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Encyclopedia > The Sikh Gurus

Sikhism was established by ten Gurus, teachers or masters, over the period 1469 to 1708. These teachers, believed to be sent from God for the troubled people of the land, were enlightened souls whose main purpose in life was the spiritual and moral well-being of the masses, or the equivalent of Prophets & Messiahs of the other major respective monotheist religions. Each master added to and reinforced the message taught by the previous, resulting to the creation of the religion of Sikhism. Guru Nanak was the first Guru and Guru Gobind Singh the final Guru in human form. When Guru Gobind Singh left this world, he made the Guru Granth Sahib the ultimate and final Sikh Guru. The Golden Temple is a sacred shrine for Sikhs Sikhism (Punjabi: , ), is a monotheistic religion based on the teachings of ten Gurus who lived in northern India during the 16th and 17th centuries. ... References ^ Tirha, B. B. A Taste of Trascendence, (2002) p. ... Events July 26 - Battle of Edgecote Moor October 17 - Prince Ferdinand of Aragon wed princess Isabella of Castile. ... // Events March 23 - James Francis Edward Stuart lands at the Firth of Forth July 1 - Tewoflos becomes Emperor of Ethiopia September 28 - Peter the Great defeats the Swedes at the Battle of Lesnaya Kandahar conquered by Mir Wais In Masuria one third of the population die during the plague J... Guru Nanak (Gurmukhi: ਗੁਰੂ ਨਾਨਕ, Devanagari: गुरु नानक) (20 October 1469 - 7 May 1539), the founder of Sikhism and the first of the ten Gurus of the Sikhs, was born in the village of Talwandi, now called Nankana Sahib, near Lahore in present-day Pakistan. ... Guru Gobind Singh Guru Gobind Singh (Punjabi: ) (Patna, Bihar, India, December 22, 1666 – October 7, 1708, Nanded, Maharashtra,India) was the tenth and last of the Ten Gurus of Sikhism and became Guru on November 11, 1675 following in the footsteps of his father Guru Teg Bahadur. ... Illuminated Adi Granth folio with nisan (Mool Mantar) of Guru Gobind Singh. ...


The Ten Gurus of Sikhism

# Name Guruship on Date of Birth Date of Demise Aged Father Mother
1 Guru Nanak Dev 20 October 1469 15 April 1469 22 September 1539 69 Mehta Kalu Mata Tripta
2 Guru Angad Dev 7 September 1539 31 March 1504 29 March 1552 48 Baba Pheru Mata Ramo
3 Guru Amar Das 25 March 1552 5 May 1479 1 September 1574 95 Tej Bhan Bhalla Bakht Kaur
4 Guru Ram Das 29 August 1574 24 September 1534 1 September 1581 46 Baba Hari Das Mata Daya Vati
5 Guru Arjan Dev 28 August 1581 15 April 1563 30 May 1606 43 Guru Ram Das Mata Bhani
6 Guru Har Gobind 30 May 1606 19 June 1595 3 March 1644 48 Guru Arjan Mata Ganga
7 Guru Har Rai 28 February 1644 26 February 1630 6 October 1661 31 Baba Gurditta Mata Nihal Kaur
8 Guru Har Krishan 6 October 1661 7 July 1656 30 March 1664 7 Guru Har Rai Mata Krishan Kaur
9 Guru Tegh Bahadur 20 March 1665 1 April 1621 11 November 1675 54 Guru Har Gobind Mata Nanki
10 Guru Gobind Singh 11 November 1675 22 December 1666 7 October 1708 41 Guru Tegh Bahadur Mata Gujri

In addition to the Ten Gurus of Sikhism, the Guru Granth Sahib was made the eleventh perpetual guru of Sikhs. Together they make up the Eleven Gurus of Sikhism. Some Sikhs would say that the Panth, the continuing community of disciples, also manifests a continuing Guruship. Guru Nanak Dev Guru Nanak Dev (Punjabi: ) (15 April 1469 – 22 September 1539), was the founder of Sikhism and the first of the ten Gurus of the Sikhs. ... October 20 is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 72 days remaining. ... Events July 26 - Battle of Edgecote Moor October 17 - Prince Ferdinand of Aragon wed princess Isabella of Castile. ... April 15 is the 105th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (106th in leap years). ... Events July 26 - Battle of Edgecote Moor October 17 - Prince Ferdinand of Aragon wed princess Isabella of Castile. ... September 22 is the 265th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (266th in leap years). ... Events May 30 - In Florida, Hernando de Soto lands at Tampa Bay with 600 soldiers with the goal to find gold. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Sri Guru Angad Dev Ji (Punjabi: ਸ੍ਰੀ ਗੁਰੂ ਅੰਗਦ ਦੇਵ ਜੀ) (31 March 1504 – 29 March 1552) was the second of The Ten Gurus of Sikhism. ... September 7 is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years). ... Events May 30 - In Florida, Hernando de Soto lands at Tampa Bay with 600 soldiers with the goal to find gold. ... March 31 is the 90th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (91st in Leap years), with 275 days remaining. ... 1504 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 29 is the 88th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (89th in Leap years). ... Events April - War between Henry II of France and Emperor Charles V. Henry invades Lorraine and captures Toul, Metz, and Verdun. ... Sri Guru Amar Das Ji (Punjabi: ) (5 April 1479 – 1 September 1574) was the third of the Ten Gurus of Sikhism and became Guru on 26 March 1552 following in the footsteps of Guru Angad Dev, who died 29 March 1552. ... March 25 is the 84th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (85th in leap years). ... Events April - War between Henry II of France and Emperor Charles V. Henry invades Lorraine and captures Toul, Metz, and Verdun. ... May 5 is the 125th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (126th in leap years). ... Events January 20 - Ferdinand II ascends the throne of Aragon and rules together with his wife Isabella, queen of Castile over most of the Iberian peninsula. ... September 1 is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years). ... Events April 14 - Battle of Mookerheyde. ... Sri Guru Ram Das Ji (Punjabi: ਸ੍ਰੀ ਗੁਰੂ ਰਾਮ ਦਾਸ ਜੀ) (24 September 1534 – 1 September 1581) was the fourth of the Ten Gurus of Sikhism and became Guru on 30 August 1574 following in the footsteps of Guru Amar Das. ... August 29 is the 241st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (242nd in leap years), with 124 days remaining. ... Events April 14 - Battle of Mookerheyde. ... September 24 is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years). ... Events February 27 - Group of Anabaptists of Jan Matthys seize Münster and declare it The New Jerusalem - they begin to exile dissenters and forcible baptize all others May 10 - Jacques Cartier explores Newfoundland while searching for the Northwest Passage. ... September 1 is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years). ... Events January 16 - English Parliament outlaws Roman Catholicism April 4 - Francis Drake completes a circumnavigation of the world and is knighted by Elizabeth I. July 26 - The Northern Netherlands proclaim their independence from Spain in the Oath of Abjuration. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Guru Arjan Dev Ji (15 April 1563 - 30 May 1606) was the fifth of the Ten Gurus of Sikhism and became Guru on 1 September 1581 following in the footsteps of Guru Ram Das ji. ... August 28 is the 240th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (241st in leap years), with 125 days remaining. ... Events January 16 - English Parliament outlaws Roman Catholicism April 4 - Francis Drake completes a circumnavigation of the world and is knighted by Elizabeth I. July 26 - The Northern Netherlands proclaim their independence from Spain in the Oath of Abjuration. ... April 15 is the 105th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (106th in leap years). ... Events February 1 - Sarsa Dengel succeeds his father Menas as Emperor of Ethiopia February 18 - The Duke of Guise is assassinated while besieging Orléans March - Peace of Amboise. ... May 30 is the 150th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (151st in leap years). ... Events January 27 - The trial of Guy Fawkes and other conspirators begins ending in their execution on January 31 May 17 - Supporters of Vasili Shusky invade the Kremlin and kill Premier Dmitri December 26 - Shakespeares King Lear performed in court Storm buries a village of St Ismails near... Sri Guru Ram Das Ji (Punjabi: ਸ੍ਰੀ ਗੁਰੂ ਰਾਮ ਦਾਸ ਜੀ) (24 September 1534 – 1 September 1581) was the fourth of the Ten Gurus of Sikhism and became Guru on 30 August 1574 following in the footsteps of Guru Amar Das. ... Sri Guru Har Gobind Ji (Punjabi: ਸ੍ਰੀ ਗੁਰੂ ਹਰਗੋਬਿੰਦ ਜੀ) (19 June 1595 - 03 March 1644) was the sixth of the Ten Gurus of Sikhism and became Guru on 25 May 1606 following in the footsteps of his father Guru Arjan Dev. ... May 30 is the 150th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (151st in leap years). ... Events January 27 - The trial of Guy Fawkes and other conspirators begins ending in their execution on January 31 May 17 - Supporters of Vasili Shusky invade the Kremlin and kill Premier Dmitri December 26 - Shakespeares King Lear performed in court Storm buries a village of St Ismails near... June 19 is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 195 days remaining. ... Events January 30 - William Shakespeares Romeo and Juliet is performed for the first time. ... March 3 is the 62nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (63rd in leap years). ... // Events February to August - Explorer Abel Tasmans second expedition for the Dutch East India Company maps the north coast of Australia. ... Guru Arjan Dev Ji (15 April 1563 - 30 May 1606) was the fifth of the Ten Gurus of Sikhism and became Guru on 1 September 1581 following in the footsteps of Guru Ram Das ji. ... Guru Har Rai (Punjabi: ) (26 February 1630 - 6 October 1661) was the seventh of the Ten Gurus of Sikhism and became Guru on 8 March 1644 following in the footsteps of his grandfather, Guru Har Gobind. ... February 28 is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events February to August - Explorer Abel Tasmans second expedition for the Dutch East India Company maps the north coast of Australia. ... February 26 is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events February 22 - Native American Quadequine introduces Popcorn to English colonists. ... October 6 is the 279th day of the year (280th in Leap years). ... Events January 6 - The fifth monarchy men unsuccessfully attempt to seize control of London. ... Another editor has suggested that this article might be improved by more material on its significance. ... Mata Nihal Kaur, whose name before her wedding was Ananti Ji, was the wife of Baba Gurditta Ji. ... Sri Guru Har Krishan Ji (Punjabi: ) (7 July 1656 - 30 March 1664) was the eighth of the Ten Gurus of Sikhism and became Guru on 7 October 1661 following in the footsteps of his father, Guru Har Rai. ... October 6 is the 279th day of the year (280th in Leap years). ... Events January 6 - The fifth monarchy men unsuccessfully attempt to seize control of London. ... July 7 is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 177 days remaining. ... // Events Mehmed Köprülü becomes Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire. ... March 30 is the 89th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (90th in Leap years). ... Events March 12 - New Jersey becomes a colony of England. ... Guru Har Rai (Punjabi: ) (26 February 1630 - 6 October 1661) was the seventh of the Ten Gurus of Sikhism and became Guru on 8 March 1644 following in the footsteps of his grandfather, Guru Har Gobind. ... Guru Teg Bahadur Ji (April 1, 1621 - November 11, 1675) was the ninth of the Ten Gurus of Sikhism and became Guru on March 20, 1665 following in the footsteps of his grand-nephew, Guru Har Krishan Ji. ... March 20 is the 79th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (80th in Leap years). ... Events March 4 - Start of the Second Anglo-Dutch War. ... April 1 is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 274 days remaining. ... Events February 9 - Gregory XV is elected pope. ... November 11 is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 50 days remaining. ... Events January 5 - The Battle of Turckeim June 18 - Battle of Fehrbellin August 10 - King Charles II of England places the foundation stone of the Royal Greenwich Observatory in London - construction begins November 11 - Guru Gobind Singh becomes the Tenth Guru of the Sikhs. ... Sri Guru Har Gobind Ji (Punjabi: ਸ੍ਰੀ ਗੁਰੂ ਹਰਗੋਬਿੰਦ ਜੀ) (19 June 1595 - 03 March 1644) was the sixth of the Ten Gurus of Sikhism and became Guru on 25 May 1606 following in the footsteps of his father Guru Arjan Dev. ... Guru Gobind Singh Guru Gobind Singh (Punjabi: ) (Patna, Bihar, India, December 22, 1666 – October 7, 1708, Nanded, Maharashtra,India) was the tenth and last of the Ten Gurus of Sikhism and became Guru on November 11, 1675 following in the footsteps of his father Guru Teg Bahadur. ... November 11 is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 50 days remaining. ... Events January 5 - The Battle of Turckeim June 18 - Battle of Fehrbellin August 10 - King Charles II of England places the foundation stone of the Royal Greenwich Observatory in London - construction begins November 11 - Guru Gobind Singh becomes the Tenth Guru of the Sikhs. ... December 22 is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events September 2 - Great Fire of London: A large fire breaks out in London in the house of Charles IIs baker on Pudding Lane near London Bridge. ... October 7 is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years). ... // Events March 23 - James Francis Edward Stuart lands at the Firth of Forth July 1 - Tewoflos becomes Emperor of Ethiopia September 28 - Peter the Great defeats the Swedes at the Battle of Lesnaya Kandahar conquered by Mir Wais In Masuria one third of the population die during the plague J... Guru Teg Bahadur Ji (April 1, 1621 - November 11, 1675) was the ninth of the Ten Gurus of Sikhism and became Guru on March 20, 1665 following in the footsteps of his grand-nephew, Guru Har Krishan Ji. ... Mata Gujri Mata Gujri, was the wife of Guru Teg Bahadur and also the mother of Guru Gobind Singh. ... Illuminated Adi Granth folio with nisan (Mool Mantar) of Guru Gobind Singh. ... A Sikh man wearing a turban A Sikh is a follower of Sikhism, a religious faith originating in the Punjab. ...


While, the orthodox Sikh understanding of guruship rests on the definitive character of the line of ten human Gurus, there are smaller Sikh communities who recognise continuing successions of personal Gurus, in particular the Namdhari movement.


See also

Image File history File links Sikh emblem. ... This list is of topics related to Sikhs and Sikhism. ... The Golden Temple is a sacred shrine for Sikhs Sikhism (Punjabi: , ), is a monotheistic religion based on the teachings of ten Gurus who lived in northern India during the 16th and 17th centuries. ... Image File history File links Sikh emblem. ... Guru Nanak Dev Guru Nanak Dev (Punjabi: ) (15 April 1469 – 22 September 1539), was the founder of Sikhism and the first of the ten Gurus of the Sikhs. ... Sri Guru Angad Dev Ji (Punjabi: ਸ੍ਰੀ ਗੁਰੂ ਅੰਗਦ ਦੇਵ ਜੀ) (31 March 1504 – 29 March 1552) was the second of The Ten Gurus of Sikhism. ... Sri Guru Amar Das Ji (Punjabi: ) (5 April 1479 – 1 September 1574) was the third of the Ten Gurus of Sikhism and became Guru on 26 March 1552 following in the footsteps of Guru Angad Dev, who died 29 March 1552. ... Sri Guru Ram Das Ji (Punjabi: ਸ੍ਰੀ ਗੁਰੂ ਰਾਮ ਦਾਸ ਜੀ) (24 September 1534 – 1 September 1581) was the fourth of the Ten Gurus of Sikhism and became Guru on 30 August 1574 following in the footsteps of Guru Amar Das. ... Guru Arjan Dev Ji (15 April 1563 - 30 May 1606) was the fifth of the Ten Gurus of Sikhism and became Guru on 1 September 1581 following in the footsteps of Guru Ram Das ji. ... Sri Guru Har Gobind Ji (Punjabi: ਸ੍ਰੀ ਗੁਰੂ ਹਰਗੋਬਿੰਦ ਜੀ) (19 June 1595 - 03 March 1644) was the sixth of the Ten Gurus of Sikhism and became Guru on 25 May 1606 following in the footsteps of his father Guru Arjan Dev. ... Guru Har Rai (Punjabi: ) (26 February 1630 - 6 October 1661) was the seventh of the Ten Gurus of Sikhism and became Guru on 8 March 1644 following in the footsteps of his grandfather, Guru Har Gobind. ... Sri Guru Har Krishan Ji (Punjabi: ) (7 July 1656 - 30 March 1664) was the eighth of the Ten Gurus of Sikhism and became Guru on 7 October 1661 following in the footsteps of his father, Guru Har Rai. ... Sri Guru Teg Bahadur Ji (Punjabi: ਸ੍ਰੀ ਗੁਰੂ ਤੇਗ ਬਹਾਦਰ ਜੀ) (April 1, 1621 - November 11, 1675) was the ninth of the Ten Gurus of Sikhism and became Guru on March 20, 1665 following in the footsteps of his grand-nephew, Guru Har Krishan . ... Guru Gobind Singh Guru Gobind Singh (Punjabi: ) (Patna, Bihar, India, December 22, 1666 – October 7, 1708, Nanded, Maharashtra,India) was the tenth and last of the Ten Gurus of Sikhism and became Guru on November 11, 1675 following in the footsteps of his father Guru Teg Bahadur. ... Illuminated Adi Granth folio with nisan (Mool Mantar) of Guru Gobind Singh. ... Sikh Bhagats refers to the Saints and holy men of various faiths whose teachings are included in the Sikh holy book the Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji. ... The Sikh religious philosophy is covered in great detail in the Sri Guru Granth Sahib, the Sikh holy text. ... Ek Onkaar - One God - There is only ONE God who has infinite qualities and names; S/He* is the same for all religions; God is Creator & Sustainer -All that you see around you is Gods Creation; S/He* is everywhere, and in everything; S/He is fearless and with... The Sikhs must believe in the following Values: Equality: All humans are equal before God – No discrimination is allowed on the basis of Caste, Race, Sex, Creed, Origin, colour, education, status, wealth, etc. ... Cutting Hair: Cutting hair is strictly forbidden in Sikhism. ... Naam: Japo – Meditation & Prayer, Free Service Sewa, Simran, Sacred Music Kirtan Kirat Karni: - Honest, Earnings, labour, etc while remembering the Lord Wand kay Shako: - Share with Others who are deserving, Free Food langar, 10% Donation Daasvand, etc See also Sikhism and Sikh religious philosophy. ... The Golden Temple is the most important sacred shrine for Sikhs Sikhism comes from the word Sikh, which means a strong and able disciple. ... The Ardās (Punjabi: ) are the Sikh daily prayers. ... Amrit is a Sanskrit word and it means the holy water of immortality, or the elixir of life. ... Chardi Kala is an important expression used in Sikhism for a mind frame that a Sikh has to accept and practise. ... Dasvand means to donate 10% percent of ones harvest to the Gurdwara. ... The Five Ks are five items that baptised Sikhs wear at all times either out of respect for the tenth teacher, Guru Gobind Singh, or out of a sense of religious devotion. ... Kirat Karō is one of three primary pillars of Sikhism. ... A bhajan or kirtan is a Hindu devotional song, often but not necessarily of ancient origin. ... Langar service at the Gurdwara at Forum 2004 in Spain Langar (Punjabi: ) is the term used in the Sikh religion for the service of Free Kitchen in a Gurdwara and eaten by everyone sitting as equals. ... Nām Japō (Punjabi: ), refers to the meditation, vocal singing of Hymns from the Sri Guru Granth Sahib or of the various Names of God, specially the chanting of the word Waheguru, which means Wonderful Lord. ... The term Simran refers to the vocal repetition or recital of the God Names - Naam or of the Holy Text from the Two Granths of the Sikhs - the Sri Guru Granth Sahib and the Dasam Granth. ... Guru Nanak elaborated the three pillars thus, [1] the practise Simran and Naam Japno – meditation on God and reciting and chanting of God’s name, Waheguru the practise of Kirat Karni – To honestly earn by ones physical and mental effort while accepting Gods gifts and blessing the practise of... In Sikhism Vaṇḍ Chakkō (Punjabi: ) is a technique and method which means share it as you consume it. ... Illuminated Adi Granth folio with nisan (Mool Mantar) of Guru Gobind Singh. ... Guru Granth Sahib (Granth is Punjabi for book, Sahib is Hindi meaning master, from Arabic, meaning companion, friend, owner, or master) or Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji or SGGS for short, is more than a holy book of the Sikhs. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Sarbloh Granth (Punjabi: ) is a poem that recites the story of gods and demons, and is thought to be the work of Guru Gobind Singh. ... Bani is the term used by Sikhs to refer to various sections of the Holy Text that appears in their several Holy Books. ... Chaupai is the short name for the Sikh prayer or Gurbani whose full name is Kabiobach Bainti Chaupai. ... Jaap Sahib is the morning prayer of the Sikhs. ... Japji Sahib consists of the Mool Mantra, a set of 38 hymns and a final Salok which appear at the very beginning of the Sri Guru Granth Sahib, the Holy Book of the Sikhs. ... Illuminated Adi Granth folio with nisan (Mool Mantar) of Guru Gobind Singh. ... Evening prayer of the Sikhs. ... Sukhmani Sahib is the name given to the set of hymns divided into 24 sections which appear in the Sri Guru Granth Sahib, the Sikh Holy Scriptures on page 262. ... This is a short hymn of 10 stanzas. ... Simple Ek Onkar Ik Oankar (also , , Ik ÅŒaá¹…kār) means one God and is a central tenet of Sikh religious philosophy. ... Gurdwara Sri Guru Singh Sabha, Southall, UK. A Gurdwara (Punjabi: , often incorrectly called a Gurudwara), meaning the doorway to God, is the Sikh place of worship and may be referred to as a Sikh Temple. ... The Golden Temple Harmandir Sahib (also Hari Mandir, Harimandar and other variants) (Punjabi: ਹਰਿਮੰਦਰ ਸਾਹਿਬ) is the most sacred gurdwara in all of Sikhism, located in Amritsar, Punjab, India. ... Khalsa which means Pure is the name given by Guru Gobind Singh to all Sikhs who have been baptised or initiated by taking Amrit in ceremony called Amrit Sanchar. ... The Khanda The Khanda is one of the most important symbols of Sikhism. ... A Sikh man almost always bears the surname of Singh, which means lion, and a Sikh woman can be identified with a second name of Kaur, which means princess (Kaur being an exclusively Sikh name). ... Satguru or Sadguru means true guru (Sanskrit सदगुरू sat=true), literally: true teacher. ... Waheguru (Punjabi: ) means The Wonderful Lord in the Punjabi language. ... Khalsa Panth is the literal theocracy that manages the affairs of the Khalsa. ...

External Links

  • Sikh Search Engine, find info on Sikhism, Sikh history, Gurus, MP3's etc

  Results from FactBites:
 
Sikhism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3913 words)
Guru Amar Das became the third Sikh guru in 1552 at the age of 73.
In 1581, Guru Arjan — youngest son of the fourth guru — became the Fifth Guru of the Sikhs.
The Guru Granth Sahib is the eleventh and final Guru of the Sikhs, is held in the highest regard by the Sikhs and is treated as the Eternal Guru, as instructed by Guru Gobind Singh.
Guru Nanak Dev - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1076 words)
Guru Nanak Dev (Punjabi: ਗੁਰੂ ਨਾਨਕ ਦੇਵ) (15 April 1469 – 22 September 1539), was the founder of Sikhism and the first of the ten Gurus of the Sikhs.
Guru Nanak Dev was born at Talwandi, now called Nankana Sahib, a village located near the city of Lahore in present-day Pakistan.
Wherever he went, Guru Nanak Dev spoke out against empty religious rituals; pilgrimages; the caste system; the practise of Sati, wherein a widow immolates herself on their husband's funeral pyre; of depending on books to learn the true religion; and of all the other tenets that were to define his teachings.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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