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Encyclopedia > The Rule of the Congregation

One of the first seven Dead Sea Scrolls discovered at the Qumran site in 1946 contained the three sectarian texts: The Community Rule, The Rule of the Congregation, and The Rule of the Blessing. The Rule of the Congregation and the Rule of the Blessing were at first overlooked by researchers and considered a continuation of the much longer Community Rule. After careful study, it was revealed that the two texts acted as appendices to the first Community Rule scroll, and described an eschatological community (identified as the Yahad in the Community Rule) existing in Israel during the “end of times.” [citation needed] This Manual of Style has the simple purpose of making things easy to read by following a consistent format — it is a style guide. ... Fragments of the scrolls on display at the Archeological Museum, Amman The Dead Sea scrolls comprise roughly 825-872 documents, including texts from the Hebrew Bible, discovered between 1947 and 1956 in eleven caves in and around the Wadi Qumran (near the ruins of the ancient settlement of Khirbet Qumran... Qumran (Hebrew:חירבת קומראן Khirbet Qumran) is located on a dry plateau about a mile inland from the northwestern shore of the Dead Sea in Israel. ... 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... The Community Rule is the name given to one of the documents found in the caves at Qumran, and as such is one of the Dead Sea Scrolls The most complete manuscript was found in Cave 1, and is given the document reference name 1QS (which stands for : Cave 1... The Rule of the Blessing is a very fragmentary text once thought to be part of the Dead Sea Scrolls book known as the Community Rule. ... The Community Rule is the name given to one of the documents found in the caves at Qumran, and as such is one of the Dead Sea Scrolls The most complete manuscript was found in Cave 1, and is given the document reference name 1QS (which stands for : Cave 1... The Community Rule is the name given to one of the documents found in the caves at Qumran, and as such is one of the Dead Sea Scrolls The most complete manuscript was found in Cave 1, and is given the document reference name 1QS (which stands for : Cave 1... Albrecht Dürer - Four horsemen of the Apocalypse This article is about the concept of the end of the world. ... The Community Rule is the name given to one of the documents found in the caves at Qumran, and as such is one of the Dead Sea Scrolls The most complete manuscript was found in Cave 1, and is given the document reference name 1QS (which stands for : Cave 1...


Since their discovery, the two passages have been called many names, including The Messianic Rule, The Charter for Israel in the Last Days, The Rule of the Benedictions, and A Priestly Blessing for the Last Days. The book’s Hebrew names are Serekh ha-‘Edah, and Serekh ha-Berakhot. They have also been referred to by 5 sigla: 1QSa and 1QSb are the most common, but 1Q28a, 1Q28b, and 4Q249a-i may also be used to reference passages. [citation needed] The word Hebrew most likely means to cross over, referring to the Semitic people crossing over the Euphrates River. ... Scribal abbreviations (sigla) were abbreviations used by ancient and medieval scribes writing in Latin. ...


Only one complete copy of the book exists with certainty, but 9 other copies of the Rule of the Congregation written in a cryptic script may exist. This first scroll (the scroll containing the Community Rule, the Rule of the Congregation, and the Rule of the Blessing) dates from 100-75 BCE. As this document is not an autograph document , it has been hypothesized that the original composition of the Rules occurred in the 2nd century BCE. [citation needed] The Community Rule is the name given to one of the documents found in the caves at Qumran, and as such is one of the Dead Sea Scrolls The most complete manuscript was found in Cave 1, and is given the document reference name 1QS (which stands for : Cave 1... (3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - other centuries) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events BC 168 Battle of Pydna -- Macedonian phalanx defeated by Romans BC 148 Rome conquers Macedonia BC 146 Rome destroys Carthage in the Third Punic War BC 146 Rome conquers...


The Rule of the Congregation is the longer of the two appendices, and describes an eschatological congregation of men, women and children who have kept God’s covenant and atoned for the ways of wicked men.[citation needed] The title of the work itself is derived from the opening passage, which follows: Albrecht Dürer - Four horsemen of the Apocalypse This article is about the concept of the end of the world. ... Covenant, in its most general sense, is a solemn and bilateral promise to do or not do something specified. ...


“This is the rule for all the congregation of Israel in the Last Days, when they are mobilized [to join the Yahad. They must l]ive by the law of the Sons of Zadok, the priests, and the men of their Covenant, they who [ceased to walk in the w]ay of the people. These same men of His party who kept His Covenant during evil times, and so aton[ed for the lan]d.” [citation needed] For a more general eschatological view, see eschatology The Last Judgement - Tympanum sculpture at the Abbey Church of Ste-Foy, Conques-en-Rouergue, France The end times are, in one version of Christian eschatology, a time of tribulation that will precede the Second Coming of Jesus. ... Roman Catholic priest A priest or priestess is a holy man or woman who takes an officiating role in worship of any religion, with the distinguishing characteristic of offering sacrifices. ... Covenant, in its most general sense, is a solemn and bilateral promise to do or not do something specified. ... Covenant, in its most general sense, is a solemn and bilateral promise to do or not do something specified. ...


The scroll continues to say that in the “last days” there will be a great war with the Gentiles, and the whole of Israel will join with the Yahad to fight. The Rule of the Congregation then outlines in several sections the rules for governing the eschatological sect, stages of life for members of the sect and the duties expected of them at each age, those disqualified from service, duties for members of the Tribe of Levi, acts of the council of the community, a description of a man (or men) described as “the Messiah of Aaron and of David” entering, and the eschatological banquet that will follow to celebrate his arrival. The Rule of the Congregation concerns itself largely with the operations of the sect during these “end-times,” and the functions and purity prerequisites demanded of the sect during the messianic assembly (banquet).[citation needed] For a more general eschatological view, see eschatology The Last Judgement - Tympanum sculpture at the Abbey Church of Ste-Foy, Conques-en-Rouergue, France The end times are, in one version of Christian eschatology, a time of tribulation that will precede the Second Coming of Jesus. ... A Gentile refers to a non-Israelite; the word is derived from the Latin term gens (meaning clan or a group of families) and is often employed in the plural. ... Albrecht Dürer - Four horsemen of the Apocalypse This article is about the concept of the end of the world. ... In the Jewish tradition, a Levite (לֵוִי Attached, Standard Hebrew , Tiberian Hebrew ) is a member of the Hebrew tribe of Levi. ... In Judaism, the Messiah (מָשִׁיחַ Standard Hebrew Arabic: Al-Masih, المسيح), Tiberian Hebrew , Aramaic ) initially meant any person who was anointed by a prophet of God. ... Aaron (אַהֲרֹן, a word meaning bearer of martyrs in Hebrew [perhaps also, or instead, related to the Egyptian Aha Ra, Warrior Lion], Standard Hebrew (w/o vowels) AHRvN, Tiberian Hebrew (), was one of two brothers who play a unique part in the history of the Hebrew people. ... David and Goliath by Caravaggio, c. ... Albrecht Dürer - Four horsemen of the Apocalypse This article is about the concept of the end of the world. ...


References

  • Phillip R. Davies, George J. Brooke and Phillip R. Callaway. "The Complete World of the Dead Sea Scrolls," London: Thames and Hudson, 2002.
  • Michael O. Wise, Martin G. Abegg Jr., and Edward M. Cook. "The Dead Sea Scrolls: A New Translation," San Francisco: HaperSanFrancisco, 2005.
  • Lawrence H. Schiffman, “Community (Rule of the),” The Anchor Bible Dictionary. Ed. David Noel Freedman, Gary A. Herion, David F. Graf, John David Pleins, Astrid B. Beck. New York: Doubleday, 1992. 450.
  • Lawrence H. Schiffman, The Eschatological Community of the Dead Sea Scrolls. Atlanta: Scholar’s Press, 1989.
  • Lawrence H. Schiffman, “Rule of the Congregation.” The Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls. Ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman and James C. Vanderkam. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. 797-798.

 
 

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