pushkin. ... Servilia (Russian: , Servilija), is an opera in five acts by Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov. ... Kashchey the Deathless (Russian: , Kashchey bessmertnïy, Kashchey the Immortal) is a one-act opera (styled a little autumnal fairy tale) by Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov. ... Pan Voyevoda (Russian: , Pan vojevoda lit. ... The Legend of the Invisible City of Kitezh and the Maiden Fevroniya (Russian: , Skazaniye o nevidimom grade Kitezhe i deve Fevronii) is an opera in four acts by Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov. ... The Golden Cockerel (Russian: , Zolotoy Petushok, Golden Cockerel) is an an opera in three acts by Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov. ...

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The Snow Maiden–A Spring Fairy Tale (Russian: Снегурочка–Весенняя сказка, Snegúrochka–Vesennyaya Skazka) is an opera in four acts with a prologue by Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, composed during 1880-1881. The Russian libretto, by the composer, is based on the like-named play by Alexandr Ostrovsky (which had premiered in 1873 with incidental music by Tchaikovsky). The first performance of Rimsky-Korsakov's opera took place at the Mariinsky Theatre, Saint Petersburg, 29 January 1882 (Old Style) under the conductorship of Eduard Nápravník. By 1898 it was revised in the edition known today. It remained the composer's own favorite work. Snegurochka pictured in a Russian childrens book Snegurochka (Russian: ), or the Snow Maiden, is a character in Russian fairy tales. ... The Snow Maiden (Russian: ; tr. ... For other uses, see Opera (disambiguation). ... Nikolai Andreyevich Rimsky-Korsakov Nikolai Andreyevich Rimsky-Korsakov (Russian: , Nikolaj Andreevič Rimskij-Korsakov), also Nikolay, Nicolai, and Rimsky-Korsakoff, (March 6 (N.S. March 18), 1844 – June 8 (N.S. June 21) 1908) was a Russian composer, one of five Russian composers known as The Five, and was later a... Year 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Antonio Ghislanzoni, nineteenth century Italian librettist. ... Portrait of A. N. Ostrowskij by Vasily Perov. ... 1873 (MDCCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (Russian Пётр Ильи́ч Чайко́вский, sometimes transliterated as Piotr, Anglicised as Peter Ilich), (May 7, 1840 – November 6, 1893 (N.S.); April 25, 1840 – October... The Maryinsky (or Mariinsky) Theatre (or Theater), is the St Petersburg theatre where the Mariinsky Ballet is located. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... Year 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Old Style redirects here. ... Eduard Frantsovitch Nápravník (24 August 1839, Býšť, Bohemia - 23 November 1916) was Czech/Russian conductor and composer. ...

Contents

Analysis

Aleksandr Ostrovsky (1823—1886) wrote the drama Snow Maiden in 1873.
Aleksandr Ostrovsky (1823—1886) wrote the drama Snow Maiden in 1873.

The story deals with the opposition of eternal forces of nature and involves the interactions of mythological characters (Frost, Spring, Wood-Sprite), real people (Kupava, Mizgir'), and those in-between, i.e., half-mythical, half-real (Snow Maiden, Lel’, Berendey). The composer strove to distinguish each group of characters musically, and several individual characters have their own associated leitmotifs. In addition to these distinctions, Rimsky-Korsakov characterized the townspeople particularly with folk melodies. For a deeper understanding of this work from the composer's point of view, the reader is directed to his autobiography, as well as to his own incomplete analysis of the opera from 1905. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1576x2067, 74 KB) Description: Title: de: Porträt des Dramatikers A. N. Ostrowskij Technique: de: Öl auf Leinwand Dimensions: de: 103,5 × 80,7 cm Country of origin: de: Rußland Current location (city): de: Moskau Current location (gallery): de: Tretjakow... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1576x2067, 74 KB) Description: Title: de: Porträt des Dramatikers A. N. Ostrowskij Technique: de: Öl auf Leinwand Dimensions: de: 103,5 × 80,7 cm Country of origin: de: Rußland Current location (city): de: Moskau Current location (gallery): de: Tretjakow... Aleksandr Nicolaevich Ostrovsky (Александр Николаевич Островский) (April 12 (March 31, O.S.)1823— June 14 (June 2, O.S.)1886) was a Russian... A leitmotif (IPA pronunciation: ) (also leitmotiv; lit. ... For other uses, see 1905 (disambiguation). ...


Performance history

St. Petersburg Premiere (World premiere)

Moscow Premiere is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Old Style can refer to: Old Style and New Style dates, a shift from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar: in Britain in 1752, in Russia in 1918. ... is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Maryinsky (or Mariinsky) Theatre (or Theater), is the St Petersburg theatre where the Mariinsky Ballet is located. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... Eduard Frantsovitch Nápravník (24 August 1839, Býšť, Bohemia - 23 November 1916) was Czech/Russian conductor and composer. ...

Other Notable Performances 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Private Opera (Russian: Частная Опера), also known as: The Russian Private Opera (Русская Частная Опера); Moscow Private Russian Opera, (Московская Частная Русская Опера); Mamontovs Private Russian Opera in Moscow (Мамонтова Частная Русская Опера в Москве); Korotkovs Theatre (Театр Кроткова, 1885-1888); Vinters Theatre (Театр Винтера, 1896-1899); Private Opera Society (Товарищество Частной Оперы, 1899-1904); and Solodovnikov Theatre (Театр Солодовникова, from 1895; later used by Zimin opera, Moscow Operetta, and... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Self-portrait 1873 Viktor Mikhailovich Vasnetsov (Виктор Михайлович Васнецов) (May 15 (N.S.), 1848—1926) was a Russian artist who specialized in mythological and historical subjects. ... Issac Levitan. ... Konstantin Alekseyevich Korovin (Russian: Константин Алексеевич Коровин) (November 23 (N.S. December 5), 1861, Moscow - September 11, 1939, Paris) was a Russian painter. ...

  • Date: 1893
  • Place: Bolshoy Theatre, Moscow
  • Conductor: Ippolit Altani
  • Scene Designers: Karl Valts (Waltz), Savitsky, Smirnov

Original Interpreters Year 1893 (MDCCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Bolshoi Theatre The Bolshoi Theatre is a theatre and theater company in Moscow, Russia, which gives performances of plays, ballet, and opera. ... Ippolit Karlovich Altani (also Altani) (27 May [OS 15 May] 1846, South of Ukraine – 17 February 1919, Moscow – was a Russian conductor, choirmaster and violinist. ...

Role Voice St. Petersburg 1882 Moscow 1893
Tsar Berendey tenor Mikhail Vasilyev Anton Bartsal
Bermyata bass Mikhail Koryakin Stepan Trezvinsky
Spring Beauty mezzo-soprano Mariya Kamenskaya Aleksandra Krutikova
Grandfather Frost bass Fyodor Stravinsky Stepan Vlasov
The Snow Maiden soprano Feodosiya Velinskaya Margarita Eykhenvald (Eichenwald)
Bobyl Bakula tenor Klementyev
Bobylikha mezzo-soprano Olga Shreder (Schröder) Pavlenkova
Lel contralto Anna Bichurina Lidiya Zvyagina
Kupava soprano Makarova Mariya Deysha-Sionitskaya
Mizgir baritone Ippolit Pryanishnikov Bogomir Korsov
First Herald tenor
Second Herald bass
Tsar's page mezzo-soprano
Wood-Sprite tenor Sobolev
Maslenitsa bass

Fyodor Stravinsky as the Miller in Dargomyzhskys opera Rusalka Fyodor Ignatievich Stravinsky (Russian: , 20 June [O.S. 8 June] 1843 - 4 December [O.S. 21 November] 1902) was a Russian-Ukrainian bass opera singer and actor. ... Bogomir Korsov as Mazeppa, Bolshoi Theatre, Moscow, 1884 Bogomir Bogomirovich Korsov, also Gothfrid Gothfridovich Korsov – pseudonym, the real name Gothfrid Gering (1845, St Petersburg – 1920, Tbilisi) – was a Russian opera singer, baritone. ...

Roles and setting

Source: 100 Опер, Издательство «Музыка», Ленинград


Roles

Russian English Voice
Царь Берендей Tsar Berendey tenor
Бермята, ближний боярин Bermyata, boyar, confidant of the tsar bass
Весна-красна Spring Beauty mezzo-soprano
Дед-Мороз Grandfather Frost bass
Девушка-Снегурочка The Snow Maiden soprano
Бобыль Бакула Bobyl Bakula tenor
Бобылиха, его жена Bobylikha, his wife mezzo-soprano
Лель, пастух Lel, a shepherd contralto
Купава, молодая девушка, дочь богатого слобожанина Kupava, a young maiden, daughter of a wealthy settler soprano
Мизгирь, торговый гость из посада Берендеева Mizgir, a merchant guest from the Berendeyans' trading quarter baritone
Первый бирюч First Herald tenor
Второй бирюч Second Herald bass
Царский отрок The Tsar's page mezzo-soprano
Леший The Wood-Sprite tenor
Масленица, соломенное чучело Maslenitsa, a straw effigy bass
Бояре, боярыни и свита царя, гусляры, слепые, скоморохи, гудочники, волынщики, пастухи, парни и девушки, берендеи всякого звания обоего пола, лешие, свита Весны — птицы, цветы Boyars, their wives and the tsar's retinue, gusli-players, blind men, skomorokhi, gudok-players, bag-pipers, shepherds, lads and lasses, male and female Berendeyans of every age and calling, forest sprites, Spring's retinue — birds, flowers chorus, silent roles

This article is about Tenor vocalists in music. ... A boyar (also spelled bojar, Romanian: ) was a member of the highest rank of the feudal Bulgarian, Romanian, and Russian aristocracy, second only to the ruling princes, from the 10th century through the 17th century. ... A basso (or bass) is a male singer who sings in the lowest vocal range of the human voice. ... A mezzo-soprano (meaning medium soprano in Italian) is a female singer with a range usually extending from the A below middle C to the F an eleventh above middle C. Mezzo-sopranos generally have a darker (or lower) vocal tone than sopranos, and their vocal range is between that... In the culture of the eastern Slavs the traditional character Ded Moroz (Russian: ) plays a role similar to that of Santa Claus. ... Snegurochka pictured in a Russian childrens book Snegurochka (Russian: ), or the Snow Maiden, is a character in Russian fairy tales. ... This article is about the voice-type. ... In music, an alto is a singer with a vocal range somewhere between a tenor and a soprano. ... For other uses, see Baritone (disambiguation). ... Boris Kustodiev Maslenitsa tuesday Maslenitsa or Pancake week (Russian: , also called Pancake week) is a Russian folk holiday that dates back to the pagan times. ... The Gusli (гусли) is an ancient Russian musical instrument, a kind of a harp, not to be confused with Balkan Gusle. ... 18th-century lubok representing Russian skomorokhs. ... Gudok is an ancient Russian string musical instrument, which was played with a bow. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

Setting

  • Time: Pre-historic times
  • Place: The land of the Berendeyans

Synopsis

Yevgeniya Zbrueva as Lel(Bolshoy Theatre, Moscow, 1894)
Yevgeniya Zbrueva as Lel
(Bolshoy Theatre, Moscow, 1894)

Prologue. On Red Hill, near the Berendeyans' trading quarter and Tsar Berendey's capital. The fifteen-year-old Snow Maiden wants to live with the people in the nearby village, and her parents, Spring Beauty and Grandfather Frost, agree to let her be adopted by Bobyl-Bakula and his wife. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Bolshoi Theatre The Bolshoi Theatre is a theatre and theater company in Moscow, Russia, which gives performances of plays, ballet, and opera. ...


Act I. In the village of Berendeyevka, on the other side of the river. Snow Maiden is enchanted by Lel's songs, but is saddened when he goes off with a group of other girls. Kupava enters and announces her own wedding to Mizgir. The ceremony takes place, but then Mizgir notices Snow Maiden, becomes smitten with her, and begs her to love him. Kupava brings this affrontery before the villagers, and they advise her to go to the Tsar for redress.


Act II. In Tsar Berendey's palace. Kupava complains of Mizgir to Tsar Berendey, who decides to banish Mizgir to the forest. But these deliberations are disrupted by the appearance of the beautiful Snow Maiden. The Tsar asks her whom she loves, and she says, "no one." The Tsar declares that whoever successfully woos Snow Maiden will win both her and a royal reward. Although the maidens present Lel as the likely candidate, Mizgir swears that he will win Snow Maiden's heart. The Tsar agrees to the contest as the people sing his praises.


Act III. In a forest reserve, that evening. The people amuse themselves with song and dance. The Tsar invites Lel to choose a maiden. Despite Snow Maiden's pleas, he kisses Kupava and goes off with her. Snow Maiden, left alone and disconsolate, wonders why Lel has rejected her. Suddenly Mizgir appears and tries once more to win her love. Frightened by his words, she runs off; but the Wood-Sprite tricks Mizgir to follow an apparition of Snow Maiden instead. Lel and Kupava enter, declaring their mutual love. Snow Maiden finds them and, seeing their happiness, at last truly wishes to have the capacity to love.


Act IV. In the valley of Yarilo, the sun god, dawn is breaking the next day. Snow Maiden calls on her mother, Spring-Beauty, who appears from a lake surrounded by flowers. Spring gives her daughter a garland and warns her to stay out of the light of the sun. Spring and her retinue sink into the lake. Before Snow Maiden can enter the protection of the forest, Mizgir appears. No longer able to resist, she professes her love for him. The Berendeyans, in ritual bride-and-groom pairs, arrive to celebrate Yarilo's Day. Before the Tsar Mizgir presents Snow Maiden as his bride. As she declares her love for Mizgir, a bright ray of sunlight appears, and Snow Maiden bids farewell: the power to love is the source of her demise. To the astonishment of the people, she melts. The inconsolable Mizgir drowns himself in the lake. The Tsar calms the horrified Berendeyans with the fact that this event has ended the fifteen-year-long winter that has befallen them. In response the people strike up a stirring hymn to Yarilo. This article contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ...


Principal arias and numbers

Prologue

Introduction
Chorus of the Birds
Snow Maiden's Aria
Chorus: Farewell to Maslenitsa

Act I

Lel's First Song
Lel's Second Song

Act II

Procession of Tsar Berendey

Act III

Dance of the Skomorokhi
Lel's Third Song

Derived works

Suite from the opera The Snow Maiden
Сюита из оперы Снегурочка

  1. Introduction (Вступление)
  2. Dance of the Birds (Пляска птиц)
  3. Procession of Tsar Berendey (Шествие царя Берендея)
  4. Dance of the Skomorokhi (Пляска скоморохов)

Related works

Tchaikovsky: Incidental music to The Snow Maiden (1873) Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (Russian Пётр Ильи́ч Чайко́вский, sometimes transliterated as Piotr, Anglicised as Peter Ilich), (May 7, 1840 – November 6, 1893 (N.S.); April 25, 1840 – October... Incidental music is music in a play, television program, radio program or some other form not primarily musical. ... 1873 (MDCCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


Discography

  • 195?, Yevgeny Svetlanov, Bolshoy Theatre Orchestra and Chorus, Vera Firsova (Snow Maiden), Larisa Avdeyeva (Lel), Galina Vishnevskaya (Kupava), Vera Borisenko (Spring), Valentina Petrova (Bobilichka), Andrey Sokolov (Wood Spirit), L. Sverdlova (Page), Ivan Kozlovsky (Tsar Berendey), Yuriy Galkin (Mizgir), Alexey Krivchenya (Grandfather Frost), A. Khosson (Bobil), Mikhail Skazin (Maslenitsa)
  • 1976, Vladimir Fedoseyev (conductor), Moscow Radio Symphony Orchestra and Chorus, Valentina Sokolik (Snow Maiden), Irina Arkhipova (Lel), Lidiya Zakharenko (Kupava), Irina Arkhipova (Spring), Nina Derbina (Bobilikha), Aleksandr Arkhipov (Wood Spirit), Anna Matyushina (Page), Anton Grigoryev (Tsar Berendey), Aleksandr Moksyakov (Mizgir), Aleksandr Vedernikov (Grandfather Frost), Yuri Yelnikov (Bobil), Vladimir Matorin (Bermyata), Ivan Budrin (Maslenitsa), Vladimir Makhov (First Herald), Vladimir Yermakov (Second Herald)

Bibliography

  • Abraham, Gerald (1936). "X.-- Snegurochka ('Snow Maiden')", Studies in Russian Music (in English). London: William Reeves / The New Temple Press, p.193-220. 
  • Halbe, Gregory A. Music, Drama, and Folklore in Rimsky-Korsakov's Opera "Snegurochka". Ph.D. dissertation, Musicology, Ohio State University, 2004.
  • Lischke, André. "Les leitmotives de Snegourotchka analyses par Rimsky-Korsakov," Revue de musicologie 65/1 (1979), pp. 51-75.
  • Rimsky-Korsakov, Nikolai. My Musical Life. Trans. from the 5th rev. Russian ed. by Judah A. Joffe; ed. with an introduction by Carl Van Vechten. London : Ernst Eulenburg Ltd, 1974.
  • _______. Разбор “Снегурочки". Литературные произведения и переписка. Полное собрание сочинений, Том IV. [Analysis of "Snowmaiden". Literary Works and Correspondence. Complete [sic] Collection of Works, Vol. IV.] Москва: Гос. муз. изд-во, 1960, pp. 393-426.
  • 100 опер: история создания, сюжет, музыка. [100 Operas: History of Creation, Subject, Music.] Ленинград: Издательство "Музыка," 1968, pp. 336-341.

Ernst Eulenburg the music publisher was established by Ernst Eulenburg in Leipzig in 1874. ...

External links

  • Russian libretto in zip file for Word

  Results from FactBites:
 
The Snow Maiden - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (895 words)
The Snow Maiden (Снегурочка in Cyrillic, Snegurochka in transliteration) is an opera in four acts with a prologue by Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, composed during 1880-1881.
The fifteen-year-old Snow Maiden wants to live with the people in the nearby village, and her parents, Spring Beauty and Grandfather Frost, agree to let her be adopted by Bobyl’-Bakula and his wife.
Snow Maiden is enchanted by Lel’'s songs, but is saddened when he goes off with a group of other girls.
Guardian Unlimited | Archive Search (432 words)
And puncturing the delicate sadness of the ending - as the Snow Maiden is married to Mizgir, she melts away in the spring sun - is the cheery optimism of the villagers as they collectively turn away from the tragedy to greet the new season.
Natalia Ledovskaya as the Maiden is as light and winsome as the role requires, and her chorus of fellow Snow Maidens also dance prettily.
The Snow Maiden was in fact premiered by London Festival Ballet before it became a standard of the Russian repertory, but audiences at the Festival Hall on Thursday could not have guessed that it boasted any English history.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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