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Encyclopedia > The Scream
The Scream
(Norwegian: Skrik)
Edvard Munch, 1893
Oil, tempera, and pastel on cardboard
91 × 73.5 cm
National Gallery, Oslo

The Scream (Skrik, 1893) is a seminal series of expressionist paintings by Norwegian artist Edvard Munch, depicting an agonized figure against a blood red skyline. It is said by some to symbolize the human species overwhelmed by an attack of existential angst.[1] The landscape in the background is Oslofjord, viewed from the hill of Ekeberg, in Oslo (then Kristiania), Norway. Scream can refer to several topics: Look up scream in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Download high resolution version (500x637, 135 KB)Subject: Painting The Scream (1893) by Edvard Munch. ... The Scream. ... Year 1893 (MDCCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Mona Lisa, Oil on wood panel painting by Leonardo da Vinci. ... A 1367 tempera on wood by Niccolò Semitecolo. ... Pastel is an art medium in the form of a stick, consisting of pure powdered pigment and a binder. ... Nasjonalgalleriet, or The National Gallery in Oslo is the national art gallery of Norway. ... This article is about the capital of Norway. ... The Scream by Edvard Munch (1893) which inspired 20th century Expressionists Portrait of Eduard Kosmack by Egon Schiele Rehe im Walde by Franz Marc Elbe Bridge I by Rolf Nesch On White II by Wassily Kandinsky, 1923. ... For other uses , see Painting (disambiguation). ... The Scream. ... Existentialism is a philosophical movement that posits that individuals create the meaning and essence of their lives, as opposed to deities or authorities creating it for them. ... For other uses, see Angst (disambiguation). ... The Oslofjord (Oslofjorden) is a bay in the south-east of Norway, stretching from Færder in the south to Oslo at the head. ... Ekeberg is a suburb of the city of Oslo, Norway. ... This article is about the capital of Norway. ...


Munch created several versions of The Scream in various media. The Munch Museum holds one of two painted versions (see gallery) and one pastel. The National Gallery of Norway holds the other painted version (shown to right). A fourth version, in pastel, is owned by Norwegian billionaire Petter Olsen. Munch also created a lithograph (1895, see gallery) of the image.[2] Self portrait, 1895 Edvard Munch (Løten, December 12, 1863 - Ekely (near Oslo), January 23, 1944) was a Norwegian Expressionist painter and printmaker. ... Nasjonalgalleriet, or The National Gallery in Oslo is the national art gallery of Norway. ... Petter Olsen is a Norwegian billionaire and member of the Olsen shipping family owning the company Fred. ... Lithography is a method for printing on a smooth surface. ...


The Scream has been the target of several high-profile art thefts. In 1994, the version in the National Gallery was stolen. It was recovered several months later. In 2004, The Scream and Madonna were stolen from the Munch Museum. Both paintings were recovered in 2006. They had sustained some damage and are due to go back on display in May 2008, after undergoing restoration. Art theft is the stealing of high-profile art. ...

Contents

Sources of inspiration

The original German title given to the work by Munch was Der Schrei der Natur. The Norwegian word skrik is usually translated as scream, but is cognate with the English shriek. Occasionally, the painting has been called The Cry. Look up cognate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


In a page in his diary headed Nice 22.01.1892, Munch described his inspiration for the image thus:

I was walking along a path with two friends—the sun was setting—suddenly the sky turned blood red—I paused, feeling exhausted, and leaned on the fence—there was blood and tongues of fire above the blue-black fjord and the city—my friends walked on, and I stood there trembling with anxiety—and I sensed an infinite scream passing through nature.

The reddish sky in the background was possibly caused by the aftermath of the powerful volcanic eruption of Krakatoa in 1883. The ash that was ejected from the volcano left the sky tinted red in much of eastern United States and most of Europe and Asia from November 1883 to February 1884.[3] This article is about the volcano. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ...


The person in the foreground may be the artist himself, not screaming but protecting himself or itself from the scream of Nature. Thus, the position in which he portrays himself could be considered a reflex reaction typical of anyone struggling to keep out distressing noise, whether actual or imagined. Self portrait 1895 File links The following pages link to this file: Edvard Munch Categories: Public domain images | Images of art ...


The scene was identified as being the view from a road overlooking Oslo, the Oslofjord and Hovedøya, from the hill of Ekeberg. At the time of painting the work, Munch's manic depressive sister Laura Catherine was interned in the mental hospital at the foot of Ekeberg. The Oslofjord (Oslofjorden) is a bay in the south-east of Norway, stretching from Færder in the south to Oslo at the head. ... One of the main islands off the coast of Oslo, Norway in the Oslo Fjord. ... For other uses, see Bipolar. ...


In 1978, the renowned Munch scholar Robert Rosenblum suggested that the strange, sexless creature in the foreground of the painting was probably inspired by a Peruvian mummy, which Munch could have seen at the 1889 Exposition Universelle in Paris. This mummy, which was crouching in a fetal position with its hands alongside its face, also struck the imagination of Munch's friend Paul Gauguin: it stood model for the central figure in his painting Human misery (Grape harvest at Arles) and for the old woman at the left in his painting Where Do We Come From? What Are We? Where Are We Going?. More recently, an Italian anthropologist speculated that Munch might have seen a mummy in Florence's Museum of Natural History which bears an even more striking resemblance to the painting.[4] Robert Rosenblum (1927-2006) was an American art historian and curator known for his influential and often irreverent scholarship on European and American art of the mid-eighteenth to twentieth century. ... For other uses, see Mummy (disambiguation). ... The Exposition Universelle of 1889 was a Worlds Fair held in Paris, France from May 5, to October 31, 1889. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Eugène Henri Paul Gauguin (7 June 1848 – 8 May 1903) was a leading Post-Impressionist painter. ... Where Do We Come From? What Are We? Where Are We Going? (1897–1898, original French title: Doù venons-nous? Que sommes-nous? Où allons-nous?) is one of Paul Gauguins most famous paintings. ... Florence (or Firenze, Florentia and Fiorenza) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany, and of the province of Florence. ...


Thefts

Wikinews has related news:
Edvard Munch's The Scream and Madonna found
Thieves taking paintings from the Munch Museum, August 2004. Photo taken by unidentified bystander.
Thieves taking paintings from the Munch Museum, August 2004. Photo taken by unidentified bystander.

On February 12, 1994, the same day as the opening of the 1994 Winter Olympics in Lillehammer, four men broke into the National Gallery and stole its version of Scream, leaving a note reading "Thanks for the poor security".[5] The painting had been moved down to a ground floor display as part of the Olympic festivities, and the presence of international media covering the games made the theft a sensation.[6] An early claim of responsibility by a Norwegian anti-abortion group turned out to be false. After the gallery refused a ransom demand of USD $1 million in March 1994, Norwegian police set up a sting operation with assistance from the British Police and the Getty Museum, and the painting was recovered undamaged on May 7, 1994.[7] In January 1996, four men were convicted in connection with the theft, including Pål Enger, who in 1988 had been convicted of stealing Munch's Vampire.[8] Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Wikinews is a free-content news source and a project of the Wikimedia Foundation. ... Image File history File links Munch_Scream_Thieves_2004. ... Image File history File links Munch_Scream_Thieves_2004. ... is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... The 1994 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XVII Olympic Winter Games, were celebrated in 1994 in Lillehammer, Norway. ... Lillehammer is a town and municipality in the county of Oppland, Norway. ... The term ransom refers to the practice of holding a prisoner to extort money or property extorted to secure their release, or to the sum of money involved. ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The British police are a group of similar but independent police services which operate in the United Kingdom. ... View of a building at the Getty Center, from the Central Garden. ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ...


On August 22, 2004, masked gunmen entered the Munch Museum during daylight hours and stole two paintings: Scream (a different version from that stolen in 1994), and Munch's Madonna.[9] On April 8, 2005, Norwegian police arrested a suspect in connection with the theft, but the paintings remained missing, and it was rumored that they had been burned by the thieves to destroy evidence.[10][11] On June 1, 2005, with four suspects already in custody in connection with the crime, the City Government of Oslo offered a reward of 2 million Norwegian kroner (about 250,000 euro) for information that could help locate the paintings.[12] Though the paintings remained at large, six men went on trial in early 2006, variously charged with either assisting to plan or execute the robbery. Three of the men were convicted and sentenced to between four and eight years in prison in May of 2006, and two of the convicted, Bjørn Hoen and Petter Tharaldsen, were also ordered to pay compensation of 750 million kroner (US $122 million) to the City of Oslo.[13] The Munch Museum itself was closed for 10 months for a $6 million security overhaul.[citation needed] is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the video game. ... Edvard Munchs Madonna Madonna is a famous painting by the Norwegian expressionist Edvard Munch. ... is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the capital of Norway. ... Krone is the name of the currency used in Norway. ...


On August 31, 2006, Norwegian police announced that a police operation had recovered both Scream and Madonna, but did not reveal detailed circumstances of the recovery. The paintings were said to be in a better-than-expected condition. "We are 100 percent certain they are the originals," police chief Iver Stensrud told a news conference. "The damage was much less than feared."[14][15] Munch Museum director Ingebjørg Ydstie confirmed the condition of the paintings, saying it was much better than expected and that the damage could be repaired.[16] The Scream had moisture damage on the lower left corner, while Madonna suffered several tears on the right side of the painting as well as two holes in Madonna's arm.[17] Before repairs and restoration began, the paintings were put on public display by the Munch Museum beginning September 27, 2006. During the five-day exhibition, 5500 people viewed the damaged paintings. According to a June 2007 statement released by the museum, the conservation process is still ongoing, and the conserved works are due to go back on display in May 2008. Some damage to "The Scream" may prove impossible to repair, but, the overall integrity of the work has not been compromised.[2][18] is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Self portrait, 1895 Edvard Munch (Løten, December 12, 1863 - Ekely (near Oslo), January 23, 1944) was a Norwegian Expressionist painter and printmaker. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Role in popular culture

In the late twentieth century, Scream acquired iconic status in popular culture. It was used on the cover of some editions of Arthur Janov's book The Primal Scream. [19] In 1983–1984, pop artist Andy Warhol made a series of silk prints of works by Munch, including Scream. The idea was to desacralize the painting by making it into a mass-reproducible object, though Munch had already begun that process himself, by making a lithograph of the work for reproduction. Furthermore, characteristic of post-modern art is Erró's ironic and irreverent treatment of Munch's masterpiece in his acrylic paintings The Second Scream (1967) and Ding Dong (1979).[20] Dr. Arthur Janov (born August 21, 1924) is an American psychologist and psychotherapist, and the creator of Primal Therapy. ... The Primal Scream (1970) is a book by Dr. Arthur Janov, the inventor of primal therapy, sometimes wrongly called primal scream therapy. See also : John Lennon External links http://www. ... Just What Is It That Makes Today’s Homes So Different, So Appealing? (1956) is one of the earliest works to be considered pop art. ... Andrew Warhola (August 6, 1928 — February 22, 1987), better known as Andy Warhol, was an American artist who was a central figure in the movement known as Pop art. ... Lithography is a method for printing on a smooth surface, as well as a method of manufacturing semiconductor and MEMS devices. ... Postmodernism (sometimes abbreviated pomo) is a term applied to a wide-ranging set of developments in critical theory, philosophy, architecture, art, literature, and culture, which are generally characterized as either emerging from, in reaction to, or superseding, modernism. ... Erró (born Guðmundur Guðmundsson in 1932 in Ólafsvík, Iceland) is a postmodern artist. ... Ironic redirects here. ...

The Scream appears in The Simpsons

The work also finds mention in Phillip K. Dick's novel Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep, as an exhibition of Edvard Munch in the museum. The work's reproduction on all kinds of items, from t-shirts to coffee mugs, bears witness to its iconic status as well as to its complete desacralization in the eyes of today's public. In that respect, it is comparable to other iconic works of art, such as Leonardo da Vinci's Mona Lisa. An American muralist, Robert Fishbone, discovered a gap in the market when in 1991 he started selling inflatable figures of the central figure in the painting.[21] His St. Louis-based company, On The Wall Productions, has sold hundreds of thousands of them. Image File history File linksMetadata Simpsons_the_scream. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Simpsons_the_scream. ... Simpsons redirects here. ... Philip Kindred Dick (December 16, 1928 – March 2, 1982), often known by his initials PKD, or by the pen name Richard Phillips, was an American science fiction writer and novelist who changed the genre profoundly. ... Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? (1968) is a science fiction novel by Philip K. Dick. ... “Da Vinci” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Mona Lisa (disambiguation). ... Salle des illustres, ceiling painting, by Jean André Rixens. ... St. ...

The Scream appearing in an Animaniacs episode.

As one of very few works of modern art that are instantly recognizable to a broad audience, Scream has been used in advertising, in cartoons, in anime, and has likewise fascinated film and television. Ghostface, the psychotic murderer in Wes Craven's Scream horror movies, wears a Halloween mask inspired by the central figure in the painting. Reproductions of this mask are now very popular and common masks in the real world. The work also serves as an item of conversation and an elaborately set-up, momentary sight-gag in the film The Pompatus of Love. It can also be seen in an episode of the BBC drama Jonathan Creek, where it is used as a backdrop to one of Adam Klaus' magic shows. It also appears in some video and computer games, including the last level of the game Altered Beast, where one of the silhouettes in the foreground heavily resembles Scream and in the original System Shock, where it is shown on the executive level as one of the pictures on the wall, heigtening the intense feeling of that game. A digitalized version was used on the front cover of The UNIX-Haters Handbook to emphasize intense frustration. A likeness of the figure in the painting was used as the Ghost in the 1990s toy line, Monster in My Pocket. The painting also appears in a Beavis and Butt-Head episode, Butt is it Art ?. The painting is also mentioned in the show Arthur in the episode "Binky Barnes, Art Expert". In the series finale of the Showtime show Dead Like Me, when a girl by the name of Josie Feldman is murdered by a serial killer on Halloween, he emerges out of Josie's house and blows out a candle in a Jack-o-Lantern with a painting of the painting's head on it instead of the traditional face. In the Doctor Who audio adventure Dust Breeding, the painting is revealed to contain an alien intelligence. The Scream appears in the South Park episode 'Two Guys Naked In a Hot Tub.' The central character is also shown in The Simpsons when Homer Simpson is contemplating going to the museum. He imagines himself playing fuzzball against Michaelangelo's David. When Homer defeats him he asks "Who's next" and the central figure walks in and screams "MEEEEEEEEEEEE!" Image File history File links Animaniacs_the_scream. ... Image File history File links Animaniacs_the_scream. ... This article is about the television series. ... // Advert redirects here. ... For other uses, see Cartoon (disambiguation). ... Animé redirects here. ... Ghostface is the name of a fictional character and the main antagonist in the Scream trilogy. ... Wesley Earl Craven (born August 2, 1939 in Cleveland, Ohio) is an American film director and writer best known as the creator of many horror films, including the famed Nightmare on Elm Street series featuring the redoubtable Freddy Krueger character. ... Scream is a 1996 horror/dark comedy film directed by Wes Craven and written by Kevin Williamson. ... This article is about the holiday. ... The Pompatus of Love is a 1996 film that tells the story of four guys discussing women and the meaning of the word pompatus. This made-up word is found in two Steve Miller songs, Enter Maurice and The Joker, the latter of which contains the line Some people call... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Jonathan Creek is a British mystery television series produced by the BBC and written by David Renwick. ... Altered Beast (獣王記 Jūōki, literally Beast Kings Chronicle, in Japan) is a 1988 arcade game developed and manufactured by Sega. ... For the Doctor Who novel, see System Shock (Doctor Who). ... The UNIX-HATERS Handbook is a semi-humorous edited compilation of messages to the UNIX-HATERS mailing list. ... Monster in My Pocket was a toy line developed by Morrison Entertainment Group, headed by Joe Morrison and John Weems, and released by Matchbox in 1990 consisting of small, soft plastic monsters from religion and mythology, literary fantasy, and unexplained phenomena. ... Beavis and Butt-head is a American animated television series created by Mike Judge. ... This article is about the pay TV channel. ... Dead Like Me is an American television comedy-drama starring Ellen Muth and Mandy Patinkin as grim reapers in Seattle, Washington. ... Jack-o-lanterns may be carved with a friendly face, above, a menacing sawtooth scowl, or any look in between. ... This article is about the television series. ... Dust Breeding is a Big Finish Productions audio drama based on the long-running British science fiction television series Doctor Who. ... Simpsons redirects here. ... Homer Simpson is also a character in the book and film The Day of the Locust. ... Michelangelos David, sculpted from 1500 to 1504, is a masterpiece of Renaissance sculpture and one of Michelangelos two greatest works of sculpture, along with the Pietà. However, it is the David alone that almost certainly holds the title of the most recognizable statue in the history of art. ...


The painting also appears in the Bollywood film, Don - The Chase Begins Again, starring Shahrukh Khan, where it is kept in a vault as a part of a drug lord's collection. The film implied that he had stolen the famous painting. However, it was returned prior to the films release. Bollywood (Hindi: , Urdu: ) is the informal term popularly used for Mumbai-based Hindi-language film industry in India. ... For the 1978 Hindi film, see Don (1978 film), for the Telugu film with the same title, see Don (2007 film), for the Dutch film with the same title, see Don (Dutch film). ... Shahrukh Khan (Hindi: शाहरुख़ ख़ान, Urdu: شاہ رخ خان), born 2 November 1965, is a highly acclaimed Indian actor who works in Bollywood films, as well as film producer and television host. ...


It has also been used in political humor and advertisement. During the first Bush administration a popular poster showed the painting with the caption "President Quayle." In August 2006, Masterfoods USA, the maker of M&M's candies, began using Scream in ads for its dark chocolate variety of candies and offered a reward of two million of the candies for the painting's return. Shortly after the promotion was announced, the painting was recovered. Masterfoods has announced its intention to honor the reward once the recovered painting is authenticated.[22] George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ... James Danforth[1][2] Dan Quayle (born February 4, 1947) is an American politician and a former Senator from the state of Indiana. ... Mars, Incorporated is a world-wide manufacturer of confectionery, petfood and other food products with $18 billion (USD) in annual sales (2005). ... This article is about the candy. ...


References

  1. ^ "Krakatoa provided backdrop to Munch's scream", The Age, 2003-12-11. Retrieved on 2006-08-13. 
  2. ^ a b About the conservation of The Scream and Madonna. Munch Museum. Retrieved on 2007-12-22.
  3. ^ Olson, Donald W.; Russell L. Doescher and Marilynn S. Olson (May 2004). "The Blood-Red Sky of the Scream". APS News 13 (5). American Physical Society. Retrieved on 2007-12-22. 
  4. ^ "Italian Mummy Source of 'Scream'?", Discovery Channel, September 7, 2004. Retrieved on 2006-12-12.  (waybacked mirror)
  5. ^ "4 Norwegians Guilty In Theft of 'The Scream'", AP, 1996-01-18. Retrieved on 2006-08-31. 
  6. ^ "On this day: Art thieves snatch Scream", BBC News Online, 1994-02-12. Retrieved on 2006-08-31. 
  7. ^ Dolnick, Edward (June 2005). The Rescue Artist. HarperCollins. ISBN 9780060531171. 
  8. ^ "Master plan", Guardian Unlimited, 2005-06-13. Retrieved on 2007-12-21. 
  9. ^ "Scream stolen from Norway museum", BBC News, 2004-08-22. Retrieved on 2006-09-03. 
  10. ^ "Oslo police arrest Scream suspect", BBC News, 2005-04-08. Retrieved on 2007-12-22. 
  11. ^ "Famous Munch paintings destroyed?", Norway Post, 2005-04-28. Retrieved on 2007-12-22. 
  12. ^ "Reward offered for Scream return", BBC News, 2005-06-01. Retrieved on 2007-12-22. 
  13. ^ Three guilty of The Scream theft. BBC News (2006-05-02). Retrieved on 2007-12-22.
  14. ^ "Munch paintings recovered", Aftenposten, 2006-08-31. Retrieved on 2007-12-22. 
  15. ^ "Stolen Munch paintings found safe", BBC News, 2006-08-31. Retrieved on 2007-12-22. 
  16. ^ "Munch paintings 'can be repaired'", BBC News, 2006-09-1. Retrieved on 2007-12-22. 
  17. ^ "Museum to exhibit damaged Munch paintings", Aftenposten, 2006-10-12. Retrieved on 2007-12-22. 
  18. ^ "'The Scream' to go back on display after 2004 heist", AFP, 2008-03-03. 
  19. ^ Janov, Arthur. (1977). The Primal Scream. New York: Abacus. ISBN 0-349-11834-5. 
  20. ^ Scream on the Surface. Munch-Museet. Retrieved on May 29, 2005.
  21. ^ The Scream. On The Wall Productions. Retrieved on 2006-09-03.
  22. ^ Masterfoods USA (2006-08-31). "M&M's(R) Promises to Honor Two Million Dark Chocolate M&M's(R) Reward In Celebration of the Return of Munch Masterpiece 'The Scream'". Press release. Retrieved on 2006-08-31.

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External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
SCREAM (270 words)
Scream sits quietly in your computer's system tray and automatically springs into action when it detects a scream.
In a world where "anger" is paired with "management," Scream encourages the return to prominence of the lost art of screaming.
Scream Themes utilize the web page bookmarking system in del.icio.us to create bundled themes you can scream at on your own or share with friends.
The Scream - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1496 words)
The Scream (Skrik, 1893) is a seminal expressionist painting by Norwegian artist Edvard Munch.
Regarded by many as his most important work, it is said by some to symbolize modern man taken by an attack of existential angst, with the skyline inspired by the 1883 fallout of Krakatoa.
On August 22, 2004, the Munch Museum's Scream was stolen at gunpoint, along with Munch's Madonna.
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