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Encyclopedia > The Revolutions of 1848 in the Habsburg areas
The Revolutions
of 1848
Prelude
Revolution in France
Revolution in Habsburg areas
Revolution in Germany
Revolution in Italy
Revolution in Poland
Aftermath

In 1848, the Austrian Empire under the Habsburgs was confronted with the combined effect of economic, social class, and nationalities conflicts. Within its boundaries lived Austrian Germans, Hungarians, Slovenes, Poles, Czechs, Slovaks, Ruthenians, Romanians, Serbs, Italians and Croats. The European Revolutions of 1848, in some countries known as the Spring of Nations or the Year of Revolution, were a series of revolutions triggered by the Revolution of 1848 in France, which erupted in February 1848 in Paris and soon spread to the rest of Europe. ... The poor French rural areas had grown fast, spilling population into the cities. ... // Observations of liberals As 1848 began, liberals in France awaited the death of King Louis Philippe, expecting a new revolution after his death. ... // Preliminaries Germany at the time of the Revolutions of 1848 was a hodgepodge of over 30 states loosely bound together in the German Confederation after the Congress of Vienna in 1815. ... // The Italian states in 1848 As with Germany, there was no Italy at the time of the Revolutions of 1848, but a hodge-podge of states. ... Greater Poland Uprising of 1848 (Polish: powstanie wielkopolskie 1848 roku) was a military insurrection of the Polish people in the Grand Duchy of Poznań (or the Greater Poland region) against the occupying Prussian forces, during the Spring of Nations period. ... Pierre Joseph Proudhon, after the failures of 1848, quoted in The Age of Revolution and Reaction, Ten years after the Revolutions of 1848, little had visibly changed, and many historians consider the revolutions a bloody failure. ... The Habsburg Monarchy, often called Austrian monarchy or simply Austria, is the name given to the territories ruled by the Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg, and then by the successor House of Habsburg-Lorraine, between 1526 and 1867/1918. ... Social class describes the relationships between people in hierarchical societies or cultures. ... Nationality is, in English usage, the legal relationship between a person and a country. ... Ruthenians is a name that has been applied to different ethnic groups at different times; for an explanation of the reasons for this, see Ruthenia. ... ... Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a south Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. ...

Contents


The early rumblings

The focus of hatred was Prince Metternich, a seeming avatar of reaction; the absolute ruler, the Emperor Ferdinand, was feebleminded and incompetent (which, according to some, may be the result of incest in the Habsburg family). He was oddly popular, and people generally saw him as guided by ineffective advisors (which was fairly close to the truth). Klemens Wenzel von Metternich Klemens Wenzel Nepomuk Lothar Fürst von Metternich-Winneberg-Beilstein (May 15, 1773 – June 11, 1858) (sometimes rendered in English as Prince Klemens Metternich) was an Austrian politician and statesman and perhaps the most important diplomat of his era. ... The 10 avatars of Lord Vishnu In Hinduism, an avatar or avatara (Sanskrit अवतार), is the incarnation (bodily manifestation) of an Immortal Being, or of the Ultimate Supreme Being. ... Dictator was the title of a magistrate in ancient Rome appointed by the Senate to rule the state in times of emergency. ... Emperor Ferdinand Ferdinand I Karl Leopold Joseph Franz Marchlin Emperor of Austria King of Hungary and Bohemia (April 19, 1793 – June 29, 1875) succeeded his father (Franz II Holy Roman Emperor/Franz I of Austria) as Emperor and King in 1835 and was forced to abdicate in 1848. ... Incest is sexual activity or marriage between very close family members. ...


Business interests wanted reform. They wanted solid finance, roads, railroads, and technology. High tariffs crippled commerce; the crown would not lower tariffs on foreign wheat at times of famine. Press freedom was a liberal dream; government spies were everywhere. Factory workers were miserable. All books, newspapers and ads were government-approved. Private ownership of firearms was also restricted by the government. A tariff (sometimes known as a customs duty) is a tax on imported or exported goods. ... Freedom of the press (or press freedom) is the guarantee by a government of free public speech for its citizens and their associations, extended to members of news gathering organizations, and their published reporting. ... Look up liberal on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Liberal may refer to: Politics: Liberalism American liberalism, a political trend in the USA Political progressivism, a political ideology that is for change, often associated with liberal movements Liberty, the condition of being free from control or restrictions Liberal Party, members of...


Hungary was being affected by a simmering nationalist revolt by 1844, with the revolt's leader Kossuth attacking Chancellor Metternich. Kraków had been just annexed in 1846 following an unsuccessful Polish uprising. The 1847 depression hit hard. Crime, prostitution, homelessness, and begging increased, and workers couldn't afford potatoes. 1844 was a leap year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Lajos (Louis) Kossuth (Monok, September 19, 1802 – Turin, March 20, 1894) was a Hungarian lawyer, politician, and for a time was regent. ... 1846 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The Kraków Uprising of February 1846 was an attempt to incite an all-Polish fight for home-rule but was in fact limited only to the Free City of Kraków. ... 1847 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...


Revolution in the Austrian lands

A few early victories

The Paris Revolution filtered over to Vienna, raising the already-insistent calls for liberal reform. The Habsburg Court pressured Prince Klemens von Metternich to step down in order to placate the subject nationalities, and he resigned on March 13, 1848, fleeing to England. He had been in office too long, now 74, and was seen as a reactionary, having conducted foreign affairs for thirty years, notably with less competence since 1835. Revolts broke out across the Empire; Lombardy and Venetia were in arms. Vienna (German: Wien [viːn]; Hungarian: Bécs, Czech: Vídeň, Slovak: Viedeň, Romany Vidnya; Serbian: Beč) is the capital of Austria, and also one of Austrias nine states (Land Wien). ... March 13 is the 72nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (73rd in leap years). ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: England Travel guide to England from Wikitravel English language English law English (people) List of monarchs of England – Kings of England family tree List of English people Angeln (region in northern Germany, presumably the origin of the Angles for whom England is named) UK... Reactionary (or reactionist) is a political epithet typically applied to conservatism. ... 1835 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Lombardy (Italian: Lombardia) is a region in northern Italy between the Alps and the Po Valley. ... Venetia is a name used mostly in a historical context for the area of north-eastern Italy formerly under the control of the Republic of Venice and corresponding approximately to the present-day Italian administrative regions of the Veneto and Friuli-Venezia Giulia. ...


Vienna had troubles as well. There was violence and Luddite destruction of property. Many employers later announced concessions; on March 14 the press was declared free. The Luddites were a social movement of English workers in the early 1800s who protested – often by destroying textile machines – against the changes produced by the Industrial Revolution that they felt threatened their jobs. ... // Use of the term The concept of property or ownership has no single or universally accepted definition. ... March 14 is the 73rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (74th in Leap years) with 292 days remaining in the year. ... Press is a general term having a number of related meanings stemming from the original definition of pressing as the physical action of applying force: Things relating to Metalworking: Machine press, a machine that shapes material by the application of pressure; Flypress, a machine that cuts material by pressing with...


Metternich's fall was deemed a great victory by at least some of the revolutionaries (and the revolutionaries were mainly students) -- Metternich was seen as a reactionary exemplar of the old order, and he had been ousted. But the Revolution increased unemployment over 1847, and Vienna seemed in a reign of terror; there was a crime wave. The Habsburgs were pushed towards reform, although for a short time. By April there was a constitution for parts of the empire. Dorothea Langes Migrant Mother depicts destitute pea pickers in California during the Great Depression. ...


The Imperial Court fled to Innsbruck by May 17, while back in France, the old order was already re-asserting itself. Anarchy was looking less appealing. Innsbruck City Center Innsbruck and Nordkette from south // Geography Innsbruck is a city in western Austria, and the capital of the Tyrol province. ... May 17 is the 137th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (138th in leap years). ... Anarchy (New Latin anarchia, from Greek ανα–, no + αρχη, rule) is a term that has several usages. ...


Ethnic disputes

Of the hodgepodge of nationalities -- Germans, Czechs, Italians, Poles, Serbs, Croats, Slovaks, Romanians, and Hungarians, the Hungarians and Italians pushed hardest for self-determination. Self-determination is a principle in international law that a people ought to be able to determine their own governmental forms and structure free from outside influence. ...


In Hungary a new national cabinet took power under Lajos Kossuth and the Diet (parliament) approved a sweeping reform package (referred to as the March Laws) that changed almost every aspect of Hungary's economic, social, and political life, giving the Magyar nobility and lower gentry in the parliament control over its own military, its budget, and foreign policy. Lajos (Louis) Kossuth (Monok, September 19, 1802 – Turin, March 20, 1894) was a Hungarian lawyer, politician, and for a time was regent. ...


The Czechs held a congress in Prague, asking for greater freedom in the Empire, but their status as peasants and proletarians surrounded by a German middle class doomed their autonomy. They also disliked the prospect of annexation of Bohemia to a German Empire. Prague (Czech: Praha, see also other names) is the capital and largest city of the Czech Republic. ... The proletariat (from Latin proles, offspring) is a term used to identify a lower social class; a member of such a class is proletarian. ...


Both the Czech and Italian revolutions were defeated by the Habsburgs, by some means or other (more on the Italians in another page). Prague was the first victory of counter-revolution in the Austrian Empire.


On the meeting of the peoples of the Empire that was held in Bratislava, the Serbs had pleaded for the acknowledgement of their nation, education in their language and their separate region. Lajos Kossuth, the leader of Hungary, rebuffed them, announcing that "the only nation that exists in the Hungarian Kingdom is the Magyar nation" and that "the rebels should be punished by sword". Bratislava (until 1919: Prešporok in Slovak, Pressburg in German and English; Pozsony in Hungarian) is the capital of Slovakia and the countrys largest city, with a population of some 450,000. ... ... Lajos (Louis) Kossuth (Monok, September 19, 1802 – Turin, March 20, 1894) was a Hungarian lawyer, politician, and for a time was regent. ...


The revolters have some more successes

The early successes of the revolution in the Habsburg lands were easy -- perhaps too easy, for divisions in the revolutionaries soon showed, capitalized upon by the counter-revolution.


On July 22, the Austrian Constituent Assembly gathered in Vienna, aware of the power of the revolutionaries, but frightened of mob rule and democracy. Something had to give, and here came a few of the accomplishments of the revolution -- the feudal system under which the peasants (the bulk of the population) lived was reduced; the widely hated robot rule of service to one's lord was abolished, and some hereditary rights of the nobility were cut. While the peasants achieved some of their goals, the monarchy was untouched, and when the revolutionaries murdered the unpopular minister of war, conservatives put Vienna under military rule by October 1848. The Constituent Assembly invited the royal family back from Innsbruck; Emperor Ferdinand I was replaced. A constituent assembly is a body elected with the purpose of drafting, and in some cases, adopting a constitution. ... Ochlocracy (Greek: οχλοκρατια; Latin: ochlocratia) is government by mob or a disorganized mass of people. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste. ... Martial law is the system of rules that takes effect (usually after a formal declaration) when a military authority takes control of the normal administration of justice. ...


Revolution in the Kingdom of Hungary

See also: History of Hungary

Hungary, at just over half the land area of the Empire, at the time was a bit like the American South of the time: agricultural, backwards economically, controlled by a conservative elite, and soon to fight a war of independence that would eventually fail due to ethnic, linguistic, and religious splits. This is the history of Hungary. ... The U.S. Southern states or The South, known during the American Civil War era as Dixie, is a distinctive region of the United States with its own unique historical perspective, customs, musical styles, and cuisine. ...


The Hungarians set out to form their own government, but restricted the new Pest Diet to speakers of Hungarian. This angered the Slavs and the Romanians who had their own desires for self-rule and saw no benefit in replacing one centralist government for another. Armed clashes between the Hungarians on the one hand and the Croats, Romanians, Serbs and Slovaks on the other hand ensued. Pest (in Slovak Pešť, pron. ... Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a south Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. ... ...


Croatia, the only province of the Hungarian Kingdom that already had some form of home rule, sided with the Habsburgs and severed relations with the new Hungarian government. Josip Jelačić, who had become governor of Croatia in March, led an army into Hungary by September 1848. Hungarians filtered over from Italy; many women served, but independent Hungary progressively shrunk. Devolution or Home rule is the pooling of powers from central government to government at regional or local level. ... Josip Jelačić of Bužim (born 1801 in Petrovaradin, died 1859 in Zagreb; also spelled Jellachich) was the Ban of Croatia between March 23rd, 1848 and May 19, 1859. ...


On the Serbian National Assembly in Sremski Karlovci in May, 1848, Serbs, aided by the Romanians and Croats, declared the unification of the regions of Srem, Banat, Bačka, and Baranja (including parts of the Military Frontier) into the province of Serbian Vojvodina and wanted to unite with the Turkish autonomus principality of Serbia. Hungarians were outraged by this declaration and their army confronted the Serbian army near Srbobran, where the Serbs and other peoples gained victory over Hungarians. Later Serbs and Croats reached an agreement to cooperate with Austria and Russia. Serbs gained their province, enlarged and much more ethnically diverse, containing more Germans and Romanians than Serbs. It was named the Vojvodina of Serbia and Tamiš Banat and it was a big disappointment for the Serbian unity movement. Soon, both sides had successes of their own. Sremski Karlovci (Serbian: Sremski Karlovci or Сремски Карловци, German: Karlowitz or Carlowitz, Croatian: Srijemski Karlovci, Hungarian: Karlóca, Turkish: Karlofça) is a town and municipality in the autonomous province of Vojvodina, Serbia and Montenegro, situated on the bank of the river Danube, between Belgrade and Novi Sad. ... ... Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a south Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. ... Srem District in Vojvodina Vukovar-Srijem county within Croatia Syrmia (Serbian: Срем or Srem, Croatian: Srijem, Hungarian: Szerémség or Szerém, Slovak: Sriem, German: Syrmien, from Latin: Syrmia or Sirmium) is a fertile region of the Pannonian plain in Europe, between the Danube and Sava rivers. ... Banat (Romanian: Banat; Serbian: Банат or Banat; German: Banat; Hungarian: Bánát or Bánság; Slovak: Banát) is a region in Southeastern Europe divided among three countries: the eastern part belongs to Romania (the counties of TimiÅŸ and CaraÅŸ-Severin), the western part to Serbia-Montenegro (the Serbian... Bačka (Serbian: Бачка or Bačka, Hungarian: Bácska, Croatian: Bačka, Slovak: Báčka, German: Batschka) is an area of the Pannonian plain lying between the rivers Danube and Tisa. ... Baranya (Hungarian: Baranya, Croatian: Baranja, Serbian: Baranja or Барања) is a geographical region between the Danube and the Drava rivers. ... Military Frontier (Military Border, Military Krajina, Vojna Krajina, Војна Крајина, Militärgrenze, Confiniaria militaria) was a borderland of Habsburg Austria which acted as the cordon sanitaire against the Turks from the Middle Ages (Croatian Krajina) or from the late 17th and 18th centuries (Slavonian and Banat Krajina) until the 19th century. ... Serbia and Montenegro  â€“ Serbia    â€“ Kosovo and Metohia        (UN administration)    â€“ Vojvodina  â€“ Montenegro Official languages Serbian, Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Croatian, Rusyn1 Capital Novi Sad Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % water  21,500 km²  n/a Population  â€“ Total (2002)  â€“ Density  2,031,992  94. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Srbobran is a town and municipality in South Backa District of Vojvodina, Serbia. ... Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a south Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. ... Vojvodina of Serbia and TamiÅ¡ Banat and Principality of Serbia in 1849 The Vojvodina of Serbia and TamiÅ¡ Banat (Hungarian: Szerb Vajdaság és Temesi Bánság, German: Woiwodschaft Serbien und Temescher Banat, Serbian: Vojvodstvo Srbija i TamiÅ¡ki Banat) was an Austrian crownland, which existed between 1849 and...


Basing his ideas on the American Declaration of Independence, Hungary's leader Kossuth declared independence. It lasted about four months. By May the Hungarian secessionists had recaptured all of their country except Buda, which they won after a three-week bloody siege. Hungary came close to independence in 1849. A declaration of independence is a proclamation of the independence of a newly formed or reformed independent state, usually from a part or the whole of the territory of another nation, or a document containing such a declaration. ... Lajos (Louis) Kossuth (Monok, September 19, 1802 – Turin, March 20, 1894) was a Hungarian lawyer, politician, and for a time was regent. ... For the Boston area punk band see Siege (band). ...


However, it was not to be. The Austrians had enlisted the help of the Russians, while the Hungarians solicited help from as far away as the United States, to no avail. England did nothing; many in the U.S.A. and England at least privately favored Hungarian independence, but their governments did nothing. Finally, the Hungarians surrendered to the government troops.


Many of the rebels were hung or shot. Some of the most active of the executed secessionists are called the 13 Martyrs of Arad (György Lahner, Lajos Aulich, János Damjanich, Károly Knezich, Károly Leiningen-Westerburg, Ernő Poeltenberg, Ignác Török, József Nagy-Sándor, Arisztid Dessewffy, Ernő Kiss, Vilmos Lázár, József Schweidel). Kossuth and others ultimately escaped to America, Kossuth giving speeches and collecting money for a new war to save his Fatherland. While Kossuth was safe, Hungary was punished extensively, with the punishments being administered from Vienna, and all local control abolished. But serfs were legally freed, one of a handful of victories for the serfs; moreover, Habsburgs couldn't keep industry from developing in Hungary any more. Hanging is a form of execution or a method for suicide. ...


In the end

The Habsburgs put Vienna under martial law, and reactionary activities spread throughout the Empire. The Habsburgs gave Baron Alexander von Bach an absolute mandate over the Kingdom of Hungary, including Croatia whose contribution to the quelling of the revolution was ignored. Martial law is the system of rules that takes effect (usually after a formal declaration) when a military authority takes control of the normal administration of justice. ... (1813-1893 Baron Alexander von Bach (or in German: Alexander von Freiherr Bach) was an Austrian politician. ... Absolutism is a political theory which argues that one person (generally, a monarch) should hold all power. ...


Despite real successes, nationalistic antagonisms doomed further reform. Bach was later replaced after the "Compromise" of 1867 and the creation of Austria-Hungary. The Austrian Empire collapsed in 1918 at the end of World War I, splitting into Austria, Hungary, and several other states. The German term Ausgleich (Hungarian kiegyezés) refers to the compromise or composition of February 1867 that established the Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary, which was signed by Franz Joseph of Austria and a Hungarian delegation led by Ferenc Deák. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... World War I was primarily a European conflict with many facets: immense human sacrifice, stalemate trench warfare, and the use of new, devastating weapons - tanks, aircraft, machine guns, and poison gas. ...


External links

  • Hungarian Revolution of 1848
  • Political Chronologies of the 1848 Revolutions: AUSTRIAN EMPIRE


Next: The German states // Preliminaries Germany at the time of the Revolutions of 1848 was a hodgepodge of over 30 states loosely bound together in the German Confederation after the Congress of Vienna in 1815. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Revolutions of 1848 in the Habsburg areas - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1463 words)
In 1848, the Austrian Empire under the Habsburgs was confronted with the combined effect of economic, social class, and national conflicts.
Hungary, at just over half the land area of the Empire, at the time was a bit like the American South of the time: agricultural, backwards economically, controlled by a conservative elite, and soon to fight a war of independence that would eventually fail due to ethnic, linguistic, and religious splits.
The Habsburgs gave Baron Alexander von Bach an absolute mandate over the Kingdom of Hungary, including Croatia whose contribution to the quelling of the revolution was ignored.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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