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Encyclopedia > The School for Scandal
The School for Scandal


Robert Baddeley as Moses in The School for Scandal by Johann Zoffany c.1781 Image File history File links Robert Baddeley as Moses in Sheridans The School for Scandal by Johann Zoffany c. ... Robert Baddeley as Moses in Sheridans The School for Scandal by Johann Zoffany c. ... Johann Zoffany (1733, Frankfurt - November 11, 1810, Strand-on-the-Green) was a German-born portrait painter who in late 18th-century England made his reputation with paintings depicting episodes from contemporary theatre and with portraits and conversation pieces (i. ...

Written by Richard Brinsley Sheridan
Characters Sir Peter Teazle
Lady Teazle
Sir Oliver Surface
Joseph Surface
Charles Surface
Maria
Lady Sneerwell
Sir Benjamin Backbite
Rowley
Snake
Mrs Candour
Crabtree
Date of premiere May 18, 1777
Theatre Royal
Country of origin Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom
Original language English
Genre Comedy of manners
Setting London, UK

The School for Scandal is a comedy of manners written by Richard Brinsley Sheridan. It was first performed in London at Drury Lane Theater on May 18, 1777.[1] With principal themes of "the deceptive nature of appearances, the fickleness of reputation, [and] the often disreputable guises behind which goodness and honesty can conceal itself," it has been noted that "The play remains to this day a crowd-pleaser and one of the standard repertory pieces in our dramatic literature."[2] Richard Brinsley Sheridan Richard Brinsley Sheridan (October 30, 1751 – July 7, 1816) was an Irish playwright and Whig statesman. ... is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1777 (MDCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Currently home to Lord Of The Rings, the musical. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The comedy of manners satirizes the manners and affectations of a social class, often represented by stock characters, such as the miles gloriosus in ancient times, the fop and the rake during the Restoration, or an old person pretending to be young. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... The comedy of manners satirizes the manners and affectations of a social class, often represented by stock characters, such as the miles gloriosus in ancient times, the fop and the rake during the Restoration, or an old person pretending to be young. ... Richard Brinsley Sheridan Richard Brinsley Sheridan (October 30, 1751 – July 7, 1816) was an Irish playwright and Whig statesman. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Currently home to Lord Of The Rings, the musical. ... is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1777 (MDCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ...

Contents

Detailed summary

Prologue

The prologue, written by David Garrick, commends the play, its subject, and its author to the audience. (Garrick was Sheridan's predecessor as manager of Drury Lane.) [3] David Garrick by Thomas Gainsborough. ...


Act I

Scene I: Lady Sneerwell confides to her servant Snake her plan to undermine Charles Surface's attempts to woo Sir Peter Teazle's ward Maria (with help from Charles' older brother Joseph), in order that Lady Sneerwell may have Charles for herself. Joseph, who is also wooing Maria, appears to confer with Lady Sneerwell. Maria herself then enters, fleeing the attentions of Sir Benjamin Backbite and his uncle Crabtree. Mrs. Candour enters, and soon after Sir Benjamin and Crabtree, bringing a good deal of gossip with them. News of the imminent return of the Surface brothers' rich uncle Sir Oliver from the East Indies is discussed, as well as Charles's currently dire financial situation.


Scene II: Sir Peter complains of his spendthrift new young wife, Lady Teazle, to his servant Rowley, who relates news that Peter's friend Sir Oliver is now in town. Sir Peter also gives his opinion of the Surface brothers, over whom he was guardian in their youth; he believes "Joseph is indeed a model for the young men of the age," but that Charles is wild and dissipated.


Act II

Scene I: Sir Peter argues with his wife, Lady Teazle, refusing to be "ruined by [her] extravagance." He reminds her of her recent and far humbler country origins. Lady Teazle excuses herself by appealing to "the fashion," and departs to visit Lady Sneerwell. Despite their quarrel, Sir Peter still finds himself charmed by his wife even when she is arguing with him.


Scene II: At Lady Sneerwell's, a round of cards and community scandal discussion is disrupted by the appearance and comments of Sir Peter. After he goes and most of others retire to the next room, Joseph Surface gets a moment alone to pursue a mostly indifferent Maria before Lady Teazle returns, dismisses Maria, and proves herself a far more forward flirting partner and prospect.


Scene III: The returned Sir Oliver, who is amused by Sir Peter's marriage of a young wife, visits the latter; their talk turns to the Surface brothers. Sir Peter praises Joseph's high morals, but Sir Oliver suspects that he may be a hypocrite, and decides to give the libertine and spendthrift Charles a chance to prove his worth.


Act III

Scene I: Sir Oliver describes his plan to visit each of the brothers incognito in order to test their characters. He will disguise himself as their needy relative Mr. Stanley, helped by the "friendly Jew" Moses, a moneylender who has tried to help Charles. When he hears from Moses that the moneylender is to take a "Mr. Premium" (another lender) to Charles for another possible loan, Sir Oliver changes his plan to posing as Premium when visiting Charles (still intending to visit Joseph as Stanley).


Sir Peter is left alone and when Maria enters, he tries to urge Joseph on her as a worthier match than Charles, whom she favors. When she is not persuaded, he threatens her with "the authority of a guardian." She goes, and Lady Teazle enters asking her husband for two hundred pounds. Sir Peter and Lady Teazle argue again, and conclude that they should separate.


Scene II: Sir Oliver (as Mr. Premium) arrives with Moses at Charles' house. When Charles' servant Trip detains them until Charles is ready to see them, and then tries to borrow money on his own behalf from Moses, Sir Oliver concludes that "this is the temple of dissipation indeed!"


Scene III: Charles, entertaining his raucous dinner guests, raises a toast to Maria. He then meets Sir Oliver (as Premium); not recognizing his long-lost uncle, Charles asks him for credit, with a promise that Sir Oliver (whom he believes is in Calcutta) will soon leave him a fortune. He admits that he has sold the family silver and his late father's precious library, and offers to sell the family portrait collection--one of the few portions of his inheritance left--to the supposed Premium. Horrified by Charles' disrespect for his ancestors' portraits, Sir Oliver determines to disinherit him. This article is on Calcutta/Kolkata, the city. ...


Act IV

Scene I: Charles auctions all but one of the family portraits to Sir Oliver, using the precious family tree rolled up as an auction-hammer. However, he refuses to sell the last portrait, which is of Sir Oliver, out of respect for his benefactor; Charles will not sell it even when Sir Oliver as Premium offers to pay as much for it as all the rest combined. Moved, Sir Oliver inwardly forgives Charles. After the sale and the departure of Oliver and Moses, Charles sends a hundred pounds of the proceeds for the relief of "Mr. Stanley," despite Rowley's objection.


Scene II: Sir Oliver, reflecting on Charles' character with Moses, is met by Rowley, who has brought him the hundred pounds sent to "Stanley." Declaring "I’ll pay his debts, and his benevolence too," Sir Oliver plans to go meet his other nephew in the person of Stanley.


Scene III: Joseph, anxiously awaiting a visit from Lady Teazle, is told by a servant that she has just left "her chair at the milliner's next door" and so has the servant drawn a screen across the window (his reason: "my opposite neighbour is a maiden lady of so curious a temper"). On her entrance, Joseph forswears any interest in Maria, and flirts in earnest with Lady Teazle, perversely suggesting that she should make a "faux pas" for the benefit of her reputation. The servant returns to announce Sir Peter, and a panicked Lady Teazle hides. Sir Peter enters and tells Joseph that he suspects an affair between Charles and Lady Teazle (due to gossip previously spread by Joseph and Lady Sneerwell). He also confides his intention to give his wife a generous separate maintenance during his life and the bulk of his fortune on his demise. The litter is a class of wheelless vehicles for transport of persons. ... Millinery is womens hats and other articles sold by a milliner, or the profession or business of designing, making, or selling hats for women. ... Look up faux pas in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Charles' arrival is announced, and Sir Peter hides in the closet, asking Joseph to sound Charles out about his relationship with Lady Teazle. In hiding, Sir Peter sees the corner of Lady Teazle's petticoat, which Joseph explains as belonging to "a little French milliner, a silly rogue that plagues me" who is hiding to preserve her own reputation and will not divulge Sir Peter's business. On entering, Charles answers Joseph's questions not only by disclaiming any designs on Lady Teazle, but by suggesting Joseph and the lady may have more of an intimacy. Needing to stop Charles, Joseph whispers to his brother that Sir Peter is in hiding, and Charles hauls him forth. Sir Peter tells Charles he now regrets his suspicions about the latter. Madame de Pompadour in an elaborately embroidered gown with matching petticoat, 1760s A petticoat or underskirt is an article of clothing for women; specifically an undergarment to be worn under a skirt, dress or sari. ...


When Lady Sneerwell is announced, Joseph rushes out to stop her from coming up. Meanwhile, Sir Peter tells Charles about the supposed French milliner. Charles insists on having a look at her and flings down the screen as Joseph returns, discovering Lady Teazle. An amused Charles leaves the other three dumbstruck individuals. When Joseph concocts a phony explanation for Sir Peter of why he and Lady Teazle are together, the lady refuses to endorse it and admits to her husband that she came to pursue an affair with Joseph; however, having learned of Sir Peter's generosity, she has repented. She denounces Joseph and exits, and the enraged Sir Peter follows as Joseph continues trying to pretend innocence.


Act V

Scene I: Sir Oliver (as Mr. Stanley) now visits Joseph in the wake of the latter's disgrace with Sir Peter. Joseph, not recognizing his long-lost uncle, refuses, despite many hypocritical gestures of goodwill, to give him money; he minimizes his own ability to help by attributing avarice to Sir Oliver, claiming that the latter has sent him nothing from India but trinkets such as china and shawls. After Sir Oliver has left, Rowley delivers a letter to Joseph with the news that his uncle has arrived in town.


Scene II: Mrs. Candour, Sir Benjamin, and Crabtree gossip with Lady Sneerwell about Lady Teazle's misfortune. They exchange confused rumors about a duel between Sir Peter and either Charles or Joseph. Crabtree is definite that Sir Peter was gravely wounded by Charles' pistol shot, and on Sir Oliver's entrance the whole school for scandal thinks he is a doctor and besieges him for news on the wounded man. At that moment Sir Peter arrives to prove the report wrong and demands that the scandalmongers leave his house. Sir Oliver says he has met both of his nephews and agrees with Sir Peter's (former) evaluation of Joseph's high character, but then acknowledges with laughter that he knows the story of what happened at Joseph's with the closet and screen. When he leaves, Rowley tells Sir Peter that Lady Teazle is in tears in the next room, and Sir Peter goes to reconcile with her.


Scene III: Lady Sneerwell complains to Joseph that Sir Peter, now that he knows the truth about Joseph, will allow Charles to marry Maria. They plot to use Snake as a witness to the relationship between Charles and Sneerwell, and she withdraws.


Sir Oliver again visits Joseph as Mr. Stanley. Charles arrives and thinks he is Mr. Premium. As Charles and Joseph try to eject their incognito uncle, Sir Peter and Lady Teazle arrive with Maria, ending Sir Oliver's pretense. Sir Oliver, Sir Peter, and Lady Teazle together condemn Joseph, but Sir Oliver forgives Charles because of his refusal to sell Sir Oliver's picture. Maria, however, declines to give Charles her hand, citing his supposed involvement with Lady Sneerwell. Joseph now reveals Lady Sneerwell and Snake. Snake, however, has been bribed to turn against Sneerwell, so her lie is exposed. After Lady Teazle tells her that she (Lady Teazle) is withdrawing from the School for Scandal, Lady Sneerwell leaves in a rage, and Joseph, supposedly to keep her from further malicious attacks, follows. Charles and Maria are reconciled; although Charles makes no promises about reforming, he indicates that Maria's influence will keep him on a "virtuous path." The concluding line assures the audience that "even Scandal dies, if you approve."


Epilogue

The humorous epilogue, written by George Colman the Elder, is to be "Spoken by Lady Teazle." It portrays her as sounding somewhat regretful of her resolve to leave the School for Scandal, and includes an elaborate parody of a famous speech in Shakespeare's Othello. George Colman (1732 - 14 August 1794) was an English dramatist and essayist, usually called the Elder, and sometimes George the First, to distinguish him from his son, George Colman the Younger. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses, see Othello (disambiguation). ...


Revisions and variant versions

In comparing editions of the play, one will find several relatively minor textual differences. One reason is because Sheridan revised his text repeatedly, not only prior to its first production, but afterwards.


In its earliest stages, as detailed by Thomas Moore, Sheridan developed two separate play sketches, one initially entitled "The Slanderers" that began with Lady Sneerwell and Spatter (equivalent to Snake in the final version), and the other involving the Teazles. He eventually combined these and with repeated revisions and restructuring arrived at substantially the play that we have today. [4] For other persons named Thomas Moore, see Thomas Moore (disambiguation). ...


The play did not appear in an authorized edition during Sheridan's lifetime, though it was printed in Dublin in 1788 from a copy that the author had sent to his sister.[5][6]


Because, as one recent editor has put it, "The School for Scandal is the most intractable problem Sheridan set his editors,"[7] editions of this play can vary considerably. For example, the Penguin Classics edition gives a text based on the 1821 edition of The Works of the Late Right Honourable Richard Brinsley Sheridan published by Murray, Ridgeway, and Wilkie, but states that it has "been emended from earlier manuscripts" and gives a detailed listing of these emendations.[8] Penguin Books is a British publisher founded in 1935 by Allen Lane. ...


The prefatory material to the Project Gutenburg text of the play acknowledges that "Current texts may usually be traced, directly or indirectly," to the 1821 edition, but presents a far different text based on a manuscript in the author's hand.[9]


In the Project Gutenburg text's version of I.1, Lady Sneerwell's accomplice is her cousin Miss Verjuice, not the socially inferior Snake (who appears only in V.3). Here is the opening of the play as given in that text (in which the editor has retained the original spelling and punctuation of Sheridan's manuscript found at Frampton Court)[10]:

LADY SNEERWELL at her dressing table with LAPPET; MISS VERJUICE drinking chocolate

LADY SNEERWELL. The Paragraphs you say were all inserted:


VERJUICE. They were Madam--and as I copied them myself in a feigned Hand there can be no suspicion whence they came.


LADY SNEERWELL. Did you circulate the Report of Lady Brittle's Intrigue with Captain Boastall?


VERJUICE. Madam by this Time Lady Brittle is the Talk of half the Town--and I doubt not in a week the Men will toast her as a Demirep.


LADY SNEERWELL. What have you done as to the insinuation as to a certain Baronet's Lady and a certain Cook.


VERJUICE. That is in as fine a Train as your Ladyship could wish. I told the story yesterday to my own maid with directions to communicate it directly to my Hairdresser. He I am informed has a Brother who courts a Milliners' Prentice in Pallmall whose mistress has a first cousin whose sister is Feme [Femme] de Chambre to Mrs. Clackit--so that in the common course of Things it must reach Mrs. Clackit's Ears within four-and-twenty hours and then you know the Business is as good as done. [9] [11]

Sheridan later deleted Verjuice and gave Snake most of her lines, as reflected in the 1821 edition and those editions that follow it. Here is the opening in that text:

Lady SNEERWELL'S House.

Discovered Lady SNEERWELL at the dressing-table; SNAKE drinking chocolate.


Lady Sneer. The paragraphs, you say, Mr. Snake, were all inserted?


Snake. They were, madam; and as I copied them myself in a feigned hand, there can be no suspicion whence they came.


Lady Sneer. Did you circulate the report of Lady Brittle's intrigue with Captain Boastall?


Snake. That's in as fine a train as your ladyship could wish. In the common course of things, I think it must reach Mrs. Clackitt's ears within four and twenty hours; and then, you know, the business is as good as done.[12]

This is a significant difference, and some editors[10] and performers[13] have preferred the manuscript version that includes Miss Verjuice. However, the cast list of the first production of the play in 1777 has no "Miss Verjuice" listed,[14] showing that the change Sheridan made to combine her part with Snake's predates the premiere.


Another example of strictly verbal differences between the two texts can be found in II.1, where the Project Gutenburg text has Lady Teazle rather more pointed in suggesting that Sir Peter can oblige her by making her his "widow" (only implied by her in the 1821 text, leaving him to fill in "My widow, I suppose?" and her to add "Hem! hem!"). [15] Also, interestingly, in Crabtree's recitation of the imaginary duel between Sir Peter and Charles Surface (V.2), the shot of Sir Peter bounces off a "little bronze Pliny" in the older version,[16] but the bust is changed to one of "Shakspeare (sic)" in the 1821 text.[17] Many other slight differences of a few words here and there can be found throughout the play[8] (though these do not impact the plot the way that the deletion of Miss Verjuice does). There are two famous persons named Pliny: Pliny the Elder, a Roman nobleman, scientist and historian who died in the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 AD The great-nephew of the former, Pliny the Younger, a statesman, orator, and writer who lived between 62 AD and 113 AD. This... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


Appraisal

The School for Scandal has been widely admired. The English critic William Hazlitt was particularly effusive in his praise of Sheridan's comedies in general ("everything in them tells; there is no labour in vain"[18]) and of this play in particular: This article does not cite any references or sources. ... // William Hazlitt (10 April 1778 – 18 September 1830) was an English writer remembered for his humanistic essays and literary criticism, often esteemed the greatest English literary critic after Samuel Johnson. ...

The 'School for Scandal' is, if not the most original, perhaps the most finished and faultless comedy which we have. When it is acted, you hear people all around you exclaiming, "Surely it is impossible for anything to be cleverer." The scene in which Charles sells all the old family pictures but his uncle's, who is the purchaser in disguise, and that of the discovery of Lady Teazle when the screen falls, are among the happiest and most highly wrought that comedy, in its wide and brilliant range, can boast. Besides the wit and ingenuity of this play, there is a genial spirit of frankness and generosity about it, that relieves the heart as well as clears the lungs. It professes a faith in the natural goodness as well as habitual depravity of human nature.[18]

Edmund Gosse called the play "perhaps the best existing English comedy of intrigue"[19], while Charles Lamb wrote that "This comedy grew out of Congreve and Wycherley," but criticized "sentimental incompatibilities" even while admitting that "the gaiety upon the whole is buoyant." [20] Edmund William Gosse (September 21, 1849 - May 16, 1928) was an English poet, author and critic, the son of Philip Henry Gosse. ... Charles Lamb (1775-1834) Charles Lamb (10 February 1775 –- 27 December 1834) was an English essayist, best known for his Essays of Elia and for the childrens book Tales from Shakespeare, which he produced along with his sister, Mary Lamb (1764–1847). ... William Congreve (January 24, 1670 – January 19, 1729) was an English playwright and poet. ... William Wycherley in 1675. ...


Samuel Barber composed his first full orchestral work as an overture programmed for the play. Samuel Barber, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1944 Samuel Osborne Barber II (March 9, 1910 – January 23, 1981) was an American composer of classical music ranging from orchestral, to opera, choral, and piano music. ... Samuel Barbers overture to The School for Scandal, Op. ... Program music is music intended to evoke extra-musical ideas, images in the mind of the listener by musically representing a scene, image or mood [1]. By contrast, absolute music stands for itself and is intended to be appreciated without any particular reference to the outside world. ...


On the other hand, the play has also in modern times been criticized for some hints of anti-Semitism, specifically "the disparaging remarks made about moneylenders, who were often Jewish."[21] It is true that the moneylender Moses is portrayed in a comparatively positive light, but the way he is described (as a "friendly Jew" and an "honest Israelite" by Rowley in III.1) suggest that he is in some way to be considered an exception to Jews in general; also, his own usurious business practices as stated to Sir Peter are clearly less than exemplary (e.g., his statement "If he appears not very anxious for the supply, you should require only forty or fifty per cent; but if you find him in great distress, and want the moneys very bad, you may ask double" [III.1]). It may be significant that in Johann Zoffany's portrait of Robert Baddeley as Moses, we find that "Under his arm Moses holds a rolled parchment of the Surface family tree that is used as an auction hammer, and he seems to be ticking off pictures in the catalogue," although in the play Careless is the auctioneer in the relevant scene (IV.1) and Moses has a relatively minor role.[22] The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... Look up usury in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Johann Zoffany (1733, Frankfurt - November 11, 1810, Strand-on-the-Green) was a German-born portrait painter who in late 18th-century England made his reputation with paintings depicting episodes from contemporary theatre and with portraits and conversation pieces (i. ... Robert Baddeley as Moses in Sheridans The School for Scandal by Johann Zoffany c. ...


It is notable that at least one modern production (Los Angeles, 2004) has "sanitized most of what could be deemed as anti-Semitic content" by changing references to "Jews" and "Jewry" to "moneylenders"--a practice that a reviewer termed "PC-ification" of the play.[23] Another production, by the Seattle Shakespeare Company in 2007, reportedly did not tamper with this aspect of the text and was commended by a reviewer for "the courage to face the script's unsavory side."[24] Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ...


Another criticism that has been made of the play involves the characterization. A writer in the 19th century periodical Appleton's Journal states that This article is about the magazine as a published medium. ...

The great defect of 'The School for Scandal' — the one thing which shows the difference between a comic writer of the type of Sheridan and a great dramatist like Shakespeare — is the unvarying wit of the characters. And not only are the characters all witty, but they all talk alike. Their wit is Sheridan's wit, which is very good wit indeed; but it is Sheridan's own, and not Sir Peter Teazle's, or Backbite's, or Careless's, or Lady Sneerwell's.[25]

The style of the play has also made it at times a problematic work to make effective in today's theater. In appraising a 1999 staging of Sheridan's comedy at the Guthrie Theater in Minneapolis, Minnesota, one critic found the "staunchly orthodox production" to be lacking, commenting that The Guthrie Theater is a venue for staging plays in Minneapolis, Minnesota. ... This article is about the city in Minnesota. ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Area  Ranked 12th  - Total 87,014 sq mi (225,365 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 400 miles (645 km)  - % water 8. ...

Sheridan's satirical bite, which is as venomous as Molière's and as quick as Wilde's, comes not from epigrammatic flourishes, but from the subtle undermining of Georgian social mores....In this realm, gossip is a form of social control, wielded by the essentially impotent elite to force conformity among their peers....[26]

Another reviewer in Variety noted of a 1995 production starring Tony Randall as Sir Peter Teazle that Sheridan's play was "such a superbly crafted laugh machine, and so timeless in delivering delectable comeuppance to a viper's nest of idle-rich gossipmongers, that you'd practically have to club it to death to stifle its amazing pleasures"--before claiming that this is precisely what the production being reviewed had done.[27] For the 2007 film, see Molière (film). ... Variety is a daily newspaper for the entertainment industry. ... Tony Randall (February 26, 1920 – May 17, 2004) was an American comic actor. ...


But in the hands of a talented director and cast, the play still offers considerable pleasure. A New York production of 2001 prompted praise in the New York Times for being "just the classy antidote one needs in a celebrity-crazed world where the invasion of privacy is out of control, but the art of gossip is nonexistent."[28] This article is about the state. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ...


Actors

  • Ada Dyas - Irish actress as Lady Teazle
  • William 'Gentleman' Smith (1730-1819) (actor) - created Charles Surface
  • John Gielgud played Charles Surface in a legendary season at the Queens Theatre in 1937, and repeated the role under his own direction in a 1963 Broadway production.

Ada Dyas ( ? -1908) was an Irish actress. ... William Smith (1730-1819), known as Gentleman Smith, was a celebrated English actor of the 18th century who worked with David Garrick, and was the original creator of the role of Charles Surface in Richard Brinsley Sheridans The School for Scandal. // Smith was born in London in 1730 and... Sir Arthur John Gielgud, OM, CH (14 April 1904 – 21 May 2000), known as Sir John Gielgud, was an Emmy, Grammy, Tony and Academy Award-winning British theatre and film actor. ... For other uses of Broadway, see Broadway. ...

References

  1. ^ "A School for Scandal--A synopsis of the play by Richard Brinsley Sheridan" from theatrehistory.com. Retrieved on 2007-10-27.
  2. ^ Allen, Brooke (December 1998). "The Scholar of Scandal" (Review of "The Traitor’s Kiss" by Fintan O’Toole). The New Criterion (Vol. 17, No. 4). 
  3. ^ "Theatre Royal Drury Lane, Main Entrance now on Catherine Street, Westminster, London" by Alan Chudley. Retrieved on 2007-11-04.
  4. ^ Moore, Thomas (1825). Memoirs of the Life of the Right Honourable Richard Brinsley Sheridan. Philadelphia: H.C. Carey and I. Lea, pp. 138-55. 
  5. ^ Oliphant, Mrs. (Margaret) (1906). Sheridan. London: MacMillan and Co., pp. 99-100. 
  6. ^ S[igmond], G[eorge] G[abriel] (1876). The Dramatic Works of Richard Brinsley Sheridan with Some Account of His Life. London: George Bell and Sons, p. 61. 
  7. ^ Cordner, Michael (ed.) (1998). Sheridan: The School for Scandal and Other Plays. Oxford: Oxford University Press, p. xlvi. ISBN 0192825674. 
  8. ^ a b Rump, Eric S. (ed.) (1988). Sheridan: The School for Scandal and Other Plays. (London): Penguin Books, pp. 281-4. ISBN 014043240X. 
  9. ^ a b The School for Scandal by Richard Brinsley Sheridan, Project Gutenberg Release #1929 (October 1999). Retrieved on 2007-11-02.
  10. ^ a b Rae, W. Fraser (ed.) (1902). Sheridan's Plays Now Printed As He Wrote Them.... London: David Nutt, p. XXXVII. 
  11. ^ Rae, W. Fraser (ed.) (1902). Sheridan's Plays Now Printed As He Wrote Them.... London: David Nutt, p. 147. (Italics as in Rae; bracketed insertion is Project Gutenberg's, not in Rae.)
  12. ^ Moore, Thomas (ed.) (1821). The Works of the Late Right Honourable Richard Brinsley Sheridan, vol. 2. London: J. Murray, etc., p. 13. 
  13. ^ OUDS Online: The School for Scandal (Cast list for May 2003 performances by Oxford University Dramatic Society). Retrieved on 2007-11-02.
  14. ^ Sheridan, Richard Brinsley (1909-14). "Dramatis Personæ As Originally Acted at Drury-Lane Theatre in 1777" (from "The School for Scandal," Harvard Classics edition). New York: P.F. Collier & Son (Bartleby.com). 
  15. ^ Moore, Thomas (ed.) (1821). The Works of the Late Right Honourable Richard Brinsley Sheridan, vol. 2. London: J. Murray, etc., p. 40. 
  16. ^ Rae, W. Fraser (ed.) (1902). Sheridan's Plays Now Printed As He Wrote Them.... London: David Nutt, p. 209. 
  17. ^ Moore, Thomas (ed.) (1821). The Works of the Late Right Honourable Richard Brinsley Sheridan, vol. 2. London: J. Murray, etc., p. 135. 
  18. ^ a b Hazlitt, William (1876). Lectures on the English Poets, and the English Comic Writers. London: George Bell and Sons, p. 227. 
  19. ^ Moulton (ed.), Charles Wells. The Library of Literary Criticism of English and American Authors, Vol. 4, p. 604. 
  20. ^ Lamb, Charles (1856). "On the Artificial Comedy of the Last Century" in The Works of Charles Lamb. New York: Derby & Jackson, p. 164. 
  21. ^ "School for Scandal Summary and Study Guide: Introduction" from enotes.com. Retrieved on 2007-10-26.
  22. ^ "Artwork of the Month - September, 2004" from liverpoolmuseums.org.uk. Retrieved on 2007-10-26.
  23. ^ Avery, David (2004-12-28). "A CurtainUp Los Angeles Review--The School for Scandal". CurtainUp (The Internet Theater Magazine of Reviews, Features, Annotated Listings). Retrieved on 2 Nov 2007.
  24. ^ Borchert, Gavin (2007-06-13). "The School for Scandal Is a Finely Tuned Skewering of a Leisure Class". Seattle Weekly. Retrieved on 2 Nov 2007.
  25. ^ Matthews, J. Brander (June 1877). "The School for Scandal" (in Appleton's Journal, A Monthly Miscellany of Popular Literature). New York: D. Appelton and Co., p. 562. 
  26. ^ Ritter, Peter (1999-06-30). "We Don't Need No Education" (Review of "School for Scandal"). City Pages, Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota. Retrieved on 2 Nov 2007.
  27. ^ Gerard, Jeremy (1995-11-25). The School for Scandal (Review). Variety. Retrieved on 2 Nov 2007.
  28. ^ Klein, Alvin (2001-02-25). THEATER; McCarter Proves 'Scandal' Has Style. The New York Times. Retrieved on 2 Nov 2007.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other persons named Thomas Moore, see Thomas Moore (disambiguation). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // William Hazlitt (10 April 1778 – 18 September 1830) was an English writer remembered for his humanistic essays and literary criticism, often esteemed the greatest English literary critic after Samuel Johnson. ... Charles Lamb (1775-1834) Charles Lamb (10 February 1775 –- 27 December 1834) was an English essayist, best known for his Essays of Elia and for the childrens book Tales from Shakespeare, which he produced along with his sister, Mary Lamb (1764–1847). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 164th day of the year (165th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

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  Results from FactBites:
 
School for Scandal (1084 words)
The greatest threat to school choice is a small Christian academy in Jupiter, Fla., where the anti-gay obsessions of the Christian right have resulted in the kind of Christian wrong that could convince everybody that vouchers just won't work.
What Jupiter's recent ejection of a 17-year-old gay student, apparently tracked down for interrogation, suggests is that public dollars that would otherwise go to a public school system that is not allowed to discriminate, instead find their way into the coffers of one that has fused cruelty and sanctimony in a living sculpture of intolerance.
School choice that merely puts education dollars in places a student cannot take advantage of them -- be it because he is gay or fl or, for that matter, a Christian -- is farce masquerading as virtue.
The School for Scandal - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1054 words)
The School for Scandal, a play by Richard Brinsley Sheridan, is a comedy of manners.
Robert Baddeley as Moses in The School for Scandal by Johann Zoffany c.1781.
Act I, Scene I: Lady Sneerwell is the founder of The School for Scandal, a group of malicious gossips.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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