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Encyclopedia > The Silmarillion
The Silmarillion

1977 George Allen & Unwin hardback edition.
Author J. R. R. Tolkien
Country United Kingdom
Language English
Genre(s) Alternate history, Fantasy
Publisher Allen & Unwin
Publication date 1977
Media type Print (Hardback & Paperback)
Pages 365
ISBN 0048231398
Followed by The Hobbit

The Silmarillion is a collection of J. R. R. Tolkien's mythopoeic works, edited and published posthumously by his son Christopher Tolkien in 1977, with assistance from Guy Gavriel Kay,[1] who later became a noted fantasy writer. The Silmarillion, along with J. R. R. Tolkien's other works, forms a comprehensive, yet incomplete, narrative that describes the universe of Middle-earth within which The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings take place. The History of Middle-earth is a twelve-volume examination of the writing and revisions of The Lord of the Rings and The Silmarillion by looking into J. R. R. Tolkien's rough drafts and by commentary by Christopher Tolkien. Tolkien redirects here. ... Tolkiens Legendarium (ISBN 0-313-30530-7) is a collection of scholarly essays edited by Verlyn Flieger and Carl F. Hostetter on the History of Middle-earth series of books relating to the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, compiled and edited by his son, Christopher Tolkien. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium, the Silmarils (Quenya Silmarilli) are three fictional sacred objects in the form of brilliant star-like jewels which contained the unmarred light of the Two Trees. ... Image File history File links Silmarillion. ... Tolkien redirects here. ... For other uses, see Country (disambiguation). ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Alternative history or alternate history can be: A History told from an alternative viewpoint, rather than from the view of imperialist, conqueror, or explorer. ... For other uses, see Fantasy (disambiguation). ... A publisher is a person or entity which engages in the act of publishing. ... Allen & Unwin, formerly a major British publishing house, is now an independent, Australia-based book publisher and distributor. ... See also: 1976 in literature, other events of 1977, 1978 in literature, list of years in literature. ... Hardcover books A hardcover (or hardback or hardbound) is a book bound with rigid protective covers (typically of cardboard covered with cloth, heavy paper, or sometimes leather). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... ISBN redirects here. ... For other uses, see Hobbit (disambiguation) and There and Back Again (disambiguation). ... Tolkien redirects here. ... Mythopoeia (Greek for myth-making) is a narrative genre in modern literature and film where a fictional mythology was created by the author or director. ... Christopher Reuel Tolkien (born November 21, 1924) is best known as the third son of author J. R. R. Tolkien (1892-1973), and as the editor of much of his fathers posthumously published work. ... Canadian author Guy Gavriel Kay Guy Gavriel Kay (born November 7, 1954) is a Canadian author of fantasy fiction. ... For other uses, see Fantasy (disambiguation). ... A map of the Northwestern part of Middle-earth at the end of the Third Age, courtesy of the Encyclopedia of Arda. ... For other uses, see Hobbit (disambiguation) and There and Back Again (disambiguation). ... This article is about the novel. ... The History of Middle-earth is a 12-volume series of books published from 1983-1996, that collect and analyse material relating to the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, compiled and edited by his son, Christopher Tolkien. ...


The Silmarillion comprises five parts. The first part, Ainulindalë, tells of the creation of , the world. Valaquenta, the second part, gives a description of the Valar and Maiar, the supernatural powers in Eä. The next section, Quenta Silmarillion, which forms the bulk of the collection, chronicles the history of the events before and during the First Age. The fourth part, Akallabêth, relates the history of the Downfall of Númenor and its people, which takes place in the Second Age. The final part, Of the Rings of Power and the Third Age, is a brief account of the circumstances which led to and were presented in The Lord of the Rings. Ainulindalë (Quenya, Music of the Ainur or, more literally, Singing of the Holy) is the first section and chapter of The Silmarillion (an abridged and condensed collection of fictional legends presented as histories, written over some 60+ years by J. R. R. Tolkien, edited and published posthumously in 1977 by... In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, Eä is the Quenya language name for the universe, as a realization of the vision of the Ainur. ... Valaquenta (Quenya for Tale of the Valar) is the second section of The Silmarillion, a collection of fictional myths written by J. R. R. Tolkien and published in an abridged and condensed form by his son Christopher Tolkien in 1977. ... The Valar (singular Vala) are characters in J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium. ... The Maiar (singular: Maia) are beings from J. R. R. Tolkiens fantasy legendarium. ... Quenta Silmarillion is a collection of fictional legends written by the fantasy writer J. R. R. Tolkien. ... In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, the First Age began with the awakening of the Elves, and ended with the final overthrow of Morgoth by the combined armies of Valinor and Beleriand. ... Akallabêth is the fourth part of the fictional work The Silmarillion by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... The Second Age is a fictional time period from J. R. R. Tolkiens universe of Middle-earth. ... Of the Rings of Power and the Third Age is the fifth and last part of The Silmarillion by J. R. R. Tolkien. ...


The five parts were initially separate works, but it was the elder Tolkien's express wish that they be published together.[1] Because J. R. R. Tolkien died before he finished revising the various legends, Christopher gathered material from his father's older writings to fill out the book. In a few cases, this meant that he had to devise completely new material in order to resolve gaps and inconsistencies in the narrative.


The Silmarillion, like Tolkien's other Middle-earth writings, was meant to have taken place at some time in Earth's past.[2] In keeping with this idea, The Silmarillion is meant to have been translated from Bilbo's three-volume Translations from the Elvish, which he wrote while at Rivendell.[3] Bilbo Baggins (2890 Third Age - ? Fourth Age) is an important character in J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium. ... Fictional book in J.R.R. Tolkiens legendarium. ...


Among the notable chapters in the book are:

Contents

Beren is a fictional character, from J. R. R. Tolkiens fantasy-world Middle-earth. ... Lúthien Tinúviel is a fictional character in the fantasy-world Middle-earth of the English author J. R. R. Tolkien. ... ... The Narn i Hîn Húrin or Lay of the Children of Húrin is a part of the Unfinished Tales by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... Tuor is a fictional character of J.R.R. Tolkiens Middle-earth. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium, Gondolin is a hidden city of the Elves founded by Turgon in the First Age. ... For the Anglo-Saxon name, see Earendel. ... Combatants Host of Valinor[1] All the hosts of Morgoth[2] Commanders Eönwë Morgoth Casualties Unknown, but probably severe Nearly all the forces of Morgoth: Balrogs, Orcs, Dragons and others In J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium, the War of Wrath, or the Great Battle, was the final war...

Synopsis

The Silmarillion
Ainulindalë
Valaquenta
Quenta Silmarillion
Akallabêth
Of the Rings of Power
and the Third Age

Ainulindalë (Quenya, Music of the Ainur or, more literally, Singing of the Holy) is the first section and chapter of The Silmarillion (an abridged and condensed collection of fictional legends presented as histories, written over some 60+ years by J. R. R. Tolkien, edited and published posthumously in 1977 by... Valaquenta (Quenya for Tale of the Valar) is the second section of The Silmarillion, a collection of fictional myths written by J. R. R. Tolkien and published in an abridged and condensed form by his son Christopher Tolkien in 1977. ... Quenta Silmarillion is a collection of fictional legends written by the fantasy writer J. R. R. Tolkien. ... Akallabêth is the fourth part of the fictional work The Silmarillion by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... Of the Rings of Power and the Third Age is the fifth and last part of The Silmarillion by J. R. R. Tolkien. ...

Ainulindalë and Valaquenta

Main articles: Ainulindalë and Valaquenta

The first section of The Silmarillion, Ainulindalë ("The Music of the Ainur"[4]), takes the form of a primary creation myth. Ilúvatar ("Father of All") first created the Ainur, a group of eternal spirits or demiurges, called "the offspring of his thought". Ilúvatar brought the Ainur together and showed them a theme, from which he bade them make a great music. Melkor—whom Ilúvatar had given the "greatest power and knowledge" of all the Ainur—broke from the harmony of the music to develop his own song. Some Ainur joined him, while others continued to follow Ilúvatar, causing discord in the music. Ilúvatar then stopped the music and showed them a vision of Arda and its peoples. The vision disappeared after a while, but Ilúvatar, seeing the desires of the Ainur, brought the vision into being. Ainulindalë (Quenya, Music of the Ainur or, more literally, Singing of the Holy) is the first section and chapter of The Silmarillion (an abridged and condensed collection of fictional legends presented as histories, written over some 60+ years by J. R. R. Tolkien, edited and published posthumously in 1977 by... Valaquenta (Quenya for Tale of the Valar) is the second section of The Silmarillion, a collection of fictional myths written by J. R. R. Tolkien and published in an abridged and condensed form by his son Christopher Tolkien in 1977. ... The Ainur (from Valarin Ayanûz; singular Ainu) are a fictional race from J. R. R. Tolkiens universe, Eä. Spoiler warning: The Ainur are the spirits emanated by Ilúvatar to help him to create the Universe, Eä, through the Music of the Ainur. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Demiurge (from the Greek , Latinized , meaning artisan or craftsman, literally worker in the service of the people, from of the people + work) is a term for a creator deity, responsible for the creation of the physical universe. ... Morgoth Bauglir (originally known as Melkor) is a fictional character from J. R. R. Tolkien’s Middle-earth legendarium. ... In the works of J. R. R. Tolkien, Arda is the name given to the Earth in a period of fictional prehistory, wherein the places mentioned in The Lord of the Rings and related material once existed. ...


Many Ainur descended, taking physical form and becoming bound to the new world. The greater Ainur became known as Valar, while the lesser Ainur were called Maiar. The Valar attempted to prepare the world for the coming inhabitants (Elves and Men), while Melkor, who wanted Arda for himself, repeatedly destroyed their work, until, slowly, through waves of destruction and creation, the world took shape. The Valar (singular Vala) are characters in J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium. ... The Maiar (singular: Maia) are beings from J. R. R. Tolkiens fantasy legendarium. ...


Valaquenta ("Account of the Valar"[4]) describes Melkor and each of the fourteen Valar in detail, as well as a few of the Maiar. It also tells how Melkor seduced many Maiar—including Sauron and the Balrogs—into his service. This article is about a fictional character from J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth fantasy writings. ... A Balrog fighting Gandalf, as depicted by Ted Nasmith. ...


Quenta Silmarillion

Main article: Quenta Silmarillion

Quenta Silmarillion ("The History of the Silmarils"[4]), which makes up the bulk of the book, is a series of interconnected tales set in the First Age making up the tragic saga of the three magical jewels, the Silmarils. The Valar had attempted to fashion the world for Elves and Men, but Melkor continually destroyed their handiwork, so they removed to Aman, a continent to the west of Middle-earth, where they established their home called Valinor. When the Elves awoke, the Valar decided to fight Melkor to keep them safe. They defeated and captured Melkor, and invited the Elves to come to Aman. Many Elves journeyed to Aman, but some did not attempt the journey, and others stopped along the way. Of the three tribes that set out, all of the Vanyar and Noldor, and most of the Teleri reached Aman. While in Aman, a Noldorin Elf named Fëanor created the Silmarils, which contained the light of the Two Trees of Valinor, the light source of Aman. Melkor, having been released after seeming to repent, stole the Silmarils, killed Fëanor's father, and destroyed the Two Trees. Fëanor and his sons swore an oath of revenge against Melkor and anyone who kept a Silmaril from them, and led many of his kin to Middle-earth, where Melkor had fled, killing some of the Teleri for their ships. Quenta Silmarillion is a collection of fictional legends written by the fantasy writer J. R. R. Tolkien. ... The Silmarils are fictional artifacts from J. R. R. Tolkiens universe of Middle-earth. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium, the Silmarils (Quenya Silmarilli) are three fictional sacred objects in the form of brilliant star-like jewels which contained the unmarred light of the Two Trees. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium, an Elf is an individual member of one of the races that inhabit the lands of Arda. ... The race of Men in J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth books, such as The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings, refers to humanity and does not denote gender. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium, Aman (blessed realm) is a continent that lies to the west of Middle-earth (although it lay in another dimension during the time of The Lord of the Rings), across the great ocean Belegaer. ... Valinor (meaning Land of the Valar) is a fictional location from J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium, the realm of the Valar in Aman. ... ... In the works of J. R. R. Tolkien, the Vanyar are the fairest and most noble of the High Elves. ... In the works of J. R. R. Tolkien, the Noldor (meaning those with knowledge) are of the second clan of the Elves who came to Aman, the Tatyar. ... The main part of this article relates to the version of Middle-earths history that is considered canon by most Tolkien fans who accept such labels (see: Middle-earth canon). ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium, Fëanor is a fictional character who is central to Tolkiens mythology as told in The Silmarillion. ... Creation of the Two Trees In J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium, the Two Trees of Valinor are Telperion and Laurelin, the Silver Tree and the Gold that brought light to the Land of the Valar in ancient times. ...


When Melkor arrived in Middle-earth, he attacked the Elvish kingdom of Doriath, but was defeated. This battle was the first of five battles between Melkor and the Elves, aided at times by Men and Dwarves. This conflict came to be known as the War of the Jewels. Soon, the Noldor arrived in Middle-earth and attacked Melkor, and though Fëanor was slain, they were victorious. After a peace, Melkor again attacked the Noldor, but was defeated and besieged. Nearly four hundred years later, Melkor broke the siege and drove the Noldor back. A man named Beren survived the battle and wandered to Doriath, where he fell in love with Lúthien, the king's daughter. The king would only allow their marriage if Beren gave him a Silmaril. Together, Beren and Lúthien stole into Melkor's fortress and stole a Silmaril, which Beren gave to the king. The Noldor, seeing that Melkor was not invincible, attacked again, but were utterly defeated, due in part to the treachery of Men. All of the Elvish kingdoms fell, until Eärendil the half-Elven, using the light of the Silmaril Beren retrieved, travelled across the sea to Aman to ask the Valar for help. The Valar agreed; they attacked and defeated Melkor, completely destroying his fortress and sinking Beleriand, and expelled him from Arda. This ended the First Age of Middle-earth. In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional Middle-earth, Doriath is the realm of the Sindar, the Grey Elves of King Thingol in Beleriand. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens The Silmarillion, there were many battles between the Elves of Beleriand and the forces Morgoth. ... Beren is a fictional character, from J. R. R. Tolkiens fantasy-world Middle-earth. ... Lúthien Tinúviel is a fictional character in the fantasy-world Middle-earth of the English author J. R. R. Tolkien. ... For the Anglo-Saxon name, see Earendel. ...


Akallabêth

Main article: Akallabêth

Akallabêth ("The Downfallen"[4]) comprises about thirty pages, and recounts the rise and fall of the island kingdom of Númenor, which the Valar gave as a gift to the three loyal houses of Men who had aided the Elves in the war against Melkor after his defeat. The fall of Númenor is brought about in large measure by the influence of the evil Maia Sauron (formerly the chief servant of Melkor), who had arisen during the Second Age and tried to take over Middle-earth. The Númenóreans moved against Sauron, who, seeing that he could not defeat the Númenóreans with force, allowed himself to be taken prisoner to Númenor, where he quickly seduced the king, Ar-Pharazôn, led the Númenóreans into worshipping his former master, and urged them to wage war on the Valar themselves. Ar-Pharazôn created a fleet and sailed to Aman, but his campaign ended with the destruction of the fleet and the drowning of Númenor by Ilúvatar, in punishment for their rebellion against the rightful rule of the Valar. Sauron, however, escaped and returned to Middle-earth. Some Númenóreans remained loyal to the Valar and also fled to Middle-earth, where they founded the kingdoms of Arnor and Gondor. Akallabêth is the fourth part of the fictional work The Silmarillion by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... Númenor is a fictional location from J. R. R. Tolkiens universe of Middle-earth and is intended to be his version of Atlantis. ... In the fiction of J.R.R. Tolkien, the Edain were those Men (humans) who made their way into Beleriand in the First Age, and were friendly to the Elves. ... In the fictional universe of J. R. R. Tolkien, Ar-Pharazôn the Golden (3118–3319 S.A., r. ... In the fictional legendarium of J. R. R. Tolkien, Arnor, or the Northern Kingdom, was a kingdom of the Dúnedain in the land of Eriador in Middle-earth. ... For the city in Ethiopia, see Gondar. ...


Of The Rings of Power and the Third Age

The concluding section of the book, comprising about twenty pages, describes the events that take place in Middle-earth during the Second and Third Ages. In the Second Age, Sauron emerged as the main power in Middle-earth, and the Rings of Power were forged by Elves led by Celebrimbor. Sauron secretly forged his own ring to control the others, which led to war between the peoples of Middle-earth and Sauron, culminating in the War of the Last Alliance, in which Elves and the remaining Númenóreans united to defeat Sauron, bringing the Second Age to an end. The Third Age opens with the passing of the One Ring to Isildur, who is ambushed at the Gladden Fields shortly after, causing the loss of the One Ring. This section also gives a brief overview of the events leading up to and taking place in The Lord of the Rings, including the waning of Gondor, the re-emergence of Sauron, the White Council, Saruman's treachery, and Sauron's final destruction along with the One Ring. Of the Rings of Power and the Third Age is the fifth and last part of The Silmarillion by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... Combatants Mordor and allies Lindon, Gondor, Arnor and allies Commanders Sauron Gil-galad and Elendil Strength The Hosts of Mordor: Many Orc-hosts. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth, Isildur was a Dúnadan of Númenor, elder son of Elendil. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium, the White Council is a group of Elves and Wizards of Middle-earth, formed in 2463 T.A. to contest the growing power of Dol Guldur, at the request of Galadriel. ...


Concept and creation

Development of the text

Tolkien first began working on the stories that would become The Silmarillion in 1914,[5] intending them to become an English mythology, which would explain the origins of English history and culture.[6] Much of it was written while Tolkien, then a British officer returned from France during World War I, was in hospitals and on sick leave.[7] He completed the first story, The Fall of Gondolin, in late 1916.[8]


At the time, he called his collection of nascent stories The Book of Lost Tales,[3] which became the name for the first two volumes of The History of Middle-earth. The stories in The Book of Lost Tales were told through the medium of a mariner named Eriol (in later versions, an Anglo-Saxon named Ælfwine) who found the island of Tol Eressëa, where the Elves told him their history.[9] However, Tolkien never completed The Book of Lost Tales before he left it to compose the poems "The Lay of Leithian" and "The Lay of the Children of Húrin".[3] Ælfwine (called by the Elves Eriol) is a fictional character of early versions of J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional Middle-earth, Tol Eressëa is a large island, where the mallorn trees come from. ... The Lay of Leithian is an unfinished poem written by J. R. R. Tolkien during the 1930s. ... The Lay of the Children of Húrin is a long epic poem by J. R. R. Tolkien, which takes place in his fictional fantasy-world Middle-earth. ...


The first complete version of The Silmarillion was the 'Sketch of the Mythology' written in 1926.[10] The 'Sketch of the Mythology' was a 28-page synopsis intended to explain the background of the story of Túrin to R. W. Reynolds, a friend to whom Tolkien had sent several of his stories.[10] From the 'Sketch' Tolkien developed a fuller narrative version of The Silmarillion called Quenta Noldorinwa.[11] The Quenta Noldorinwa was the last complete version of The Silmarillion Tolkien ever wrote.[11] In The Silmarillion by J. R. R. Tolkien, Túrin Turambar was a Man of Middle-earth, who became a tragic hero (or anti-hero) of the First Age in the tale called Narn i Chîn Húrin (The Tale of the Children of Húrin). Unpublished drafts of...


In 1937, encouraged by the success of The Hobbit, Tolkien submitted an incomplete but more fully developed version of The Silmarillion, called Quenta Silmarillion, to his publisher, George Allen & Unwin,[3] but they rejected the work as being obscure and "too Celtic".[12] The publisher instead asked Tolkien to write a sequel to The Hobbit.[12] He renewed work on The Silmarillion after completing The Lord of the Rings,[13] and he greatly desired to publish the two works together.[14] But when it became clear that would not be possible, Tolkien turned his full attention back to preparing The Lord of the Rings for publication.[15] Allen & Unwin, formerly a major British publishing house, is now an independent, Australia-based book publisher and distributor. ... Celtic mythology is the mythology of Celtic polytheism, apparently the religion of the Iron Age Celts. ...


In the late 1950s Tolkien again began work on The Silmarillion, but much of his writing from this time was more concerned with the theological and philosophical underpinnings of the work than with narratives themselves; by this time, he had doubts about some of the fundamental aspects of the work that went back to the earliest versions of the stories, and it seems that he felt the need to solve these problems before he could produce the "final" version of The Silmarillion.[13] During this time he wrote extensively on such topics as the nature of evil in Arda, the origin of Orcs, the customs of the Elves, the nature and means of Elvish rebirth, and the "flat" world and the story of the Sun and Moon.[13] In any event, with one or two exceptions, he wrought little change to the narratives during the remaining years of his life.[13]


Posthumous publication

For several years after his father's death, Christopher Tolkien compiled a Silmarillion narrative. Christopher's intentions seem to have been mostly to use the latest writings of his father's that he could,[citation needed] and to keep as much internal consistency (and consistency with The Lord of the Rings) as possible,[16] though he admitted that a complete consistency was impossible.[1] As explained in The History of Middle-earth, Christopher drew upon numerous sources for his narrative, relying on post-Lord of the Rings works where possible, but ultimately reaching back as far as the 1917 Book of Lost Tales to fill in portions of the narrative which his father had planned to write but never addressed. In one later chapter of Quenta Silmarillion, "Of the Ruin of Doriath", which had not been touched since the early 1930s, he had to construct a narrative practically from scratch.[17] The final result, which included genealogies, maps, an index, and the first-ever released Elvish word list, was published in 1977. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ...

Cover design for the second illustrated edition, as illustrated by Ted Nasmith (ISBN 0-618-39111-8)
Cover design for the second illustrated edition, as illustrated by Ted Nasmith (ISBN 0-618-39111-8)

Due to Christopher's extensive explanations (in The History of Middle-earth) of how he compiled the published work, much of The Silmarillion has been debated by readers. Christopher's task is generally accepted as very difficult given the state of his father's texts at the time of his death: some critical texts were no longer in the Tolkien family's possession, and Christopher's task compelled him to rush through much of the material. Christopher reveals in later volumes of The History of Middle-earth many divergent ideas which do not agree with the published version. Christopher Tolkien has suggested that, had he taken more time and had access to all the texts, he might have produced a substantially different work. But he was compelled by considerable pressure and demand from his father's readers and publishers to produce something publishable as quickly as possible. Some contend that parts of The Silmarillion are more a product of the son than of the father, and as such its place in the Middle-earth canon is hotly debated in certain circles. Image File history File links SilmarillionBook_LR.jpg‎ Fair use book cover from www. ... Image File history File links SilmarillionBook_LR.jpg‎ Fair use book cover from www. ... Ted Nasmith Ted Nasmith is a Canadian artist, illustrator and architectural renderer. ... ... This article discusses the concept of literary ‘canon’ as it might be applied to J. R. R. Tolkien’s fictional Middle-earth legendarium. ...


In October 1996, Christopher Tolkien commissioned illustrator Ted Nasmith to create full-page full-colour artwork for the first illustrated edition of The Silmarillion. It was published in 1998, and followed in 2004 by a second edition featuring corrections and additional artwork by Nasmith. Ted Nasmith Ted Nasmith is a Canadian artist, illustrator and architectural renderer. ...


During the 1980s and 1990s, Christopher Tolkien published most of his father's Middle-earth-related writings as the 12-volume The History of Middle-earth series. In addition to the source material and earlier drafts of several portions of The Lord of the Rings, these books greatly expand on the original material published in The Silmarillion, and in many cases diverge from it. There is much that Tolkien intended to revise but only sketched out in notes, and some new texts surfaced after the publication of The Silmarillion. These books also make it clear just how unfinished the later parts of The Silmarillion really were: some parts were never rewritten after the early versions in Lost Tales. An unfinished portrait miniature of Oliver Cromwell by Samuel Cooper. ...


Influences

The Silmarillion is a complex work exhibiting the influence of many sources. A major influence was the Finnish epic Kalevala, especially the tale of Kullervo. Tolkien admitted that he had been "greatly affected" by Finnish mythologies,[18] and even credited Kullervo's story with being the "germ of [his] attempt to write legends".[19] Tolkien attempted to rework the story of Kullervo into a story of his own, and though he never finished,[20] similarities to the story can still be seen in the tale of Túrin Turambar.[21] The Kalevala is an epic poem which the Finn Elias Lönnrot compiled from Finnish and Karelian folklore in the 19th century. ... Kullervos Curse by Akseli Gallen-Kallela In the Finnish Kalevala, Kullervo was the ill-fated son of Kalervo. ... In The Silmarillion by J. R. R. Tolkien, Túrin Turambar was a Man of Middle-earth, who became a tragic hero (or anti-hero) of the First Age in the tale called Narn i Chîn Húrin (The Tale of the Children of Húrin). Unpublished drafts of...


Influence from Greek mythology is also apparent. The island of Númenor, for example, recalls Atlantis.[22] Tolkien even borrows the name "Atlantis" and reworks it into the Elvish name "Atalantë" for Númenor,[23] thus furthering the illusion that his mythology simply extends the history and mythology of the real world.[24] The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ... Númenor is a fictional location from J. R. R. Tolkiens universe of Middle-earth and is intended to be his version of Atlantis. ... For other uses, see Atlantis (disambiguation). ...


Greek mythology also colours the Valar, who borrow many attributes from the Olympian gods.[25] The Valar, like the Olympians, live in the world, but on a high mountain, separated from mortals;[26] Ulmo, Lord of the Waters, owes much to Poseidon, and Manwë, the Lord of the Air and King of the Valar, to Zeus.[25] But the correspondences are only approximate; Tolkien borrows ideas from Greek mythology, but does not model the Valar and Maiar on Greek deities. The Twelve Olympians by Monsiau, circa late 18th century. ... Ulmo Appears before Tuor (by Ted Nasmith) Ulmo (from the Valarin Ulubôz, Ullubôz via Ulumō) is a fictional character from J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth legendarium. ... Neptune reigns in the city of Bristol. ... Manwë Súlimo is a fictional character in J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium. ... For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation). ...


Similarly, the Valar also contain elements of Norse mythology. Several of the Valar have characteristics resembling various Æsir, the gods of Asgard.[27] Thor, for example, physically the strongest of the gods, can be seen both in Oromë, who fights the monsters of Melkor, and in Tulkas, the physically strongest of the Valar.[28] Manwё, the head of the Valar, exhibits some similarities to Odin, the "Allfather".[28] Tolkien also said that he saw the Maia Gandalf as an "Odinic wanderer".[29] Norse, Viking or Scandinavian mythology comprises the indigenous pre-Christian religion, beliefs and legends of the Scandinavian peoples, including those who settled on Iceland, where most of the written sources for Norse mythology were assembled. ... In Old Norse, áss (or ǫ́ss, ás, plural æsir, feminine ásynja, feminine plural ásynjur) is the term denoting one of the principal gods of the pantheon of Norse paganism. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... For other uses, see Thor (disambiguation). ...


The division between the Calaquendi (Elves of Light) and Moriquendi (Elves of Darkness) also echoes Norse mythology, which has its own Light elves and Dark elves.[30] The Light elves of Norse mythology are associated with the gods, much as the Calaquendi are associated with the Valar.[31] In the works of J. R. R. Tolkien, the Calaquendi (singular Calaquende) are the Elves of Light, those who had seen the light of the Two Trees in Valinor. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth, the Moriquendi (the Elves of Darkness, singular Moriquende) are, in essence, the Elves that did not join the Great Journey over the sea and behold the light of the Two Trees in Valinor. ... In Norse mythology, the Light Elves (Old Norse: Liósálfar) live in Álfheim. ... ...


The Bible and traditional Christian narrative probably contribute the deepest influence on The Silmarillion. Tolkien was a devout Roman Catholic. The conflict between Melkor and Eru Ilúvatar parallels that between Lucifer and God.[32] Further, The Silmarillion tells of the creation and fall of the Elves, as Genesis tells of the creation and fall of Man.[33] As with all of Tolkien's works, The Silmarillion allows room for later Christian history, and one version of Tolkien's drafts even has Finrod, a character in The Silmarillion, speculating on the necessity of Eru's (God's) eventual Incarnation to save humankind.[34] For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... ‹ The template below (Mecanon) has been proposed for deletion. ... Look up incarnation, incarnate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Though Tolkien wrote of "a certain distaste" for Celtic legends, "largely for their fundamental unreason",[12] The Silmarillion betrays some Celtic influence. The exile of the Noldorin Elves, for example, borrows elements from the story of the Tuatha Dé Danann.[35] The Tuatha Dé Danann, semi-divine beings, invaded Ireland from across the sea, burning their ships when they arrived and fighting a fierce battle with the current inhabitants. The Noldor arrived in Middle-earth from Valinor and burned their ships, then turned to fight Melkor. Another parallel can be seen between the loss of a hand by Maedhros, son of Fëanor, and the similar mutilation suffered by Nuadu Airgetlám ("Silver Hand/Arm") during the battle with the Firbolg. Nuadu received a hand made of silver to replace the lost one, and his later appellation has the same meaning as the Elvish name Celebrimbor: "silver fist" or "Hand of silver" in Sindarin (Telperinquar in Quenya). In the works of J. R. R. Tolkien, the Noldor (meaning those with knowledge) are of the second clan of the Elves who came to Aman, the Tatyar. ... “Áes dána” redirects here. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium, Maedhros is a fictional character who was the first son of Fëanor and Nerdanel. ... In Irish mythology, Nuada or Nuadu (later Nuadha), known by the epithet Airgetlám (Silver Hand/Arm), was a king of the Tuatha Dé Danann. ... Celebrimbor is a fictional character In J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth. ...


Yet one more possible comparison between the Silmarillion with the content of the Lebor Gabála Érenn can be made by contrasting Nuadu and Lugh (that possessed a famed magic spear, the Spear Luin) and the outcome of their respective confrontations with Balor of the Evil Eye to the events surrounding Celebrimbor and Gil-Galad (whose weapon is the spear Aeglos [36]and their conflicts with Sauron of the Lidless/Red Eye in the Second Age. Lebor Gabála Érenn (The Book of the Taking of Ireland) is the Middle Irish title of a loose collection of poems and prose narratives recounting the mythical origins and history of the Irish race from the creation of the world down to the Middle Ages. ... For other subjects with similar names, see Lug. ... In Irish mythology, the Spear Luin (originally Luisne, meaning flaming or glaring) is one of the Four Treasures of Ireland. ... In Irish mythology, Balor (Balar, Bolar) of the Evil Eye was a king of the Fomorians, a race of giants. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium, Ereinion Gil-galad was the son of Orodreth,[1] and his mother was a Sindarin Elf. ...


There is a striking similarity between the description of Gil-Galad and the explanation of his name that was given in a note in Unfinished Tales with the description of Lugh


Note 24 of Aldarion and Erendis:

"It is recorded that Ereinion was given the name Gil-galad "Star of Radiance" "because his helm and mail, and his shield overlaid with silver and set with a device of white stars, shone from afar like a star in sunlight or moonlight, and could be seen by Elvish eyes at a great distance if they stood upon a height."

In Myths and Legends of the Celtic Race (1911), T.W. Rolleston described Lugh:

"So equipped, he appeared one day before an assembly Of the Danaan chiefs who were met to pay their tribute to the envoys of the Formorian oppressors; and when the Danaans saw him, they felt, it is said, as if they beheld the rising of the sun on a dry summer's day".

[37]


Also, Tolkien wrote that he gave the Elvish language Sindarin "a linguistic character very like (though not identical with) British-Welsh ... because it seems to fit the rather 'Celtic' type of legends and stories told of its speakers".[38] Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ...


Other authors, such as Tom Shippey[39] and David Day have pointed out the similarities between Beren and Lúthien, one of the main storylines of the Silmarillion, and Culhwch and Olwen, one the tales collected in the Welsh Mabinogion. There are, indeed, several notable close paralels between the two narratives.[40] Thomas Alan Shippey (born 1943) is a scholar of medieval literature, including Anglo-Saxon England, and of modern fantasy and science fiction, in particular the works of J. R. R. Tolkien, about whom he has written several scholarly studies. ... David Days Book Tolkiens Ring is a book written by David Day about the origins of Tolkiens Lord of the Rings story and the origins of Middle Earth in general. ... The Lay of Leithian is an unfinished poem written by J. R. R. Tolkien during the 1930s. ... Culhwch and Olwen (Welsh: Culhwch ac Olwen) is a Welsh tale about a hero connected with Arthur and his warriors that survives in only two manuscripts: a complete version in the Red Book of Hergest, ca. ... The Mabinogion is a collection of prose stories from medieval Welsh manuscripts. ...


Critical response

Contemporary reviews of The Silmarillion were rather negative. The Silmarillion was criticized for being too serious, lacking the light-hearted moments that were found in The Lord of the Rings and especially The Hobbit.[41][42][43] TIME complained that there was "no single, unifying quest and, above all, no band of brothers for the reader to identify with".[41] Other criticisms included difficult to read archaic language[44][45][46] and many difficult and hard to remember names.[44][47] “TIME” redirects here. ...


Despite these shortcomings, a few reviewers praised the scope of Tolkien's creation. The New York Times Book Review acknowledged that "what is finally most moving is … the eccentric heroism of Tolkien's attempt".[42] TIME described The Silmarillion as "majestic, a work held so long and so powerfully in the writer's imagination that it overwhelms the reader".[41] The Horn Book Magazine even lauded the "remarkable set of legends conceived with imaginative might and told in beautiful language".[48] The New York Times Book Review is a weekly paper-magazine supplement to The New York Times in which current non-fiction and fiction books are reviewed. ...


Some reviewers, however, had nothing positive to say about the book at all. The New York Review of Books called The Silmarillion "an empty and pompous bore", "not a literary event of any magnitude", and even claimed that the main reason for its "enormous sales" were the "Tolkien cult" created by the popularity of The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings.[44] The School Library Journal called it "only a stillborn postscript" to Tolkien's earlier works.[43] Peter Conrad of The New Statesman even went so far as to say that "Tolkien can't actually write".[49] This article is about the literary magazine. ... School Library Journal is a monthly publication with articles and reviews for school and public librarians who work with young people. ... The New Statesman was an award-winning British sitcom of the late 1980s and early 1990s satirising the Conservative government of the time. ...


References

  1. ^ a b c (Silmarillion 1977, Foreword)
  2. ^ (Carpenter 1981, #165, 211)
  3. ^ a b c d J. R. R. Tolkien (1984), Christopher Tolkien, ed., The Book of Lost Tales, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, Foreword, ISBN 0-395-35439-0
  4. ^ a b c d (Silmarillion 1977, Index of Names)
  5. ^ (Carpenter 1981, #115)
  6. ^ (Carpenter 1981, #131, 180)
  7. ^ (Carpenter 1981, #165, 180, 282)
  8. ^ (Carpenter 1981, #163, 165)
  9. ^ J. R. R. Tolkien (1984), Christopher Tolkien, ed., The Book of Lost Tales, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, Chapter I, "The Cottage of Lost Play", ISBN 0-395-35439-0
  10. ^ a b J. R. R. Tolkien (1985), Christopher Tolkien, ed., The Lays of Beleriand, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, Chapter I, "The Lay of the Children of Húrin", ISBN 0-395-39429-5
  11. ^ a b J. R. R. Tolkien (1986), Christopher Tolkien, ed., The Shaping of Middle-earth, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, Preface, ISBN 0-395-42501-8
  12. ^ a b c (Carpenter 1981, #19)
  13. ^ a b c d J. R. R. Tolkien (1993), Christopher Tolkien, ed., Morgoth's Ring, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, Foreword, ISBN 0-395-68092-1
  14. ^ (Carpenter 1981, #124)
  15. ^ (Carpenter 1981, #133)
  16. ^ J. R. R. Tolkien (1980), Christopher Tolkien, ed., Unfinished Tales, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, Introduction, ISBN 0-395-29917-9
  17. ^ J. R. R. Tolkien (1994), Christopher Tolkien, ed., The War of the Jewels, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, Part Three, Chapter V "The Tale of Years", ISBN 0-395-71041-3
  18. ^ (Carpenter 1981, #131)
  19. ^ (Carpenter 1981, #257)
  20. ^ (Carpenter 1981, #1, footnote 6)
  21. ^ (Chance 2004, pp. 288-292)
  22. ^ (Carpenter 1981, #154, 227)
  23. ^ (Silmarillion 1977, p. 281)
  24. ^ J. R. R. Tolkien (April 1, 1987), The Fellowship of the Ring, vol. 1, The Lord of the Rings, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, "Note on the Shire Records", ISBN 0-395-08254-4
  25. ^ a b Purtill, Richard L. (2003). J. R. R. Tolkien: Myth, Morality, and Religion. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 52, 131. ISBN 0-89870-948-2. 
  26. ^ Stanton, Michael (2001). Hobbits, Elves, and Wizards: Exploring the Wonders and Worlds of J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 18. ISBN 1-4039-6025-9. 
  27. ^ Garth, John (2003). Tolkien and the Great War: The Threshold of Middle-earth. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 86. 
  28. ^ a b (Chance 2004, p. 169)
  29. ^ (Carpenter 1981, #107)
  30. ^ (Flieger 2002, p. 83)
  31. ^ (Burns 2005, pp. 23-25)
  32. ^ (Chance 2001, p. 192)
  33. ^ Bramlett, Perry (2003). I Am in Fact a Hobbit: An Introduction to the Life and Works of J. R. R. Tolkien. Macon, Georgia: Mercer University Press, 86. ISBN 0-86554-851-X. 
  34. ^ Morgoth's Ring, Athrabeth Finrod Ah Andreth, pp. 322, 335
  35. ^ Fimi, Dimitra (August 2006). "Mad" Elves and "Elusive Beauty": Some Celtic Strands of Tolkien's Mythology 6-8. Retrieved on 2007-09-01.
  36. ^ [1]
  37. ^ [2]
  38. ^ (Carpenter 1981, #144)
  39. ^ Tom Shippey, The Road to Middle Earth, pp. 193–194: "The hunting of the great wolf recalls the chase of the boar Twrch Trwyth in the Welsh Mabinogion, while the motif of 'the hand in the wolf's mouth' is one of the most famous parts of the Prose Edda, told of Fenris Wolf and the god Tyr; Huan recalls several faithful hounds of legend, Garm, Gelert, Cafall."
  40. ^ Silmarillion sources, by "mithrandircq"
  41. ^ a b c Foote, Timothy (24 October 1977), "Middle-Earth Genesis", Time 110: 121, <http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,915707,00.html>
  42. ^ a b Gardner, John (23 October 1977), "The World of Tolkien", The New York Times Book Review, <http://www.nytimes.com/1977/10/23/books/tolkien-silmarillion.html>
  43. ^ a b Hurwitz, K. Sue (December 1977), School Library Journal 24 (4): 66
  44. ^ a b c Adams, Robert M. (24 November 1977), "The Hobbit Habit", The New York Review of Books 24 (19): 22, <http://www.nybooks.com/articles/8321>
  45. ^ Brookhiser, Richard (9 December 1977), "Kicking the Hobbit", National Review 29 (48): 1439-1440
  46. ^ Jefferson, Margo (24 October 1977), Newsweek 90: 114
  47. ^ Yamamoto, Judith T. (1 August 1977), Library Journal 102 (14): 1680, ISSN 0363-0277
  48. ^ Cosgrave, M. S. (April 1978), The Horn Book Magazine 54: 196
  49. ^ Conrad, Peter (23 September 1977), The New Statesman 94: 408

Tolkien redirects here. ... Christopher Reuel Tolkien (born November 21, 1924) is best known as the third son of author J. R. R. Tolkien (1892-1973), and as the editor of much of his fathers posthumously published work. ... The Book of Lost Tales is the title of the first two volumes of Christopher Tolkiens 12-volume series The History of Middle-earth in which he analyses the unpublished manuscripts of his father J. R. R. Tolkien. ... Houghton Mifflin Company is a leading educational publisher in the United States. ... Tolkien redirects here. ... Christopher Reuel Tolkien (born November 21, 1924) is best known as the third son of author J. R. R. Tolkien (1892-1973), and as the editor of much of his fathers posthumously published work. ... The Book of Lost Tales is the title of the first two volumes of Christopher Tolkiens 12-volume series The History of Middle-earth in which he analyses the unpublished manuscripts of his father J. R. R. Tolkien. ... Houghton Mifflin Company is a leading educational publisher in the United States. ... Tolkien redirects here. ... Christopher Reuel Tolkien (born November 21, 1924) is best known as the third son of author J. R. R. Tolkien (1892-1973), and as the editor of much of his fathers posthumously published work. ... The Lays of Beleriand, published in 1985, is the third volume of Christopher Tolkiens 12-volume series, The History of Middle-earth, in which he analyses the unpublished manuscripts of his father J. R. R. Tolkien. ... Houghton Mifflin Company is a leading educational publisher in the United States. ... Tolkien redirects here. ... Christopher Reuel Tolkien (born November 21, 1924) is best known as the third son of author J. R. R. Tolkien (1892-1973), and as the editor of much of his fathers posthumously published work. ... The Shaping of Middle-Earth is the fourth volume of Christopher Tolkiens 12-volume series The History of Middle-earth in which he analyses the unpublished manuscripts of his father J. R. R. Tolkien. ... Houghton Mifflin Company is a leading educational publisher in the United States. ... Tolkien redirects here. ... Christopher Reuel Tolkien (born November 21, 1924) is best known as the third son of author J. R. R. Tolkien (1892-1973), and as the editor of much of his fathers posthumously published work. ... Morgoths Ring is the 10th volume of Christopher Tolkiens 12-volume series The History of Middle-earth in which he analyzes the unpublished manuscripts of his father J. R. R. Tolkien. ... Houghton Mifflin Company is a leading educational publisher in the United States. ... Tolkien redirects here. ... Christopher Reuel Tolkien (born November 21, 1924) is best known as the third son of author J. R. R. Tolkien (1892-1973), and as the editor of much of his fathers posthumously published work. ... Unfinished Tales (full title Unfinished Tales of Númenor and Middle-earth) is a collection of stories by J. R. R. Tolkien that were never completed during his lifetime, but were edited by his son Christopher Tolkien and published in 1980. ... Houghton Mifflin Company is a leading educational publisher in the United States. ... Tolkien redirects here. ... Christopher Reuel Tolkien (born November 21, 1924) is best known as the third son of author J. R. R. Tolkien (1892-1973), and as the editor of much of his fathers posthumously published work. ... The War of the Jewels is the 11th volume of Christopher Tolkiens series The History of Middle-earth, analysing the unpublished manuscripts of his father J. R. R. Tolkien. ... Houghton Mifflin Company is a leading educational publisher in the United States. ... Tolkien redirects here. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ... The Fellowship of the Ring is the first of three volumes of the epic novel The Lord of the Rings by the English author J. R. R. Tolkien. ... This article is about the novel. ... Houghton Mifflin Company is a leading educational publisher in the United States. ... Harper & Row is an imprint of HarperCollins. ... Mercer University Press, established in 1979, is a publisher that is part of Mercer University. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Twrch Trwyth is the name of the creature Culhwch is instructed to hunt in the Middle Welsh prose tale Culhwch and Olwen. ... “TIME” redirects here. ... The New York Times Book Review is a weekly paper-magazine supplement to The New York Times in which current non-fiction and fiction books are reviewed. ... School Library Journal is a monthly publication with articles and reviews for school and public librarians who work with young people. ... This article is about the literary magazine. ... National Review (NR) is a biweekly magazine of political opinion, founded by author William F. Buckley, Jr. ... The Newsweek logo Newsweek is a weekly news magazine published in New York City and distributed throughout the United States and internationally. ... Library Journal is a trade publication for librarians. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... The New Statesman was an award-winning British sitcom of the late 1980s and early 1990s satirising the Conservative government of the time. ... The University of Toronto Press is a publishing house and a division of the University of Toronto that engages in academic publishing. ... Humphrey William Bouverie Carpenter (April 29, 1946 – January 4, 2005) was an English biographer, author and radio broadcaster. ... The Letters of J. R. R. Tolkien (ISBN 0-618-05699-8) is a selection of J. R. R. Tolkiens letters published in 1981, edited by Tolkiens biographer Humphrey Carpenter assisted by Christopher Tolkien. ... Houghton Mifflin Company is a leading educational publisher in the United States. ... The University Press of Kentucky (UPK) is the scholarly publisher for the Commonwealth of Kentucky, and was organized in 1969 as successor to the University of Kentucky Press. ... Kent State University (also known as Kent, Kent State or KSU) is a major public research university located in Kent, Ohio, United States, which is about 40 miles southeast of Cleveland, 12 miles east of Akron, and 30 miles west of Youngstown. ... Tolkien redirects here. ... Christopher Reuel Tolkien (born November 21, 1924) is best known as the third son of author J. R. R. Tolkien (1892-1973), and as the editor of much of his fathers posthumously published work. ... Houghton Mifflin Company is a leading educational publisher in the United States. ... Walking Tree Publishers was founded in 1996 by members of the (now defunct) Swiss Tolkien Society, as a non-profit publishing company dedicated exclusively to the publication of English language works concerned with J. R. R. Tolkien and Tolkien studies. ...

See also

Middle-earth Portal

Image File history File links Arda. ... The Children of Húrin (2007) is a completion of a tale by J. R. R. Tolkien begun in 1918. ... Mythopoeia (Greek for myth-making) is a narrative genre in modern literature and film where a fictional mythology was created by the author or director. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium, the Silmarils (Quenya Silmarilli) are three fictional sacred objects in the form of brilliant star-like jewels which contained the unmarred light of the Two Trees. ... The Black Book of Arda, Черная Книга Арды, is a novel by N. Vassilyeva & N. Nekrasova written around 1992 and based on J. R. R. Tolkiens The Silmarillion. ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... Tolkien redirects here. ... Songs for the Philologists is a collection of poems by E.V. Gordon and J. R. R. Tolkien as well as traditional songs. ... For other uses, see Hobbit (disambiguation) and There and Back Again (disambiguation). ... Leaf by Niggle is a short story written by J. R. R. Tolkien in 1938-39 and first published in the Dublin Review in January 1945. ... The Lay of Aotrou and Itroun is a poem of 508 lines, written by J. R. R. Tolkien in 1930, and published in Welsh Review in December, 1945. ... Farmer Giles of Ham (written in 1947, published in 1949) is a short story written by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... The Homecoming of Beorhtnoth Beorhthelms Son is the title of a work by J. R. R. Tolkien that was originally published in 1953 in volume 6 of the scholarly journal Essays and Studies by Members of the English Association. ... This article is about the novel. ... The Fellowship of the Ring is the first of three volumes of the epic novel The Lord of the Rings by the English author J. R. R. Tolkien. ... The Two Towers is the second volume of J. R. R. Tolkiens The Lord of the Rings. ... This article is about the book. ... The Adventures of Tom Bombadil is a collection of poetry by J. R. R. Tolkien, published in 1962. ... The Road Goes Ever On is a walking song by J. R. R. Tolkien, fictionally written by Bilbo Baggins; verses of it are sung at various places in The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings. ... Tree and Leaf is a collection of works by J. R. R. Tolkien including an essay called On Fairy-Stories, a short story called Leaf by Niggle and a poem called Mythopoeia. The book was originally illustrated by Pauline Baynes. ... Contents The Homecoming of Beorhtnoth Beorthelms Son On Fairy Stories Ofermod Leaf by Niggle Farmer Giles of Ham The Adventures of Tom Bombadil ... Smith of Wootton Major, first published in 1967, is a short story by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... The Father Christmas Letters is a collection of letters written by Father Christmas to J.R.R Tolkiens children. ... Unfinished Tales (full title Unfinished Tales of Númenor and Middle-earth) is a collection of stories by J. R. R. Tolkien that were never completed during his lifetime, but were edited by his son Christopher Tolkien and published in 1980. ... Bilbos Last Song is a poem by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... The History of Middle-earth is a 12-volume series of books published from 1983-1996, that collect and analyse material relating to the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, compiled and edited by his son, Christopher Tolkien. ... Roverandom is a story written by J.R.R. Tolkien, originally told in 1925. ... The Children of Húrin (2007) is a completion of a tale by J. R. R. Tolkien begun in 1918. ... The History of The Hobbit, a new study of J. R. R. Tolkien’s The Hobbit, is to be published by Houghtin Mifflin in May and June 2007. ... The original Gawain manuscript, Cotton Nero A.x. ... This article lacks information on the importance of the subject matter. ... Ancrene Wisse and Hali Meiðhad is a 1929 essay by J. R. R. Tolkien on the 13th century early Middle English treatise Ancrene Wisse The Anchoresses Rule, and on the tract on virginity Hali Meiðhad Holy Maidenhood. The essay has been called the most perfect of Tolkiens... Sigelwara Land is the title of an essay in two parts by J. R. R. Tolkien, appeared in Medium Aevum Vol. ... The Reeves Prologue and Tale is the third story to be told in Geoffrey Chaucers The Canterbury Tales. ... On Fairy-Stories is an essay by J. R. R. Tolkien which discusses the fairy-story as a literary form. ... Sir Orfeo is an anonymous Middle English narrative poem. ... Ancrene Wisse (also Ancrene Riwle) or Guide for Anchoresses is a monastic rule (or manual) for anchorite nuns, written in the early 13th century in Middle English. ... English and Welsh is the title of J. R. R. Tolkiens valedictory address to the University of Oxford of 1955, explaining the origin of the word Welsh. In a lengthy sidenote, Tolkien discusses his notions of native tongue as opposed to cradle tongue, and of an inherited taste of... Tree and Leaf is a collection of works by J. R. R. Tolkien including an essay called On Fairy-Stories, a short story called Leaf by Niggle and a poem called Mythopoeia. The book was originally illustrated by Pauline Baynes. ... The Jerusalem Bible (JB) is a Catholic translation of the Bible which first was introduced to the English-speaking public in 1966 and published by Darton, Longman & Todd. ... The original Gawain manuscript, Cotton Nero A.x. ... Pearl is a Middle English alliterative poem written in the late 14th century. ... Sir Orfeo is an anonymous Middle English narrative poem. ... Finn and Hengest is a study by J.R.R Tolkien, published posthumously in book form in 1982. ... The Monsters and the Critics is a collection of J. R. R. Tolkiens scholarly linguistic essays published posthumously in 1983. ... Beowulf and the Critics by J. R. R. Tolkien is a book edited by Michael D. C. Drout that presents scholary editions of the two manuscript versions of Tolkiens essays or lecture series Beowulf and the Critics, which served as the basis for the much shorter 1936 lecture Beowulf... Tolkien redirects here. ... A map of the Northwestern part of Middle-earth at the end of the Third Age, courtesy of the Encyclopedia of Arda. ... Tolkiens Legendarium (ISBN 0-313-30530-7) is a collection of scholarly essays edited by Verlyn Flieger and Carl F. Hostetter on the History of Middle-earth series of books relating to the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, compiled and edited by his son, Christopher Tolkien. ... For other uses, see Hobbit (disambiguation) and There and Back Again (disambiguation). ... This article is about the novel. ... The Adventures of Tom Bombadil is a collection of poetry by J. R. R. Tolkien, published in 1962. ... The Road Goes Ever On is a walking song by J. R. R. Tolkien, fictionally written by Bilbo Baggins; verses of it are sung at various places in The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings. ... Unfinished Tales (full title Unfinished Tales of Númenor and Middle-earth) is a collection of stories by J. R. R. Tolkien that were never completed during his lifetime, but were edited by his son Christopher Tolkien and published in 1980. ... The History of Middle-earth is a 12-volume series of books published from 1983-1996, that collect and analyse material relating to the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, compiled and edited by his son, Christopher Tolkien. ... Bilbos Last Song is a poem by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... The Children of Húrin (2007) is a completion of a tale by J. R. R. Tolkien begun in 1918. ... The History of The Hobbit, a new study of J. R. R. Tolkien’s The Hobbit, is to be published by Houghtin Mifflin in May and June 2007. ... This is a list of articles related to J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth legendarium. ... This article aims to list all articles on Wikipedia that are related to J.R.R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth. ... This article is a list of all books by J. R. R. Tolkien and writings contained in these books (stories, essays, poems, etc. ... Middle-earth, the setting of J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium, contains many rivers. ... This is a list of the known realms of Arda in J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium. ... This article includes several chronologies relating to J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium. ...

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The Silmarillion - Free Encyclopedia (647 words)
The Silmarillion, together with other posthumous collections of Tolkien's works, such as Unfinished Tales and The History of Middle-earth, forms a narrative describing the history of the universe where The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings take place.
Historically, the first drafts of The Silmarillion stories date back to as early as 1917, when Tolkien was hospitalized in a field hospital with trench fever.
On some of the later parts of the "Quenta Silmarillion" which were in the roughest state, he worked with fantasy author Guy Gavriel Kay to construct a narrative practically from scratch.
The Silmarillion - definition of The Silmarillion in Encyclopedia (756 words)
The Silmarillion, along with other posthumous collections of Tolkien's works, such as Unfinished Tales and The History of Middle-earth series, form a comprehensive, yet incomplete narrative that describes the universe within which The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings take place.
The Silmarillion is a complex work that explores a wide array of themes inspired by European lore, including the Finnish Kalevala, the Icelandic sagas, and Celtic myths.
He regarded The Silmarillion as the most important of his work, seeing in its tales not only the genesis of Middle-earth and later events as told in The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings, but the entire core of his legendarium.
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