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Encyclopedia > The Passion of the Christ
The Passion of the Christ

The Passion of the Christ theatrical poster
Directed by Mel Gibson
Produced by Bruce Davey
Mel Gibson
Stephen McEveety
Written by Benedict Fitzgerald
Mel Gibson
Starring James Caviezel
Maia Morgenstern
Monica Bellucci
Music by John Debney
Shankar
Gingger Shankar
Cinematography Caleb Deschanel
Editing by Steve Mirkovich
John Wright
Distributed by Theatrical:
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Icon Entertainment
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Newmarket Films
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Equinox Films
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20th Century Fox
DVD:
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MGM Home Entertainment
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Warner Home Video
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20th Century Fox Home Entertainment
Release date(s) Flag of the United States February 25, 2004
Running time 127 minutes
Country Flag of the United States United States
Language Aramaic
Latin
Hebrew
Assyrian Neo-Aramaic
Budget $30 million USD
Gross revenue Domestic: $370,782,930
Worldwide: $611,899,420
All Movie Guide profile
IMDb profile

The Passion of the Christ is a 2004 film co-written, co-produced and directed by Mel Gibson. It is based on the biblical stories of Jesus of Nazareth and focuses on his last twelve hours. It details his arrest, trial, and crucifixion, events commonly known as "The Passion". The film’s dialogue is in Aramaic, Latin, and Hebrew, with English subtitles. It was filmed in Matera, Italy and Cinecittà Studios, Rome. The Passion is the theological term used for the suffering, both physical and mental, of Jesus in the hours prior to and including his trial and execution by crucifixion. ... The Passion of the Christ, movie poster, fair use This work is copyrighted. ... Mel Columcille Gerard Gibson (born January 3, 1956) is an American-born actor, director and producer. ... Bruce Davey is an Austrailian film producer in the United States. ... Mel Columcille Gerard Gibson (born January 3, 1956) is an American-born actor, director and producer. ... Stephen McEveety has over 30 years experience in senior positions in the film, motion picture, and entertainment businesses. ... Benedict Fitzgerald is a screenwriter who co-wrote the screenplay The Passion of the Christ with Mel Gibson. ... Mel Columcille Gerard Gibson (born January 3, 1956) is an American-born actor, director and producer. ... James Patrick Caviezel, Jr. ... Maia Morgernstern (b. ... Monica Anna Maria Bellucci (born September 30, 1964) is an Italian actress and former fashion model. ... John Debney (born Glendale, California, 18 August 1956) is a prolific American film composer who received an Oscar nomination for his score for Mel Gibson`s The Passion of the Christ. ... Shankar is a common name in India. ... Caleb Deschanel (born September 21, 1944) is an American cinematographer. ... John Wright may refer to: John Wright (cricketer) (born 1954), member of the New Zealand cricket team, coach of the Indian cricket team John Wright (inventor), an inventor of electroplating (method patented, 1840) John Wright (politician), New Zealand MP, 1996–2002 John C. Wright (born 1961), science fiction and fantasy... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Icon Productions LLC is an American independent production company founded in August 1989 by legendary Hollywood actor and director, Mel Gibson. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Newmarket Films is an American film production and film distribution company which is a subsidiary of Newmarket Capital Group. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Republic_of_China. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Argentina. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Singapore. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Brazil. ... Twentieth (20th) Century Fox Film Corporation (known from 1935 to 1985 as Twentieth Century-Fox Film Corporation) is one of the six major American film studios. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Republic_of_China. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Argentina. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Singapore. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Brazil. ... 20th Century Fox logo Fox Plaza, the company headquarters. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Aramaic is a group of Semitic languages with a 3,000-year history. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Assyrian Neo-Aramaic is a modern Eastern Aramaic or Syriac language. ... USD redirects here. ... The year 2004 in film involved some significant events. ... Mel Columcille Gerard Gibson (born January 3, 1956) is an American-born actor, director and producer. ... This article concerns critical reconstructions of the Historical Jesus. ... The Passion is the theological term used for the suffering, both physical and mental, of Jesus in the hours prior to and including his trial and execution by crucifixion. ... Aramaic is a group of Semitic languages with a 3,000-year history. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Hebrew redirects here. ... In printed material In printed material, a subtitle is an explanatory or alternate title. ... Matera is a town and a province in the region of Basilicata, sometimes referred to as Lucania, in the south of Italy. ... Entrance of the Cinecittà studios Cinecittà (Italian for Cinema City) is a large film studio in Rome, Italy. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Plot

The Passion of the Christ begins in medias res in the Garden of Gethsemane, on the Mount of Olives, with Jesus Christ agonizing over his impending death, while Satan tempts him to [2] abandon the idea that one man can redeem the sins of the World. In medias res, also medias in res (Latin for into the middle of things) is a literary and artistic technique where the narrative starts in the middle of the story instead of from its beginning (ab ovo or ab initio). ... The Garden of Gethsemane. ... The Jewish cemetery on the Mount of Olives, overlooking the Old City The Mount of Olives (also Mount Olivet, Hebrew: ‎, Har HaZeitim; Arabic: ‎, Jebel ez-Zeitun, Jebel et-Tur, Mount of the Summit) is a mountain ridge to the east of Jerusalem. ... This article is about the concept of Satan. ... For other uses, see Sin (disambiguation). ...


Meanwhile, at the Temple, Judas Iscariot meets with the Sanhedrin. The High Priest Caiaphas pays him thirty silver coins for Jesus's whereabouts, as they have previously agreed. Judas leads the Temple guards to the garden and identifies Jesus with a kiss. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      For other... For the tractate in the Mishnah, see Sanhedrin (tractate). ... Even in death, many Kohanim choose to have this symbol, the special positioning of their fingers and hands during the Priestly Blessing, placed as a crest or symbol on their gravestones to indicate their status. ... Yhosef Bar Kayafa (Hebrew יְהוֹסֵף בַּר קַיָּפָא, ), also known as Caiaphas (Greek Καϊάφας) in the New Testament, was the Jewish high priest to whom Jesus was taken after his arrest in the garden of Gethsemane, and who played a part in Jesus trial before the Roman Governor, Pontius Pilate. ...


Elsewhere, Jesus's mother, Mary, awakens from a nightmare; Mary Magdalene asks if she is all right. Certain that something is wrong, Mary quotes the Passover prayers, Why is this night different than other nights?; Mary Magdalene replies, Because once we were slaves and we are slaves no longer. Suddenly, John arrives, explaining Jesus has been arrested. The term Virgin Mary has several different meanings: Mary, the mother of Jesus, the historical and multi-denominational concept of Mary Blessed Virgin Mary, the Roman Catholic theological and doctrinal concept of Mary Marian apparitions shrines to the Virgin Mary Virgin Mary in Islam, the Islamic theological and doctrinal concept... This article is about the disciple of Jesus. ... This article is about the Jewish holiday. ... John the Apostle (Greek Ιωάννης, see names of John) was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus. ...


Jesus is brutally beaten as the guards take to the Temple. Judas looks on with bitter shame as the Temple guards cast Jesus off a bridge over the brook of Cedron; a demon appears and frightens Judas, who runs away. Binomial name Simaba cedron Planch. ...


Jesus sees Mary, Mary Magdalene, Peter, and John watching Him as He reaches the Temple. A formal trial begins, as witnesses denounce everything Jesus has taught, including being King of the Jews. Suddenly, Nicodemus and Joseph of Arimathea stand up and denounce the proceedings, declaring that all they have heard is contradictory testimony. They are forcibly ejected by adherents of Caiaphas, as other Temple priests, equally disgusted by the proceedings, follow them out. Nicodemus (Greek: Νικόδημος) was a Pharisee and a member of the Sanhedrin, who, according to the Gospel of John, showed favour to Jesus. ... Joseph of Arimathea by Pietro Perugino. ...


When Caiaphas finally addresses him and asks if the accusations are true, Jesus pronounces the ineffable Name of God, adding that they will see Him sitting at the Right Hand of the Father. Caiaphas screams and rends his garments in mourning. He declares that, as all have heard Jesus' "blasphemy," no further witnesses are needed. The other priests beat Jesus and spit in his face. He is formally condemned to death. Monotheistic faiths believe that there is a supreme being, who is necessarily unique, and the different names given to that being in different languages could in principle be translated as English God. ...


Peter attempts to flee, but is seized by spectators who identify him as one of Jesus' disciples. Peter indignantly denies it three times. But as Jesus turns around and bores into him with his one open eye, Peter realizes that Jesus' prophecy at the Last Supper has come to pass. He is overwhelmed with shame and rejects the Blessed Virgin's attempts to comfort him. He flees in tears, bewailing what he has done. For the painting by Leonardo da Vinci, see The Last Supper (Leonardo). ... Blessed Virgin Mary A traditional Catholic picture displayed sometimes in homes. ...


Meanwhile, Judas returns to Caiaphas, pleading for Jesus's release. He declares that he has sinned by betraying innocent blood. Caiaphas, however, refuses to take the money back, declaring that if Judas believes in Jesus' innocence, it is his problem. He demands that Judas take the money and leave. Judas angrily casts the money on the Temple floor and flees in despair. Later, two children approach and ask what's wrong; Judas curses them, they become demons. With Satan among them, they hound him far beyond the city walls. Judas encounters a dead donkey being eaten by maggots; succumbing to despair he takes the donkey's rope and hangs himself from a tree. This article is about the insect. ...


Meanwhile, the priests have taken Jesus to Pontius Pilate, so that he may be crucified under Roman Law. An indignant Pilate demands to know whether the Temple authorities always punish their prisoners before trial. Caiaphas responds that Jesus has declared himself the Messiah. Knowing this is a serious matter, Pilate privately interrogates Jesus, asking whether He is the King of the Jews. Jesus replies that his kingdom is "Not of this world," adding that all who hear the truth hear his voice. Pilate asks, "What is truth," before returning to the crowd. Pilate redirects here. ... Religious depictions of the crucifixion of Jesus typically show him supported by nails through the palms. ... Using the term Roman law in a broader sense, one may say that Roman law is not only the legal system of ancient Rome but the law that was applied throughout most of Europe until the end of the 18th century. ... In Judaism, the Messiah (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian ; Aramaic: , ; Arabic: , ; the Anointed One) at first meant any person who was anointed with oil on rising to a certain position among the ancient Israelites, at first that of High priest, later that of King and also that of a prophet. ... King of the Jews may refer to: One of several historical kings of the Jewish people; see Kingdom of Israel and Kingdom of Judah A title of the Jewish Messiah King Herod the Great, declared King of the Jews by the Roman Senate A title used to refer to Jesus...


Pilate addresses the priests, saying he finds no crime in Jesus. Reminding them that Jesus is a subject of King Herod Antipas, Pilate orders Caiaphas to bring him to Herod's palace. Caiaphas recoils, but grudgingly obeys. King Herod, an effeminate bisexual, is excited by reports of Jesus's miracles. When Jesus remains to his pleas to work "a little miracle for me", Herod laughs. He orders them to, "Get this stupid fool out of my sight!" He adds that Jesus is not a criminal, He is "just crazy." Herod Antipas (short for Antipatros) was an ancient leader (tetrarch, meaning ruler of a quarter) of Galilee and Perea. ... In human sexuality, bisexuality describes a man or woman having a sexual orientation to persons of either or both sexes (a man or woman who sexually likes both sexes; people who are sexually and/or romantically attracted to both males and females). ...


Meanwhile, Pilate begs his wife, Claudia Procles, to tell him how to recognise the truth. She shakes her head, saying that no one can tell him the truth if he will not listen to it. A terrified Pilate describes the truth as he sees it. Another revolt in his Province will destroy his career and possibly lead Emperor Tiberius to execute him. Pilate is certain that if he releases Jesus, Caiaphas and the Temple priests will start a rebellion, yet, if he condemns Him to death, Jesus's followers will do the exact same thing. Suddenly, the Centurion Abenader (later St. Ctesiphon) arrives, saying that Herod did nothing to the man and that the priests are bringing Him back. When the priests return Jesus to Pilate, he is displeased, and forces Caiaphas to choose between freeing "a notorious murderer" named Barabbas or clemency for Jesus. Seething with hatred, Caiaphas screams, "Release Barabbas!" The crowd which he has bought and paid for immediately takes up the same cry. Pontius Pilates wife is unnamed in the New Testament (Matth. ... For other persons named Tiberius, see Tiberius (disambiguation). ... Centurion can mean: In the military: Centurion (Roman army), a professional officer of the Roman army who commanded a large amount of men. ... This article is about the biblical character Barabbas. ...

Pontius Pilate (Hristo Shopov) asks the crowd whom to release: Barabbas or Jesus?

When Pilate demands to know what would be fair punishment for Jesus, Caiaphas screams, "Crucify him!" Pilate indignantly refuses, instead ordering Jesus to be flogged, hoping that it will defuse Caiaphas' desire for the death penalty. Jesus is shackled to a broken pillar; two soldiers flog him with a switch, as their commander smiles proudly at the efficiency of his men. To the shock of his exhausted floggers, Jesus rises to his feet. Feeling their crediblity is on the line, the floggers brutally rend Jesus flesh with barbed scourges until his ribs show and nearly loses consciousness. The Centurion Abenader angrily orders them to stop the flogging, saying that they have no right to beat Him to death. The soldiers drag Jesus away by His arms. Image File history File linksMetadata Passion_trial. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Passion_trial. ... Hristo Shopov in Vchera Hristo Naumov Shopov (Bulgarian: ) (born January 4, 1964 in Sofia) is a Bulgarian actor. ... Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ... A switch is a flexible rod, typically used for corporal punishment of the birching type, called switching after it, especially when using a single branch: multiple branches are rather called a rod, a less flexible single rod is rather called a cane, an inflexible one a stick. ... A scourge (from the Italian scoriada, ultimately from the Latin excoriare = to flay and corium = skin) is a whip or lash, especially a multi-tong type used in order to inflict severe corporal punishment or self-mortification on the back. ...


Pilate's wife, Claudia, gives the Virgin Mary and Mary Magdalene linen towels to clean up His blood.


Later, a group of drunken Roman soldiers drive a crown of thorns into Jesus's scalp. They spit wine on him and clothe him in a soldier's red cloak, treating him with mock royal homage. "Hail, King of the Worms," laughs a bowing soldier. Jesus is returned to Pilate who is shocked by the sight of Jesus' tortured body; he asks the crowd if they are satisfied. Caiaphas still demands crucifixion. Disgusted, Pilate washes his hands of this Jewish religious quarrel, declaring, "I am innocent of this man's blood," and orders Abenader to crucify the Christ. For other uses, see Crown of Thorns (disambiguation). ...


The condemned Christ walks between two other criminals sentenced to crucifixion; they are only tied to their crosses — yet Jesus must carry his cross while the soldiers beat him and the crowd taunt him; Mary, Mary Magdalene, and John follow. He falls with the cross, Mary runs to him; he rises, hefts his cross, and continues, then falls again. Abenader approaches, ordering the soldiers to help Jesus. Instead, they take a man from the crowd, Simon of Cyrene, who grudgingly agrees. According to the Gospel of Mark (15:21-22), Matthew (27:32), and Luke (23:26) Simon of Cyrene (שמעון Hearkening; listening, Standard Hebrew Šimʿon, Tiberian Hebrew Šimʿôn) was compelled by the Romans to carry the cross of Jesus as...


Jesus falls without the cross; Simon cannot bear the cross's weight; people fighting for a chance to beat Jesus. Roman soldiers repel them, then Veronica approaches Jesus with a cloth and a pitcher of water. Jesus wipes his face and tries to drink; a soldier kicks over the cup and drives away Veronica, whose cloth (Veronica's Veil) is imprinted with the image of Jesus's face. Abgar of Edessa in a 10th-century icon, displaying the miraculous image of Edessa, a veronica According to the Acta Sanctorum published by the Bollandists (under February 4), Saint Veronica or Berenice was a pious woman of Jerusalem who, moved with pity as Jesus carried his cross to Golgotha, gave... Veronicas veil, painting by Domenico Fetti (circa 1620). ...


The soldiers continue whipping Jesus; Simon threatens to not help carrying his cross if they do not cease; they oblige. The procession continues to Golgotha, "The Place of the Skull". There, Simon is ordered away as Jesus is stretched onto and then nailed to the cross, which then is raised. Calvary (Golgotha) was the hill outside Jerusalem on which Jesus was crucified. ...


Caiaphas and the priests mock the crucified Christ, as does the thief to his right, who tells him to save them all if he truly is the Son of God. Jesus prays, "Father, forgive them, they know not what they do". The thief to his left, the Good Thief, tells Caiaphas, "Listen, He prays for you"; he then tells Jesus his punishment is just, and that Jesus would be justified in condemning him, then says, "Lord, remember me when you come into your Kingdom." Jesus replies, "On this day, you will be with me in paradise". As the right thief laughs at them, a crow picks flesh from his face. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Son of...

Jesus crucified.

Jesus weakens; the sky darkens. Mary and John approach the crucified Jesus; he declares, "I thirst!" A sympathetic soldier named Cassius, (later St. Longinus), impales a vinegar-soaked sponge on a spear and reaches it to him; tasting it, Jesus turns away. The Virgin Mary pleads with Jesus to let her die with him. He tells her that St. John will take care of her. He tells John that Mary is now his mother. Jesus cries, "My God! My God! Why have you forsaken me?" Then, looking down at them, says, "It is accomplished". Mary Magdalene weeps. Gasping, Jesus looks up, saying, "Father, into your hands I commend my spirit", and dies. Image File history File links P8passion. ... Image File history File links P8passion. ... Longinus pierces the side of Christ. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


An earthquake occurs; the spectators flee. The soldiers break the crucified criminals' legs to hasten their deaths. When Cassius is about to break the Christ's legs, another tremor occurs; he tells Abenader that Jesus is dead. Wanting to ascertain that, he orders Cassius to stab a lance into the Christ's side; blood and water pour from the wound, striking him on the face as Cassius falls to his knees. Everyone, present suddenly understands that they have killed the Son of God. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Son of...


Elsewhere, the earthquake broke the Temple in half, exposing the Holy of Holies; a horrified Caiaphas weeps. Meanwhile in Hell, Satan screams in impotent rage, knowing his power is forever broken. A Holy of Holies is the most sacred place within a sacred building. ... This article is about the theological or philosophical afterlife. ... This article is about the concept of Satan. ...


That night, Jesus is lowered from the cross; Mary embraces the body of her son and gives him a last kiss. Three days later, the morning light illuminates the empty funeral garments in Christ's tomb. He stands up and his wounded hands are visible. He walks out of the Tomb to triumphant music and the credits roll.


Cast and crew

Cast

Actor/Actress Role
Jim Caviezel Jesus of Nazareth
Maia Morgenstern The Virgin Mary
Monica Bellucci Mary Magdalene
Hristo Naumov Shopov Pontius Pilate
Mattia Sbragia Caiaphas
Rosalinda Celentano Satan
Hristo Jivkov John
Francesco DeVito Peter
Luca Lionello Judas Iscariot
Claudia Gerini Claudia Procles
Sergio Rubini Dismas
Francesco Cabras Gesmas
Toni Bertorelli Annas
Roberto Bestazoni Malchus
Giovanni Capalbo Cassius
Emilio De Marchi Scornful Roman
Roberto Visconti Scornful Roman
Lello Giulivo Brutish Roman
Abel Jafry 2nd Temple Officer
Jarreth Merz Simon of Cyrene
Matt Patresi Janus
Fabio Sartor Abenader
Luca De Dominicis Herod
Sabrina Impacciatore Saint Veronica

James Patrick Caviezel, Jr. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Maia Morgernstern (b. ... Gabriel delivering the Annunciation to Mary. ... Monica Anna Maria Bellucci (born September 30, 1964) is an Italian actress and former fashion model. ... This article is about the disciple of Jesus. ... Hristo Naumov Shopov (b. ... Pilate redirects here. ... Mattia Sbragia played the part of Caiaphas in Mel Gibsons 2004 film The Passion of the Christ. ... Yhosef Bar Kayafa (Hebrew יְהוֹסֵף בַּר קַיָּפָא, ), also known as Caiaphas (Greek Καϊάφας) in the New Testament, was the Jewish high priest to whom Jesus was taken after his arrest in the garden of Gethsemane, and who played a part in Jesus trial before the Roman Governor, Pontius Pilate. ... Rosalinda Celentano (July 15, 1968— ) is an Italian actress. ... This article is about the concept of Satan. ... John the Apostle (Greek Ιωάννης, see names of John) was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus. ... St Peter redirects here. ... Luca Lionello is an actor who played Judas on Mel Gibsons The Passion of the Christ. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      For other... Claudia Gerini (b. ... Claudia Procula was, according to Christian legend, the wife of Pontius Pilate. ... Sergio Rubini (December 21, 1959) is an Italian actor and film director. ... Saint Dismas (sometimes spelled Dysmas or Dimas), also known as the Good Thief, is the apocryphal name given to one of the thieves who was crucified alongside Christ according to the Gospel of Luke 23:39-43: And one of the malefactors which were hanged railed on him, saying, If... Gestas, also spelled Gesmas is the apocryphal name (first appearing in the Gospel of Nicodemus) given to one of the two thieves who was crucified alongside Jesus. ... Annas (also Ananus), son of Seth, was a Jewish High Priest from AD 6 to 15 and remained an influential leader afterwards. ... In the New Testament of the Bible, Malchus was the name of a servant of the high priest who helped try to arrest Jesus. ... Cassius may refer to: Cassius, http://www. ... According to the Gospel of Mark (15:21-22), Matthew (27:32), and Luke (23:26) Simon of Cyrene (שמעון Hearkening; listening, Standard Hebrew Šimʿon, Tiberian Hebrew Šimʿôn) was compelled by the Romans to carry the cross of Jesus as... Herod Antipas (short for Antipatros) was an ancient leader (tetrarch, meaning ruler of a quarter) of Galilee and Perea. ...

Notable Crew

Mel Columcille Gerard Gibson (born January 3, 1956) is an American-born actor, director and producer. ... Director Herbert Brenon with actress Alla Nazimova on the set of War Brides, 1916 A director is a person who directs the making of a film. ... A film producer creates the conditions for making movies. ... Screenwriters, scenarists, or script writers, are authors who write the screenplays from which movies and television programs are made. ... Benedict Fitzgerald is a screenwriter who co-wrote the screenplay The Passion of the Christ with Mel Gibson. ... Caleb Deschanel (born September 21, 1944) is an American cinematographer. ... A cinematographer (from cinema photographer) is one photographing with a motion picture camera. ... Production designer is a term used in the movie and television industries to refer to the person responsible for the overall look of a filmed event such as films, TV programs, music videos or adverts. ... John Debney (born Glendale, California, 18 August 1956) is a prolific American film composer who received an Oscar nomination for his score for Mel Gibson`s The Passion of the Christ. ... A composer is a person who writes music. ... Reverend William J. Fulco (born February 24, 1936, Los Angeles) is a Jesuit priest and National Endowment for the Humanities Professor of Ancient Mediterranean Studies at Loyola Marymount University in Los Angeles, California in the United States. ... Look up translate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a four-thousand year history. ...

Mel Gibson's role

To produce The Passion of the Christ, Mel Gibson spent some forty to fifty million dollars of his money to finance and advertise it. Aside from being its co-producer and director, he is the co-screenplay writer with Benedict Fitzgerald. Given the interpretation, the very explicit violence, and the polyglot soundtrack (Aramaic, Latin, Hebrew), it was difficult to find an American distribution company; the film was completed before Newmarket Films agreed to release it in the U.S. Equinox Films was the Canadian distributor, and Icon Films the British and Australian distributor. Mel Columcille Gerard Gibson (born January 3, 1956) is an American-born actor, director and producer. ... Benedict Fitzgerald is a screenwriter who co-wrote the screenplay The Passion of the Christ with Mel Gibson. ... Newmarket Films is an American film production and film distribution company which is a subsidiary of Newmarket Capital Group. ...


In addition to repeated accusations of anti-Semitism, Gibson’s Traditionalist Catholic beliefs were attacked. Liberal pundits accused The Passion of the Christ of being a modern day Passion play that would spark Anti-Semitic violence. However, Romanian actress Maia Morgenstern (the Virgin Mary), who is Jewish and the daughter of a Holocaust survivor, has publically rejected these charges. In an interview for a PAX documentary about the film, she said she and her father had read the script together and both found it beautiful, very poetic, and very philosophical. The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... A traditionalist Catholic is a Roman Catholic who believes that there should be a restoration of the liturgical forms, public and private devotions, and presentation of Catholic teachings that prevailed in the Catholic Church just before the Second Vatican Council (1962-1965). ... A Passion play is a dramatic presentation depicting the suffering and death of Jesus. ... Maia Morgernstern (b. ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Holocaust (disambiguation) and Shoah (disambiguation). ... ION Television is a broadcast and cable television network first broadcast on August 31, 1998 under the name PAX TV (early on in its development, it was called PaxNet). ...


Gibson's religious beliefs, the film's inspiration, are Traditionist Catholicism, which rejects the Liturgical and Doctrinal changes spawned by the Second Vatican Council. He intended his movie to be faithful to a Traditional Catholic understanding of the New Testament[citation needed]. In The Passion: Photography from the Movie "The Passion of the Christ", Gibson says: The Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican, or Vatican II, was the twenty-first Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. ...

This is a movie about love, hope, faith, and forgiveness. He [Jesus] died for all mankind, suffered for all of us. It's time to get back to that basic message. The world has gone nuts. We could all use a little more love, faith, hope, and forgiveness.

It was me that put him on the cross. It was my sins [who put him there].

Gibson makes an appearance in the film, in close-up only: his hands nail Jesus to the cross. Yet, arguably, the strongest attacks on Gibson were for refusing to discuss the views of his father, Hutton Gibson, a vocal Sedevacantist who has alleged that much of the Holocaust is "fiction". Hutton Peter Gibson (born August 26, 1918) is a writer on religion and a Holocaust denier most notable for being the father of actor Mel Gibson. ... Sedevacantism is the belief that since the time of Pope John XXIII, who called the Second Vatican Council in the early 1960s, the office of pope of the Roman Catholic Church is not legitimately held by the persons widely acknowledged as pope, sitting in the Vatican. ... Richard Harwoods Did Six Million Really Die? Holocaust denial is the claim that the mainstream historical version of the Holocaust is either highly exaggerated or completely falsified. ...


Friends of the Gibsons say that, although Gibson loves his father and abides the Biblical dictum to honor his parents, they disagree on many subjects. One called Hutton Gibson an old man with strange ideas.[citation needed]


Director Gibson sternly rebuked ABC television reporter Diane Sawyer during the broadcast of a The Passion of the Christ infomercial when she brought up Hutton Gibson’s statements, ostensibly to give him opportunity to disagree with his father.[citation needed] Instead, Gibson said, This article is about the American broadcast network. ...

"I love my father cause he's my father. . . Gotta leave it alone, Diane . . . Gotta leave it alone."

Many saw this as a missed opportunity for Mel Gibson. Others, however, have said that Diane Sawyer was asking a loaded question and received the response she expected.[citation needed]

Title changes

On October 17, 2003, Gibson's film production company announced the title of the film had been changed from The Passion to The Passion of Christ, because the title The Passion had already been trademarked by a different motion picture. This was then further amended to The Passion of the Christ. The following week Gibson announced a distribution arrangement had been reached with the independent Newmarket Films. is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Newmarket Films is an American film production and film distribution company which is a subsidiary of Newmarket Capital Group. ...


Promotion

Gibson departed from the usual film marketing formula: a small-scale television advert campaign, no press junkets, etc. [3] Yet The Passion of the Christ was heavily promoted by many church groups, both within their organizations and to the general public, often giving away free tickets. The pre-release controversy about its alleged anti-Semitism helped sell it. The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ...


Some evangelical Christians considered the film's release a crucial moment for evangelism. In 2004, Marta Poling-Goldenne, Outreach Minister for the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America Grand Canyon Synod said in an e-mail to pastors: Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The word evangelicalism often refers to... Look up evangelist in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (ELCA) is a mainline Protestant denomination headquartered in Chicago, Illinois. ... The Grand Canyon Synod of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America is a synod, or diocese of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (ELCA). ...

Seize this mission moment, friends! God is providing "the best outreach opportunity in the last 2,000 years" for us to witness about the gospel story to people for whom it may be very unfamiliar or unknown.[cite this quote] This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Gospel, from the Old English good tidings is a calque of Greek () used in the New Testament (see Etymology below). ...

Bloggers claim the film's promotion campaign used blog spam [4] [5], mainly on LiveJournal, to increase the Google ranking of the film's web page. Based on that film's marketing strategy, Walt Disney Pictures acted similarly for their film adaptation of C.S. Lewis's The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe, which contains much Christian symbolism. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... LiveJournal (often abbreviated LJ) is a virtual community where Internet users can keep a blog, journal, or diary. ... Old logo from 1985-2006 Walt Disney Pictures refers to several different entities associated with The Walt Disney Company: Walt Disney Pictures, the film banner, was established as a designation in 1983, prior to which Disney films since the death of Walt Disney were released under the name of the... Clive Staples Lewis (November 29, 1898 – November 22, 1963), commonly referred to as C. S. Lewis, was an author and scholar. ...


Statistics

  • Production Budget $25,000,000
  • Prints and Advertising Budget $10,000,000
  • US Gross: $370,800,000
  • Worldwide Gross $610,000,000
  • The Passion of the Christ soundtrack (original score by John Debney) was the top CD sold in America through the first three weeks the film was released. It is also the highest grossing soundtrack in history.[citation needed]

John Debney (born Glendale, California, 18 August 1956) is a prolific American film composer who received an Oscar nomination for his score for Mel Gibson`s The Passion of the Christ. ...

Commercial success

After months of controversy that led to more pre-release sales than any film in history, the movie opened in the United States on February 25, 2004 (Ash Wednesday, the beginning of Lent). It earned $25 million per day in its first five days of release and in short order became the highest-grossing R-rated film ever made. In spite of the criticism, the movie grossed $611,899,420 worldwide ($370,782,930 in the US alone) and is currently the eleventh highest-grossing film and the highest-grossing R-rated film of all time.[6] Despite this, the film went without any significant recognition by the major American film award celebrations, although it was nominated for Best Original Score (music), Best Cinematography, and Best Makeup at the 77th Academy Awards. is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In the Western Christian calendar, Ash Wednesday is the first day of Lent. ... It has been suggested that Cuaresma be merged into this article or section. ... The MPAA film rating system is a system used in the United States and territories and instituted by the Motion Picture Association of America to rate a movie based on its content. ... The Academy Award for Original Music Score is presented to the best substantial body of music in the form of dramatic underscoring written specifically for the film by the submitting composer. ... The Academy Award for Best Cinematography is awarded each year to a cinematographer for his work in one particular motion picture. ... These are the Academy Award for Makeup winners and nominees: 1980s 1982 Quest for Fire Gandhi 1983 none given 1984 Amadeus 2010: The Year We Make Contact Greystoke: The Legend of Tarzan, Lord of the Jungle 1985 Mask The Color Purple 1986 The Fly The Clan of the Cave Bear... The 77th Academy Awards, honoring the best in film for 2004, were held on February 27, 2005, at the Kodak Theatre in Hollywood, California. ...


Home video

On August 31, 2004 the film was released on DVD, VHS, and later D-VHS in North America. As with the original release in cinemas, the release of the film on home formats proved to be very popular. Early reports indicated that over 2.4 million copies of the film were sold by the middle of the day. The film was available on DVD with English and Spanish subtitles, and on VHS tape with English subtitles. is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... DVD (also known as Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc) is a popular optical disc storage media format. ... Bottom view of VHS cassette with magnetic tape exposed Top view of VHS cassette with front casing removed The Video Home System, better known by its abbreviation VHS, is a recording and playing standard. ... D-VHS logo DVHS redirects here. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... In printed material In printed material, a subtitle is an explanatory or alternate title. ... Bottom view of VHS cassette with magnetic tape exposed Top view of VHS cassette with front casing removed The Video Home System, better known by its abbreviation VHS, is a recording and playing standard. ...


Re-release

An edited version, titled The Passion Recut was released on March 11, 2005, with some five minutes of the most explicit violence deleted, in an effort to broaden the audience for the film, however, it failed commercially — just 950 North American cinemas, averaging 10 viewers — and was quickly removed from circulation. Despite the deletions, the Motion Picture Association of America deemed the film too violent to rate PG-13, so Gibson released it unrated, which limited business, because most cinema owners refuse to show unrated films; others did not show The Passion Recut, because the original version was already available on DVD and VHS. is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... MPAA redirects here. ... The MPAA film rating system is a system used in the United States and instituted by the Motion Picture Association of America to rate a movie based on its content. ... DVD (also known as Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc) is a popular optical disc storage media format. ... Bottom view of VHS cassette with magnetic tape exposed Top view of VHS cassette with front casing removed The Video Home System, better known by its abbreviation VHS, is a recording and playing standard. ...


"Exhibitors can decide for themselves how they want to handle the situation," Berney said. "Some may choose to still treat it as an 'R' and not let teens see it, unless accompanied by adults. Others may be willing to treat it as a 'PG-13'. The film is still probably too intense for children, but Mel hoped to make it more available for teens."


International box office

Outside of the US, however, the movie has had mixed success. Although as of January 3, 2005, it has the 25th highest all-time worldwide gross ($611.6 million) [7], its non-US ranking is 59th [8]. is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


This is not the result of a lack of interest in countries without Christian majorities, as its success in many Christian-majority countries has also been less than stellar. The film was banned in several countries, including Israel and parts of France, as well as many Muslim nations. For example, it did not make the top-100 all time UK box office list as of January 18, 2005 [9] and its position as of October 31, 2004 stood at 132nd [10]. Similarly in Australia, as of March 2, 2005 it held the 116th position [11] or the 294th position in the adjusted list [12]. is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


As of November 22, 2004, it was below the 140th position in the German all-time box office [13] and as of August 10, 2004, it was below the 121st position in the French all-time box office [14]. The figures suggest its position in both countries would be quite a bit lower than the lowest listed positions [15]. The movie was reported by the Christian Science Monitor [16] to have been a great success in the Muslim world. For example, it was the top grossing movie for three consecutive weeks in Egypt [17], Lebanon [18] and Turkey [19] and also at least 2 consecutive weeks in United Arab Emirates [20]. It also broke the record for the top grossing opening week for a non-Egyptian movie in Egypt [21] and as of 21st February 2005 was number 11th in the all-time Egyptian box office for non-Egyptian movies [22]. is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Christian Science Monitor (CSM) is an international newspaper published daily, Monday through Friday. ... Nations with a Muslim majority appear in green, while nations that are approximately 50% Muslim appear yellow. ...


The Definitive Edition DVD

Although the original DVD release of The Passion of The Christ sold well, it contained no extra materials other than soundtrack language selections. That plain edition provoked speculation about when a special edition would be released. On January 30, 2007, a two-disc Definitive Edition of The Passion of The Christ was released in the American markets, and March 26 in the United Kingdom market and elsewhere. It contains several documentaries, soundtrack commentaries, deleted scenes, outtakes, the 2005 re-edited version, and the original 2004 cinema version. However, This special edition DVD was extremely hard to find in Canada, and was easier to find on the internet. is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...


Source material

Collectively, the Gospels are not a unique narrative of the Passion of the Christ. According to John, Sanhedrin aides arrested Jesus, and only Annas and Caiaphas interrogated him, without benefit of trial. Yet, the Synoptic Gospels, say Jesus was arrested by Jewish Temple guards and condemned by the Sanhedrin. In the New Testament of the Christian Bible, gospels Matthew, Mark, and Luke are so similar that they are called the synoptic gospels (from Greek, συν, syn, together, and οψις, opsis, seeing). ...


Director Gibson intended fidelity to the New Testament, yet expanded the screenplay by making use of addition sources. The principal, most controversial source is The Dolorous Passion of Our Lord Jesus Christ, the meditations of the stigmatic, German nun Blessed Anne Catherine Emmerich (1774–1824), as told to the poet Clemens Brentano. Her vision of Christ’s Passion depicts certain Jews as more vicious and bloodthirsty than the Romans ruling Judaea. A secondary, extra-biblical source is The Mystical City of God by Maria de Agreda (1602–1665), a 17th century Spanish nun, and some imagined sequences. This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... This article is about stigmata in the religious sense. ... Blessed may refer to: The state of having received a blessing. ... Blessed Anne Catherine Emmerich (8 September 1774 - 9 February 1824) was a Catholic Augustinian nun, stigmatic, and ecstatic. ... Clemens Brentano, or Klemens Brentano (September 8, 1778 – July 28, 1842) was a German poet and novelist. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Desert hills in southern Judea, looking east from the town of Arad Judea or Judaea (יהודה Praise, Standard Hebrew Yəhuda, Tiberian Hebrew Yəhûḏāh) is a term used for the mountainous southern part of historic Palestine, an area now divided... Maria Fernandez Coronel, Abbess of Agreda or, known in religion as Sor (Sister) Maria de Jesus (1602–1665), also known as the Blue Nun, was born at Agreda, on the borders of Navarre and Aragon, on 2 April 1602. ...


Many critics noted that the costumes worn by the Blessed Virgin (Maia Morgenstern) and Mary Magdalene (Monica Bellucci) resemble the habit of the Augustinian Order nuns, in homage to Emmerich. Blessed Virgin Mary A traditional Catholic picture displayed sometimes in homes. ... Maia Morgernstern (b. ... This article is about the disciple of Jesus. ... Monica Anna Maria Bellucci (born September 30, 1964) is an Italian actress and former fashion model. ... St. ... The Augustinians, named after Saint Augustine of Hippo (died AD 430), are several Roman Catholic monastic orders and congregations of both men and women living according to a guide to religious life known as the Rule of Saint Augustine. ...


Timothy K. Beal, a professor of religion at Case Western Reserve University, writes in an essay in The Chronicle of Higher Education that The Passion of the Christ is based primarily on the Gospel of John -- and that this is one of the reasons why the film usually draws strongly positive reactions from Christians and strongly negative reactions from non-Christians. The Gospel of John "is an insider text, full of ironies that outsiders just don't get," Beal writes. "Its Jesus repeatedly baffles those not part of his inner circle of 'friends' -- above all, the Jews -- with his teachings, which focus predominantly on his own identity as the incarnation of God, the way, the truth, and the life. His explanations only bewilder and alienate others but are immanently clear to his disciples and the Gospel's readers, who have the necessary gnosis." Case Western Reserve University is a university in Cleveland, Ohio, United States, with some residence halls on the south end of campus located in Cleveland Heights. ... The Chronicle of Higher Education is a newspaper that is a source of news, information, and jobs for college and university faculty and administration. ... Look up incarnation, incarnate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The Passion of the Christ "is something of a filmic version of John's Gospel in this respect," Beal writes. "It works the same way on its viewers that the Gospel of John does on its readers, bringing insiders together and affirming their special knowledge while snubbing the rest. It makes little effort to help them 'get it.' Those who know the truth see it, it seems to be saying, and those who don't can't."[1]


Differences from the New Testament

Several theologians note that The Passion of the Christ significantly departs from its New Testament source. The reasons for the discrepancy, when known, vary, but tend to either reflect Gibson's personal belief, common representations, or artistic license. The Artistic License is a software license used for certain free software packages, most notably the standard Perl implementation, most of CPAN modules and Parrot, which are dual-licensed under the Artistic License and the GNU General Public License (GPL). ...

  • In the Garden of Gethsemane, Jesus crushes a serpent's head in allusion to Genesis 3:15 and the Protoevangelion.[23]
  • A Temple guard, sent to arrest Jesus in the Garden, drops and suspends him from a small bridge, this is from The Dolorous Passion of our Lord Jesus Christ, Chapter 3.
  • Judas's suicide is provoked by children whose faces metamorphose, revealing them as demons. Acts 1:16–19 says he fell headlong and was disemboweled [24]; Emmerich, Chapter 14, says he fled as if a thousand furies were at his heel, and that Satan was beside him, provoking despair; and Matthew 27:3–8 says Judas hanged himself.
  • Some Jews oppose the absence of the Sanhedrin quorum, challenging the trial's legitimacy, implying the Jewish priest leaders are treating Jesus illegally. Emmerich, Chapter 13, mentions similar events.
  • When Jesus first appears before the Pontius Pilate, Roman Governor of Judea, the man he sees is bloodied. He asks the Sanhedrin if they customarily beat prisoners before trial, says Emmerich in Chapter 17.
  • King Herod Antipas is an effeminate homosexual pederast, a stereotype common to medieval Passion plays; not so in the Gospels nor in Josephus's accounts, wherein he is a womanizer.
  • Mary Magdalene, is the adulteress saved from stoning execution by Jesus. Her being the prototypical adulteress is neither Biblically supported nor Catholic dogma. Contemporary scholars argue that the adulterous woman passage is extra-biblical, hence a contentious subject among Traditionalist Catholics and others, within and without the Church.
  • Pilate discusses with his wife his fragile relationship with Tiberius Caesar, emphasizing caesarean orders to avert Judean revolts, says Emmerich, Chapter 19. Matthew mentions only a message from Pilate’s wife, delivered while he hears the Christ case.
  • Caiaphas answers Pilate's questions: What shall I do with this man?, et cetera, yet the Gospels only say his queries were answered by "the chief priests" and "the crowd" and "the Jews".
  • Barabbas is called a murderer; the Gospels are inconclusive on his criminal identity. Matthew 27:16, John 18:40 identifies him as a robber, and Mark 15:7 and Luke 23:19 have him imprisoned for rioting and murder during the insurrection. Acts 3:14, written by Luke, identify Barabbas as a murderer.
  • During the scourging, Jesus is nearly flayed alive; the gospels (Matthew 27:26, Mark 15:15, John 19:1), say only that he was scourged. However, Gibson placed the Isaiah 53:5 passage at the very beginning of the film, which is a Messianic prophecy; just before that, in Isaiah 52:14, Scripture states "His appearance was marred more than any man, and His form more than the sons of men." (NASB translation)
  • After the scourging, Mary wipes Jesus's blood with towels given her by Pilate’s wife, per Emmerich, Chapter 23.
  • On the Via Dolorosa, Jesus is whipped by a soldier.
  • A soldier debases Simon of Cyrene (who helped Jesus bear the cross), by calling him Jew. Only Simon’s name, place of origin, and his helping Jesus are in all three Synoptic Gospels, per Emmerich, Chapter 36.
  • On the Via Dolorosa, the image of Jesus's face is imprinted to Veronica's Veil, an extra-biblical event that is Roman Catholic tradition; Emmerich, in Chapter 34, includes Veronica offering drink to Jesus.
  • On the Via Dolorosa, Jesus thrice falls under the weight of the cross; Mary aids and comforts him. These extra-biblical events are of the Stations of the Cross tradition of the Roman Catholic Church, not Gospel. Yet Simon's Roman compulsion to help Christ bear the cross is Gospel. Emmerich describes seven falls and the encounters with Mary, in chapters 31–36.
  • When Jesus’s right arm does not reach a cross nail hole, a soldier dislocates it from the shoulder by pulling it with a rope until the palm reaches the nail hole, per Emmerich, Chapter 38.
  • After Jesus is nailed to the cross, but before it is raised, soldiers turn the Christ-bearing cross face-down, Jesus and the cross levitate above the ground, and, when turned face-up, it strikes the ground hard; a miracle showing God controls these events; only Mary Magdalene is witness.
  • The names of the thieves crucified alongside the Christ, Dismas and Gesmas (also Gestas), are traditional, but extra-Scriptural, per Emmerich, Chapter 43, and the apocryphal Acts of Pilate, aka the Gospel of Nicodemus.
  • The crucified thief who mocked Jesus is mercilessly pecked by a crow.
  • Jesus builds a modern, four-legged table, one requiring chairs to sit at; Mary tells him it will never catch on. (This possibly was included for some sort of "comic relief" to balance the ultra-tense moments in the movie.)
  • Caiaphas and his aide watch Christ's scourging.
  • Satan (in womanly guise) rouses the rabble to shout: "Crucify him! Crucify him!"
  • Satan is shown carrying a Demon baby during Christ’s flogging. Mel Gibson is reported to have said

    it's evil distorting what’s good. What is more tender and beautiful than a mother and a child? So the Devil takes that and distorts it just a little bit. Instead of a normal mother and child you have an androgynous figure holding a 40-year-old ‘baby’ with hair on his back. It is weird, it is shocking, it's almost too much – just like turning Jesus over to continue scourging him on his chest is shocking and almost too much, which is the exact moment when this appearance of the Devil and the baby takes place. For other uses, see Genesis (disambiguation). ... For the literature genre, see Acts of the Apostles (genre). ... For the tractate in the Mishnah, see Sanhedrin (tractate). ... Look up quorum in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Herod Antipas (short for Antipatros) was an ancient leader (tetrarch, meaning ruler of a quarter) of Galilee and Perea. ... Effeminacy is character trait of a male showing femininity, unmanliness, womanliness, weakness, softness and/or a delicacy, which contradicts traditional masculine, male gender roles. ... Since its coinage, the word homosexuality has acquired multiple meanings. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... A fanciful representation of Flavius Josephus, in an engraving in William Whistons translation of his works Josephus (37 – sometime after 100 CE),[1] who became known, in his capacity as a Roman citizen, as Titus Flavius Josephus,[2] was a 1st-century Jewish historian and apologist of priestly and... This article is about the disciple of Jesus. ... The Pericope Adulteræ (pur-IC-op-ee uh-DUL-ter-igh), meaning the passage of the adulterous woman in Latin, is the name traditionally given to verses 7:53–8:11 of the Gospel of John, which is usually referred to in English as the woman taken in adultery... Traditionalist Catholic and Traditional Catholic are broad terms used to denote Roman Catholics who reject some or all of the reforms that were instituted after the Second Vatican Council, in particular the revised rite of Mass, which was promulgated in 1969 by Pope Paul VI as part of the process... Claudia Procula was, according to Christian legend, the wife of Pontius Pilate. ... For other persons named Tiberius, see Tiberius (disambiguation). ... A Reenacting of the event in the Via Dolorosa Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic... According to the Gospel of Mark (15:21-22), Matthew (27:32), and Luke (23:26) Simon of Cyrene (שמעון Hearkening; listening, Standard Hebrew Šimʿon, Tiberian Hebrew Šimʿôn) was compelled by the Romans to carry the cross of Jesus as... In the New Testament of the Christian Bible, gospels Matthew, Mark, and Luke are so similar that they are called the synoptic gospels (from Greek, συν, syn, together, and οψις, opsis, seeing). ... Veronicas veil, painting by Domenico Fetti (circa 1620). ... The 12th Station of the Cross - Jesus dies on the Cross. ... Saint Dismas (sometimes spelled Dysmas or Dimas), also known as the Good Thief, is the apocryphal name given to one of the thieves who was crucified alongside Christ according to the Gospel of Luke 23:39-43: And one of the malefactors which were hanged railed on him, saying, If... Gestas, also spelled Gesmas is the apocryphal name (first appearing in the Gospel of Nicodemus) given to one of the two thieves who was crucified alongside Jesus. ... The Acts of Pilate (Latin Acta Pilati) is a book of the New Testament apocrypha. ... The Acts of Pilate, also known as the Gospel of Nicodemus, is a book of the New Testament apocrypha. ... “Fiend” redirects here. ...

  • The earthquake described by Matthew split open the Temple down its the center, yet the Gospels report that only the curtain at the Holy of Holies was split. The Gospel of the Ebionites a theologically deviant version of Matthew's Gospel, reports that the Temple's lintel split. At the moment of Jesus's death, Nature unleashes her power, and Satan rages in Hell, because he has been defeated; the redemption is accomplished.

A Holy of Holies is the most sacred place within a sacred building. ... The Gospel of the Ebionites is a text sharing an affinity with the Gospel of the Hebrews and the Gospel of the Nazarenes. ...

Historicity (per different religious traditions)

  • In the opinion of most scholars, whether religious or secular, an exchange between Pilate and the Jewish crowd, or between Pilate and Jesus, would most likely have been conducted in Koine Greek, the lingua franca of the eastern Mediterranean. In the film, however, there is no Greek spoken. Pilate begins his conversation with Jesus in Aramaic, and Jesus' reply, together with the rest of the conversation, is in Latin; Pilate's exchange with the Jewish crowd is in Aramaic. Also, the Gospels say the inscription on the Cross was in three languages, namely "Hebrew" (meaning Aramaic), Greek and Latin, but in the film the Greek version is lacking.
  • In the film, Pilate is depicted as sympathetic to Jesus, following a common Christian interpretation of the Gospels, although he is fearful of Rome's political reaction should complaint of his brutality reach the capital. Josephus, however, records that Pilate acted barbarously against the Jews, and only showed mercy when they protested en masse. The testimony of Josephus suggests that Pilate's alleged sympathy for Jesus was rather a fear that the execution of Jesus would create a popular outbreak.
  • The spoken Latin is Ecclesiastical Latin (the Latin of the Roman Catholic Church), which is pronounced in a manner vaguely similar to modern Italian.[citation needed]. The Ecclesiastical pronunication has been accused of being inaccurate for the time in which the film is set.
  • The Hebrew phrase Ma nishtana ha-layla ha-ze me-kol ha-leylot? (What makes this night different from all the other nights?) traditionally is uttered at Pesach seders. It is in the Haggadah rather than in the Tanakh. Tradition holds the Haggadah was written after the fall of the Second Temple, A.D. 70. It is an opening line of dialogue spoken by the Virgin Mary, of the film's little Hebrew dialogue.

Koine redirects here. ... The 12th Station of the Cross - Jesus dies on the Cross. ... The term Ecclesiastical Latin (sometimes called Church Latin) refers to the Latin language as used in documents of the Roman Catholic Church and in its Latin liturgies. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... Passover, also known as Pesach or Pesah (פסח pesaḥ), is a Jewish holiday (lasting seven days in Israel and among some liberal Diaspora Jews, and eight days among other Diaspora Jews) that commemorates the exodus and freedom of the Israelites from Egypt; it is also observed by... Table set for the Passover Seder The Passover Seder (Hebrew: סֵדֶר, , order, arrangement) is a Jewish ritual feast held on the first night of the Jewish holiday of Passover (the 15th day of Hebrew month of Nisan). ... Haggadah for Passover (fourteenth century). ... For the musical collective, see Tanakh (band). ... A stone (2. ... This article is about the year 70. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... African Americans, also known as Afro-Americans or black Americans, are an ethnic group in the United States of America whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Sub-Saharan and West Africa. ... Black Jesus redirects here. ...

Mary, Mother of Jesus

Mary is the most important female figure in Roman Catholic tradition. She is Christ's perfect follower and united herself to his sufferings. Much of the movie's portrayal of her focuses on these themes.

  • Simon Peter addresses her as "Mother".
  • Satan holds a demon baby, which she shows to Christ, in mocking parallel of Mary's maternity.
  • When Christ falls while carrying the cross, Mary runs to him. Christ says, "See, mother, I make all things new." The Gospels do not mention this incident enroute to Calvary hill, but it is in the via crucis. The line is quoted from the Book of Revelation in the New Testament.
  • Before Mary and Jesus meet enroute to Calvary there is a flashback: the child Jesus trips and falls, Mary runs to him and holds him.

The Eucharist

According to Roman Catholic teaching of transubstatiation, Jesus's words at the Last Supper, This is my body (the bread), this is... my blood (the wine) are meant literally. In the Eucharist (the communion supper), the consecrated bread and wine is the body, blood, soul, and divinity of Jesus Christ. The sacrificial nature of the Catholic Mass is in the Eucharist made present in his crucifixion.

  • John the Apostle remembers the Last Supper and Christ's words, This is my body... given for you, paralleled with Christ lifted and nailed to the cross, a Eucharistic allusion.
  • Mother Mary and Mary Magdalene wipe Jesus's blood after his scourging, (with cloths given them by Claudia, Pilate's wife). This is from Anne Catherine Emmerich's writing, not Catholic teaching, about the Precious Blood, the wine of the Eucharist, the blood of the Christ.

The Stations of the Cross

The Via Crucis (The Way of the Cross) or the Stations of the Cross is the Catholic tradition about the fourteen events that occurred to Christ as he carried the cross enroute to Calvary hill; not all are in the Gospels, yet all are depicted: The 12th Station of the Cross - Jesus dies on the Cross. ...

  • 1. Jesus is condemned to death
  • 2. Jesus carries his cross
  • 3. Jesus falls the first time (thrice in the via crucis; sevenfold in the film)
  • 4. Jesus meets his mother (unmentioned in the Gospels)
  • 5. Simon helps Jesus carry his cross
  • 6. Veronica wipes the face of Jesus (not Gospel, but tradition)
  • 7. Jesus falls the second time
  • 8. Jesus meets the women of Jerusalem (in the film he does not exchange words with them, as in the Gospel).
  • 9. Jesus falls the third time
  • 10. Jesus is stripped of his garments
  • 11. Jesus is nailed to the cross
  • 12. Jesus is lifted up on the cross and dies
  • 13. Jesus is taken down from the cross and laid in the arms of his mother
  • 14 Jesus is laid in the tomb (the entrance stone was shown opening and closing but the film does not show Jesus being buried)

Critical perceptions

Anti-Semitism

The Jewish organisation ADL considers The Passion of the Christ religiously controversial; worrying that the movie was collectively blaming the Jews for the death of Jesus.[4] However, National Socialist Front (a Swedish Neo-Nazi party) has launched a campaign, which defends Mel Gibson over the criticism he received by Abraham Foxman for making the movie.[5] The Anti-Defamation League (or ADL) is an advocacy group founded by Bnai Brith in the United States whose stated aim is to stop, by appeals to reason and conscience and, if necessary, by appeals to law, the defamation of the Jewish people. ... // About the party The National Socialist Front (Swedish: Nationalsocialistisk Front), also known as the NSF, is Swedens greatest national socialistic political party. ... The terms Neo-Nazism and Neo-Fascism refer to any social or political movement to revive Nazism or Fascism, respectively, and postdates the Second World War. ... Mel Columcille Gerard Gibson (born January 3, 1956) is an American-born actor, director and producer. ... Abraham Henry Foxman (born 1940) is the current National Director and chairman of the Anti-Defamation League of Bnai Brith. ...


Anti-Semitism

Stokes contemporary anti-Semitism[attribution needed]. A year before the film's release there was much impassioned controversy about whether or not The Passion of the Christ is as historically anti-semitic as are most passion plays and so would incite anti-Semitism[citation needed]. The Anti-Defamation League (ADL) of B'nai B'rith wrote to director Mel Gibson, expressing their fear that his version may unintentionally do so. The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... The Anti-Defamation League (or ADL) is an advocacy group founded by Bnai Brith in the United States whose stated aim is to stop, by appeals to reason and conscience and, if necessary, by appeals to law, the defamation of the Jewish people. ... Bnai Brith Membership Certificate, 1876. ...


The Jewish community were concerned with again being accused of deicide — the usual justification for pogroms[attribution needed]. Rabbis in Orthodox Judaism, Reform Judaism, and Conservative Judaism were fearful that any movie based upon traditional Christian passion plays could only be interpreted by its target audiences as encouragingly anti-semitic[attribution needed]. Jewish communal organisations and Jewish community newspapers voiced similar fears, yet Jesuit priest Fr. William Fulco, S.J., of Loyola Marymount University — and the film's Aramaic dialogue translator — often defended the movie against that, saying the script did not violate the 1988 criteria of the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops for Jewish portrayals in Passional dramatisations in avoiding deliberate and inadvertent antisemitism.[25] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Pogrom (from Russian: ; from громить IPA: - to wreak havoc, to demolish violently) is a form of riot directed against a particular group, whether ethnic, religious or other, and characterized by destruction of their homes, businesses and religious centres. ... Orthodox Judaism is the formulation of Judaism that adheres to a relatively strict interpretation and application of the laws and ethics first canonised in the Talmudic texts (Oral Torah) and as subsequently developed and applied by the later authorities known as the Gaonim, Rishonim, and Acharonim. ... Reform Judaism can refer to (1) the largest denomination of American Jews and its sibling movements in other countries, (2) a branch of Judaism in the United Kingdom, and (3) the historical predecessor of the American movement that originated in 19th-century Germany. ... This article is about Conservative (Masorti) Judaism in the United States. ... Reverend William J. Fulco (born February 24, 1936, Los Angeles) is a Jesuit priest and National Endowment for the Humanities Professor of Ancient Mediterranean Studies at Loyola Marymount University in Los Angeles, California in the United States. ... Loyola Marymount University (LMU) is a comprehensive co-educational private Roman Catholic Jesuit university in Los Angeles, California, USA. The University is one of 28 member institutions of the Association of Jesuit Colleges and Universities and one of five Marymount institutions of higher education. ... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a four-thousand year history. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... The United States Conference of Catholic Bishops (also known as the USCCB) is the official governing body of the Roman Catholic Church in the United States. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial...


Provoking more criticism, director Gibson held private screenings for prominent, politically and socially conservative Christian and Jewish religious leaders; yet denied the ADL's request. Yet, right-wing American film reviewer, Michael Medved — a Jewish columnist and film reviewer — praised the movie's Biblical accuracy; despite a February 16, 2004, Newsweek cover story by Jon Meacham reports the movie's many inaccuracies. Similarly, the ADL stated:[26] Michael Medved (born October 3, 1948) is a Jewish-American, neoconservative radio talk show host, film critic, and author. ... The Newsweek logo Newsweek is a weekly news magazine published in New York City and distributed throughout the United States and internationally. ... Jon Meacham is the managing editor of Newsweek and is mostly recently the author of the book American Gospel, published in April by Random House. ...

For filmmakers to do justice to the biblical accounts of the passion, they must complement their artistic vision with sound scholarship, which includes knowledge of how the passion accounts have been used historically to disparage and attack Jews and Judaism. Absent such scholarly and theological understanding, productions such as The Passion could likely falsify history and fuel the animus of those who hate Jews.

An Icon Productions employee gave an early version script of the script to a joint committee of the Secretariat for Ecumenical and Inter-religious Affairs of the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops and the Department of Inter-religious Affairs of the Anti-Defamation League, who concluded[27] that The Passion of the Christ is: Icon Productions LLC is an American independent production company founded in August 1989 by American-born actor/director Mel Gibson and producing partner Bruce Davey. ... The Anti-Defamation League (or ADL) is an advocacy group founded by Bnai Brith in the United States whose stated aim is to stop, by appeals to reason and conscience and, if necessary, by appeals to law, the defamation of the Jewish people. ...

one of the most troublesome texts, relative to anti-Semitic potential, that any of us had seen in twenty-five years. It must be emphasized that the main storyline presented Jesus as having been relentlessly pursued by an evil cabal of Jews, headed by the high priest Caiaphas, who finally blackmailed a weak-kneed Pilate into putting Jesus to death. This is precisely the storyline that fueled centuries of anti-Semitism within Christian societies. This is also a storyline rejected by the Roman Catholic Church at Vatican II in its document Nostra Aetate, and by nearly all mainline Protestant churches in parallel documents . . . . Unless this basic storyline has been altered by Mr. Gibson, a fringe Catholic who is building his own church in the Los Angeles area and who apparently accepts neither the teachings of Vatican II nor modern biblical scholarship, The Passion of the Christ retains a real potential for undermining the repudiation of classical Christian anti-Semitism by the churches in the last forty years. Catholic Church redirects here. ... The Second Vatican Council, or Vatican II, was an Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church opened under Pope John XXIII in 1962 and closed under Pope Paul VI in 1965. ... Nostra Aetate is the Declaration on the Relation of the Church with Non-Christian Religions of the Second Vatican Council. ...

When The Passion of the Christ was released, although some Jews supported Gibson, the overwhelming Jewish reaction was negative[attribution needed]. In The Nation, reviewer Katha Pollitt said, "Gibson has violated just about every precept of the (United States Conference of Catholic Bishops) conference's own 1988 "Criteria" for the portrayal of Jews in dramatizations of the Passion (no bloodthirsty Jews, no rabble, no use of Scripture that reinforces negative stereotypes of Jews, etc.)". [28] The Nation (ISSN 0027-8378) is a weekly [1] U.S. periodical devoted to politics and culture, self-described as the flagship of the left. ... Katha Pollitt (born 1949) is an American feminist writer. ...


The Jewish community were concerned about these matters:

  • Most Jews, such as the High Priest, are ugly: "The priests have big noses and gnarly faces, lumpish bodies, yellow teeth; Herod Antipas and his court are a bizarre collection of oily-haired, epicene perverts. The "good Jews" look like Italian movie stars (Italian sex symbol Monica Bellucci is Mary Magdalene); Mary, who would have been around 50 and appeared 70, could pass for a ripe 35." [29]
  • The High Priest is a member in good standing of the Jewish community, and as controlling the Roman occupation; historians note the Romans disallowed Jews appointing their own High Priest, per their Biblical law, and that the contemporary High Priest was a Roman government employee.
  • Palestine Governor Pontius Pilate is a thoughtful, temperate man who ultimately agrees to Jesus's crucifixion, unwilling to risk either Jewish or Christian rebellions. Historians, including his contemporary Josephus, describe his barbarous treatment of Jews — crucifying many in his reign.
  • Pilate describes Barabbas as a notorious murderer, there is little textual evidence. Matthew 27:16 describes Barabbas as notorious, Luke 23: 19 implies his crimes as political, he "had been thrown into prison for an insurrection in the city, and for murder". Moreover, he is portrayed as mad, again for which there is no textual evidence. Collectively, these editorial choices render Barabbas's release more craven than the text supports. (also in hebrew, barabbas litterally means "son of the father, or christ).

When challenged if his movie defames contemporary Jews, director Gibson responded: "It's not meant to. I think it's meant to just tell the truth. I want to be as truthful as possible". In a Globe and Mail newspaper interview (February 14, 2004), he said: "If anyone has distorted Gospel passages to rationalize cruelty towards Jews or anyone, it's in defiance of repeated papal condemnation. The Papacy has condemned racism in any form" . . . . "Jesus died for the sins of all times, and I'll be the first on the line for culpability". Herod Antipas (short for Antipatros) was an ancient leader (tetrarch, meaning ruler of a quarter) of Galilee and Perea. ... 1) In linguistics, having only one form of the noun for both the male and the female. ... Monica Anna Maria Bellucci (born September 30, 1964) is an Italian actress and former fashion model. ... Even in death, many Kohanim choose to have this symbol, the special positioning of their fingers and hands during the Priestly Blessing, placed as a crest or symbol on their gravestones to indicate their status. ... A fanciful representation of Flavius Josephus, in an engraving in William Whistons translation of his works Josephus (37 – sometime after 100 CE),[1] who became known, in his capacity as a Roman citizen, as Titus Flavius Josephus,[2] was a 1st-century Jewish historian and apologist of priestly and... This article is about the biblical character Barabbas. ... The Globe and Mail is a large Canadian English language national newspaper based in Toronto. ... is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


An ADL web page posted on August 13, 2003 provided examples of anti-Semitic responses to the ADL's criticism of this project. [30] Critics of the ADL retorted that hateful e-mail sent them was not provoked by the film, yet to be released, rather, it was the ADL's attacks against a film about Jesus that motivated it. In response, the Catholic League accused the ADL of "seeking to poison relations between Catholics and Jews", that the "attacks on Mel Gibson have little to do with some off-the-cuff quips and everything to do with waging a frontal assault against all those people — Catholics, Protestants, Jews et al. — who have seen The Passion and love it." [31] is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Throughout history there have been many alliances and organizations known as the Catholic League, including: Catholic League (USA) - Civil rights group in the United States. ...


Other commentators who had seen it — Cal Thomas and Roger Ebert — also categorically denied that the film is anti-Semitic. [32] However, in the New Republic (8 March 2004), Leon Wieseltier said: "In its representation of its Jewish characters, The Passion of the Christ is without any doubt an anti-Semitic movie, and anybody who says otherwise knows nothing, or chooses to know nothing, about the visual history of anti-Semitism, in art and in film. What is so shocking about Gibson's Jews is how unreconstructed they are in their stereotypical appearances and actions. These are not merely anti-Semitic images; these are classically anti-Semitic images." [33] Cal Thomas is a conservative American syndicated columnist and author. ... Roger Joseph Ebert (born June 18, 1942) is a Pulitzer Prize-winning American film critic. ...


Positive views of Judaism

Some Orthodox JewsRabbi Daniel Lapin and Michael Medved — deny it is anti-Semitic and support it. Supporters also note the film's many positive Jewish portrayals: Simon (who helps Jesus carry the cross), Mary Magdalene, Mary, Peter, John and Veronica (she cleans Jesus's face). Orthodox Judaism is one of the three major branches of Judaism. ... Daniel Lapin is an Orthodox Jewish rabbi, and the president and founder of Toward Tradition, a group that promotes stronger ties and friendship between traditional conservative Jews and Christians. ... Michael Medved (born October 3, 1948) is a Jewish-American, neoconservative radio talk show host, film critic, and author. ...


A few politically conservative Orthodox Jews have rejected the anti-Semitism charges and publicly supported The Passion of the Christ. Rabbi Lapin, head of the Seattle-based Toward Tradition organisation, declared the ADL and its allies "dangerous organizations, organizations that are driving a wedge between American Jews and Christians." Referring to ADL national director Abraham Foxman, Lapin said, that in calling the movie anti-semitic, "what he is saying is that the only way to escape the wrath of Foxman is to repudiate your faith." [34] Morover, Rabbi Steven Pruzansky, leader of Congregation B'nai Yeshurun in Teaneck, New Jersey, attacked the film's Jewish critics as rodef (a rabbinical jurisprudce term) — assailants threatening Jewish lives, who may be killed to preempt the danger[citation needed]. Lapin can mean: A castrated rabbit. ... Abraham Henry Foxman (born 1940) is the current National Director and chairman of the Anti-Defamation League of Bnai Brith. ... Teaneck (pronounced ) is a township in Bergen County, New Jersey, and is a suburb of New York City. ... A rodef (Hebrew רודף, literally pursuer), in traditional Jewish law, is one who is pursuing another to murder him or her. ...


Senior Vatican officer Darío Cardinal Castrillón Hoyos, who has seen the film, addressed the matter so: [35]

Anti-Semitism, like all forms of racism, distorts the truth in order to put a whole race of people in a bad light. This film does nothing of the sort. It draws out from the historical objectivity of the Gospel narratives sentiments of forgiveness, mercy, and reconciliation. It captures the subtleties and the horror of sin, as well as the gentle power of love and forgiveness, without making or insinuating blanket condemnations against one group. This film expressed the exact opposite, that learning from the example of Christ, there should never be any more violence against any other human being.

Christian criticism

Fundamentalist Protestant groups criticised the film for its Catholic and ecumenical overtones. The Passion of the Christ is criticised by some Protestant Christian spokesmen for departing from New Testament accounts. Many scenes and details are from traditional Catholic passion plays and from Emmerich's book; many scenes and events are symbolic groundwork for the story, reflecting events found elsewhere in Christian scripture and in Catholic tradition. Fundamentalist Christianity, or Christian fundamentalism, is a movement that arose mainly within British and American Protestantism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries by conservative evangelical Christians, who, in a reaction to modernism, actively affirmed a fundamental set of Christian beliefs: the inerrancy of the Bible, Sola Scriptura, the... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Ecumenism (also oecumenism, Å“cumenism... A Passion play is a dramatic presentation depicting the suffering and death of Jesus. ...


On the other hand, in New Zealand, the Office of Film and Literature Classification was criticised by the fundamentalist Society for the Promotion of Community Standards for rating the film R16, out of bounds for minors, arguing that children younger than sixteen years of age should be allowed to see the film's explicitly violent depiction of Christ's suffering. The Office of Film and Literature Classification (OFLC, Māori: ) is the government agency in New Zealand that is responsible for classification of all films, videos, publications, and some video games in New Zealand. ... The Society for the Promotion of Community Standards (or SPCS) is a conservative Christian-dominated pro-censorship organisation in New Zealand. ...


The filmmakers defend said explicit violence as true to the letter and spirit of the Christian New Testament Scripture; others disagree, for example, the scene where soldiers push Jesus off a bridge is Emmerich's creation, it is not Gospel. Universal culpability for Jesus Christ's death is the principal doctrine of Christianity, a fundamental Catholic teaching since the 1st century, stated in the 1570 Catholic handbook Catechism of the Council of Trent: The Council of Trent is the Nineteenth Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. ...

In this guilt [for the Crucifixion] are involved all those who fall frequently into sin; for, as our sins consigned Christ the Lord to the death of the cross, most certainly those who wallow in sin and iniquity crucify to themselves again the Son of God, as far as in them lies, and make a mockery of him. This guilt seems more enormous in us than in the Jews, since according to the testimony of the same Apostle: If they had known it, they would never have crucified the Lord of Glory; while we, on the contrary, professing to know him, yet denying Him by our actions, seem in some sort to lay violent hands on Him.

Further controversy is about the dialogue: "His blood [is] on us and on our children!" (Matthew 27:25), which has been historically interpreted by anti-Semites as the curse upon Jewish people. Thus, Jewish religious groups asked this be removed from the film, which was deleted, however, only the subtitle was removed, the original dialogue remains in the Aramaic soundtrack.[36] The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination... For other uses, see Subtitle. ... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a four-thousand year history. ...


CNN reported that Pope John Paul II privately viewed the film before its release. [37] Supporters of Gibson’s interpretation of the Passion claimed that the Pope remarked to his friend, Monsignor Stanisław Dziwisz, "It is as it was"; Dziwisz denied that ever happened, yet it was widely reported the pope said so. CNN or Cable News Network is a cable television network that was founded in 1980 by Ted Turner & Reese Schonfeld [1]. It is a division of the Turner Broadcasting System, owned by Time Warner. ... Coat of Arms of Pope John Paul II. The Letter M is for Mary, the mother of Jesus, to whom he held strong devotion Pope John Paul II (Latin: , Italian: Giovanni Paolo II, Polish: Jan PaweÅ‚ II) born   []; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) reigned as the 264th Pope of... StanisÅ‚aw Dziwisz (born April 27, 1939 in Raba Wyżna), is the Roman Catholic Archbishop of Krakow in Poland. ...


Critical reaction

Critical reaction to The Passion of the Christ was mixed; per the website RottenTomatoes.com only 51 per cent of professional critics praised the film, yet 76 per cent of the viewers enjoyed it [38]. Similarly, critics rate it B-minus, and [39] Yahoo! users-viewers rate it B-plus [40]. It has garnered a score of 7.2/10 stars on the Internet Movie Database, based on 58,515 user reviews.[41] Yahoo redirects here. ...


Entertainment Weekly magazine's June 2006 issue named The Passion of the Christ the most controversial film of all time, followed by Stanley Kubrick's film A Clockwork Orange (1971). Ironically, A Clockwork Orange shows a Passion of the Christ daydream, wherein the protagonist, Alex de Large, is a Centurion whipping the cross-carrying Jesus enroute to Calvary hill. Moreover, Monty Pythons Flying Circus, described The Passion of the Christ film as "the same as ours, but without the jokes", a reference to their historical comedy The Life of Brian (1979), and influential newspaper movie reviewers praised The Passion of the Christ, one is mid-westerner Roger Ebert, who rated it four -of-four stars.[6] Kubrick redirects here. ... This article is about the film. ... Monty Pythons Flying Circus (aka Flying Circus or MPFC) was the popular BBC sketch comedy show from Monty Python. ... Life of Brian is a film from 1979 by Monty Python which deals with the life of Brian (played by Graham Chapman), a young man born at the nearly the same time as, and in a manger right down the street from Jesus. ...


This movie also inspired a South Park episode titled The Passion of the Jew. The episode is critical of the film, with character Stan Marsh referring to it as "a snuff film" and attempting to get his money back on the grounds that "you can't charge people to watch a guy get tortured for two hours". This article is about the TV series. ... The Passion of the Jew is episode 114 of the Comedy Central series South Park. ... Stanley Stan Marsh is a fictional character in the animated television series South Park. ... A snuff film, or snuff movie, depicts the actual killing of a human being - a human sacrifice (without the aid of special effects or other trickery) perpetrated for the medium of film for the purpose of entertainment and distribution. ...


Criticism of the explicit violence

Critics were troubled by the film's explicitly-detailed violence, and especially cautioned parents to avoid taking their children to the cinema. Although only one sentence in three of the Gospels mentions Jesus's flogging, and it is unmentioned in the fourth, The Passion of the Christ devotes ten minutes to the portrayal of the flogging. Newspaper movie reviewer Roger Ebert, who rated the movie four-of-four stars, said in his review: Roger Joseph Ebert (born June 18, 1942) is a Pulitzer Prize-winning American film critic. ...

The movie is 126 minutes long, and I would guess that at least 100 of those minutes, maybe more, are concerned specifically and graphically with the details of the torture and death of Jesus. This is the most violent film I have ever seen.

Ebert also mentioned that the R-rated film merits the MPAA NC-17 rating in a "Movie Answer Man" response, adding that no level-minded parent should ever allow children to see it.[7] The Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA) is a non-profit trade association formed to advance the interests of movie studios. ...


A.O. Scott, in The New York Times, said, The Passion of the Christ is so relentlessly focused on the savagery of Jesus' final hours that this film seems to arise less from love than from wrath, and to succeed more in assaulting the spirit than in uplifting it."[8] A.O. Scott (born July 10, 1966) is a film critic for The New York Times newspaper. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ...


David Edelstein, Slate Magazine 's fim critic, dubbed the film "a two-hour-and-six-minute snuff movie — The Jesus Chainsaw Massacre — that thinks it's an act of faith", and further criticised director Mel Gibson's focusing on the brutality of Jesus's execution, instead of his religious teachings.[9] David Edelstein is the chief film critic for New York Magazine, as well as the film critic for NPRs Fresh Air and CBS Sunday Morning. ... Categories: Magazines stubs | Microsoft subsidiaries | Websites | The Washington Post ...


During Diane Sawyer's interview of him, director Gibson said: Diane Sawyer is a television journalist for the U.S. network ABC News and co-anchor of ABCs Good Morning America, along with with Robin Roberts. ...

I wanted it to be shocking; and I wanted it to be extreme . . . . So that they see the enormity — the enormity of that sacrifice; to see that someone could endure that and still come back with love and forgiveness, even through extreme pain and suffering and ridicule. The actual crucifixion was more violent than what was shown on the film, but I thought no one would get anything out of it.

Music

Three CDs were released with Mel Gibson's co-operation: (i) the film soundtrack of John Debney's original orchestral score conducted by Nick Ingman; (ii) The Passion of the Christ: Songs, by producers Mark Joseph and Tim Cook, with original compositions by various artists, and (iii) the eponymously-titled The Passion of the Christ: Songs Inspired By. CD redirects here. ... Mel Columcille Gerard Gibson (born January 3, 1956) is an American-born actor, director and producer. ... The Passion of the Christ is the soundtrack, on the Sony label, of the 2004 Academy Award-nominated film The Passion of the Christ starring James Caviezel, Maia Morgenstern, Christo Jivkov, Francesco De Vito and Monica Bellucci. ... John Debney (born Glendale, California, 18 August 1956) is a prolific American film composer who received an Oscar nomination for his score for Mel Gibson`s The Passion of the Christ. ... Nick Ingman is an easy listening orchestra conductor and composer. ...


A preliminary score was composed and recorded by Lisa Gerrard and Patrick Cassidy, but was incomplete at film's release. Jack Lenz was the primary musical researcher and one of the composers[10]; several clips of his compositions have been posted. Lisa Gerrard (born April 12, 1961) is an Australian musician, singer and composer who gained international renown as part of the music group Dead Can Dance with Irish former partner Brendan Perry. ... Patrick Cassidy is an Irish classical composer. ... Jack Lenz is a Canadian Baháí composer. ...


See also

It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Jesus in popular culture. ... The 12th Station of the Cross - Jesus dies on the Cross. ...

References

  1. ^ Beal, Timothy K. (2004). "'The Passion': They Know Not What They Watch". The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved November 23, 2007.
  2. ^ “Mel wanted to make the actor playing Jesus (James Caviezel), look more ethnically Middle Eastern, and it was decided that we could do it best by changing the shape of his nose.
  3. ^ Shabazz believes "The Passion" is "harmful and racist" because of "one very basic inaccuracy which has been long-promoted in order to bolster white supremacy." That basic inaccuracy, according to Shabazz? "Jesus was not a European white man. Jesus Christ was a black man."
  4. ^ http://www.amazon.com/ABC-Primetime-Mel-Gibsons-Passion/dp/B0001NM7W0
  5. ^ The Passion of the Christ - NSF (Swedish). National Socialist Front. Retrieved on 2007-11-12.
  6. ^ Ebert, Roger. "Movie Reviews: The Passion of the Christ", Chicago Sun-Times, 2004-02-24. Retrieved on 2006-08-02. (English) 
  7. ^ [1] - "The Movie Answer Man", Chicago Sun-Times, March 7, 2004
  8. ^ Scott. A.O. (2004). "Good and Evil Locked In Violent Showdown". The New York Times. Retrieved July 8, 2007.
  9. ^ David Edelstein, "Jesus H. Christ" Slate Magazine
  10. ^ Official Website Bio
  1. Gibson breaks Hollywood’s 10 Commands - The Hollywood Reporter
  2. Official site - The Passion of the Christ
  3. Passion-movie.com
  4. http://www.adl.org/presrele/mise_00/4275_00.asp
  5. http://www.adl.org/anti_semitism/anti-semitic-responses.asp
  6. http://www.catholicleague.org/03press_releases/quarter3/030918_adl.htm
  7. http://www.townhall.com/columnists/calthomas/ct20030805.shtml
  8. http://www.nationalreview.com/comment/comment-gaspari091803.asp
  9. Apologetics Index entry on The Passion of the Christ
  10. South Park: The Passion of the Jew Episode also on the South Park Single-Disc DVD with the same title.
  11. S. Brent Plate, ed. Re-viewing the Passion: Mel Gibson's Film and Its Critics (New York: Palgrave, 2004]

// About the party The National Socialist Front (Swedish: Nationalsocialistisk Front), also known as the NSF, is Swedens greatest national socialistic political party. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Passion of the Jew is episode 114 of the Comedy Central series South Park. ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
The Passion of the Christ
Preceded by
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Box office number-one films of 2004 (USA)
February 29 - March 14, 2004
Succeeded by
Dawn of the Dead
Preceded by
Hellboy
Box office number-one films of 2004 (USA)
April 11, 2004
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  Results from FactBites:
 
The Passion of the Christ - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (8772 words)
The Passion of the Christ (2004) is a film about the last twelve hours of the life of Jesus Christ, known to Christians as "the Passion".
Gibson, a fringe Catholic who is building his own church in the Los Angeles area and who apparently accepts neither the teachings of Vatican II nor modern biblical scholarship, The Passion of the Christ retains a real potential for undermining the repudiation of classical Christian anti-Semitism by the churches in the last 40 years.
From the evidence of "The Passion of the Christ," however, what he seems to love as much is the cinematic depiction of flayed, severed, swollen, scarred flesh and rivulets of spilled blood, the crack of bashed bones and the groans of someone enduring the ultimate physical agony.
USCCB - (Film and Broadcasting) - The Passion of the Christ (1749 words)
While it is the film's assertion that responsibility for Christ's torture and death rests squarely with the Roman authorities, and away from the collective Jewish populace, the movie presents a historically skewed depiction of the Temple elite's sway with their imperial overlords.
Rather it is a composite of the Passion narratives in the four Gospels embroidered with non-scriptural traditions as well as the imaginative inspiration of the filmmaker.
But for Christians, "The Passion of the Christ" is likely to arouse not only passionate opinions, but hopefully a deeper understanding of the drama of salvation and the magnitude of God's love and forgiveness.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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