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Encyclopedia > The Royal Navy in the 21st Century
Royal Navy
Components
Royal Navy
Royal Marines
Fleet Air Arm
Royal Fleet Auxiliary
Royal Naval Reserve
History
History of the Royal Navy
Future of the Royal Navy
Ships
Current Fleet
Current deployments
Historic ships
Historic Fleets
Personnel
The Admiralty
Senior Officers

At the beginning of the 1990s, the Royal Navy was a force designed for the Cold War - with its three ASW aircraft carriers and a force of small frigates and destroyers, its purpose was to search for and destroy Soviet submarines in the North Atlantic. However, the Falklands War proved a need for the Royal Navy to regain a bluewater capability which, with its resources at the time, would prove difficult. This has been shown even more so with the number of operations the Royal Navy has conducted that have required a carrier to be sent all over the world (the Adriatic for service in Bosnia and Kosovo, off the coast of Sierra Leone, the Persian Gulf). So, over the course of 1990s, the navy has begun a series of projects to enhance and rebuild its fleet, with a view to bringing its capabilities into the 21st century and allow it to turn from a North Atlantic, anti-submarine force into a true Blue water navy. The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the senior service of the British armed services, being the oldest of its three branches. ... The source for an SVG image of the White Ensign can be found at User:David Newton/SVG Graphics/White Ensign. ... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the senior service of the British armed services, being the oldest of its three branches. ... The Corps of Royal Marines, usually just known as the Royal Marines (RM), are the United Kingdoms amphibious forces and a core component of the countrys Rapid Deployment Force. ... The Fleet Air Arm is the operational group of the Royal Navy responsible for the operation of the aircraft on board their ships. ... The Royal Fleet Auxiliary (RFA) is the service that keeps the Royal Navy of the United Kingdom running around the world. ... The Royal Naval Reserve (RNR) is the volunteer reserve force of the Royal Navy in the United Kingdom. ... The British Royal Navy does not have a well-defined moment of formation; it started out as a motley assortment of Kings ships during the Middle Ages, assembled only as needed and then dispersed, began to take shape as a standing navy during the 16th century, and became a... This is a list of the current Royal Navy ships, complete and correct as of 2005. ... Although the majority of the Royal Navy fleet, unless required, remains training and exercising in and around Home Waters, the Navy has a number of standing commitments to provide ships for various missions around the world: Fleet Flagship and R2 Carrier Normally two aircraft carriers are available to the Royal... The following is a list of Royal Navy ship names by name in alphabetical order, both past and present. ... List of British fleets of World War I British Grand Fleet List of British fleets of World War II British Eastern Fleet British Home Fleet British Mediterranean Fleet British Pacific Fleet List of United States fleets US Atlantic Fleet US Pacific Fleet US Asiatic Fleet For a list of numbered... Old Admiralty House, Whitehall, London, Thomas Ripley, architect, 1723-26, was not admired by his contemporaries and earned him some scathing couplets from Alexander Pope The Admiralty was historically the authority in the United Kingdom responsible for the command of the Royal Navy. ... This is a list of senior officers of the Royal Navy. ... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the senior service of the British armed services, being the oldest of its three branches. ... For the generic term for a high-tension rivalry between countries, see cold war (war). ... An aircraft carrier is a warship whose main role is to deploy and recover aircraft—in effect acting as a sea-going airbase. ... Frigate is a name which has been used for several distinct types of warships at different times. ... USS Lassen, an Arleigh Burke-class destroyer In naval terminology, a destroyer is a fast and maneuverable yet long-endurance warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet or battle group and defend them against smaller, short-range attackers (originally torpedo boats, later submarines and aircraft). ... State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Anthems: The Internationale (1922-1944) / Hymn of the Soviet Union (1944-1991) Capital Moscow Matt Owns Tyler - Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Socialist republics/ Communist state Last Premier Ivan Silayev Last President... USS Los Angeles A submarine is a specialized watercraft that can operate underwater. ... The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one_fifth of its surface. ... The Falklands War or the Malvinas War (Spanish: Guerra de las Malvinas), was an armed conflict between Argentina and the United Kingdom over the Falkland Islands (also known in Spanish as the Islas Malvinas) and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, between March and June of 1982. ... Bosnia and Herzegovina (officially Bosna i Hercegovina, shortened to BiH, also in English variously written Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Bosnia-Hercegovina) is a mountainous country in the western Balkans. ... Kosovo and Metohia (Serbian: Косово и Метохија / Kosovë, Albanian: Kosovë / Kosova), in English most often called just Kosovo, is a province of Serbia. ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ... Few navies of the world can be considered to be blue water navies. ...

Contents


Major Fleet Units

The "Delta" Design for the CVF Programme, published in 2005.
The "Delta" Design for the CVF Programme, published in 2005.


The most significant source of power projection available to a navy is the aircraft carrier, and in the Royal Navy this is no exception. However, the three ships of the Invincible class are limited in what they can actually do, due not only to their small size, but also to the capabilities of the Sea Harrier. As a consequence, in the Strategic Defence Review of 1998, the British Government announced it would replace the Invincible class with a pair of much larger vessels, in a project that has been designated as 'CVF'. These two ships will displace over 60,000 tonnes and will be some 280m long, making them the largest ever operated by the Royal Navy. They will be STOVL carriers, operating the STOVL variant of the Joint Strike Fighter, which has been ordered by both the Fleet Air Arm and the Royal Air Force to replace the Harrier. It will also operate the Merlin ASW helicopter, and a platform for Maritime Airborne Surveillance and Control (MASC), among the contenders for which are a modified version of the Merlin, the E-2 Hawkeye or a modified version of the V-22 Osprey. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (912x592, 1310 KB)Delta Design for CVF Project File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (912x592, 1310 KB)Delta Design for CVF Project File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Invincible class aircraft carrier is a design currently in use by the Royal Navy. ... See also Hawker Siddeley Harrier The BAE SYSTEMS Harrier FA2 is the latest development of the Sea Harrier fighter/attack aircraft which entered service with the Royal Navy in April 1980. ... The Strategic Defence Review (or SDR) was a policy document produced by the Labour Government that came to power in 1997. ... CVF, literally Aircraft Carrier Future, but commonly called the Future Carrier is a new generation of aircraft carrier being developed for the United Kingdoms Royal Navy. ... STOVL is an acronym for Short Take Off and Vertical Landing. ... The F-35 Joint Strike Fighter The F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) is a fighter plane currently in early development by Lockheed Martin (with partners Northrop Grumman and BAE SYSTEMS.) The primary customers are the United States armed forces and the United Kingdom (RN and RAF), but the Netherlands... The Fleet Air Arm is the operational group of the Royal Navy responsible for the operation of the aircraft on board their ships. ... The Royal Air Force (often abbreviated to RAF) is the air force branch of the UK Armed Forces. ... See also BAE Sea Harrier The Hawker Siddeley Harrier and the AV-8A are the first generation of the Harrier series, a successful close-support and reconnaissance fighter aircraft with V/STOL capabilities. ... The RAF Merlin HC3 is a medium support helicopter of the Royal Air Force. ... Anti-submarine warfare is a term referring to warfare directed against submarines. ... The Grumman E-2 Hawkeye is the United States Navys all-weather, aircraft carrier-based tactical warning and control system aircraft. ... U.S. Marines jump from an Osprey. ...

Type 45 AAW Destroyer
Type 45 AAW Destroyer

Since the mid 1980s, the Royal Navy has been looking at ways of replacing the small and increasingly obsolete Type 42 air defence destroyers, which have been in service since the early 1970s. After two failed collaborative efforts - the NFR-90 project, a joint NATO venture that Britain withdrew from in 1989, and Project Horizon, a scheme in association with France and Italy, which failed in 1999 - the government announced that a new class of destroyer, the Type 45 would replace the Type 42. Type 45 will displace approximately 7,200 tonnes, twice the size of its predecessor, and will be the largest combat ships (except aircraft carriers and amphibious vessels) built since the Tiger class of the mid 1950s. This will provide significantly improved living space for the crew, which will be approximately the same size as the Type 42. For its primary mission, it will be equipped with the PAAMS integrated anti-aircraft system. As with the Type 42, the Type 45 will also have a limited anti-surface/anti-submarine role, being equipped with a 4.5in gun and a helicopter, which will either be Lynx or Merlin. Although as built it will not be fitted with anti-ship or land attack missiles, its size will allow upgrades to be made if required, giving it an enhanced general warfare role. Type 45 Destroyer from official Type 45 site. ... Type 45 Destroyer from official Type 45 site. ... Type 42 destroyer HMS Manchester Type 42, also known as the Sheffield class, is a class of destroyers of the Royal Navy. ... NFR-90 (NATO Frigate Replacement for 90s) was a multi-national programme designed to produce a common frigate for several NATO nations. ... The NATO flag NATO 2002 Summit in Prague The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), sometimes called North Atlantic Alliance, Atlantic Alliance or the Western Alliance, is an international organisation for defence collaboration established in 1949, in support of the North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington, D.C., on April 4... The Horizon Common New Generation Frigate (CNGF) is a multi-nationial collaboration to produce a new generation of anti-air warfare frigates. ... USS Lassen, an Arleigh Burke-class destroyer In naval terminology, a destroyer is a fast and maneuverable yet long-endurance warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet or battle group and defend them against smaller, short-range attackers (originally torpedo boats, later submarines and aircraft). ... Type 45 AAW Destroyer Type 45 AAW Destroyer The UKs Type 45 Destroyer is the state-of-the art future air defence destroyer program of the Royal Navy. ... The Tiger-class guided-missile cruisers were the first of such a type in the Royal Navy, indeed they were the last cruisers built for the RN. They were originally designed to be Minotaur-class light cruisers. ... The Principle Anti Air Missile System (PAAMS) is a joint French/Italian/British program for a naval anti-aircraft weapon. ... The AgustaWestland Lynx is a helicopter designed by AgustaWestland (formerly Westland Aircraft) and jointly produced with Aérospatiale, first flying on 21 March 1971 as the Westland WG.13. ... The RAF Merlin HC3 is a medium support helicopter of the Royal Air Force. ...

The trimaran design for the Future Surface Combatant, effectively, but not officially cancelled, 2005 .
The trimaran design for the Future Surface Combatant, effectively, but not officially cancelled, 2005 .

At present, the majority of the navy's escorts are Type 22 and Type 23 frigates. Although these are capable units, they are, as with the rest of the combat fleet, designed for the Royal Navy's Cold War role. For the bluewater missions they are being asked to perform, they are not as well equipped as they could be, and their small size makes equipment upgrades difficult. Work was begun on Future Surface Combatant (FSC), to replace the Type 22 and 23; however, the project suffered de facto cancellation in late 2004. After the cancellation of FSC project, three other projects were considered in its place, they are the Medium Sized Vessel Derivative, the versatile Surface Combatant, and the Global Corvette. It has been suggested that the MSVD would a multi role variant of the Type 45 Destroyer. Also, it is possible that a mixutre of all three types could be procured, in a "family" of warship classes, but no decision regarding these projects has been announced. Image File history File links FSC01. ... Image File history File links FSC01. ... The Type 22 frigate is a warship class of the Royal Navy also known as the Broadsword Class. ... HMS Richmond The Type 23 frigate is a warship class of the Royal Navy also known as the Duke class. ... Frigate is a name which has been used for several distinct types of warships at different times. ... The Future Surface Combatant was the projected succesor to Type 22 and Type 23 frigates in service of the British Royal Navy until the programs de facto cancellation in late 2004. ... Type 45 AAW Destroyer Type 45 AAW Destroyer The UKs Type 45 Destroyer is the state-of-the art future air defence destroyer program of the Royal Navy. ...


Amphibious Units

HM ships Albion and Bulwark
HM ships Albion and Bulwark
The Helicopter Carrier HMS Ocean
The Helicopter Carrier HMS Ocean

In 1990, the Royal Navy's amphibious forces were still centred around the venerable Fearless class LPDs, both of which were commissioned in the 1960s. The end of the Cold War saw a re-evaluation of the navy's amphibious role - not only were replacements for the Fearless class required, but increasingly helicopter assault capabilities were recognised as vital, capabilities which the navy had not had since the 1970s. An unsuccessful attempt to use RFA Argus in this role re-emphasised the need for a specialist vessel, and so HMS Ocean was ordered in 1993. The ship's hull form is based on that of the Invincible class, but she was constructed to commercial specifications and to a modular design (meaning the ship was assembled from pre-constructed blocks). Commissioned in 1998, Ocean is the first purpose built helicopter carrier in the Royal Navy. She has space for an Embarked Military Force (EMF) of up to 800 troops and their associated equipment, or 500 troops plus up to 40 light vehicles and 6 field guns. Her air group is tailored to whichever operational situation is called for, but would typically include up to 12 Sea King transport helicopters, supported by up to 6 Apache battlefield attack helicopters. However, the flight deck is rated to accommodate helicopters the size of Chinook. Troops can also be transported off the ship by one of four LCVPs that are fitted. HMS Albion and HMS Bulwark File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... HMS Albion and HMS Bulwark File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links HMSOcean. ... Image File history File links HMSOcean. ... The two Fearless class ships, HMS Fearless and HMS Intrepid, were the first purpose built amphibious warfare vessels in the Royal Navy. ... RFA Argus (A135) is an aviation training ship with a secondary role of primary casualty receiving ship in the Royal Fleet Auxiliary. ... The sixth HMS Ocean (L12) of the Royal Navy is a Landing Platform, Helicopter Cruiser, the only one in its class, built by Kvaerner Govan on the Clyde taking advantage of commercial build methods and facilities, before sailing from Barrow-in-Furness for fitting out prior to acceptance into service... In military terminology, the Embarked Military Force is the total force that is carried by an amphibious assault ship, including troops, vehicles and various other equipment. ... The Sea King helicopter is the only helicopter used by the norwegian rescue service, and has been since the first helicopter was imported. ... The WAH-64 is a licence built version of the Boeing AH-64 Apache Longbow attack helicopter for the British Army. ... The CH-47 Chinook is a highly versatile, twin engine, twin rotor heavy-lift helicopter. ...


In 1996, the Government placed an order for a pair of ships to directly replace HMS Fearless and HMS Intrepid; these two ships were given the names HMS Albion and HMS Bulwark. In preparation for the entry into service of these two vessels, Fearless was withdrawn in 2002 (Intrepid had been non-operational since 1991), being replaced by Albion in 2003; Bulwark commissioned in 2004. Both ships have an overload capacity of 700 troops, with the standard being just over 300. Up to six Challenger 2 main battle tanks, or 30 smaller tracked vehicles, can be accommodated on the vehicle decks - these can be removed by one of the LCUs located in the stern docking well. This can also accommodate an LCAC. Another four small LCVPs, similar to those carried by Ocean, are also carried, and there is a flight deck (though no hanger) which can support either two medium lift (Merlin or Sea King) or one heavy lift (Chinook) helicopter. HMS Fearless (L10) was a landing platform dock of the Royal Navy. ... HMS Intrepid (L11) was a landing platform dock of the Royal Navy. ... The ninth and current Albion (2001-present) is one of the newest additions to the Royal Navy and is the nameship of a class of two, state of the art Landing Platform Dock Ships (LPDs) that will be a welcome addition to an already powerful amphibious assault capability. ... HMS Bulwark is an Albion-class LPD, the UKs newest class of amphibious assault warship. ... There have been three tanks named Challenger in British military service. ...


Ocean, Albion and Bulwark form the core of the amphibious force. They will be supported in their mission by the LSDs of the 'Bay' class. These ships, operated by the Royal Fleet Auxiliary, will replace four of the elderly LSLs of the 'Sir' class. The new ships will resemble the LPDs in having a large flight deck and stern docking well, with a capacity of over 300 troops. These ships have been designed as replacements for the ageing Sir class vessels. ... The Royal Fleet Auxiliary (RFA) is the service that keeps the Royal Navy of the United Kingdom running around the world. ... Also known as the Sir class, these vessels are designed for the amphibious warfare mission, in support of the major amphibious ships. ...


Although the units mentioned will form the core of an amphibious task force, additional capacity will be provided in the form of six roll on/roll off vessels for strategic transport (as opposed to direct amphibious assault). In addition, the three ships of the Invincible class have a secondary role as an LPH; it is rumoured that one of the vessels will be permanently converted to this mission once CVF enters service.


Hydrographic Squadron

HMS Enterprise (H88)
HMS Enterprise (H88)

The Navy's surveying service has responsibility for surveying and charting the oceans, the information from which goes into the numerous Admiralty produced charts and publications that are used all over the world. As a consequence, the work that the service does must be as accurate as possible, which requires the best equipment available. Enterprise eras (left to right) top row: USS Enterprise (NCC-1701-C), Enterprise (NX-01), USS Enterprise (NCC-1701), USS Enterprise (NCC-1701-E) bottom row: USS Enterprise (NCC-1701-D), USS Enterprise (NCC-1701-B), USS Enterprise (NCC-1701-A) Note that the sizing in this picture is extremely... Enterprise eras (left to right) top row: USS Enterprise (NCC-1701-C), Enterprise (NX-01), USS Enterprise (NCC-1701), USS Enterprise (NCC-1701-E) bottom row: USS Enterprise (NCC-1701-D), USS Enterprise (NCC-1701-B), USS Enterprise (NCC-1701-A) Note that the sizing in this picture is extremely... Old Admiralty House, Whitehall, London, Thomas Ripley, architect, 1723-26, was not admired by his contemporaries and earned him some scathing couplets from Alexander Pope The Admiralty was historically the authority in the United Kingdom responsible for the command of the Royal Navy. ...


The Royal Navy has a mandate to provide support to the British Antarctic Survey (BAS), which comes in the form of the dedicated Antarctic Patrol Ship. However, in 1990, HMS Endurance was over 30 years old and, having been repaired following collision with an iceberg, was found to be unsafe to return to the Antarctic. The vessel that was chosen to replace her was chartered from a Norwegian shipping company and commissioned as HMS Polar Circle. After a successful deployment, it was decided to purchase the ship outright, and she was renamed HMS Endurance in honor of her predecessor. Endurance's mission is twofold; to assist the BAS in charting and surveying the waters around the Antarctic, a task for which she is well suited thanks to her strengthened bow, and to provide a semi-permanent naval presence in the South Atlantic in support of the Atlantic Patrol Task (South) deployment. BAS headquarters The British Antarctic Survey (BAS), formerly the Falkland Islands Dependencies Survey (FIDS), is an institute of the Natural Environment Research Council, and has, for the last fifty years, undertaken the majority of Britains scientific research on and around the Antarctic continent. ... Motto : Fortitudine Vinvimus (By Endurance We Conquer) see: HMS Endurance ... An iceberg (berg is the German word for mountain) is a large piece of ice that has broken off from a glacier or ice shelf and is floating in open water. ... Greek ἀνταρκτικός, opposite the arctic) is a continent surrounding the Earths South Pole. ... MV Polar Circle was built in 1990 as a Class 1A1 icebreaker for Rieber Shipping. ... The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one_fifth of its surface. ...


The navy's ocean going survey needs were served by the four ships of the Hecla class, all built in the 1960s and 70s. Two were paid off in the late 1980s, while HMS Hecla left the service in 1997. She was replaced by the brand new survey vessel HMS Scott. Scott is the largest ocean survey vessel in Western Europe and, at over 13,000 tonnes, the seventh largest vessel in the Royal Navy (only the three carriers and three amphibious vessels displace more). Despite replacing four ships with only one, the Scott is able to spend over 300 days a year at sea, thanks to its crew rotation system, whereby the total complement of 63 is divided into three teams - two man the ship, while the third remains ashore on leave or in training and rotating back on board when the ship returns. Hecla class The Hecla class formed the backbone of the Royal Navys ocean survey fleet from the mid-1960s. ... The ceremonies involved in commissioning ships into a military force are based in traditions thousands of years old. ... HMS Hecla was the lead ship of the Hecla class, an ocean going survey ship type in the Royal Navy. ... HMS Scott is an ocean-going survey vessel of the Royal Navy. ... World map showing Europe (geographically) When considered a continent, Europe is the worlds second-smallest continent in terms of area, with an area of 10,600,000 km² (4,140,625 square miles), making it larger than Australia only. ...


In addition to the ocean survey vessel, the navy retains a single coastal survey ship, HMS Roebuck, which performs the same tasks on the UK continental shelf as HMS Scott does in deep ocean. However, the remainder of the survey fleet has since been replaced by the two brand new multi-role ships of the Echo class, which commissioned in 2002 and 2003. HMS Echo and HMS Enterprise build on the success of the Scott by utilising similar methods of operation and technology. HMS Roebuck is a coastal survey vessel of the Royal Navy. ... The continental shelf is the extended perimeter of each continent, which is covered during interglacial periods such as the current epoch by relatively shallow seas (known as shelf seas) and gulfs. ... The two ships of Echo class are the latest vessels to join the Royal Navys Hydrographic Squadron. ... HMS Echo is the first of two multi-role hydrographic ships commissioned by the Royal Navy. ... The tenth HMS Enterprise (H88) of the Royal Navy is a multi-role SVHO (Survey Vessel (Hydrographic/Oceanographic)), along with her sister ship Echo. ...


Patrol Forces

River Class
River Class

The navy operates patrol vessels primarily in the role of fisheries protection and guarding British interests in the North Sea. These tasks were primarily undertaken by the 'Island' class, which entered service in the late 1970s. They were supported by the two larger vessels of the 'Castle' class. However, as time went on, it became clear that the age and small size of the 'Island' class was counting against them; so, in 1997, a decision was taken to replace them. An order for three much larger offshore patrol vessels was placed in 2001. The three ships of the 'River' class, HMS Severn, HMS Mersey and HMS Tyne, all commissioned in 2002/3; they have a large cargo deck and 25 tonne capacity crane aft, which allows them to be fitted for various roles including disaster relief, fire-fighting and rescue work. On Mersey and Severn, this will be fitted as a flight deck for medium helicopters, giving them facilities equal to the 'Castle' class. In 2005, construction of HMS Clyde began; this will be a modified 'River' class vessel designed to replace the two 'Castle' class vessels as the Falkland Islands guardship. River class File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... River class File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ... The Island class was developed as a result of the Royal Navys experiences in the so called Cod War with Iceland, and the success of HMS Jura in fishery protection patrols. ... The Castle class was intended as a series of six offshore patrol vessels for the Royal Navy, designed in response to criticism of the previous Island class. ... River Class The River class is a class of three offshore patrol vessels in the Royal Navy, replacing the six ships of the Island class. ... Firefighter with an axe A firefighter, sometimes still called a fireman though women have increasingly joined firefighting units, is a person who is trained and equipped to put out fires, rescue people and in some areas provide emergency medical services. ... 2005(MMV) is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... HMS Clyde is a Royal Navy patrol ship currently under construction by VT Group shipbuilders in Portsmouth, England. ...


Submarines

In the early 1990s, the Royal Navy's submarine force was already in the process of significant upgrade - the Trafalgar class SSNs, with their state of the art, ultra quiet pump-jet propulsion system, were still entering service; the brand new Upholder class conventional submarines were on the verge of being commissioned, while the first of the Vanguard class SSBNs was close to completion. Trafalgar class submarine on surface The Trafalgar class submarines were, until the introduction of the Astute class, the Royal Navys most advanced nuclear fleet submarines (SSNs). ... SSN is a three-letter abbreviation with multiple meanings: Social Security Number, used by Social Security (United States). ... Categories: Marine propulsion | Stub ... The Upholder-class submarines ( now known as Victoria class) were diesel-electric hunter-killer (SSK) submarines designed in the late 1970s to supplement the Royal Navys nuclear submarine force. ... Vanguard Class Submarine Trident missile launch in the United States The Royal Navys Vanguard class of nuclear ballistic missile submarines (SSBNs), each armed with 16 Trident II SLBMs, includes four boats: Vanguard (S28), Victorious (S29), Vigilant (S30), and Vengeance (S31), all built by Vickers Shipbuilding and Engineering Ltd, now... It has been proposed below that SSBN be renamed and moved to Ballistic missile submarine. ...

Trafalgar Class Submarine alongside a Type 23 Frigate
Trafalgar Class Submarine alongside a Type 23 Frigate

However, the Upholder class proved unsuccessful, and all four units were sold to Canada, leaving the Royal Navy all nuclear. Today, the modernisation of the Royal Navy's submarine force centres on the Astute Class SSNs and the Swiftsure & Trafalgar Update Final Phase (S&TUFP). In 1997, an order was placed for three units of the Astute class, which was designed as the SSN replacement for the Swiftsure class, with an option for a further two. The new boats will be larger and quieter than the existing SSNs. However, under the Strategic Defence Review, the five Astute class boats will replace five unmodernised Swiftsure and Trafalgar class submarines. S&TUFP will see the remaining boats of the Swiftsure and Trafalgar classes upgraded, giving them similar combat capabilities to the Astute class. Image File history File links HMS_Talent. ... Image File history File links HMS_Talent. ... HMS Richmond The Type 23 frigate is a warship class of the Royal Navy also known as the Duke class. ... BAE SYSTEMS Artist Impression When completed, the Astute class will comprise the largest nuclear-powered attack submarines of the Royal Navy. ... The Royal Navys Swiftsure-class of nuclear fleet submarines (SSNs) is the older of the two classes of attack submarine in service with the RN. It originally contained six boats, but HMS Swiftsure was decommissioned in 1992 due to damage suffered to the pressure hull during trials. ...


Fleet Air Arm

The F-35 Joint Strike Fighter
The F-35 Joint Strike Fighter
EH-101 Merlin
EH-101 Merlin

Along with the aircraft carriers, the major instrument of power projection is the Carrier Air Group. Clearly, the larger the air group, the more tasks it can perform; however, this is limited by the size of the carrier. The Invincible class, because of its small size, has only a limited capacity, and is only capable of operating STOVL aircraft, the Harrier GR7/GR9 and the BAE Sea Harrier. The Sea Harrier is an immensely capable and adaptable platform, with a proven combat record going back to the Falklands War. The upgrade it received in the early 1990s to the FA2 standard allowed it to achieve even greater potential, which has again been proven in the Balkans and the Gulf. However, within the next two to three years, the Sea Harrier will be withdrawn from service, with fixed wing flying from the carriers the sole responsibility of the Harrier GR9s of the Royal Air Force. Although technically the two front line Sea Harrier squadrons of the Fleet Air Arm will 'convert' to the GR9, in practice the set-up will be a continued merging into the Joint Force Harrier concept. This will carry on until the entry into service of the Harrier's eventual replacement in both the RAF and the FAA, the Joint Strike Fighter. The Joint Strike Fighter will be a significant improvement over the Harrier, in terms of speed, range and weapon load. The JSF comes in both CTOL and STOVL variants - as the Harrier replacement, both the RN and the RAF have chosen the STOVL version, with CVF being designed thus as a STOVL carrier. Download high resolution version (3108x2400, 478 KB) From http://www. ... Download high resolution version (3108x2400, 478 KB) From http://www. ... EH 101 Merlin File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... EH 101 Merlin File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... An aircraft carrier is a warship whose main role is to deploy and recover aircraft—in effect acting as a sea-going airbase. ... A Carrier Air Group is the allocation of aircraft aboard an aircraft carrier. ... The Harrier GR5, GR7, GR7A, GR9 and GR9A are all Royal Air Force variants of the BAE Systems/Boeing Harrier II. The programme is a joint development between BAE and Boeing (initially British Aerospace and McDonnell Douglas). ... See also Hawker Siddeley Harrier The BAE Systems Harrier FA2 is the latest development of the Sea Harrier fighter/attack aircraft which entered service with the Royal Navy in April 1980. ... The Falklands War or the Malvinas War (Spanish: Guerra de las Malvinas), was an armed conflict between Argentina and the United Kingdom over the Falkland Islands (also known in Spanish as the Islas Malvinas) and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, between March and June of 1982. ... The Royal Air Force (often abbreviated to RAF) is the air force branch of the UK Armed Forces. ... The Fleet Air Arm is the operational group of the Royal Navy responsible for the operation of the aircraft on board their ships. ... Missing image RAF Harrier GR7 Joint Force Harrier is a defence proposal brought by the British Government as part of Strategic Defence Review. ... The F-35 Joint Strike Fighter The F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) is a fighter plane currently in early development by Lockheed Martin (with partners Northrop Grumman and BAE SYSTEMS.) The primary customers are the United States armed forces and the United Kingdom (RN and RAF), but the Netherlands... Conventional Take-off and Landing is the process whereby conventional aircraft (such as passenger aircraft) take off and land, involving the use of runways. ... STOVL is an acronym for Short Take Off and Vertical Landing. ...



The anti-surface/anti-submarine mission remains the purview of rotary aircraft; in small ships this is the updated Mk8 version of the Lynx. However, in the carriers, and in later frigates, the larger Merlin helicopter is used - this has already begun replacing the venerable Sea King in the ASW mission. The Sea King remains in the commando assault mission from HMS Ocean, although replacement with the Merlin is likely. The AgustaWestland EH101 is a medium-lift helicopter originally developed as a joint venture between Westland Helicopters in the UK and Agusta in Italy for military applications but also marketed for civil use. ... The Sea King helicopter is the only helicopter used by the norwegian rescue service, and has been since the first helicopter was imported. ...


Merlin is also being touted as a replacement for Sea King in the Maritime Airborne Surveillance and Control (formerly Airborne Early Warning) mission. However, the limitations of using a helicopter in this role are well documented - endurance is limited, service ceiling is low and vibrations from the rotors may cause distortion. Therefore, two other concepts have been put forward:

  • A MASC version of the V-22 Osprey tiltrotor aircraft
  • An updated version of the E-2 Hawkeye aircraft

The V-22 would be an attractive option given the STOVL configuration of CVF, as it combines the VTOL aspects of a helicopter with the endurance of a fixed wing aircraft - indeed, the Osprey is another contender to replace the Sea King in the assault mission. The E-2 is already in service with the French and US Navies; the problem with the aircraft is its CTOL configuration - although it has been proven that it can launch successfully from a ski-jump, it would still require arrestor wires for landing, which would force CVF to be refitted to a STOBAR configuration - although the design chosen does name provision for this. However, it has advantages over the V-22 again in terms of endurance and ceiling; because its cabin is pressurised, it can operate at greater altitude than the Osprey, extending the range of its radar. U.S. Marines jump from an Osprey. ... The Grumman E-2 Hawkeye is the United States Navys all-weather, aircraft carrier-based tactical warning and control system aircraft. ... Ski jumping is a winter sport in which skiers go down a hill with a take-off ramp (the jump), attempting to go as far as possible. ... An aircraft about to catch the wire An aircraft coming to a stop Arrestor wires are thick steel cables fitted to the aft end of the flight deck on CTOL and STOBAR aircraft carriers. ... An acronym for Short Take Off But Arrested Recovery. ...


Analysis

A recent Royal Navy Task Force.
A recent Royal Navy Task Force.

The Royal Navy is evolving - it has begun a transition from an Atlantic based, ASW force back into a true Blue water navy, with capabilities it has not possessed since the 1960s and 1970s. Perhaps the realisation that this was the case started with the Falklands War - had this not occurred, the Royal Navy would have lost one of its aircraft carriers and both of its major amphibious units without replacement. These were proposals mooted which with hindsight, would have proven disastrous. However today, there are still difficult decisions to be taken, some have already been made, and indeed for the better. The operational successes of the three Invincible Class carriers in recent years have shown that aircraft carriers will always be a vital requisite for any global naval power - and the new Future Carrier Project will deliver vessels with over twice the displacement of the current class, boasting a far larger airgroup, which will itself possess an infinately greater operational capability compared to current aircraft. Assigned to defend these new aircraft carriers will be the Type 45 Destroyers, again, over twice as large as the Type 42 Destroyers they are replacing, and with a greatly superior operational capability inherent in the world-beating PAAMS Missile System. Hopefully, this considerable step change in platform capability will be maintained in the successor to the Future Surface Combatant, which is intended to eventually replace the Type 22 Class and Type 23 Class Anti-Submarine/General Purpose Frigates as the mainstay of the future surface fleet. The Amphibious Warfare Force has not only seen the venerable Fearless Class replaced by the recent commissioning of the Albion Class LPDs, but has also been significantly enhanced with the addition of the Ocean Class LPH. This is in conjunction with the Royal Fleet Auxiliary procurement of the new Bay Class LSD(A)s which are significantly more capable than the Round Table Class LSLs they will partially replace. The massive capability upgrades to the Amphibious Warfare Force will establish it as the largest and most capable in the World - the United States Navy excepted -. This new wave of Naval Procurement programmes, which includes such projects as the addition of the new Astute Class SSNs, and upgrades to the Trafalgar Class SSNs, should re-assert the Royal Navy's position as a true Blue water navy, retaining it's position as the second largest and most capable naval power in the World for the forseeable future. Image File history File links RNTaskForce. ... Image File history File links RNTaskForce. ... Few navies of the world can be considered to be blue water navies. ... The Falklands War or the Malvinas War (Spanish: Guerra de las Malvinas), was an armed conflict between Argentina and the United Kingdom over the Falkland Islands (also known in Spanish as the Islas Malvinas) and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, between March and June of 1982. ... The Invincible class aircraft carrier is a design currently in use by the Royal Navy. ... This page relates to the future aircraft carrier for the Royal Navy. ... The F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) is a joint venture between the USA and partner countries, including the UK, to replace the current generation of strike fighters, particularly the Hawker-Siddeley Harrier and the F-16 Fighting Falcon. ... See also Hawker Siddeley Harrier The BAE Systems Harrier FA2 is the latest development of the Sea Harrier fighter/attack aircraft which entered service with the Royal Navy in April 1980. ... Type 45 AAW Destroyer Type 45 AAW Destroyer The UKs Type 45 Destroyer is the state-of-the art future air defence destroyer program of the Royal Navy. ... Type 42 destroyer HMS Manchester Type 42, also known as the Sheffield class, is a class of destroyers of the Royal Navy. ... The Principle Anti Air Missile System (PAAMS) is a joint French/Italian/British program for a naval anti-aircraft weapon. ... The Future Surface Combatant was the projected succesor to Type 22 and Type 23 frigates in service of the British Royal Navy until the programs de facto cancellation in late 2004. ... A group of Type 22s, with HMS Coventry in the foreground The Type 22 frigate is a warship class of the Royal Navy also known as the Broadsword Class. ... HMS Richmond The Type 23 frigate is a warship class of the Royal Navy also known as the Duke class. ... The two Fearless class ships, HMS Fearless and HMS Intrepid, were the first purpose built amphibious warfare vessels in the Royal Navy. ... HMS Bulwark (foreground) and HMS Albion (background) The Albion class landing platform dock ships are the newest amphibious assault vessels in the Royal Navy fleet. ... The sixth HMS Ocean (L12) of the Royal Navy is a Landing Platform, Helicopter Cruiser, the only one in its class, built by Kvaerner Govan on the Clyde taking advantage of commercial build methods and facilities, before sailing from Barrow-in-Furness for fitting out prior to acceptance into service... The Royal Fleet Auxiliary (RFA) is the service that keeps the Royal Navy of the United Kingdom running around the world. ... These ships have been designed as replacements for the ageing Sir class vessels. ... Also known as the Sir class, these vessels are designed for the amphibious warfare mission, in support of the major amphibious ships. ... BAE SYSTEMS Artist Impression When completed, the Astute class will comprise the largest nuclear-powered attack submarines of the Royal Navy. ... Trafalgar class submarine on surface The Trafalgar class submarines were, until the introduction of the Astute class, the Royal Navys most advanced nuclear fleet submarines (SSNs). ... Few navies of the world can be considered to be blue water navies. ...


Addendum

In July 2004, the Government announced as part of its new Defence White Paper, Delivering Security in a Changing World, that the number of Type 45s to be ordered would be cut from 12 to 8, while the two attack submarines due to be decommissioned would not be replaced, taking the SSN fleet down from 10 to 8. In addition, HMS Invincible is to be paid-off early, while the existing escort fleet will also lose six units, the three oldest Type 42 destroyers, HMS Glasgow, HMS Cardiff and HMS Newcastle, and three Type 23 frigates, HMS Norfolk, HMS Marlborough and HMS Grafton, as well as a further six mine counter measures units, with a total of 1,500 job losses. In the same speech Geoff Hoon announced that the RAF will receive 16 BAE Nimrod MRA4s, the UK's long range maritime patrol aircraft. This is reduced from 18 (originally 21). This is part of the Ministry of Defence policy that it is not the number of platforms that is important but the capability of each, however it remains to be seen whether the savings from the measures listed will be invested improving the remaining units or even stay within the procurement budget. The 2003 Defence White Paper, entitled Delivering Security in a Changing World sets out the future of the British military , and builds on the 1998 Strategic Defence Review (SDR) and the 2002 SDR New Chapter which responded to the challenges raised by the War on Terror. ... Type 45 AAW Destroyer Type 45 AAW Destroyer The UKs Type 45 Destroyer is the state-of-the art future air defence destroyer program of the Royal Navy. ... The sixth and current HMS Invincible (R05) is a light aircraft carrier, the lead ship of three in her class. ... Type 42 destroyer HMS Manchester Type 42, also known as the Sheffield class, is a class of destroyers of the Royal Navy. ... HMS Glasgow (D88) is a Type 42 destroyer of the Royal Navy. ... The third and present HMS Cardiff (D108) is a Type 42 (Batch 1) destroyer of the Royal Navy. ... The eighth and current HMS Newcastle (D87) is a retired Type 42 (Batch 1) destroyer of the Royal Navy, launched in 1973. ... HMS Richmond The Type 23 frigate is a warship class of the Royal Navy also known as the Duke class. ... The sixth and current HMS Norfolk (F230) was laid down in 1985 by Yarrow Shipbuilders. ... HMS Marlborough (F233) is a Type 23 frigate of the Royal Navy. ... HMS Grafton (F80) is a Type 23 frigate of the Royal Navy. ... Geoff Hoon (right) at Pentagon briefing The Right Honourable Geoffrey William Hoon (born December 6, 1953), the Member of Parliament for Ashfield, Nottinghamshire, was British Secretary of State for Defence from October 1999 until May 6, 2005. ... The BAE SYSTEMS Nimrod maritime patrol aircraft is derived from the De Havilland Comet, the worlds first jet airliner. ...


Glossary

Anti-submarine warfare is a term referring to warfare directed against submarines. ... Conventional Take-off and Landing is the process whereby conventional aircraft (such as passenger aircraft) take off and land, involving the use of runways. ... Landing craft Rapière A landing craft is a type of boat used to convey infantry and vehicles on to a shore during an assault from sea to land. ... Landing Craft Utility (LCU) are used by amphibious forces to transport equipment and troops to the shore. ... The Landing Craft, Vehicle, Personnel (LCVP) or Higgins boat was a landing craft used extensively in World War II. The craft was designed by Andrew Higgins of Louisiana, based on boats made for operating in swamps and marshes. ... LPD or lpd has several meanings: In naval warfare, LPD can mean Landing Platform Dock, a type of warship. ... HMS Ocean A Landing Platform, Helicopter is a warship designed to deliver troops into a war zone by helicopter, but which usually has a limited capability of landing troops by sea using small landing craft. ... LSL may refer to: The ISO 4217 code for Lesotho Loti Leisure Suit Larry - a series of adventure games written by Al Lowe and published by Sierra On-Line throughout the 1980s and 1990s Linden Scripting Language - a programming language with C-like syntax that is used by players in... The Principle Anti Air Missile System (PAAMS) is a joint French/Italian/British program for a naval anti-aircraft weapon. ... It has been proposed below that SSBN be renamed and moved to Ballistic missile submarine. ... SSN is a three-letter abbreviation with multiple meanings: Social Security Number, used by Social Security (United States). ... An acronym for Short Take Off But Arrested Recovery. ... STOVL is an acronym for Short Take Off and Vertical Landing. ...

See also

// History Modern European defence procurement is making a move from a traditional, postwar, United States sponsored effort towards a more independent and competitive capability. ...

External Links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Encyclopedia: The Royal Navy in the 21st Century (1143 words)
At the beginning of the 1990s, the Royal Navy was a force designed for the Cold War - with its three ASW aircraft carriers and a force of small frigates and destroyers, its purpose was to search for and destroy Soviet submarines in the North Atlantic.
The Royal Naval Reserve (RNR) is the volunteer reserve force of the Royal Navy in the United Kingdom.
The incorporation of the royal navy was in contrast to the land forces, which are descended from variety of different sources including both royal and anti-royal parliamentary forces.
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