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Encyclopedia > The Protocols of the Elders of Zion
1920 English language imprint (London) -1st edition
1920 English language imprint (London) -1st edition
Antisemitism

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The Protocols of Zion is a 2005 documentary film by Marc Levin about a resurgence of anti-Semitism in the United States in the wake of 9-11. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 402 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1291 × 1926 pixels, file size: 644 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) 1920 - Book cover - The Jewish Peril/Protocols of Zion - 1st Edition - United Kingdom/British imprint - Eyre & Spottiswoode Ltd. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 402 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1291 × 1926 pixels, file size: 644 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) 1920 - Book cover - The Jewish Peril/Protocols of Zion - 1st Edition - United Kingdom/British imprint - Eyre & Spottiswoode Ltd. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1518x1372, 1426 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Star of David Yellow badge Talk:List of Jewish American journalists User:RolandR Metadata This file contains additional... This does not cite its references or sources. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... This is a list of resources analyzing antisemitism in the alphabetical order of authors name. ... Some writers have argued there is rising acceptance of antisemitism within the anti-globalization movement. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... This article is about the relationship between Islam and antisemitism. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Nation of Islam. ... New antisemitism is the concept of a new 21st-century form of antisemitism emanating simultaneously from the left, the far right, and radical Islam, and tending to manifest itself as opposition to Zionism and the State of Israel. ... Racial antisemitism is hatred of Jews as a racial group, rather than hatred of Judaism as a religion. ... An example of state-sponsored atheist anti-Judaism. ... Secondary antisemitism is a distinct kind of antisemitism which is said to have appeared after the end of World War II. It is often explained as being caused by —as opposed to despite of— Auschwitz, pars pro toto for the Holocaust. ... Poster at SFSU resurrects the blood libel: Palestinian Children Meat, Made in Israel and slaughtered according to Jewish Rites under American license. ...

Allegations
Deicide · Blood libel · Ritual murder
Well poisoning · Host desecration
Jewish lobby · Jewish Bolshevism
Usury · Dreyfus affair
Zionist Occupation Government
Holocaust denial This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Blood libels are the accusations that Jews use human blood in certain aspects of their religious rituals. ... Ritual murder is murder performed in a ritualistic fashion or on a basis of rituals. ... For the logical fallacy, see poisoning the well. ... Host desecration is a form of sacrilege in Christianity, involving the mistreatment or malicious use of a consecrated Host, or communion wafer. ... Jewish lobby is a term referring to allegations that Jews exercise undue influence in a number of areas, including politics, government, the media, academia, popular culture, public policy, international relations, and international finance. ... Conditions in Russia (1924) A Census -Bolsheviks by Ethnicity Jewish Bolshevism, Judeo-Bolshevism, Judeo-Communism, or in Polish, Żydokomuna, is an antisemitic conspiracy theory which blames the Jews for Bolshevism; it is an antisemitic political epithet. ... Look up usury in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Dreyfus affair was a political scandal which divided France from the 1890s to the early 1900s. ... Zionist Occupation Government (abbreviated as ZOG) is an antisemitic conspiracy theory according to which Jews secretly (or overtly in the case of the United States of America) control a country, while the formal government is a puppet regime. ... Richard Harwoods Did Six Million Really Die? Holocaust denial is the claim that the mainstream historical version of the Holocaust is either highly exaggerated or completely falsified. ...

Antisemitic publications
On the Jews and Their Lies
The Protocols of the Elders of Zion
Editions of The Protocols
The International Jew · Mein Kampf
Title page of Martin Luthers On the Jews and their Lies. ... The Protocols, or The Protocols of Zion, are the briefest two common English language titles of the infamous and notorious writing more popularly known in the United States as the The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, or as the Protocols of the meetings of the learned elders of Zion... The International Jew: The Worlds Foremost Problem is a four volume set of books originally published and distributed in the early 1920s by Henry Ford, an American industrialist, automobile developer and manufacturer. ... Mein Kampf (English translation: My Struggle) is a book by the German-Austrian politician Adolf Hitler, which combines elements of autobiography with an exposition of Hitlers National Socialist political ideology. ...

Persecutions
Expulsions · Ghetto · Pogroms
Judenhut · Judensau · Yellow badge
Inquisition · Segregation
Holocaust · Nazism · Neo-Nazism
This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... In the course of history, Jewish populations have been expelled or ostracised by various local authorities and have sought asylum from Anti-Semitism numerous times. ... A ghetto is an area where people from a specific racial or ethnic background live as a group in seclusion, voluntarily or involuntarily. ... The Russian word pogrom (погром) refers to a massive violent attack on people with simultaneous destruction of their environment (homes, businesses, religious centers). ... The Jewish poet Süßkind von Trimberg wearing a Judenhut (Codex Manesse, 14. ... Judensau (German for Jewish swine) is a derogatory and dehumanizing imagery of the Jews that appeared around the 13th century in Germany and some other European countries. ... Compulsory Jewish badge under the Nazi occupation of Europe: the Star of David with the word Jew inside (this one in German) A yellow badge, also referred to as a Jewish badge, was a mandatory mark or a piece of cloth of specific geometric shape, worn on the outer garment... This article is about one of the historical Inquisitions. ... The Pale of Settlement (Russian: , chertA osEdlosti) was a western border region of Imperial Russia in which permanent residence of Jews was allowed, extending from the pale or demarcation line, to live near the border with central Europe. ... “Shoah” redirects here. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ... The terms Neo-Nazism and Neo-Fascism refer to any social or political movement to revive Nazism or Fascism, respectively, and postdates the Second World War. ...

Organizations fighting AS
Anti-Defamation League
Community Security Trust · EUMC
Stephen Roth Institute · Wiener Library
SPLC · SWC · UCSJ · SCAA The Anti-Defamation League (or ADL) is an advocacy group founded by Bnai Brith in the United States whose stated aim is to stop, by appeals to reason and conscience and, if necessary, by appeals to law, the defamation of the Jewish people. ... A 2005 CST report into anti-Semitism in the UK The Community Security Trust (CST) is an organization established to ensure the safety and security of the Jewish community in Britain (UK). ... The European Fundamental Rights Agency (formally, the European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights) is a proposed agency of the European Union which will be set up in Vienna. ... The Stephen Roth Institute for the Study of Contemporary Antisemitism and Racism is a resource for information, provides a forum for academic discussion, and fosters research on issues concerning antisemitic and racist theories and manifestations. ... The Wiener Library is the worlds oldest institution devoted to the study of the Holocaust, its causes and legacies. ... The Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC) is an American non-profit legal organization, whose stated purpose is to combat racism and promote civil rights through research, education and litigation. ... The Simon Wiesenthal Center The Simon Wiesenthal Center is an international Jewish organization that declares itself to be a human rights group dedicated to preserving the memory of the Holocaust by fostering tolerance and understanding through community involvement, educational outreach and social action. ... UCSJ, or the Union of Councils for Jews in the Former Soviet Union, is a collection of Jewish human rights organisations working in Eastern Europe and Central Asia. ... The Swedish Committee Against Antisemitism (Swedish: , SKMA) is a Sweden-based non-profit organization, founded in 1983, that works to counteract and spread knowledge about antisemitism. ...

Categories
Antisemitism · Jewish history

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The Protocols of the Elders of Zion (Russian: "Протоколы сионских мудрецов", or "Сионские протоколы", see also other titles) is an antisemitic plagiarism and literary forgery first published in 1903 in Russian, in Znamya; it alleges a Jewish and Masonic plot to achieve world domination. The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster Anti-Semitism (alternatively spelled antisemitism) is hostility towards or prejudice against Jews (not, in common usage, Semites in general — see the Scope section below). ... For other uses, see Plagiarism (disambiguation). ... Literary forgery, also Literary forgeries and mystifications, purtains to some writing, especially in literature, such as a manuscript, presented as an original, when in fact it is a fake. ... 1900 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Friday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... Znamya or Znamia (Russian: , literally Banner) was a Saint Petersburg daily newspaper established by an ultra-nationalist journalist Pavel Krushevan in 1902. ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... “Freemasons” redirects here. ... In a political sense, conspiracy refers to a group of persons united in the goal of usurping or overthrowing an established political power. ... Alexander the Great Philip II of Spain Napoleon Bonaparte For other uses, see World domination (disambiguation). ...


It is one of the best known and discussed examples of literary forgery, and a hoax.[1] It was published again in 1905 as a final chapter 12 by Serge Nilus in the second edition of his semiautographical book, Velikoe v malom . . ., a text about the coming of the Antichrist. A hoax is an attempt to trick an audience into believing that something false is real. ... For other uses, see 1905 (disambiguation). ... Sergei Nilus Sergei Alexandrovich Nilus (also Sergiei, Sergyei, Sergius, Serge); Russian language: Сергей Александрович Нилус; 1862-1929) was a Russian religious writer, self-described mystic, and agent of the Imperial Russian secret police, the Okhranka. ... For other uses, see Book (disambiguation). ... Velikoe v malom i antikhrist (1905 edition) 1905 Velikoe v malom - Title Page - Transcription Velikoe v Malom i Antikhrist, Russian: Великое въ маломъ и Антихристъ, translation: The Great within the Small & Anti-Christ, is the romanized Russian of the 1905 book by Serge Nilus that contains the first full printing of the infamous Protocols of... For the Friedrich Nietzsche book, see The Antichrist. ...


"The Protocols" (the briefest title by which the text is known) is widely considered to be the beginning of contemporary conspiracy theory literature,[2] and takes the form of a speech describing how to dominate the world, the need to control the media, finance, replace traditional social order, etc. For other uses, see Conspiracy theory (disambiguation). ...


The text was popularized by those opposed to Russian revolutionary movement, and was disseminated further after the revolution of 1905, becoming known worldwide after the 1917 October Revolution. It was widely circulated in the West in 1920 and thereafter. The Great Depression and the rise of Nazism were important developments in the history of the Protocols, and the hoax continued to be published and circulated despite its debunking. ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... For other uses, see October Revolution (disambiguation). ... Occident redirects here. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ...

Contents

Title

The text is alternatively known in English as Protocols of the wise men of Zion, Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion, Protocols of the meetings of the learned elders of Zion, Protocols of the Meetings of the Zionist Men of Wisdom, Protocols of the Sages of Zion, Protocols of Zion, The Jewish Peril, The Protocols and World Revolution, and Praemonitus Praemunitus. The variation in title derives partly from the fact that the book has two titles in Russian - "Сионские протоколы" (Sionskiye protokoly, lit. "Protocols of Zion") and "Протоколы сионских мудрецов" (Protokoly sionskih mudretsov, lit. "Protocols of the Sages of Zion") - and partly due to the different translations of the Russian word мудрец (mudrets, a wise man or a sage). 1992 Russian edition of the Protocols, adapting Eliphas Levis portrayal of Baphomet. ... The Protocols of the (Learned) Elders of Zion is a fraudulent document purporting to describe a plan to achieve Jewish global domination. ... The Protocols, or The Protocols of Zion, are the briefest two common English language titles of the infamous and notorious writing more popularly known in the United States as the The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, or as the Protocols of the meetings of the learned elders of Zion... 1992 Russian language imprint, adapting Eliphas Levis portrayal of Baphomet image The Protocols of the Elders of Zion (Russian: , see also other titles) is an antisemitic text, first published in 1903 in Russian, in Znamya (newspaper), that purports to describe a Jewish and Masonic plot to achieve world domination. ... The Protocols of the (Learned) Elders of Zion is a fraudulent document purporting to describe a plan to achieve Jewish global domination. ... The Jewish Peril is the lead, or main, title of the notorious antisemitic plagiarism most commonly or popularly known as the Protocols of the Elders of Zion. ... Image:1920 Protocols & World Revolution 1FNL.JPG The Protocols and World Revolution - First American Edition, 1920, Boston, by Small, Maynard and Company Protocols of Zion - Title Page The Protocols and World Revolution is the lead title of the First Edition of the American English language imprint of the Protocols of... Praemonitus praemunitus is the title of the second of the first two American editions of the notorious Protocols of Zion issued in 1920. ...


The variation in title also derives from the fact that various (often anonymous) compilers or editors give it a different main title (as distinct from a subtitle), as well as the interest of these to advertise or suit their particular antisemitic agenda, and the fact that the text, which consists roughly of no more than 2 or 3 dozen paragraphs is only sufficient for a pamphlet, and it becomes a book by expansion with prefaces, introductions, addenda, etc.


For example, the first American English language edition, published in Boston in 1920 by Small, Maynard & Company, has the following full title: The Protocols and World Revolution Including a Translation and Analysis of the "Protocols of the Meetings of the Zionist Men of Wisdom". Only pages 11 through 73 contain the so-called Protocols. The word "Zion" in this edition has not been used; rather, the word "Zionist" is used. This contrasts to a similar practice of the prior Russian editions. For example, in 1905 Sergei Nilus's book on the imminent arrival of the anti-Christ The Big within the Small, the Protocols constituted the final twelfth chapter. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Boston redirects here. ... Small, Maynard & Company (Small, Maynard and Company in bibliographies), was a publishing house located in Boston. ... Zion (Hebrew: צִיּוֹן, tziyyon; Tiberian vocalization: tsiyyôn; transliterated Zion or Sion) is a term that most often designates the Land of Israel and its capital Jerusalem. ... A bilingual poster in Romanian and Hungarian promoting a film about Jewish settlement in Palestine, 1930s. ... Velikoe v malom i antikhrist (1905 edition) Sergei Nilus Sergei Alexandrovich Nilus (also Sergiei, Sergyei, Sergius, Serge); Russian language: Сергей Александрович Нилус; 1862-1929) was a Russian religious writer, self-described mystic, and agent of the Imperial Russian secret police, the Okhranka. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Antichrist. ...


Origins and content

Maurice Joly

Elements of the text in the Protocols have been conclusively established as plagiarizations from the 1864 book, Dialogue aux enfers entre Machiavel et Montesquieu (Dialogue in Hell Between Machiavelli and Montesquieu), written by the French satirist Maurice Joly. Joly's work attacks the political ambitions of Napoleon III using Machiavelli as a diabolical plotter in Hell as a stand-in for Napoleon's views. Joly himself appears to have borrowed material from a popular novel by Eugène Sue, The Mysteries of the People, in which the plotters were Jesuits. Jews do not appear in either work. Since it was illegal to criticize the monarchy, Joly had the pamphlet printed in Belgium, then tried to smuggle it back into France. The police confiscated as many copies as they could, and it was banned. After it was traced to Joly, he was tried on April 25, 1865, and sentenced to fifteen months in prison. Joly committed suicide in 1878. Plagiarism refers to the use of anothers ideas, information, language, or writing, when done without proper acknowledgment of the original source. ... The Dialogue in Hell Between Machiavelli and Montesquieu is a revolutionary French pamphlet by Maurice Joly which was plagarized to create The Protocols of the Elders of Zion. ... Detail of the portrait of Machiavelli, ca 1500, in the robes of a Florentine public official Niccolò Machiavelli (May 3, 1469—June 21, 1527) was an Italian political philosopher during the Renaissance. ... “Montesquieu” redirects here. ... Maurice Joly (1829-1878) was a French satirist and lawyer. ... Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte (April 20, 1808 - January 9, 1873) was the son of King Louis Bonaparte and Queen Hortense de Beauharnais; both monarchs of the French puppet state, the Kingdom of Holland. ... The Inferno redirects here. ... Joseph Marie Eugène Sue (January 20, 1804–August 3, 1857), French novelist, was born in Paris. ... Seal of the Society of Jesus. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ...


Hermann Goedsche

Hermann Goedsche's 1868 novel, Biarritz (in English as To Sedan) contributed another idea that may have inspired the scribe behind the Protocols. In the chapter, “The Jewish Cemetery in Prague and the Council of Representatives of the Twelve Tribes of Israel”, Goedsche wrote about a nocturnal meeting between members of a mysterious rabbinical cabal, describing how at midnight, the Devil appears before those who have gathered on behalf of the Twelve Tribes of Israel to plan a “Jewish conspiracy”. His depiction is also similar to the scene in Alexandre Dumas, père's Joseph Balsamo, where Cagliostro and company plot the affair of the diamond necklace. With Biarritz appearing at about the same time as The Dialogue in Hell Between Machiavelli and Montesquieu, it is possible that Goedsche was inspired by the ideas in Joly's pamphlet, especially in detailing the outcome of the cabal's secret meeting.[3] Sir John Retcliffe, also Hermann Ottomar Friedrich Goedsche (* February, 12 1815 in Trachenberg, Schlesien; † November, 8 1878 in Warmbrunn, today Cieplice ÅšlÄ…skie-Zdrój, in Jelenia Góra), was a German author. ... A cabal is a number of persons united in some close design, usually to promote their private views and interests in a church, state, or other community by intrigue. ... An Israelite is a member of the Twelve Tribes of Israel, descended from the twelve sons of the Biblical patriarch Jacob who was renamed Israel by God in the book of Genesis, 32:28 The Israelites were a group of Hebrews, as described in the Bible. ... “Alexandre Dumas” redirects here. ... Count Alessandro di Cagliostro, born Giuseppe Balsamo became a roving adventurer, freemason and alchemist in the late 18th century. ... The Affair of the Diamond Necklace was a mysterious incident in the 1780s at the court of Louis XVI of France involving the queen Marie Antoinette. ...


Goedsche, a reactionary to the revolutions of 1848, lost his job in the Prussian postal service after forging evidence to implicate democratic leader Benedict Waldeck of conspiring against the king. Following his dismissal, Goedsche began a career as a conservative columnist, while also producing literary work under the pen name Sir John Retcliffe.[4] Goedsche was allegedly a spy for the Prussian Secret Police.[3] The European Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Spring of Nations or the Year of Revolution, were a revolutionary wave which erupted in Sicily and then, further triggered by the revolutions of 1848 in France, soon spread to the rest of Europe and as far afield as... Anthem Preußenlied, Heil dir im Siegerkranz (both unofficial) The Kingdom of Prussia at its greatest extent, at the time of the formation of the German Empire, 1871 Capital Berlin Government Monarchy King  - 1701 — 1713 Frederick I (first)  - 1888 — 1918 William II (last) Prime minister  - 1848 Adolf Heinrich von Arnim... Benedict Waldeck was a left-leaning deputy in the Prussian National Assembly, and later in the Second Chamber. ... Monarchism is the advocacy of the establishment, preservation, or restoration of a monarchy. ... Sir John Retcliffe, also Hermann Ottomar Friedrich Goedsche (* February, 12 1815 in Trachenberg, Schlesien; † November, 8 1878 in Warmbrunn, today Cieplice ÅšlÄ…skie-Zdrój, in Jelenia Góra), was a German author. ... Anthem Preußenlied, Heil dir im Siegerkranz (both unofficial) The Kingdom of Prussia at its greatest extent, at the time of the formation of the German Empire, 1871 Capital Berlin Government Monarchy King  - 1701 — 1713 Frederick I (first)  - 1888 — 1918 William II (last) Prime minister  - 1848 Adolf Heinrich von Arnim...


In 1871, the story was being presented in France as serious history. In 1872, the “The Jewish Cemetery in Prague”, translated into Russian, appeared in St. Petersburg as a separate pamphlet of purported non-fiction. François Bournand, in his Les Juifs et nos contemporains (1896), reproduced a speech from the chapter as that of a Chief Rabbi “John Readclif” [sic].


Structure and themes

The twenty-four Protocols are posited as instructions to a new Elder, outlining how the group will control the world. The Elders want to trick all "gentile nations", whom they call "goyim", into doing their will. Their preferred methods include: Goy (Hebrew: גוי, plural goyim גוים) is a transliterated Hebrew word which translates as nation or people. // A page from Elia Levitas Yiddish-Hebrew-Latin-German dictionary (16th century) contains a list of nations, including word גוי, translated to Latin as Ethnicus In the Hebrew Bible, goy and its variants appear over...

Protocol Theme
1 Alcoholism, Annihilation of the privileges of the non-Jewish aristocracy, among other topics.[citation needed]
2, 9, 12 The propagation of ideas of all possible complexions with the task of undermining established forms of order, including Darwinism, Marxism, Nietzsche-ism, Liberalism, Socialism, Communism, Anarchism, and Utopianism
4 Materialism
5 World government
7 World wars
10 Staging catastrophes against one's own people, then claiming a moral high ground for leverage
11 Universal suffrage
11, 12, 17 Curtailment of civil liberties with the excuse of defeating the enemies of peace
13 Creating the impression of the existence of freedom of press, freedom of speech, democracy and human rights, all of which are subsequently undermined and become mere illusions or deceptive smokescreens behind which actual oppression lies
14 Distractions
14, 17 Pornographic literature
16 The destruction of Christianity, other religions and cultures, followed by a transitional stage of atheism, followed finally by the hegemony of Judaism
20 Brainwashing
21 Economic depressions
22 Undermining financial systems by foreign loans, creating national bankruptcy, destroying Money Markets and replacing them with government credit institutions
23 Justification of previous acts of evil and expectation of a great new society
24 Reduction of the manufacture of articles of luxury, destruction of large manufacturers, prohibition of alcohol and hashish, unleashing forces of violence under the mask of principles of freedom, only to have the 'King of the Jews' demolish those very forces to make him appear a saviour
25 Training of the king, direct heirs, irreproachability of exterior morality of the King of the Jews

Control of the media and finance would replace the traditional sources of social order with one based on mass manipulation and state engineered propaganda, where powerful elites and institutions conspire to conceal unpalatable truths from the masses. In these respects, the Protocols draws on long-standing criticisms of modernity, radicalism and capitalism, but presents them as part of an orchestrated plot, rather than as a product of impersonal historical processes. Alcoholism is the consumption of, or preoccupation with, alcoholic beverages to the extent that this behavior interferes with the drinkers normal personal, family, social, or work life, and may lead to physical or mental harm. ... Charles Darwin Darwinism is a term for the underlying theory in those ideas of Charles Darwin concerning evolution and natural selection. ... Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 – August 25, 1900) (IPA: ) was a nineteenth-century German philosopher. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community[1] for the purposes of increasing social and economic equality and cooperation. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... Anarchist redirects here. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into utopia. ... In philosophy, materialism is that form of physicalism which holds that the only thing that can truly be said to exist is matter; that fundamentally, all things are composed of material and all phenomena are the result of material interactions; that matter is the only substance. ... It has been suggested that World Federation be merged into this article or section. ... A world war is a war affecting the majority of the worlds major nations. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Universal suffrage (also general suffrage or common suffrage) consists of the extension of the right to vote to all adults, without distinction as to race, sex, belief, intelligence, or economic or social status. ... Civil liberties is the name given to freedoms that protect the individual from government. ... Freedom of the press (or press freedom) is the guarantee by a government of free public speech often through a state constitution for its citizens, and associations of individuals extended to members of news gathering organizations, and their published reporting. ... This article is about the general concept. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... Erotic literature is a literary genre that either takes the form of erotica written to arouse the reader, or to give instruction in sexual technique. ... “Atheist” redirects here. ... Brainwashing (also known as thought reform or re-education) consists of any systematic effort aimed at instilling certain attitudes and beliefs in a person against his/her will, usually beliefs in conflict with the persons prior beliefs and knowledge. ... In economics, a depression is a term commonly used for a sustained downturn in the economy. ... External debt (or foreign debt) is that part of the government debt of a country which is owed to creditors outside the country. ... Notice of closure stuck on the door of a computer store the day after its parent company, Granville Technology Group Ltd, declared bankruptcy (strictly, put into administration—see text) in the United Kingdom. ... This article is about short-term financing. ... For other uses, see Salvation (disambiguation). ... Social order is a concept used in sociology, history and other social sciences. ... Modernity is a term used to describe the condition of being modern. Since the term modern is used to describe a wide range of periods, modernity must be understood in its context. ... Extremism is a term used to describe the actions or ideologies of individuals or groups outside the perceived political center of a society; or otherwise claimed to violate common standards of ethics and reciprocity. ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ...


The text assumes that the reader already believes that the Freemasons are a secret society with a hidden political agenda, and the Protocols purports to demonstrate that this hidden agenda is itself controlled or guided by the 'Elders', a sort of conspiracy theory within a conspiracy theory. In the Protocols, Freemasons and "liberal thinkers" are shown to be mere tools that the Elders will eventually replace with a Jewish theocracy. The Protocols describes a forthcoming "kingdom" and goes into great lengths about how it will be run. Yet even in this kingdom the Elders will avoid direct political control, preferring to assert themselves via usury and manipulation of money. Even the "King of the Jews" himself will be nothing more than a figurehead. American Square & Compasses Freemasonry is a worldwide fraternal organization. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      For the metal band, refer to Theocracy (band). ... Look up usury in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In politics, a figurehead, by metaphor with the carved figurehead at the prow of a sailing ship, is a person who holds an important title or office yet executes little actual power. ...


Comparison to the Dialogues

The Protocols 1–19 closely follow the order of The Dialogues in Hell 1–17, with a few exceptions. In some places, plagiarism is incontrovertible: Dialogue aux Enfers entre Montesquieu and Machiavelli (in the original French Dialogue aux enfers entre Machiavel et Montesquieu) is a satirical book by Maurice Joly which was first published in Geneva, Switzerland in 1864. ... For other uses, see Plagiarism (disambiguation). ...

Montesquieu: How are loans made? By the issue of bonds entailing on the Government the obligation to pay interest proportionate to the capital it has been paid. Thus, if a loan is at 5%, the State, after 20 years, has paid out a sum equal to the borrowed capital. When 40 years have expired it has paid double, after 60 years triple: yet it remains debtor for the entire capital sum. (Dialogues, p. 250)

A loan is an issue of Government paper which entails an obligation to pay interest amounting to a percentage of the total sum of the borrowed money. If a loan is at 5%, then in 20 years the Government would have unnecessarily paid out a sum equal to that of the loan in order to cover the percentage. In 40 years it will have paid twice; and in 60 thrice that amount, but the loan will still remain as an unpaid debt. (Protocols, p. 77)

Another example is the reference to the Hindu deity, Vishnu, which appears exactly twice in both the Dialogues in Hell and the Protocols: Bhavna says there are 300 million gods in Hinduism. ... Vishnu (IAST , Devanagari ), (honorific: Sri Vishnu) also known as Narayana is the Supreme Being (i. ...

Machiavelli: Like the god Vishnu, my press will have a hundred arms, and these arms will give their hands to all the different shades of opinion throughout the country. (Dialogues, p. 141)

These newspapers, like the Indian god Vishnu, will be possessed of hundreds of hands, each of which will be feeling the pulse of varying public opinion. (Protocols, p. 43)

Montesquieu: Now I understand the figure of the god Vishnu; you have a hundred arms like the Indian idol, and each of your fingers touches a spring. (Dialogues, p. 207)

Our Government will resemble the Hindu god Vishnu. Each of our hundred hands will hold one spring of the social machinery of State. (Protocols, p. 65)

In addition to mentioning Vishnu, improbable in the Jewish religious literature, and the lack of Talmudic citations that would be expected in it, textual references to the "King of the Jews", the semi-messianic idea that carries strong connotations of Jesus, further suggest the author was not well-versed in Jewish culture, as this term has been avoided in the Judaic tradition since the schism between Judaism and Christianity.[5] The Talmud (Hebrew: תַּלְמוּד) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history. ... King of the Jews may refer to: One of several historical kings of the Jewish people; see Kingdom of Israel and Kingdom of Judah A title of the Jewish Messiah King Herod the Great, declared King of the Jews by the Roman Senate A title used to refer to Jesus... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Schisms among the Jews are cultural as well as religious. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is...


Once Philip Graves' Times article showed the extent of the similarity between the two texts, it became clear that the Protocols was not an authentic document. Major Philip Perceval Graves (February 25, 1876 – June 3, 1953) was a British journalist and writer. ...


Conspiracy references

The idea that the Freemasons formed part of an anti-Christian conspiracy, either separate from or in association with Jews, long predated the spreading of The Protocols. In the late 18th-early 19th centuries, Freemasonry was popular (as were many fraternal organizations), and its most significant opponent, the Roman Catholic Church, opposed its open support for freedom of religion and enlightenment ideals. American Square & Compasses Freemasonry is a worldwide fraternal organization. ... A fraternal organization, sometimes also known as a fraternity, is an organization that represents the relationship between its members as akin to brotherhood. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen guarantees freedom of religion, as long as religious activities do not infringe on public order in ways detrimental to society. ... The Enlightenment (French: ; German: ; Italian: ; Portuguese: ) was an eighteenth century movement in European and American philosophy — some classifications also include 17th century philosophy (usually called the Age of Reason). ...


After some interaction with masons, a Scottish natural philosopher John Robison became an enthusiastic conspiracy theorist and expanded on his impressions in his 1797 pamphlet Proofs of a Conspiracy against all the Religions and Governments of Europe, carried on in the secret meetings of Freemasons, Illuminati and Reading Societies. He did not take into account that French masons were members of several mutually hostile factions and that many of them were executed by their rivals. Robison's work does not mention Jews. John Robison (February 4, 1739 - January 30, 1805) was a Scottish physicist and inventor. ... 1797 (MDCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


Jesuit priest Abbé Barruél had some contact with Robison, but extended the notion to include Jews. He had accused the Jews of founding the Bavarian Illuminati. The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu), commonly known as the Jesuits, is a Roman Catholic religious order. ... This article is about the sacrament. ... Abbé Augustin Barruél (October 2, 1741 - October 5, 1820) was a Jesuit priest mostly known for originally inventing the conspiracy theory involving the Knights Templar, the Bavarian Illuminati and the Jacobins in his book Memoirs Illustrating the History of Jacobinism (original title Mémoires pour servir à lHistoire du... For other uses, see Illuminati (disambiguation). ...


According to Daniel Pipes, Daniel Pipes in Copenhagen Daniel Pipes (born September 9, 1949) is an American historian and analyst who specializes in the Middle East. ...

"The great importance of the Protocols lies in its permitting antisemites to reach beyond their traditional circles and find a large international audience, a process that continues to this day. The forgery poisoned public life wherever it appeared; it was "self-generating; a blueprint that migrated from one conspiracy to another."[6] The book's vagueness — almost no names, dates, or issues are specified — has been one key to this wide-ranging success. The purportedly Jewish authorship also helps to make the book more convincing. Its embrace of contradiction — that to advance, Jews use all tools available, including capitalism and communism, philo-Semitism and antisemitism, democracy and tyranny — made it possible for the Protocols to reach out to all: rich and poor, Right and Left, Christian and Muslim, American and Japanese."[7]

Pipes notes that the Protocols emphasizes recurring themes of conspiratorial antisemitism: "Jews always scheme", "Jews are everywhere", "Jews are behind every institution", "Jews obey a central authority, the shadowy 'Elders'", and "Jews are close to success."[8]


The Protocols is widely considered influential in the development of other conspiracy theories, and reappears repeatedly in contemporary conspiracy literature, such as Jim Marrs's Rule by Secrecy. Some recent editions proclaim that the "Jews" depicted in the Protocols are a cover identity for other conspirators such as the Illuminati, Freemasons, the Priory of Sion, or even, in the opinion of David Icke, "extra-dimensional entities." Other groups that believe in the authenticity of the Protocols have claimed that the book does not depict the way that Jews think and act, but only those belonging to an alleged secret elite group of Zionists, and that the "Elders" were not Rabbis, but secular Zionist leaders. A conspiracy theory is a theory that defies common historical or current understanding of events, under the claim that those events are the result of manipulations by two or more individuals or various secretive powers or conspiracies. ... Jim Marrs (December 5, 1943) is a news reporter, college teacher, and author of books and articles on conspiracy theories. ... For other uses, see Illuminati (disambiguation). ... American Square & Compasses Freemasonry is a worldwide fraternal organization. ... Prieuré de Sion, usually rendered in English translation as Priory of Sion or even Priory of Zion, is an elusive protagonist in many works of both non-fiction and fiction. ... David Icke David Vaughan Icke (pronounced IKE //) (born April 29, 1952 in Leicester, England) is a British writer and public speaker who has devoted himself since 1990 to researching who and what is really controlling the world. ... This article is about Zionism as a movement, not the History of Israel. ...


Historical publications, usage, and investigations

Main article: The Protocols of Zion (imprints)

The Protocols, or The Protocols of Zion, are the briefest two common English language titles of the infamous and notorious writing more popularly known in the United States as the The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, or as the Protocols of the meetings of the learned elders of Zion...

Emergence in Russia

The chapter "In the Jewish Cemetery in Prague" from Goedsche's Biarritz, with its strong anti-semitic theme containing the alleged rabbinical plot against the European civilization, was translated into Russian as a separate pamphlet in 1872.[9] Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


In 1921 Princess Catherine Radziwill gave a private lecture in New York. She claimed that Protocols were compiled in 1904-1905 by Russian journalists Matvei Golovinski and Manasevich-Manuilov at the direction of Pyotr Rachkovsky, Chief of the Russian secret service in Paris[10]. Golovinski worked together with Charles Joly (son of Maurice Joly) at Le Figaro in Paris. This account, however, contradicts basic chronology of Protocols publication, as they were already published in 1903 in Znamya newspaper. Catherine Radziwill was previously convicted of forging Cecil Rhodes signature on a promissory note. She also authored numerous gossip and propaganda books. In 1935 Catherine Radziwill repeated her statement as a witness at the Berne Trial. This article, image, template or category should belong in one or more categories. ... Matvei Vasilyevich Golovinski (alternatively Mathieu; Russian: ; 1865-1920) was an operative of Imperial Russian secret service, a writer and journalist. ... Pyotr Ivanovich Rachkovsky (Russian: ; 1853-1910) was the chief of Imperial Russias secret service (known as the Okhranka). ... Le Figaro (English: ) is one of the leading French morning daily newspapers. ... Znamya or Znamia (Russian: , literally Banner) was a Saint Petersburg daily newspaper established by an ultra-nationalist journalist Pavel Krushevan in 1902. ... Cecil Rhodes Cecil John Rhodes, PC, DCL, (July 5, 1853 – March 26, 1902[1]) was a British-born South African businessman, mining magnate, and politician. ... The Berne Trial is a famous trial held in Berne, Switzerland between 1934 and 1935, under an obscenity-related statute involving the plagiarism and forgery of the notorious Protocols of the Elders of Zion. ...


In 1944 German writer Konrad Heiden identified Golovinski as an author of the Protocols.[11]


Catherine Radziwill account was supported by Russian historian Mikhail Lepekhine, who published his findings in November 1999 in the French newsweekly L'Express.[12]. Lepekhine considers the Protocols a part of a scheme to persuade Tsar Nicholas II that the modernization of Russia was really a Jewish plot to control the world. This article, image, template or category should belong in one or more categories. ... LExpress is Frances first weekly news magazine. ... Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian  , in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), occasionally spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is a Slavonic term designating certain monarchs. ... Nicholas II redirects here. ...


A Ukrainian scholar Vadim Skuratovsky offers extensive literary, historical and linguistic analysis of the original text of the Protocols and traces the influences of Fyodor Dostoyevsky's prose (in particular, The Grand Inquisitor and The Possessed) on Golovinski's writings, including the Protocols.[13] Fyodor Dostoevsky. ... Standalone copy of the chapter The Grand Inquisitor Wikisource has original text related to this article: The Grand Inquisitor The Grand Inquisitor is a parable told by Ivan to Alyosha in Fyodor Dostoevskys novel, The Brothers Karamazov (1879-1880). ... For the theatrical adaptation by Albert Camus, see The Possessed (play). ...


Italian scholar Cesare G. De Michelis in his book The Non-Existent Manuscript studies early Russian publications of the Protocols. Cesare G. De Michelis (born in 1943) is a professor of modern and contemporary Italian literature at the University of Padua, Italy and a professor of Russian literature at the University of Rome Tor Vergata. He is the author of the book The Non-Existent Manuscript: A Study of the...


The Protocols were first mentioned in the Russian press on April 1902, by the Saint Petersburg newspaper, Novoye Vremya (Новое Время - The New Times). The article was written by a famous conservative publicist Mikhail Menshikov as a part of his regular series "Letters to Neighbors" ("Письма к ближним") and was entitled "Plots against Humanity." The author described his meeting with a lady (Yuliana Glinka, as it is known now) who, after telling him about her mystical revelations, implored him to get familiar with the documents later known as the Protocols; but after reading some excerpts Menshikov became quite skeptical about their origin and did not publish them.[14] Yuliana Dmitrievna Glinka (1844- 1918) was a Russian occultist born to a prominent family in Orel, Russia. ...


First printing and Nilus editions

Velikoe v malom i antikhrist (1905 edition)
Velikoe v malom i antikhrist (1905 edition)

The Protocols are claimed to have been published at the earliest, in serialized form, from August 28 to September 7 (O.S.) 1903, in Znamya (Знамя - The Banner), a Saint Petersburg daily newspaper, under Pavel Krushevan. Krushevan had initiated the Kishinev pogrom four months earlier.[15] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (4270x5998, 3395 KB) Serge Nilus, 1905, Russia, Great within the Small, Protocols of Zion, Title Page, Copyright expired, antisemitic work URL: [1] Copied from NYPL Microfilm by User:Ludvikus Ludvikus 07:36, 9 December 2006 (UTC) This image is of a... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (4270x5998, 3395 KB) Serge Nilus, 1905, Russia, Great within the Small, Protocols of Zion, Title Page, Copyright expired, antisemitic work URL: [1] Copied from NYPL Microfilm by User:Ludvikus Ludvikus 07:36, 9 December 2006 (UTC) This image is of a... is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Old Style can refer to: Old Style and New Style dates, a shift from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar: in Britain in 1752, in Russia in 1918. ... 1900 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Friday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... Znamya or Znamia (Russian: , literally Banner) was a Saint Petersburg daily newspaper established by an ultra-nationalist journalist Pavel Krushevan in 1902. ... Pavel Krushevan Pavel Aleksandrovich Krushevan (Russian language: Павел Александрович Крушеван; Romanian language: Pavel CruÅŸeveanu; January 15, 1860-June 5, 1909) was a journalist, editor, publisher and an official in the Imperial Russia. ... Herman S. Shapiro. ...


The Protocols enjoyed another wave of popularity in Russia after 1905, when progressive political elements in Russia succeeded in creating a constitution and a parliament, the Duma. The reactionary Union of the Russian People, known as the Black Hundreds, together with the Okhranka, the Tsarist secret police, blamed this liberalization on the "International Jewish conspiracy," and began a program of disseminating the Protocols as propaganda to support the wave of pogroms that swept Russia in 1903–1906 and as a tool to deflect attention from social activism. It also was of interest to Tsar Nicholas II, who was fearful of modernization and protective of his monarchy, and he presented the growing revolutionary movement as part of a powerful world conspiracy and blamed the Jews for Russia's problems. ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... The House of Representatives Chamber of the Parliament of Australia in Canberra. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with State Duma. ... The Union of the Russian People (Союз Русского Народа) was a black-hundredist counterrevolutionary organization in Russia, formed in October of 1905 in St. ... The Okhrannoye otdeleniye (Russian: , meaning Security Section or Security Station), also the Okhrana or Tsarist Okhranka in Western sources, or diminutive Okhranka by those dissatisfied with the tsarist regime, was a secret police force of the Russian Empire and part of the Ministry of Internal Affairs (MVD) in late 1800s... Soviet Propaganda Poster during World War II. The text reads Red Army Fighter, SAVE US! Chinese propaganda poster from the time of the Cultural Revolution. ... The Russian word pogrom (погром) refers to a massive violent attack on people with simultaneous destruction of their environment (homes, businesses, religious centers). ... Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian  , in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), occasionally spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is a Slavonic term designating certain monarchs. ... Nicholas II redirects here. ...

The frontispiece of an imprint of The Protocols dated 1912. Some of the signs or occult symbols read: "Thus we shall win", "Mark of "antichrist", "Tetragrammaton", "INRI", "Tarot", "Great mystery"
The frontispiece of an imprint of The Protocols dated 1912. Some of the signs or occult symbols read: "Thus we shall win", "Mark of "antichrist", "Tetragrammaton", "INRI", "Tarot", "Great mystery"

In 1905, self-proclaimed mystic priest Sergei Nilus gained fame by publishing the full text of the Protocols in Chapter XII, the final chapter (pages 305–417), of the second edition (or third, according to some sources) of his book, Velikoe v malom i antikhrist, which translates as "The Great within the Small: The Coming of the Anti-Christ and the Rule of Satan on Earth". He claimed it was the work of the First Zionist Congress, held in 1897 in Basel, Switzerland. When it was pointed out that the First Zionist Congress had been open to the public and was attended by many non-Jews, Nilus changed his story, saying the Protocols were the work of the 1902–1903 meetings of the Elders, but contradicting his own prior statement that he had received his copy in 1901: Image File history File links Download high resolution version (610x897, 192 KB) Summary Front page illustration from 1912 edition of Sergei Nilus book The Great in the Small that contained The Protocols of the Elders of Zion. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (610x897, 192 KB) Summary Front page illustration from 1912 edition of Sergei Nilus book The Great in the Small that contained The Protocols of the Elders of Zion. ... For other uses, see Occult (disambiguation). ... For the Friedrich Nietzsche book, see The Antichrist. ... It has been suggested that Yahweh be merged into this article or section. ... A Crucifix with the INRI plaque attached, the Holy Spirit Church in KoÅ¡ice, Slovakia A Crucifix with the stylized INRI plaque attached, the cornfields near Mureck in rural Styria, Austria INRI is an abbreviation of the Latin phrase IESVS NAZARENVS REX IVDAEORVM, which translates to English as: Jesus the... This article is about the general history, iconography, and uses of tarot cards. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about religious workers. ... Velikoe v malom i antikhrist (1905 edition) Sergei Nilus Sergei Alexandrovich Nilus (also Sergiei, Sergyei, Sergius, Serge); Russian language: Сергей Александрович Нилус; 1862-1929) was a Russian religious writer, self-described mystic, and agent of the Imperial Russian secret police, the Okhranka. ... Velikoe v malom i antikhrist (1905 edition) 1905 Velikoe v malom - Title Page - Transcription Table of Contents Velikoe v malom i antikhrist Serge Nilus - Author Velikoe v malom i antikhrist, or briefly, Velikoe v malom, is the transliterated title from the Russian language, of Великое въ маломъ и Антихристъ, into the English language of the... The World Zionist Organization [WZO] was founded as the Zionist Organization [ZO] on September 3, 1897, at the First Zionist Congress held in Basel, Switzerland. ... Basel (English traditionally: Basle [ba:l], German: Basel [ba:[email protected]], French Bâle [ba:l], Italian Basilea [bazilE:a]) is Switzerlands third most populous city (188,000 inhabitants in the canton of Basel-City as of 2004; the 690,000 inhabitants in the conurbation stretching across the...

In 1901, I succeeded through an acquaintance of mine (the late Court Marshal Alexei Nikolayevich Sukotin of Chernigov) in getting a manuscript that exposed with unusual perfection and clarity the course and development of the secret Jewish Freemasonic conspiracy, which would bring this wicked world to its inevitable end. The person who gave me this manuscript guaranteed it to be a faithful translation of the original documents that were stolen by a woman from one of the highest and most influential leaders of the Freemasons at a secret meeting somewhere in France—the beloved nest of Freemasonic conspiracy.[16] Chernihiv (Чернігів in Ukrainian) is an ancient city in northern Ukraine, the central city of Chernihivska oblast. Some common historical spellings of the name are Polish: Czernichów, and Russian: Чернигов, Chernigov. ...

Nilus also may have had personal motivations for publishing them. Some have alleged that at this time he was trying to gain influence with the Royal Family. This was, it is claimed, part of a faction fight against Papus and Nizier Anthelme Philippe at the Tsarist court (Indeed, Papus was accused in 1920 of having forged the Protocols to discredit Philippe). Gerard Encausse (July 13, 1865 - 1916), whose esoteric pseudonym was Papus, was the Spanish-born French physician, hypnotist, and popularizer of occultism, who founded the modern Martinist Order. ... Nizier Anthelme Philippe April 25, 1849 - 1905 was born in Rubathier, Loisieux,Savoy, France, the son of peasants. ...


Stolypin's fraud investigation, 1905

A subsequent secret investigation ordered by the newly appointed chairman of the Council of Ministers Pyotr Stolypin came to conclusion that the Protocols first appeared in Paris in antisemitic circles around 1897–1898.[17] Even though he himself was anti-Semitic, when Nicholas II learned of the results of this investigation, he requested: "The Protocols should be confiscated, a good cause cannot be defended by dirty means."[18] Despite the order, or because of the "good cause", numerous reprints proliferated.[15] Pyotr Stolypin Pyotr Arkadyevich Stolypin (Russian: Пётр Арка́дьевич Столы́пин) (April 14 [O.S. April 2] 1862—September 18 [O.S. September 5] 1911) served as Nicholas IIs Chairman of the Council of Ministers (Prime Minister) from 1906 to 1911. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Nicholas II can refer to: Pope Nicholas II Tsar Nicholas II of Russia This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


The Russian Revolution and the spread of the Protocols, 1920s

After the Russian Revolution, factions connected to the White movement used the Protocols to perpetrate hatred and violence against the Jews. The idea that the Bolshevik movement was a Jewish conspiracy for world domination, plus the fact that some top Bolsheviks, particularly Leon Trotsky, were indeed Jews, sparked worldwide interest in the Protocols. The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political and social upheavals in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the tsarist autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal and moderate-socialist Provisional Government, resulting in the establishment of Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... White Army redirects here. ... For other uses, see Bolshevik (disambiguation). ... Alexander the Great Philip II of Spain Napoleon Bonaparte For other uses, see World domination (disambiguation). ... Leon Trotsky (Russian:  , Lev Davidovich Trotsky, also transliterated Leo, Lyev, Trotskii, Trotski, Trotskij, Trockij and Trotzky) (November 7 [O.S. October 26] 1879 – August 21, 1940), born Lev Davidovich Bronstein (), was a Ukrainian-born Bolshevik revolutionary and Marxist theorist. ...


German language publications

The first and "by far the most important"[19] German translation was by Gottfried Zur Beck (pseudonym of Ludwig Müller von Hausen). It appeared in January 1920 as a part of a larger antisemitic tract[20] dated 1919. After The Times of London discussed the book respectfully in May 1920 it became a bestseller. "The Hohenzollern family helped defray the publication costs, and Kaiser Wilhelm II had portions of the book read out aloud to dinner guests".[21] A pseudonym (Greek: , pseudo + -onym: false name) is an artificial, fictitious name, also known as an alias, used by an individual as an alternative to a persons legal name. ... The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom (and the Kingdom of Great Britain before the United Kingdom existed) since 1788 when it was known as The Daily Universal Register. ... Hohenzollern redirects here. ... Wilhelm, German Crown Prince and Crown Prince of Prussia (born Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor August Ernst; 6 May 1882 - 20 July 1951) was the last Crown Prince of the Kingdom of Prussia and the German Empire. ...


Alfred Rosenberg's 1923 edition[22] "gave a forgery a huge boost".[21]   (January 12, 1893 Reval (nowadays Tallinn) – October 16, 1946) was an early and intellectually influential member of the Nazi party, who later held several important posts in the Nazi government. ...


English language publication

On October 27 and 28, 1919, the Philadelphia Public Ledger published excerpts of an English language translation as the "Red Bible," deleting all references to the purported Jewish authorship and re-casting the document as a Bolshevist manifesto.[23] The author of the articles was the paper's correspondent at the time, Carl W. Ackerman, who later became the head of the journalism department at Columbia University. The Public Ledger was a daily newspaper in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania published from March 25, 1836 to January 1942. ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... A journalist is a person who practices journalism. ... Carl William Ackerman (1890–1970) was a journalist and author. ... Journalism is a discipline of gathering, writing and reporting news, and broadly it includes the process of editing and presenting the news articles. ... Alma Mater Columbia University is a private university in the United States and a member of the Ivy League. ...


On May 8, 1920, an article[24] in The Times followed German translation and appealed for an inquiry into what it called "uncanny note of prophecy". is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ...


The first English language edition of the Protocols was published in 1920 in London. The full title was The Jewish Peril. Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion; the translator has been subsequently discovered to be George Shanks. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... George Shanks. ...


The most widespread English translation of the Protocols is credited (by its anonymous editor(s)) to a British correspondent for The Morning Post in Russia, Victor E. Marsden. That anonymous source further claims that Marsden was imprisoned by the Bolsheviks in the Peter and Paul Fortress, subsequently released, and returned to England. Marsden, prior to his death on October 28, 1920, had allegedly translated Chapter XII of Nilus's 1905 book on the coming of the Anti-Christ, a copy of which was at hand in the British Museum. His name does not appear in the first British imprint, issued by Eyre & Spottiswoode Ltd., nor in the second, issued by The Britons. It only first pops up in the edition issued one or two years later, in the imprint issued by the Britons Publishing Society. The Morning Post was a conservative daily newspaper published in London from 1772 to 1937, when it was acquired by The Daily Telegraph. ... Victor E. Marsden is the author of the most widespread English language translation of infamous fraud The Protocols of the Elders of Zion and provided its introduction. ... The Peter and Paul Fortress (Петропавловская крепость) is in St. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Antichrist. ... The British Museum in London, England is one of the worlds greatest museums of human history and culture. ... Eyre & Spottiswoode was the London based printing firm that was the Kings printer, and subsequently, in April 1929, a publisher of the same name. ... Brython and Brythonic are terms which refer to indigenous, pre-Roman, Celtic speaking inhabitants of most of the island of Great Britain, and their culture and language, the Brythonic languages. ... The Britons were an organisation dedicated to the dissemination of anti-Semitism and anti-immigration rhetoric in the United Kingdom and one that bore some of the hallmarks of an early British fascist movement. ...


In a single year 1920, five editions sold out in England. That same year in the United States, Henry Ford sponsored the printing of 500,000 copies, and from 1920 to 1922 published a series of antisemitic articles, entitled The International Jew: The World's Foremost Problem, in The Dearborn Independent, a newspaper he owned. In 1921 Ford cited it as evidence of a Jewish threat: "The only statement I care to make about the Protocols is that they fit in with what is going on. They are sixteen years old, and they have fitted the world situation up to this time."[25] In 1927, however, Ford retracted his publication and apologized, claiming his assistants duped him. However, he later expressed his admiration for Nazi Germany.[26] Henry Ford (1919) Henry Ford (July 30, 1863 – April 7, 1947) was the founder of the Ford Motor Company and father of modern assembly lines used in mass production. ... The International Jew: The Worlds Foremost Problem is a four volume set of books originally published and distributed in the early 1920s by Henry Ford, an American industrialist, automobile developer and manufacturer. ... The Dearborn Loser was a newspaper published by Henry Ford from 1919 through 1927. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ...

1934, Chicago, Ill., USA, imprint

In 1934, an anonymous editor expanded the compilation with "Text and Commentary" (pages 136–141). The production of this uncredited compilation was a 300-page book, an inauthentic expanded edition of the twelfth chapter of Nilus's 1905 on the coming of the anti-Christ. It consists of substantial liftings of excerpts of articles from Ford's antisemitic periodical The Dearborn Independent. This 1934 text circulates most widely in the English-speaking world, as well as on the internet. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (455x706, 126 KB) The Protocols of the Elders of Zion An imprint by Patriotic Publishing Co. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (455x706, 126 KB) The Protocols of the Elders of Zion An imprint by Patriotic Publishing Co. ...


The "Text and Commentary" concludes with a comment on Haim Weizman's October 6, 1920 remark at a banquet: "A beneficent protection which God has instituted in the life of the Jew is that He has dispersed him all over the world". Marsden, who was dead by then, is credited with the following assertion: Haim Azriel Weizman (Hebrew: חיים עזריאל ויצמן, also known as Chaijim Weizmann or Chaim Weizmann, November 27, 1874 – November 9, 1952) was a chemist, statesman, President of the World Zionist Organization, first President of Israel (elected February 1, 1949, served 1949 - 1952) and founder of a research institute in Israel which eventually became... is the 279th day of the year (280th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ...

"It proves that the Learned Elders exist. It proves that Dr. Weizmann knows all about them. It proves that the desire for a "National Home" in Palestine is only camouflage and an infinitesimal part of the Jew's real object. It proves that the Jews of the world have no intention of settling in Palestine or any separate country, and that their annual prayer that they may all meet "Next Year in Jerusalem" is merely a piece of their characteristic make-believe. It also demonstrates that the Jews are now a world menace, and that the Aryan races will have to domicile them permanently out of Europe."[27]

This quote occurs on page 138. On the previous page, the nameless commentator has the following: "There has been recently published a volume of Herzl's Diaries, a translation of some passages of which appeared in the Jewish Chronicle of July 14, 1922". Accordingly, the commentary must have been written at least two years after Marsden's death. Theodor Herzl, in his middle age. ... is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Times exposes a forgery, 1921

The Times exposed the Protocols as a forgery on August 16–18, 1921
The Times exposed the Protocols as a forgery on August 16–18, 1921

In 1920, the history of the concepts found in the Protocols was traced back to the works of Goedsche and Joly by Lucien Wolf (an English Jewish journalist); was published in London in August 1921; and was similarly exposed in the series of articles in The Times by its Constantinople reporter, Philip Graves, who took his information from Wolf's work. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (315x988, 100 KB) Summary The first page of The Times, 16 August 1921 Source: [1], PDF (1 MB), See also: High quality PDF] of the series of Philip Graves articles in The Times published on 16, 17 & 18 August 1921 (20... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (315x988, 100 KB) Summary The first page of The Times, 16 August 1921 Source: [1], PDF (1 MB), See also: High quality PDF] of the series of Philip Graves articles in The Times published on 16, 17 & 18 August 1921 (20... The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom (and the Kingdom of Great Britain before the United Kingdom existed) since 1788 when it was known as The Daily Universal Register. ... Lucien Wolf (born 1857 in London; died 1930) was a British Jewish journalist, historian, and advocate of Jewish rights. ... The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom (and the Kingdom of Great Britain before the United Kingdom existed) since 1788 when it was known as The Daily Universal Register. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Major Philip Perceval Graves (February 25, 1876 – June 3, 1953) was a British journalist and writer. ...


According to writer Peter Grose, Allen Dulles, who was in Constantinople developing relationships in post-Ottoman political structures, discovered 'the source' of the documentation ultimately provided to The Times. Grose writes that The Times extended a loan to the source, a Russian émigré who refused to be identified, with the understanding the loan would not be repaid.[28] Colin Holmes, a lecturer in economic history of Sheffield University, identified the émigré as Michael Raslovleff, a self-identified antisemite, who gave the information to Graves so as not to "give a weapon of any kind to the Jews, whose friend I have never been."[29] Allen Welsh Dulles (April 23, 1893 – January 29, 1969) was an influential director of the Central Intelligence Agency from 1953 to 1961 and a member of the Warren Commission. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... University of Sheffield Rerum Cognoscere Causas (To discover the causes of things) Shield image © University of Sheffield The University of Sheffield is a university located in Sheffield, England. ...


In the first article of Graves' series, entitled "A Literary Forgery", the editors of The Times wrote, "our Constantinople Correspondent presents for the first time conclusive proof that the document is in the main a clumsy plagiarism. He has forwarded us a copy of the French book from which the plagiarism is made."[30] The New York Times reprinted the articles on September 4, 1921.[31] In the same year, an entire book[32] documenting the hoax was published in the United States by Herman Bernstein. Despite this widespread and extensive debunking, the Protocols continued to be regarded as important factual evidence by antisemites. is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Herman Bernstein (September 21, 1876 - August 31, 1935) was a Jewish-American journalist, writer, translator, and diplomat. ...


Arab lands, 1920s

In the 1920s, the Protocols occasionally appeared in the Arab polemics linking Zionism and Bolshevism. The first Arabic translations were made from the French by Arab Christians. The first translation was published in Raqib Sahyun, a periodical of the Roman Catholic community of Jerusalem, in 1926. Another translation made by an Arab Christian appeared in Cairo in 1927 or 1928, this time as a book. The first translation by an Arab Muslim was also published in Cairo, but only in 1951.[33] For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... This article is about Zionism as a movement, not the History of Israel. ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cairo (disambiguation). ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ...


The Bern Trial, 1934–1935

In 1934, Dr. A. Zander, a Swiss follower of National Socialism, published a series of articles accepting the Protocols as fact. He was sued in what has come to be known as the Berne Trial. The trial began in the Cantonal Court of Bern on October 29, 1934, the plaintiffs were Dr. J. Dreyfus-Brodsky, Dr. Marcus Cohen and Dr. Marcus Ehrenpreis. On May 19, 1935 the court, after full investigation, declared the Protocols to be forgeries, plagiarisms, and obscene literature. Judge Walter Meyer, a Christian who had not heard of the Protocols earlier, said in conclusion: The twenty-six cantons of Switzerland are the states of the federal state of Switzerland. ... Location within Switzerland The city of Bern, English traditionally Berne (Bernese German Bärn , German Bern , French Berne , Italian Berna , Romansh Berna ), is the Bundesstadt (administrative capital) of Switzerland, and is the fourth most populous Swiss city (after Zürich, Geneva and Basel). ... is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ...

"I hope, the time will come when nobody will be able to understand how in 1935 nearly a dozen sane and responsible men were able for two weeks to mock the intellect of the Bern court discussing the authenticity of the so-called Protocols, the very Protocols that, harmful as they have been and will be, are nothing but laughable nonsense".[15]

A Russian emigre, anti-Bolshevik and anti-Fascist Vladimir Burtsev, who exposed numerous Okhranka agents provocateurs in the early 1900s, served as a witness at the Berne Trial. In 1938 in Paris he published a book, The Protocols of the Elders of Zion: A Proved Forgery, based on his testimony. Members of the Dutch Eindhoven Resistance with troops of the US 101st Airborne in Eindhoven in September 1944. ... Vladimir Burtsev Vladimir Lvovich Burtsev (Russian: ; November 17, 1862 – August 21, 1942), was a revolutionary activist, scholar, publisher and editor of several Russian language periodicals. ... An agent provocateur (plural: agents provocateurs) is a person assigned to provoke unrest, violence, debate, or argument by or within a group while acting as a member of the group but covertly representing the interests of another. ...


On November 1, 1937 the sued party of the trial applied to the Swiss Court of Appeal asking to reverse the verdict, claiming that the law, while prohibiting "obscene literature", means pornography and is inapplicable to the "Protocols". The three judges focused on purely procedural aspects of the case and decided to reverse the verdict. However, the presiding judge stated clearly that the forgery of the Protocols is not questionable and expressed regret that the law does not provide enough protection for Jews from literature of that kind. The court put the costs of both trials upon the sued party.[34] This decision gave grounds for later allegations that the appeal court "confirmed authenticity of the Protocols" which is opposite to the facts. is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


South Africa

In an August 1934 case in Grahamstown, South Africa, the court imposed fines totalling £1,775 (about $8,875 at the time or about $130,000 in 2005 dollars) on three men for disseminating a version of the Protocols. Grahamstown from Fort Selwyn Grahamstown is a city in the Eastern Cape Province of the Republic of South Africa and is the seat of the Makana municipality. ... The pound was the currency of South Africa between 1825 and 1961. ...

The Protocols in Nazi propaganda, 1930s-1940s

The Protocols also became a part of the Nazi propaganda effort to justify persecution of the Jews. It was made required reading for German students. In The Holocaust: The Destruction of European Jewry 1933–1945, Nora Levin states that "Hitler used the Protocols as a manual in his war to exterminate the Jews": Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ... “Shoah” redirects here. ... Nora Levin (? 1916 - October 26, 1989) was a historian of the Holocaust and a writer. ... Hitler redirects here. ...

Despite conclusive proof that the Protocols were a gross forgery, they had sensational popularity and large sales in the 1920s and 1930s. They were translated into every language of Europe and sold widely in Arab lands, the United States, and England. But it was in Germany after World War I that they had their greatest success. There they were used to explain all of the disasters that had befallen the country: the defeat in the war, the hunger, the destructive inflation.[35] “The Great War ” redirects here. ...

Hitler refers to the Protocols in Mein Kampf: Mein Kampf (English translation: My Struggle) is a book by the German-Austrian politician Adolf Hitler, which combines elements of autobiography with an exposition of Hitlers National Socialist political ideology. ...

... To what extent the whole existence of this people is based on a continuous lie is shown incomparably by the Protocols of the Wise Men of Zion, so infinitely hated by the Jews. They are based on a forgery, the Frankfurter Zeitung moans and screams once every week: the best proof that they are authentic. [...] the important thing is that with positively terrifying certainty they reveal the nature and activity of the Jewish people and expose their inner contexts as well as their ultimate final aims.[36] The Frankfurter Zeitung was a German newspaper that appeared from 1856 to 1943. ...

Hitler endorsed it in his speeches from August 1921 on, and it was studied in German classrooms after the Nazis came to power. At the height of World War II, the Nazi Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels proclaimed: "The Zionist Protocols are as up-to-date today as they were the day they were first published."[21] In Norman Cohn's words, it served as the Nazis' "warrant for genocide". Paul Joseph Goebbels (German pronunciation: IPA: ) (October 29, 1897 – May 1, 1945) was a German politician and Minister for Public Enlightenment and Propaganda during the National Socialist regime from 1933 to 1945. ...


Fascist Italy

While the first edition of the Protocols (1921) didn't have much success, in the wake of the growing alliance between Hitler's Germany and Fascist Italy, the Protocols were re-published in Italy in 1937 by Giovanni Preziosi with an introduction by Julius Evola. Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... Julius Evola born Giulio Cesare Andrea Evola, aka Baron Evola (May 19, 1898-June 11, 1974), was an Italian esotericist and occult author, who wrote extensively on Hermeticism, the metaphysics of sex, Tantra, Buddhism, Taoism, mountaineering, the Holy Grail, militarism, aristocracy, on matters political, philosophical, historical, racial, religious, as well...


Contemporary usage and popularity

While there is continued popularity of The Protocols in nations from South America to Asia, since the defeat of Nazi Germany and fascist Italy in the Second World War governments or political leaders in most parts of the world have generally avoided claims that The Protocols represent factual evidence of a real Jewish conspiracy. The exception to this is the Middle East, where a large number of Arab and Muslim regimes and leaders have endorsed them as authentic. Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ...


Past endorsements of The Protocols from Presidents Gamal Abdel Nasser and Anwar Sadat of Egypt, one of the President Arifs of Iraq, King Faisal of Saudi Arabia, and Colonel Muammar al-Gaddafi of Libya, among other political and intellectual leaders of the Arab world, are echoed by 21st century endorsements from the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem Sheikh Ekrima Sa'id Sabri and Hamas to the education ministry of Saudi Arabia.[37] Gamal Abdel Nasser (Arabic: - ; Masri: جمال عبد الناصر - also transliterated as Jamal Abd al-Naser, Jamal Abd an-Nasser and other variants; January 15, 1918 – September 28, 1970) was the President of Egypt from 1954 until his death in 1970. ... Muhammad Anwar Al-Sadat (محمد أنورالسادات in Arabic) (December 25, 1918 – October 6, 1981) was an Egyptian politician and served as the third President of Egypt from September 28, 1970 until his assassination on October 6, 1981. ... Faisal ibn Abdelaziz Al Saud, King of Saudi Arabia (1324-1395 AH) (1903 or 1906—March 25, 1975) (Arabic: فيصل بن عبدالعزيز آل سعود) was King of Saudi Arabia from 1964 to 1975. ... Muammar Abu Minyar al-Gaddafi1 (Arabic:   ) (born c. ... The title of Grand Mufti (Arabic: ‎) refers to the highest official of religious law in a Sunni Muslim country. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Sheikh Ekrima Said Sabri is the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem and Palestine, appointed by Yasser Arafat. ... Hamas (Arabic: ; acronym: Arabic: , or Harakat al-Muqawama al-Islamiyya or Islamic Resistance Movement,[1]) is a Palestinian Sunni Muslim militant organization. ...


Middle East

As popular opposition to Israel spread across the Middle East in the years following its creation in 1948, many Arab governments funded new printings of the Protocols, and taught them in their schools as historical fact. They have been accepted as such by many Islamist organizations, such as Hamas and Islamic Jihad. Reportedly, Arabic editions issued in the Middle East were found on sale as far away as London.[38] There are at least nine different Arabic translations of the Protocols and more editions than in any other language including German.[33] The Protocols also figure prominently in the antisemitic propaganda distributed internationally by the Arab countries and have spread to other Muslim countries, such as Pakistan, Malaysia, and Indonesia.[33] Combatants Arab nations Israel Arab-Israeli conflict series History of the Arab-Israeli conflict Views of the Arab-Israeli conflict International law and the Arab-Israeli conflict Arab-Israeli conflict facts, figures, and statistics Participants Israeli-Palestinian conflict · Israel-Lebanon conflict · Arab League · Soviet Union / Russia · Israel, Palestine and the... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... This article is about political For the religion of Islam, see Islam. ... Hamas (Arabic: ; acronym: Arabic: , or Harakat al-Muqawama al-Islamiyya or Islamic Resistance Movement,[1]) is a Palestinian Sunni Muslim militant organization. ... Islamic Jihad (Arabic: ‎, Harakat al-Jihad al-Islami) is a terrorist Islamist group based in the Syrian capital, Damascus. ...


Syria

This 2005 Syrian edition includes an "historical and contemporary investigative study" that repeats the blood libel among other antisemitic accusations, and argues that the Torah and Talmud encourage Jews "to commit treason and to conspire, dominate, be arrogant and exploit other countries". ITC CSS
This 2005 Syrian edition includes an "historical and contemporary investigative study" that repeats the blood libel among other antisemitic accusations, and argues that the Torah and Talmud encourage Jews "to commit treason and to conspire, dominate, be arrogant and exploit other countries". ITC CSS

The Protocols is a best-seller in Syria[39] and, together with other antisemitic materials published there, is distributed throughout the Arab world.[40] In 1997, the two-volume 8th edition of the Protocols, translated and edited by 'Ajaj Nuwayhid, was published by Mustafa Tlass's publishing house and exhibited and sold at the Damascus International Book Fair (IBF) and at the Cairo IBF. At the 2005 Cairo IBF a stand of the Syrian publisher displayed a new, 2005 edition of the Protocols authorized by the Syrian Ministry of Information.[41][42] In Syria government-controlled television channels occasionally broadcast mini-series concerning the Protocols of the Elders of Zion, along with several other anti-semitic themes.[43] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (463x668, 27 KB)Protocols of the Elders of Zion 2005 Syria This image is a book cover. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (463x668, 27 KB)Protocols of the Elders of Zion 2005 Syria This image is a book cover. ... Blood libels are the accusations that Jews use human blood in certain aspects of their religious rituals. ... Template:Jews and Jewdaism Template:The Holy Book Named TorRah The Torah () is the most valuable Holy Doctrine within Judaism,(and for muslims) revered as the first relenting Word of Ulllah, traditionally thought to have been revealed to Blessed Moosah, An Apostle of Ulllah. ... The Talmud (Hebrew: תַּלְמוּד) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history. ... Lt. ...


Egypt

During the presidency of Gamal Abdel Nasser, Egypt was the main source of internationally distributed antisemitic propaganda. In 1960, the Protocols were featured in an article published by Salah Dasuqi, military governor of Cairo, in al-Majallaaa, the official cultural journal.[33] In 1965, the Egyptian government released an English-language pamphlet titled Israel, the Enemy of Africa and distributed it throughout the English-speaking countries of Africa. The pamphlet used the Protocols and The International Jew as its sources and concluded that all the Jews were cheats, thieves, and murderers.[33] A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... The International Jew: The Worlds Foremost Problem is a four volume set of books originally published and distributed in the early 1920s by Henry Ford, an American industrialist, automobile developer and manufacturer. ...


In a foreword to a translation of Shimon Peres' book The New Middle East, the Egyptian state-owned publisher al-Ahram editorialized in 1995: This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Al-Ahram, founded in 1875, is the oldest daily newspaper in the Arab world. ...

'When The Protocols of the Elders of Zion were discovered, some 200 years ago, and translated in various languages, including Arabic, the World Zionist Organization attempted to deny the existence of the plot, and claimed forgery. The Zionists even endeavoured to purchase all the existing copies, in order to prevent their circulation. But today, Shimon Peres proves unequivocally that the Protocols are authentic, and that they tell the truth.' The World Zionist Organization, or WZO, was founded as the Zionist Organization, or ZO, on September 3, 1897, at the First Zionist Congress held in Basel, Switzerland. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...

An article in the Egyptian state-owned newspaper al-Akhbar on February 3, 2002 stated: is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

All the evils that currently affect the world are the doings of Zionism. This is not surprising, because the Protocols of the Elders of Zion, which were established by their wise men more than a century ago, are proceeding according to a meticulous and precise plan and time schedule, and they are proof that even though they are a minority, their goal is to rule the world and the entire human race."

In October 2002, a private Egyptian television company Dream TV produced a 41-part "historical drama" A Knight Without a Horse (Fars Bela Gewad), largely based on the Protocols,[44] which ran on 17 Arabic-language satellite television channels, including government-owned Egypt Television (ETV), for a month, causing concerns in the West.[45] Egypt's Information Minister Safwat El-Sherif announced that the series "contains no antisemitic material".[46] Arabic redirects here. ... Satellite television is television delivered by way of communications satellites, as compared to conventional terrestrial television and cable television. ...


On November 17, 2003, an Egyptian weekly al-Usbu‘ reported that the manuscript museum at the Alexandria Library, displayed the first Arabic translation of the Protocols at the section of the holy books of Judaism, next to a Torah scroll. The museum's director Dr. Youssef Ziedan was quoted as saying in an interview: 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Bibliotheca Alexandrina The Bibliotheca Alexandrina is a major library and cultural center located on the shore of the Mediterranean Sea in the Egyptian city of Alexandria. ... Prof. ...

"...it has become one of the sacred [texts] of the Jews, next to their first constitution, their religious law ... more important to the Zionist Jews of the world than the Torah, because they conduct Zionist life according to it ... It is only natural to place the book in the framework of an exhibit of Torah."[47]

It also quoted him as saying that no more than one million Jews were killed by the Nazis, but Zionists manipulated the "knowledge that has reached the world".[47] See also:- Holocaust denial. Richard Harwoods Did Six Million Really Die? Holocaust denial is the claim that the mainstream historical version of the Holocaust is either highly exaggerated or completely falsified. ...


Dr. Youssef Ziedan strongly denies these quotes, accusing al-Usbu‘ of attributing "fabricated, groundless lies" to him and stating that "the Protocols is a racist, silly, fabricated book": Prof. ...

"The story began with an article in an Egyptian newspaper, al-Usbu‘, two weeks ago (on November 17, 2003), which alleged quoting from me utterly senseless statements intertwining facts with fancies. A month before, a journalist from the aforementioned newspaper interviewed me concerning the recent refurbishment of the manuscript and rare book museum. I handed her a written statement, as was the case with other journalists who covered the same news. Although, she concluded her article with my exact words, she started it with fabricated, groundless lies. She falsely reported me saying that I placed an edition of the Protocols of the Elders of Zion at the center of the museum alongside the Jewish Torah and divine books. Moreover, she claimed that I told her that this book is more significant then the Torah... On my part, I would like to maintain to the visitors of ziedan.com that the Protocols is a racist, silly, fabricated book. Perhaps, I should consider more thoroughly the Jewish issue on the academic level and furnish my vision of the interaction of religions. As civilized people, we totally renounce racism and call for tolerance and constructive interaction between people."[48]

After the publication, director of the Library Dr. Ismail Serageldin issued a statement:

"Preliminary investigation determined that the book was briefly displayed in a showcase devoted to rotating samples of curiosities and unusual items in our collection. ... The book is a well-known 19th century fabrication to foment anti-Jewish feelings. The book was promptly withdrawn from public display, but its very inclusion showed bad judgment and insensitivity..."[49]

Iran

The first Iranian edition of the Protocols was issued during the summer of 1978 before the Iranian Revolution after which the Protocols were widely publicized by the Iranian government. A publication called Imam, published by the Iranian embassy in London, quoted extensively from the Protocols in its issues of 1984 and 1985.[33] In 1985 a new edition of the Protocols was printed and widely distributed by the Islamic Propagation Organization, International Relations Department, in Tehran. The Astan-e Qods Razavi Foundation in Mashhad, Iran, one of the wealthiest institutions in Iran, financed publication of the Protocols in 1994. Parts of the Protocols were published by the daily Jomhouri-ye Eslami in 1994, under the heading The Smell of Blood, Zionist Schemes. Sobh, a far right monthly newspaper, published excerpts from the Protocols under the heading The text of the Protocols of the Elders of Zion for establishing the Jewish global rule in its December 1998–January 1999 issue, illustrated with a caricature of the Jewish snake swallowing the globe. After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Iranian Revolution (also known as the Islamic Revolution,[1][2][3][4][5][6] Persian: انقلاب اسلامی, Enghelābe Eslāmi) was the revolution that transformed Iran from a monarchy under Shah Mohammad Reza... For other uses, see Tehran (disambiguation). ... Imam Reza Shrine Tomb of Nader Shah Afshar, a popular tourist attraction in Mashad. ...


Iranian writer and researcher Ali Baqeri, who researched the Protocols, finds their plan for world domination to be merely part of an even more grandiose scheme, saying in Sobh in 1999: Alexander the Great Philip II of Spain Napoleon Bonaparte For other uses, see World domination (disambiguation). ...

"The ultimate goal of the Jews... after conquering the globe... is to extract from the hands of the Lord many stars and galaxies".

In April 2004, the Iranian television station Al-Alam broadcast Al-Sameri wa Al-Saher, a series that reported as fact several conspiracy theories about the Holocaust, Jewish control of Hollywood, and the Protocols.[50] The Iran Pavilion of the 2005 Frankfurt Book Fair had the Protocols, as well as "The International Jew" (reprints from Henry Ford's The Dearborn Independent) available.[51] “Shoah” redirects here. ... Jewish lobby is a term referring to allegations that Jews exercise undue influence in a number of areas, including politics, government, the media, academia, popular culture, public policy, international relations, and international finance. ... The Frankfurt Book Fair (German: Frankfurter Buchmesse) is the worlds largest trade fair for books, held annually in mid-October in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. ... The Dearborn Loser was a newspaper published by Henry Ford from 1919 through 1927. ...


On the other hand Iranian author Abdollah Shahbazi, known for his historical reports of several important events of Iran's history, has denied the authenticity of so-called protocoles officially on his website and has referred to several international investigations as the basis of his claim.[52] This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabian schoolbooks contain explicit summaries of the Protocols as factual: The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is a country on the Arabian Peninsula. ...

The Protocols of the Elders of Zion: These are secret resolutions, most probably of the aforementioned Basel congress. They were discovered in the nineteenth century. The Jews tried to deny them, but there was ample evidence proving their authenticity and that they were issued by the elders of Zion. The Protocols can be summarized in the following points:

  1. Upsetting the foundations of the world's present society and its systems, in order to enable Zionism to have a monopoly of world government.
  2. Eliminating nationalities and religions, especially the Christian nations.
  3. Striving to increase corruption among the present regimes in Europe, as Zionism believes in their corruption and [eventual] collapse.
  4. Controlling the media of publication, propaganda and the press, using gold for stirring up disturbances, seducing people by means of lust and spreading wantonness.
The cogent proof of the authenticity of these resolutions, as well as of the hellish Jewish schemes included therein, is the [actual] carrying out of many of those schemes, intrigues and conspiracies that are found in them. Anyone who reads them — and they were published in the nineteenth century — grasps today to what extent much of what is found there has been realized.[53]

According to Freedom House 2006 report, Saudi "textbook for boys for Tenth Grade on Hadith and Islamic Culture contains a lesson on the "Zionist Movement." It is a curious blend of wild conspiracy theories about Masonic Lodges, Rotary Clubs, and Lions Clubs with antisemitic invective. It asserts that the Protocols of the Elders of Zion is an authentic document and teaches students that it reveals what Jews really believe. It blames many of the world’s wars and discord on the Jews."[54] Freedom House is a non-profit organization headquartered in Washington, D.C. and with field offices in about a dozen countries. ... Rotary International is an organization of service clubs known as Rotary Clubs located all over the world. ... Lions Clubs International logo Lions Clubs International is the worlds largest service club organization with 45,000 clubs and nearly 1. ...


Lebanon and Hezbollah

In March 1970, the Protocols were reported to be the top 'nonfiction' bestseller in Lebanon.[55] The Country Reports on Human Rights Practices 2004 by the US Department of State states that "the television series, Ash-Shatat ("The Diaspora"), which centred on the alleged conspiracy of "The Protocols of the Elders of Zion" to dominate the world, was aired in October and November 2003 by the Lebanon-based satellite television network Al-Manar, owned by Hezbollah."[56] The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ... Al-Manar (المنار; Arabic for The Beacon) is a satellite television station broadcasting from Beirut, Lebanon. ... For other uses, see Hezbollah (disambiguation). ...


Hamas

The Charter of Hamas explicitly refers to the Protocols, accepting them as factual and makes several references to Freemasons as one of the "secret societies" controlled by "Zionists". The Article 32 of the Hamas Charter states: Hamas (Arabic: ; acronym: Arabic: , or Harakat al-Muqawama al-Islamiyya or Islamic Resistance Movement,[1]) is a Palestinian Sunni Muslim militant organization. ...

The Zionist plan is limitless. After Palestine, the Zionists aspire to expand from the Nile to the Euphrates. When they will have digested the region they overtook, they will aspire to further expansion, and so on. Their plan is embodied in the "Protocols of the Elders of Zion", and their present conduct is the best proof of what we are saying.[57]

The Nile (Arabic: , transliteration: , Ancient Egyptian iteru, Coptic piaro or phiaro) is a major north-flowing river in Africa, generally regarded as the longest river in the world. ... For the song River Euphrates by the Pixies, see Surfer Rosa. ...

Palestinian National Authority

The PNA frequently used the Protocols in the media and education under their control and some Palestinian academics presented the forgery as a plot upon which Zionism is based. For example, on January 25, 2001, the official PNA daily Al-Hayat al-Jadida cited the Protocols on its Political National Education page to explain Israel's policies: “Palestinian government” redirects here. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... Al-Hayat al-Jadida (or Alhayat Aljadeeda) is an official daily newspaper of the Palestinian National Authority. ...

Disinformation has been one of the bases of morale and psychological manipulation among the Israelis ... The Protocols of the Elders of Zion did not ignore the importance of using propaganda to promote the Zionist goals. The second protocol reads: 'Through the newspapers we will have the means to propel and to influence'. In the twelfth protocol: 'Our governments will hold the reins of most of the newspapers, and through this plan we will possess the primary power to turn to public opinion.'

Later that year the same newspaper wrote: "The purpose of the military policy is to impose this situation on the residents and force them to leave their homes, and this is done in the framework of the Protocols of Zion..."[58]


The Grand Mufti of Jerusalem Sheikh Ekrima Sa'id Sabri appeared on the Saudi satellite channel Al-Majd on February 20, 2005, commenting on the assassination of the former Lebanese Prime Minister Rafik Hariri. "Anyone who studies The Protocols of the Elders of Zion and specifically the Talmud," he said, "will discover that one of the goals of these Protocols is to cause confusion in the world and to undermine security throughout the world."[59] The title of Grand Mufti (Arabic: ‎) refers to the highest official of religious law in a Sunni Muslim country. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Sheikh Ekrima Said Sabri is the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem and Palestine, appointed by Yasser Arafat. ... Al Majd is an Syrian football club based in Damascus, Syria. ... is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Rafik Bahaeddine Al-Hariri — (November 1, 1944 – February 14, 2005), (Arabic: ) a self-made billionaire and business tycoon, was Prime Minister of Lebanon from 1992 to 1998 and again from 2000 until his resignation on 20 October 2004. ... The Talmud (Hebrew: תַּלְמוּד) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history. ...


In 2005, it was reported that the Palestinian Authority was teaching the Protocols in schools. After media exposure, the PA promised to stop.[60] On May 19, 2005, The New York Times reported that Palestinian Authority Minister of Information Nabil Shaath removed from his ministry's web site an Arabic translation of the Protocols of the Elders of Zion.[61] is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... Nabil Shaath (also spelled Shaath, born 1938), a senior Palestinian official, has held the following titles: Palestinian chief negotiator Palestinian cabinet minister Palestinian International Co-operation Minister Planning Minister for the Palestinian National Authority Acting Prime Minister of the PNA Shaath served as Palestines first ever foreign minister...

See also: Palestinian textbooks

Palestinian textbooks have been accused of instilling anti-Semitic attitudes or inciting Palestinian children to commit violence or terrorism. ...

Other contemporary appearances

This Spanish-language edition of the Protocols, published in Mexico City in 2005, says that whether or not the Protocols are authentic, history shows that Zionists intend to dominate the world. Image courtesy of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.
This Spanish-language edition of the Protocols, published in Mexico City in 2005, says that whether or not the Protocols are authentic, history shows that Zionists intend to dominate the world. Image courtesy of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.
In this edition, published in Tokyo in 2004, Ota Ryu writes that Jews dominate Western nations and that Japan must guard against a Jewish takeover. Image courtesy of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.
In this edition, published in Tokyo in 2004, Ota Ryu writes that Jews dominate Western nations and that Japan must guard against a Jewish takeover. Image courtesy of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.

Source: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. To a great degree, the text is still accepted as truthful in large parts of South America and Asia, especially in Japan where variations on the Protocols have frequently made the bestseller lists.[62] Image File history File links Mexico_low. ... Image File history File links Mexico_low. ... Nickname: Motto: Capital en movimiento Location of Mexico City in south central Mexico Coordinates: , Country Federal entity Boroughs The 16 delegaciones Founded c. ... This article is about Zionism as a movement, not the History of Israel. ... Interior of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Exterior of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum viewed from Raoul Wallenberg Place (15th St. ... Image File history File links Japan_low. ... Image File history File links Japan_low. ... Ryū Ōta , b. ... Interior of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Exterior of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum viewed from Raoul Wallenberg Place (15th St. ...


In Turkey, particularly by ultra-nationalist and Islamist circles. The Protocols was first published in the magazine Millî İnkılâb (National Revolution) in 1934 and triggered the Thracian pogroms (Trakya Olayları) the same year. It ran through over 100 editions from 1943 to 2004 and remains a best-seller.[63] Ultra-nationalists are extreme nationalists or patriots. ... Islamism is a political ideology derived from the conservative religious views of Muslim fundamentalism. ...


In February 2003, an Australian new age publication Hard Evidence presented the Protocols as factual and that Jews were responsible for 2002 Bali bombing.[64] New Age describes a broad movement characterized by alternative approaches to traditional Western culture. ... The 2002 Bali bombing occurred on October 12, 2002 in the tourist district of Kuta on the Indonesian island of Bali. ...


The New Zealand National Front sells copies published by their former national secretary, Kerry Bolton. Bolton also publishes (and the NZNF sells) a book entitled The Protocols of Zion in Context that seeks to refute the idea that the Protocols are a forgery. The current National Front logo is the same as the British National Fronts logo from the early 1970s. ... Kerry Bolton Kerry Bolton (born 1956) is a occultist and far-right activist in New Zealand. ...


Idi Amin, the President of Uganda from 1971 to 1979, cited the book as evidence of a Jewish conspiracy to take over the world, and as justification for his self-proclaimed plans to destroy Israel. He reveals this in an interview during the 1974 documentary Idi Amin Dada, during which he also invited Palestinian rebels to his country, partially causing the Entebbe affair.[citation needed] Idi Amin Dada (mid-1920s[1]–16 August 2003) was an army officer and president of Uganda. ... Idi Amin Dada is a 1974 documentary film by French director Barbet Schroeder. ... The term Palestinian has other usages, for which see definitions of Palestinian. ...


In Indonesia a translation of the Protocols is available in Indonesian in a bundle with "The International Jew" by Henry Ford. The books were translated and published in 2006 by the Hikmah division of the publisher Mizan. The front cover of "The International Jew" shows a quote by Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad: "The big question is how can the American government support this despicable Zionist regime". The International Jew: The Worlds Foremost Problem is a four volume set of books originally published and distributed in the early 1920s by Henry Ford, an American industrialist, automobile developer and manufacturer. ...


United States

The Protocols have had a tumultuous history in the United States ever since luminaries such as automobile mogul Henry Ford began publishing them under the title of The International Jew. The Protocols were republished as fact in 1991 in Milton William Cooper's conspiracy book Behold a Pale Horse, though Cooper himself holds the Illuminati and not the Jews at fault. Henry Ford (1919) Henry Ford (July 30, 1863 – April 7, 1947) was the founder of the Ford Motor Company and father of modern assembly lines used in mass production. ... Behold a Pale Horse redirects here. ... Behold a Pale Horse is a book by William Milton Cooper. ... For other uses, see Illuminati (disambiguation). ...


The Plot, the final graphic novel by famed writer/artist Will Eisner, was about the history of the Protocols and the fact that they had been proven to be false numerous times. William Erwin Eisner (March 6, 1917 – January 3, 2005) was an acclaimed American comics writer, artist and entrepreneur. ...


The American retail chain, Wal-Mart, was criticized for selling The Protocols of the Elders of Zion on its website with a description that suggested it might be genuine.[65] It was withdrawn from sale in September 2004, as 'a business decision'. It is distributed in the United States by Louis Farrakhan's Nation of Islam.[66] Chain stores are a range of retail outlets which share a brand and central management, usually with standardised business methods and practices. ... Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. ... A website (alternatively, Web site or web site) is a collection of Web pages, images, videos or other digital assets that is hosted on one or several Web server(s), usually accessible via the Internet, cell phone or a LAN. A Web page is a document, typically written in HTML... Louis Farrakhan (born Louis Eugene Walcott, May 11, 1933), is the head of the Nation of Islam (NOI) and the National Reprensentative of Elijah Muhammad. ... The Nation of Islam (NOI) is a religious and social/political organization founded in the United States by Wallace Fard Muhammad in 1930 with the self-proclaimed goal of resurrecting the spiritual, mental, social, economic condition of the black man and woman of America and belief that God will bring...


In 2002, the Paterson, New Jersey-based Arabic-language newspaper The Arab Voice published excerpts from the Protocols as true.[67] The paper's editor and publisher Walid Rabah defended himself from criticism with the protestation that "some major writers in the Arab nation accept the truth of the book."[68] “Paterson” redirects here. ... The Arab Voice is a New Jersey-based Arabic newspaper, published by and for Arab Americans. ... Walid Rabah is a New Jersey-based Arab American publisher. ...


During his October 2003 presentation at the College of Wooster in Wooster, Ohio, Samir Makhlouf of the Presbyterian Peacemakers organization stated that the Protocols was a factual text that explains how Zionists have been taking over the world's politics, economics and communications. After the controversy became public, the group's sponsors "agreed that they had made a grave mistake, and ... that antisemitism is anti-Christianity."[69][70] The College of Wooster is a liberal arts college with fewer than 2000 students located in Wooster, Ohio, in Wayne County, Ohio. ... Wayne County courthouse in downtown Wooster Wooster (IPA ) first syllable pronounced puss--like the cat--with a w is a city in Wayne County, Ohio, United States. ... A bilingual poster in Romanian and Hungarian promoting a film about Jewish settlement in Palestine, 1930s. ... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... Communication is a process that allows organisms to exchange information by several methods. ...


Soviet Union and post-Soviet states

The Soviet Union

Howard Sachar describes the allegations of global Jewish conspiracy resurrected during the Soviet "anti-Zionist" campaign in the wake of the Six-Day War: Howard Morley Sachar (born in 1928) is a historian and an author. ... CCCP redirects here. ... Combatants Israel Egypt Syria Jordan Iraq Commanders Yitzhak Rabin, Moshe Dayan, Uzi Narkiss, Israel Tal, Mordechai Hod, Ariel Sharon Abdel Hakim Amer, Abdul Munim Riad, Zaid ibn Shaker, Hafez al-Assad Strength 264,000 (incl. ...

"In late July 1967, Moscow launched an unprecedented propaganda campaign against Zionism as a "world threat." Defeat was attributed not to tiny Israel alone, but to an "all-powerful international force" ... In its flagrant vulgarity, the new propaganda assault soon achieved Nazi-era characteristics. The Soviet public was saturated with racist canards. Extracts from Trofim Kichko's notorious 1963 volume, Judaism Without Embellishment, were extensively republished in the Soviet media. Yuri Ivanov's Beware: Zionism, a book essentially replicated The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, was given nationwide coverage."[71] Zionology (Russian language: сионология sionologiya) was a doctrine promulgated in the Soviet Union during the course of the Cold War, and intensified after the 1967 Six Day War. ... Judaism Without Embellishments, (Ukrainian edition) by Trofim Kichko, published by the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences in 1963: It is in the teachings of Judaism, in the Old Testament, and in the Talmud, that the Israeli militarists find inspiration for their inhuman deeds, racist theories, and expansionist designs. ...

A similar picture is drawn by Paul Johnson: Paul Johnson (born Paul Bede Johnson on 2 November 1928 in Manchester, England) is a British Roman Catholic journalist, historian, speechwriter and author. ...

(the mass media) "all over the Soviet Union portrayed the Zionists (i.e. Jews) and Israeli leaders as engaged in a world-wide conspiracy along the lines of the old Protocols of Zion. It was, Sovietskaya Latvia wrote 5 August 1967, an 'international Cosa Nostra with a common centre, common programme and common funds'".[72] Popular press redirects here; note that the University of Wisconsin Press publishes under the imprint The Popular Press. Mass media is a term used to denote a section of the media specifically envisioned and designed to reach a very large audience such as the population of a nation state. ... Charles Lucky Luciano, one of the most famous American bosses (La) Cosa Nostra (our thing or this thing of ours in Italian) is a worldwide alliance of criminals, linked through both familial and conspiratorial ties, that is dedicated to pursuing crime and protecting its members. ...

The Russian Federation

Despite stipulations against fomenting hatred based on ethnic or religious grounds (Article 282 of Russia Penal Code), the Protocols have enjoyed numerous reprints in the nationalist press after the collapse of the Soviet Union. In 2003, one century after the first publication of the Protocols, an article[73] in the most popular Russian weekly Argumenty i fakty referred to it as a "peculiar bible of Zionism" and showed a photo of the First Zionist Congress of 1897. The co-president of the National-Patriot Union of Russia Alexander Prokhanov wrote: "It does not matter whether the Protocols are a forgery or a factual conspiracy document." The article also contained refutation of the allegations by the president of the Russian Jewish congress Yevgeny Satanovsky. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Criminal Code. ... The rise of Gorbachev Although reform stalled between 1964–1982, the generational shift gave new momentum for reform. ... Argumenty i Fakty (Russian: , commonly abbreviated АиФ - English: Arguments and Facts) is a weekly newspaper based in Moscow and a publishing house in Russia and worldwide. ... Alexander Andreyevich Prokhanov (Russian: ; born on February 26, 1938 in Tbilisi) is a writer in the Russian Federation. ...


As recently as 2005, the Protocols was "a frequent feature in Patriarchate churches".[74][75] On January 27, 2006, members of the Public Chamber of Russia and human rights activists proposed to establish a list of extremist literature whose dissemination should be formally banned for uses other than scientific research.[76] The Russian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate (Russian: ), also known as the Orthodox Christian Church of Russia, is a body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with the other patriarchs and primates of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... The Public Chamber (In Russian: Общественная палата) is a state institution with 126 members created in 2005 in Russia to analyze draft legislation and monitor the activities of the parliament, government and other government bodies of Russia and its Federal Subjects. ...


References

  1. ^ http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/anti-semitism/hoax.html
  2. ^ Svetlana Boym, "Conspiracy theories and literary ethics: Umberto Eco, Danilo Kis and The Protocols of Zion": Comparative Literature, Spring 1999.
  3. ^ This material was originally exposed by Philip Graves in “The Source of The Protocols of Zion” published in The Times, 16 August, 17 August, and 18 August 1921, and the exposure has since been expanded in many sources.
  4. ^ Norman Cohn, Warrant for Genocide: The Myth of the Jewish World-Conspiracy and the Protocols of the Elder of Zion (New York: Harper & Row Publishers, 1966) 32–36.
  5. ^ See INRI, Jewish Messiah, Judaism's view of Jesus.
  6. ^ Umberto Eco, Foucault's Pendulum (London: Picador, 1990), p.490
  7. ^ Daniel Pipes (1997): Conspiracy: How the Paranoid Style Flourishes and Where It Comes From (The Free Press - Simon & Shuster) p.85. ISBN 0-684-83131-7
  8. ^ Daniel Pipes (1997): Conspiracy: How the Paranoid Style Flourishes and Where It Comes From (The Free Press - Simon & Shuster) p.86–87. ISBN 0-684-83131-7
  9. ^ Segel, Binjamin W. A Lie and a Libel: The History of the Protocols of the Elders of Zion (translated and edited by Levy, Richard S.), p. 97 (1996, originally published in 1926), University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0-8032-9245-7.
  10. ^ PRINCESS RADZIWILL QUIZZED AT LECTURE
  11. ^ Forging Protocols by Charles Paul Freund. Reason Magazine, February 2000
  12. ^ (French)Éric Conan. Les secrets d'une manipulation antisémite L’Express, 16/11/1999.
  13. ^ Vadim Skuratovsky: The Question of the Authorship of "The Protocols of the Elders of Zion". (Judaica Institute, Kiev, 2001) ISBN 966-7273-12-1
  14. ^ (Russian)T. Karasova and D. Chernyakhovsky. Afterword to the Russian translation of Norman Cohn's Warrant for Genocide
  15. ^ a b c The Fraud of a Century, or a book born in hell, by Valery Kadzhaya (Retrieved Sept 2005)
  16. ^ Morris Kominsky, The Hoaxers, 1970. p. 209 ISBN 0-8283-1288-5
  17. ^ (Russian) P. Stolypin's attempt to resolve the Jewish question by Boris Fyodorov
  18. ^ (Russian) The Protocols of the Elders of Zion: A Proved Forgery by Vladimir Burtsev (Paris, 1938) p.106 (Ch.4)
  19. ^ Daniel Pipes (1997): Conspiracy: How the Paranoid Style Flourishes and Where It Comes From (The Free Press - Simon & Shuster) p.94. ISBN 0-684-83131-7
  20. ^ Gehiemnisse der Weisen von Zion (Charlottesburg: Auf Vorposten, 1919).
  21. ^ a b c Daniel Pipes (1997): Conspiracy: How the Paranoid Style Flourishes and Where It Comes From (The Free Press - Simon & Shuster) p.95. ISBN 0-684-83131-7
  22. ^ Alfred Rosenberg: Die Protokolle der Weisen von Zion und die jüdische Weltpolitik (Munich: Deutscher Volksverlag, 1923).
  23. ^ Jenkins, Philip (1997). Hoods and Shirts: The Extreme Right in Pennsylvania, 1925-1950. UNC Press, 114. ISBN 0807823163. 
  24. ^ Henry Wickham Steed, "A Disturbing Pamphlet: A Call for Enquiry", The Times, May 8, 1920.
  25. ^ Max Wallace, The American Axis St. Martin's Press, 2003
  26. ^ Ford and GM Scrutinized for Alleged Nazi Collaboration by Michael Dobbs. The Washington Post 1998-11-30; Page A01. URL accessed March 20, 2006.
  27. ^ Introduction to English edition by Victor E. Marsden
  28. ^ Peter Grose, in Gentleman Spy: The Life of Allen Dulles (Houghton Mifflin 1994)
  29. ^ Poliakov, Leon (1997). "Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion". Encyclopedia Judaica (CD-ROM Edition Version 1.0). Ed. Cecil Roth. Keter Publishing House. ISBN 965-07-0665-8
  30. ^ "Jewish World Plot": An Exposure. The Source of "The Protocols of Zion". Truth at LastPDF (1.08 MiB) by Philip Graves published at The Times, August 16–18, 1921
  31. ^ The New York Times, September 4, 1921. Front page, Section 7
  32. ^ The History of a Lie, available at Project Gutenberg.
  33. ^ a b c d e f Lewis, Bernard (1986). Semites and Anti-Semites: An Inquiry into Conflict and Prejudice, First edition, W. W. Norton & Co.. ISBN 0-393-02314-1. 
  34. ^ Hadassa Ben-Itto, The Lie That Wouldn’t Die: The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, Chapter 11.
  35. ^ Nora Levin, The Holocaust: The Destruction of European Jewry 1933–1945. Quoting from [1]
  36. ^ Adolf Hitler, Mein Kampf: Chapter XI: Nation and Race, Vol I, pp. 307–308.
  37. ^ Islamic Antisemitism in Historical PerspectivePDF (276 KiB) at Anti-Defamation League
  38. ^ Exporting Arabic antisemitic publications issued in the Middle East to Britain Intelligence and Terrorism Information Center at the Center for Special Studies (ITC CSS). October 10, 2005
  39. ^ The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, a Syrian best-seller at ITC CSS. April 20, 2005
  40. ^ UNISPAL. Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and All Forms of Discrimination. Question of Violation of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms in Any Part of the World. Written statement submitted by the Association for World Education. 10 February 2004
  41. ^ A new 2005 Syrian edition of The Protocols of the Elders of Zion at ITC CSS. February 28, 2005
  42. ^ Syria unveils updated antisemitic work. Damascus releases updated 'Protocols' book filled with canards about 'treacherous' Zionists by Aaron Klein at WorldNetDaily. March 9, 2005
  43. ^ Al-Shatat: The Syrian-Produced Ramadan 2003 TV Special
  44. ^ Plot summary at the Anti-Defamation League
  45. ^ Egypt: U.S. Concerns Regarding Proposed Antisemitic Mini-Series Office of the Spokesman at the U.S. State Department
  46. ^ Protocols, politics and Palestine at al-Ahram Weekly
  47. ^ a b Jewish Holy Books On Display at the Alexandria Library: The Torah & the 'Protocols of the Elders of Zion' December 3, 2003
  48. ^ First Statement: Necessary Explanation at ziedan.com. (March 11, 2006)
  49. ^ Public Statement by the Director of the Library of Alexandria
  50. ^ Iranian TV Series Based on the Protocols of the Elders of Zion and the Jewish Control of Hollywood. MEMRI. April 30, 2004
  51. ^ The Booksellers of Tehran,” The Wall Street Journal Online, October 28, 2005
  52. ^ His article about Protocoles on the 'Official Site of Abdollah Shahbazi'
  53. ^ CMIP report: The Jews in World History according to the Saudi textbooks. The Danger of World Jewry, by Abdullah al-Tall, pp. 140–141 (Arabic). Hadith and Islamic Culture, Grade 10, (2001) pp. 103–104.
  54. ^ 2006 Saudi Arabia's Curriculum of IntolerancePDF Report by Center for Religious Freedom of Freedom House. 2006
  55. ^ Efraim Karsh, Rethinking the Middle East, Routledge, 2003. p. 101
  56. ^ Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - 2004 Released by the Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor of the US State Department February 28, 2005
  57. ^ The Covenant of the Islamic Resistance Movement (HAMAS) August 18, 1988 (The Avalon Project at Yale Law School) retrieved October 2005
  58. ^ "The Protocols of the Elders of Zion" in official PA ideology, 2001–2002 a Bulletin by Itamar Marcus at Palestinian Media Watch. (Retrieved January 2006)
  59. ^ The anti-Jewish lie that refuses to die by Steve Boggan, The Times, March 2, 2005
  60. ^ Palestinian Authority Promises to Remove Protocols References from Textbooks. Jewish Virtual Library. URL accessed March 18, 2006.
  61. ^ PNA Minister of Information removes the Protocols from their website New York Times, 2005-05-19
  62. ^ Antisemitism Worldwide 1995–6 (Project for the Study of Antisemitism, Tel Aviv University), pp. 265–6.
    For more information on the popularity of the Protocols in Japan, see:
  63. ^ Kavgam ve Siyon Protokolleri, Ayşe Hür, Radikal 2, 13.03.2005
    For more information on popularity of antisemitic literature in Turkey, see:
  64. ^ Confronting Reality: Antisemitism in Australia Today by Jeremy Jones. Fall 2004
  65. ^ Walmart description (excerpt): "If, however, The Protocols are genuine (which can never be proven conclusively), it might cause some of us to keep a wary eye on world affairs." Walmart rolls back Ant-Semitic book at the Southern Poverty Law Center website
  66. ^ Arthur Hertzberg, Jews: The Essence and Character of a People Harper Collins, 1999. p 34.
  67. ^ The Paterson 'Protocols' by Daniel Pipes. New York Post. November 5, 2002
  68. ^ A documentary film, Protocols of Zion (2005)[2], connects the Protocols to a resurgence of antisemitism following the September 11 World Trade Center attacks.
  69. ^ Message of hate brought to Wooster campus
  70. ^ College of Wooster begins bridge building published in Cleveland Jewish News (retrieved Feb. 19, 2006)
  71. ^ Howard Sachar, A History of the Jews in the Modern World (Knopf, NY. 2005) p.722
  72. ^ Paul Johnson, A History of the Jews (1987) p.575–576
  73. ^ Protocols of contention, Argumenty i fakty, September 10, 2003
  74. ^ Eye on Eurasia: Believing the Protocols By Paul Goble UPI, April 13, 2005
  75. ^ Antisemitism in the Post-Soviet States by Betsy Gidwitz. (JCPA) (April 2003)
  76. ^ Russia’s Public Chamber to Produce List of Literature to Ban, MosNews, January 27, 2006

is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... A Crucifix with the INRI plaque attached, the Holy Spirit Church in KoÅ¡ice, Slovakia A Crucifix with the stylized INRI plaque attached, the cornfields near Mureck in rural Styria, Austria INRI is an abbreviation of the Latin phrase IESVS NAZARENVS REX IVDAEORVM, which translates to English as: Jesus the... In Judaism and Jewish eschatology, the Messiah (Hebrew: משיח; Mashiah, Mashiach, or Moshiach, anointed [one]) is a term traditionally referring to a future Jewish king from the Davidic line who will be anointed (the meaning of the Hebrew word משיח) with holy anointing oil and inducted to rule the Jewish people during... Judaism has no special or particular view of Jesus, and very few texts in Judaism directly refer to or take note of Jesus. ... Umberto Eco (born January 5, 1932) is an Italian medievalist, semiotician, philosopher and novelist, best known for his novel The Name of the Rose (Il nome della rosa) and his many essays. ... Daniel Pipes in Copenhagen Daniel Pipes (born September 9, 1949) is an American historian and analyst who specializes in the Middle East. ... Daniel Pipes in Copenhagen Daniel Pipes (born September 9, 1949) is an American historian and analyst who specializes in the Middle East. ... Richard S. Levy is a Jewish American history professor at the University of Illinois at Chicago. ... Morris Kominsky (September 28, 1901 — April 1975) was the author of The Hoaxers: Plain Liars, Fancy Liars and Damned Liars (1970). ... Vladimir Burtsev Vladimir Lvovich Burtsev (Russian: ; November 17, 1862 – August 21, 1942), was a revolutionary activist, scholar, publisher and editor of several Russian language periodicals. ... Daniel Pipes in Copenhagen Daniel Pipes (born September 9, 1949) is an American historian and analyst who specializes in the Middle East. ... Daniel Pipes in Copenhagen Daniel Pipes (born September 9, 1949) is an American historian and analyst who specializes in the Middle East. ...   (January 12, 1893 Reval (nowadays Tallinn) – October 16, 1946) was an early and intellectually influential member of the Nazi party, who later held several important posts in the Nazi government. ... The University of North Carolina Press (or UNC Press), founded in 1922, is a university press that is part of the University of North Carolina. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C.. It is also one of the citys oldest papers, having been founded in 1877. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Léon Poliakov (Russian: ; 1910-1997) was a historian who wrote extensively on the Holocaust and anti-Semitism. ... The Encyclopaedia Judaica is a 26-volume English-language encyclopedia of the Jewish people and their faith, Judaism. ... Cecil Roth, (London, 1899–1970) was a Jewish historian and educator. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... MiB redirects here. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ... For the founder of the River Island retail chain, see Bernard Lewis (entrepreneur). ... Mein Kampf (English translation: My Struggle) is a book by the German-Austrian politician Adolf Hitler, which combines elements of autobiography with an exposition of Hitlers National Socialist political ideology. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... The Anti-Defamation League (or ADL) is an advocacy group founded by Bnai Brith in the United States whose stated aim is to stop, by appeals to reason and conscience and, if necessary, by appeals to law, the defamation of the Jewish people. ... The Anti-Defamation League (or ADL) is an advocacy group founded by Bnai Brith in the United States whose stated aim is to stop, by appeals to reason and conscience and, if necessary, by appeals to law, the defamation of the Jewish people. ... The Wall Street Journal (WSJ) is an international daily newspaper published by Dow Jones & Company in New York City, New York, USA, with Asian and European editions, and a worldwide daily circulation of more than 2 million as of 2006, with 931,000 paying online subscribers. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ... is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... The Sterling Law Building Sculptural ornamentation on the Sterling Law Building Yale Law School, or YLS, is the law school of Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut. ... is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... האוניברסיטה העברית בירושלים, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem The Hebrew University of Jerusalem is one of Israels oldest, largest and most important institutes of higher learning and research. ... This article or section cites its sources but does not provide page references. ... The Middle East Media Research Institute, or MEMRI for short, is a Middle Eastern press monitoring organization located in Washington, D.C., with branch offices in Jerusalem, Berlin, London, and Tokyo. ... The Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC) is an American non-profit legal organization, whose stated purpose is to combat racism and promote civil rights through research, education and litigation. ... Daniel Pipes in Copenhagen Daniel Pipes (born September 9, 1949) is an American historian and analyst who specializes in the Middle East. ... The New York Post is the 13th-oldest newspaper published in the United States and the oldest to have been published continually as a daily. ... is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see World Trade Center (disambiguation). ... Howard Morley Sachar (born in 1928) is a historian and an author. ... 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Further reading

  • anonymous: The Protocols and World Revolution, Including a Translation and Analysis of the "Protocols of the Meetings of the Zionist Men of Wisdom," 1920 (Small, Maynard & Company); [This is the "First American Edition" of The Protocols of Zion]
  • Ben-Itto, Hadassa: The Lie That Wouldn’t Die: The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, 2005 (Vallentine Mitchell). Review
  • Stephen Eric Bronner: A Rumor About the Jews: Reflections on Antisemitism and the Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion (Oxford University Press, 2003) ISBN 0-19-516956-5
  • Cohn, Norman: Warrant for Genocide, 1967 (Eyre & Spottiswoode), 1996 (Serif) ISBN 1-897959-25-7
  • Eisner, Will: The Plot: The Secret Story of the Protocols of the Elders of Zion. ISBN 0-393-06045-4
  • Jacobs, Steven Leonard and Weitzman, Mark: Dismantling the Big Lie: The Protocols of the Elders of Zion. (2003) ISBN 0-88125-785-0
  • Kis, Danilo: The Book Of Kings And Fools in The Encyclopedia of the Dead, 1989 (Faber and Faber)
  • De Michelis, Cesare G.: The Non-Existent Manuscript. A Study of the Protocols of the Sages of Zion (Translated by Richard Newhouse; University of Nebraska Press, 2004) ISBN 0-8032-1727-7
  • Goldberg, Isaac: The so-called "Protocols of the Elders of Zion": a Definitive Exposure of One of the Most Malicious Lies in History (Girard, Kansas, Haldeman-Julius Publications, 1936).
  • Singerman, Robert: "The American Career of the Protocols of the Elders of Zion", American Jewish History, Vol. 71 (1980), pp. 48–78
  • Timmerman, Kenneth R.: Preachers of Hate: Islam and the War on America (2003), Crown Forum. ISBN 1-4000-4901-6
  • Wolf, Lucien: The Myth of the Jewish Menace in World Affairs or, The Truth About the Forged Protocols of the Elders of Zion (New York, The Macmillan company, 1921).

Look up anonymous in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Hadassa Ben-Itto is an author and a jurist. ... Stephen Eric Bronner (b. ... Norman Cohn, also known as Norman Rufus Colin Cohn, (born 12 January 1915) is British academic, historian and writer, now Emeritus Astor-Wolfson Professor at the University of Sussex. ... William Erwin Eisner (March 6, 1917 – January 3, 2005) was an acclaimed American comics writer, artist and entrepreneur. ... Danilo Kis Danilo Kis (Данило Киш) (1935-1989) was born in Subotica (Serbia, Vojvodina), as the son of a Montenegrin mother and his Jewish (though with a Hungarian last name) father. ... Cesare G. De Michelis (born in 1943) is a professor of modern and contemporary Italian literature at the University of Padua, Italy and a professor of Russian literature at the University of Rome Tor Vergata. He is the author of the book The Non-Existent Manuscript: A Study of the... Isaac Goldberg (1887-July 14, 1938) was an American journalist, author, critic, translator, editor, publisher, and lecturer. ... E. Haldeman-Julius, né Emanuel Julius (1889 - 1951) was a socialist reformer and publisher, most noted for publishing the Little Blue Books. ... Kenneth R. Timmerman (born November 4, 1953- ) is a neo-conservative Republican activist from Maryland, and a former nominee for a US Senate seat. ... Lucien Wolf (born 1857 in London; died 1930) was a British Jewish journalist, historian, and advocate of Jewish rights. ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ...

See also

The Protocols

The Protocols of the Elders of Zion Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 402 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1291 × 1926 pixels, file size: 644 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) 1920 - Book cover - The Jewish Peril/Protocols of Zion - 1st Edition - United Kingdom/British imprint - Eyre & Spottiswoode Ltd. ...

Editions of The Protocols The Protocols, or The Protocols of Zion, are the briefest two common English language titles of the infamous and notorious writing more popularly known in the United States as the The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, or as the Protocols of the meetings of the learned elders of Zion...

First Publication of The Protocols
Programma zavoevaniya mira evreyami
Znamya or Znamia (Russian: , literally Banner) was a Saint Petersburg daily newspaper established by an ultra-nationalist journalist Pavel Krushevan in 1902. ...

Writers, editors, and publishers associated with The Protocols
Carl Ackerman · Boris Brasol
G. Butmi · Natalie de Bogory
Henry Ford · L. Fry · Howell Gwynne
Harris Houghton · Pavel Krushevan
Victor Marsden · Sergei Nilus
George Shanks · Fyodor Vinberg Carl William Ackerman (1890–1970) was a journalist and author. ... Boris Leo Brasol (or Brazol) (b. ... G. Butmi (romanized Georgii Vasilevich Butmi-de-Kat?s?man; b. ... Natalie de Bogory, (also deBogory), is primarily known for her notorious work in translating from the Russian language into the English language, and subsequently distributing and participating in having published the first or second American edition in the United State of the infamous Plagiarism known as the Protocols of the... Henry Ford (1919) Henry Ford (July 30, 1863 – April 7, 1947) was the founder of the Ford Motor Company and father of modern assembly lines used in mass production. ... L. (Leslie) Fry is primarily known for her authorship of Waters Flowing Eastward. ... Howell Arthur Keir Gwynne, CH (1865-1950), author, and newspaper editor of the London Morning Post since 1911. ... Harris Ayers Houghton was a professional physician and military officer of the United State during and shortly after World War I. But his fame derives primarily in the role he played in bringing about the translation and publication in the English language of the infamous plagiarism — in the United States... Pavel Krushevan Pavel Aleksandrovich Krushevan (Russian language: Павел Александрович Крушеван; Romanian language: Pavel CruÅŸeveanu; January 15, 1860-June 5, 1909) was a journalist, editor, publisher and an official in the Imperial Russia. ... Victor E. Marsden is the author of the most widespread English language translation of infamous fraud The Protocols of the Elders of Zion and provided its introduction. ... Velikoe v malom i antikhrist (1905 edition) Sergei Nilus Sergei Alexandrovich Nilus (also Sergiei, Sergyei, Sergius, Serge); Russian language: Сергей Александрович Нилус; 1862-1929) was a Russian religious writer, self-described mystic, and agent of the Imperial Russian secret police, the Okhranka. ... George Shanks. ... Fyodor Viktorovich Vinberg (Russian: ) (27. ...

Debunkers of The Protocols
Norman Cohn · Philip Graves Norman Cohn, also known as Norman Rufus Colin Cohn, (born 12 January 1915) is British academic, historian and writer, now Emeritus Astor-Wolfson Professor at the University of Sussex. ... Major Philip Perceval Graves (February 25, 1876 – June 3, 1953) was a British journalist and writer. ...

Influenced by The Protocols
The International Jew
The Jewish Bolshevism · Mein Kampf The International Jew: The Worlds Foremost Problem is a four volume set of books originally published and distributed in the early 1920s by Henry Ford, an American industrialist, automobile developer and manufacturer. ... The Jewish Bolshevism - Illustration from the text (1922) The Jewish Bolshevism, is the title of an antisemitic pamphlet, booklet, or tract (literature) published in London in 1922 and 1923 by the Britons Publishing Society with a forward by German Nazi, Alfred Rosenberg. ... Mein Kampf (English translation: My Struggle) is a book by the German-Austrian politician Adolf Hitler, which combines elements of autobiography with an exposition of Hitlers National Socialist political ideology. ...

v  d  e
Individuals
Related or similar texts

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External links

Maurice Joly (1829-1878) was a French satirist and lawyer. ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ... The Anti-Defamation League (or ADL) is an advocacy group founded by Bnai Brith in the United States whose stated aim is to stop, by appeals to reason and conscience and, if necessary, by appeals to law, the defamation of the Jewish people. ... The Straight Dope is a popular question and answer newspaper column published in the Chicago Reader (an alternative weekly), syndicated in thirty newspapers in the United States and Canada, and available online. ... Front page of Religious Tolerance. ... Nova is a popular science television series from the USA produced by WGBH and can be seen on PBS and in more than 100 countries. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into articles entitled WGBH-TV, WGBH (FM) and WGBX-TV, accessible from a disambiguation page. ... Not to be confused with Public Broadcasting Services in Malta. ... Umberto Eco (born January 5, 1932) is an Italian medievalist, semiotician, philosopher and novelist, best known for his novel The Name of the Rose (Il nome della rosa) and his many essays. ... For other uses, see Guardian. ... The Skeptics Dictionary is a web site with a collection of cross-referenced skeptical essays by Robert Todd Carroll, PhD. It primarily exposes claims that its editors consider pseudoscientific (sometimes in a pseudoskeptical fashion though). ... Robert Todd Carroll (1945-), Ph. ... 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This article is about the relationship between Islam and antisemitism. ... New antisemitism is the concept of a new 21st-century form of antisemitism emanating simultaneously from the left, the far right, and radical Islam, and tending to manifest itself as opposition to Zionism and the State of Israel. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... An UstaÅ¡e guard pose among the bodies of prisoners murdered in the Jasenovac concentration camp The UstaÅ¡e (also known as Ustashas or Ustashi) was a Croatian extreme nationalist movement. ... Conditions in Russia (1924) A Census -Bolsheviks by Ethnicity Jewish Bolshevism, Judeo-Bolshevism, Judeo-Communism, or in Polish, Å»ydokomuna, is an antisemitic conspiracy theory which blames the Jews for Bolshevism; it is an antisemitic political epithet. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Philo-Semitism, Philosemitism, or Semitism is an interest in, respect for the Jewish people, as well as the love of everything Jewish, and the historical significance of Jewish culture and positive impact of Judaism in the history of the world. ... Anti-Zionism is opposition to Zionism, the movement for a homeland for the Jewish people in the Land of Israel. ... Self-hating Jew (or self-loathing Jew) is an epithet used about Jews, which suggests a hatred of ones Jewish identity or ancestry. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazi Germany was noted for its psychologically powerful propaganda, much of which was centered around Jews, who were consistently alleged to be the source of Germanys economic problems. ... An example of state-sponsored atheist anti-Judaism. ... This article is about one of the historical Inquisitions. ... Blood libels are unfounded allegations that a particular group eats people as a form of human sacrifice, often accompanied by the claim of using the blood of their victims in various rituals. ... The Tiszaeszlár blood libel, also known as the Tiszaeszlár Affair, was a blood libel and trial that set off anti-semitic agitation in Hungary in 1882 - 1883. ... The Hilsner Affair (also known as the Hilsner Trial, Hilsner Case or Polná Affair) was a series of anti-semitic trials following an accusation of blood libel against a Jew called Leopold Hilsner in Bohemia in 1899 and 1900. ... Menahem Mendel Beilis (Russian: ; 1874-1934) was a Ukrainian Jew accused of blood libel and ritual murder in a notorious 1913 trial, known as the Beilis trial or Beilis affair. The process sparked international criticism of the anti-Semitic policies of the Russian Empire. ... The Shiraz blood libel was a pogrom of the Jewish quarter in Shiraz, Iran, on October 30, 1910, sparked by false rumors that the Jews had ritually killed a Muslim girl. ... Host desecration is a form of sacrilege in Christianity, involving the mistreatment or malicious use of a consecrated Host, or communion wafer. ... Contemporary etching depicting Hep-Hep riot in Frankfurt Hep-Hep riots were pogroms against Jews in Germany and other Central European countries including Austria Poland and Czechoslovakia. ... Pogrom (from Russian: ; from громить IPA: - to wreak havoc, to demolish violently) is a form of riot directed against a particular group, whether ethnic, religious or other, and characterized by destruction of their homes, businesses and religious centres. ... On May 15, 1882, Tsar Alexander III of Russia introduced the so-called Temporary laws which stayed in effect for more than thirty years and came to be known as the May Laws. ... Banners from March 1968. ... 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The racial policy of Nazi Germany refers to the policies and laws implemented by Nazi Germany, asserting the superiority of the so-called Aryan race and based on a specific racist doctrine which claimed scientific legitimacy. ... Richard Harwoods Did Six Million Really Die? Holocaust denial is the claim that the mainstream historical version of the Holocaust is either highly exaggerated or completely falsified. ... Jew Watch is an antisemitic[1] website that describes itself as “The Internets Largest Scholarly Collection of Articles on Jewish History. ... Radio Islam, was a Swedish radio channel, now a website, which is dedicated to the liberation struggle of the Palestinian people against Israel. The EUs racism monitoring organization has called it one of the most radical anti-Semitic homepages on the net, and Radio Islam also espouses Holocaust denial... Logo/Banner of the Institute for Historical Review (Acronym IHR) The Institute for Historical Review (IHR), founded in 1978, is an American Holocaust denial[1][2][3][4][5][6][7] organization which describes itself as a public-interest educational, research and publishing center dedicated to promoting greater public awareness... Bible Believers is the website of the Bible Believers Church of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. ... The Simon Wiesenthal Center The Simon Wiesenthal Center is an international Jewish organization that declares itself to be a human rights group dedicated to preserving the memory of the Holocaust by fostering tolerance and understanding through community involvement, educational outreach and social action. ... The Anti-Defamation League (or ADL) is an advocacy group founded by Bnai Brith in the United States whose stated aim is to stop, by appeals to reason and conscience and, if necessary, by appeals to law, the defamation of the Jewish people. ... 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  Results from FactBites:
 
The Protocols of the Elders of Zion - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (7894 words)
Sobh, a radical Islamic monthly, published excerpts from the Protocols under the heading The text of the Protocols of the Elders of Zion for establishing the Jewish global rule in its December 1998–January 1999 issue, illustrated with a caricature of the Jewish snake swallowing the globe.
The Protocols were republished as fact in 1991 in William Milton Cooper's conspiracy diatribe Behold a Pale Horse, though Cooper himself holds the Illuminati and not the Jews at fault.
^ The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, a Syrian best-seller at ITC CSS.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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