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Encyclopedia > The Origin of Species
On the Origin of Species
by Means of Natural Selection

The title page of the 1859 edition
of On the Origin of Species
Author Charles Darwin
Country Flag of United Kingdom United Kingdom
Language English
Subject(s) Evolutionary biology
Publisher John Murray
Publication date 24 November 1859

Charles Darwin's Origin of Species (publ. 1859) is a seminal work in scientific literature and arguably the pivotal work in evolutionary biology.[1] The book's full title is On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. It introduced the theory that populations evolve over the course of generations through a process of natural selection. It was controversial because it contradicted religious beliefs which underlay the then current theories of biology. Darwin's book was the culmination of evidence he had accumulated on the voyage of the Beagle in the 1830s and expanded through continuing investigations and experiments since his return.[2] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (374x642, 148 KB) Summary Cropped and rotated version of Image:Origin of Species. ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... In political geography and international politics a country is a geographical entity, a territory, most commonly associated with the notions of state or nation. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A publisher is a person or entity which engages in the act of publishing. ... John Murray is a British publishing house, renowned for the roster of authors it has published in its history, including Jane Austen, Lord Byron and Charles Darwin. ... November 24 is the 328th day (329th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1859 (MDCCCLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... Scientific literature is the totality of publications that report original empirical and theoretical work in the sciences and social sciences. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The word theory has a number of distinct meanings in different fields of knowledge, depending on their methodologies and the context of discussion. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... Darwins illustrations of beak variation in the finches of the Galápagos Islands, which hold 13 closely related species that differ most markedly in the shape of their beaks. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... On its second voyage, much of it chronicled by Charles Darwin in his book, The Voyage of the Beagle, the HMS Beagle crossed the Atlantic towards Tierra Del Fuego, and carried out surveying especially of the West coast of South America, as well as a number of Pacific islands. ...


The book is readable even for the non-specialist and attracted widespread interest on publication. The book was controversial, and generated much discussion on scientific, philosophical, and religious grounds. The scientific theory of evolution has itself evolved since Darwin first presented it, but natural selection remains the most widely accepted scientific model of how species evolve. The at-times bitter creation-evolution controversy continues to this day. This article is about evolution in biology. ... Darwins illustrations of beak variation in the finches of the Galápagos Islands, which hold 13 closely related species that differ most markedly in the shape of their beaks. ... The creation-evolution controversy (also termed the creation vs. ...

Contents

Theory in a nutshell

Darwin's theory is based on key observations and inferences drawn from them:[3]

  1. Species have great fertility. They make more offspring than can grow to adulthood.
  2. Populations remain roughly the same size, with small changes.
  3. Food resources are limited, but are relatively stable over time.
  4. An implicit struggle for survival ensues.
  5. In sexually reproducing species, generally no two individuals are identical.
  6. Some of these variations directly impact the ability of an individual to survive in a given environment.
  7. Much of this variation is inheritable.
  8. Individuals less suited to the environment are less likely to survive and less likely to reproduce, while individuals more suited to the environment are more likely to survive and more likely to reproduce.
  9. The individuals that survive are most likely to leave their inheritable traits to future generations.
  10. This slowly effected process results in populations that adapt to the environment over time, and ultimately, after interminable generations, the creations of new varieties, and ultimately, new species.

Heredity (the adjective is hereditary) is the transfer of characteristics from parent to offspring through their genes, or the transfer of a title, style or social status through the social convention known as inheritance (for example, a Hereditary Title may be passed down according to relevant customs and/or laws). ...

Background

Main articles: History of evolutionary thought and History of biology

The idea of biological evolution was around long before Darwin published The Origin, and was set out in Classical times by the Greek and Roman atomists, notably Lucretius. However, Christian thought in Medieval Europe involved complete faith in the ancient Biblical teachings of creation according to Genesis. Its concepts including "Created kinds" were interpreted by the priesthood as theology, then the Protestant Reformation widened access to the Bible and brought more literal interpretations. Natural history exploring the wonders of God's works made many discoveries and naturalists such as Carolus Linnaeus categorised an enormous number of species. A new belief developed that the original pair of every species had been brought into existence by God not so long ago. By the time of Darwin's birth in 1809, it was widely believed in England that both the natural world and the hierarchical social order were held stable, fixed by God's will, with nothing happening purely naturally and spontaneously.[4] Evolutionary thought has roots in antiquity as philosophical ideas conceived during the Ancient Greek and Roman eras. ... The history of biology dates as far back as the rise of various civilization as classic philosophers did their own ways of biology as a system of understanding life. ... Atomism is the theory that all the objects in the universe are composed of very small particles that were not created and that will have no end. ... Lucretius Titus Lucretius Carus (c. ... Christianity percentage by country, purple is highest, orange is lowest Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library of Congress. ... Creation according to Genesis refers to the description of the creation of the heavens and the earth by God, as described in Genesis, the first book of the Bible. ... In creation biology, created kinds are believed to be the original forms of life as they were created by God. ... At Wikiversity you can learn more and teach others about Theology at: The School of Theology Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      For other uses, see... Table of natural history, 1728 Cyclopaedia Natural history is an umbrella term for what are now often viewed as several distinct scientific disciplines of integrative organismal biology. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 23, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is a method by which biologists group and categorize species of organisms. ...


The idea that fossils were the remains of extinct species, first put forward by Robert Hooke in the mid seventeenth century, gradually gained acceptance and several competing theories of geology were put forward, notably James Hutton's uniformitarian theory of 1785 which envisioned gradual change over aeons of time. Some individuals put forward evolutionary concepts. By 1796 Charles Darwin's grandfather Erasmus Darwin, known to have been influenced by Lord Monboddo, had proposed ideas of common descent with organisms "acquiring new parts" in response to stimuli then passing these changes to their offspring. In 1809 Jean-Baptiste Lamarck developed a similar theory, with "needed" traits being acquired through use then passed on. At this time the word evolution (from the Latin word "evolutio", meaning "unroll like a scroll") was used to refer to an orderly sequence of events, particularly where the outcome was somehow contained within it from the start, so Lamarck avoided using this word for his concept in which traits were acquired during an organism's life, and the term transmutation came into use. FOSSIL is a standard for allowing serial communication for telecommunications programs under DOS. FOSSIL is an acronym for Fido Opus Seadog Standard Interface Layer. ... Robert Hooke, FRS (July 18, 1635 – March 3, 1703) was an English polymath who played an important role in the scientific revolution, through both experimental and theoretical work. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... this dude has a HUGE nose James Hutton, painted by Abner Lowe. ... Uniformitarianism, in the philosophy of science, is the assumption that the natural processes operating in the past are the same as those that can be observed operating in the present. ... Stone-cast bust of Erasmus Darwin, by W. J. Coffee, c 1795 Erasmus Darwin (12 December 1731 – 18 April 1802), was an English physician, natural philosopher, physiologist, inventor and poet. ... James Burnett, Lord Monboddo (1714 - May 26, 1799) was a Scottish judge, scholar and eccentric. ... A group of organisms is said to have common descent if they have a common ancestor. ... Jean-Baptiste Lamarck. ... Transmutation of species refers to the altering of one species into another. ...


Such ideas were seen in Britain as attacking the social order, already threatened by the aftermath of the American and French Revolutions.[5] In England, natural history was dominated by the universities which trained clergy for the Church of England in William Paley's natural theology which sought evidence of beneficial "design" by a Creator. British naturalists adopted Georges Cuvier's explanation of the fossil record by catastrophism, the concept that animals and plants were periodically annihilated and that their places were taken by new species created ex nihilo (out of nothing), modifying it to support the biblical account of Noah's flood.[6] However Lamarck's ideas were taken up by Radicals who wanted to overturn the establishment and extend the vote to the lower classes.[7] The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given religion. ... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... William Paley William Paley (July 1743 – May 25, 1805) was an English divine, Christian apologist, utilitarian, and philosopher. ... Natural theology is the knowledge of God accessible to all rational human beings without recourse to any special or supposedly supernatural revelation. ... A teleological argument (or a design argument) is an argument for the existence of God or a creator based on perceived evidence of order, purpose, design and/or direction in nature. ... Georges Cuvier Baron Georges Léopold Chrétien Frédéric Dagobert Cuvier (August 23, 1769–May 13, 1832) was a French naturalist and zoologist. ... Catastrophism is the theory that Earth has been affected by sudden, short-lived, violent events that were sometimes worldwide in scope. ... The Deluge by Gustave Doré. The story of a Great Flood sent by a deity or deities to destroy civilization as an act of divine retribution is a widespread theme in Greek and many other cultural myths. ... The Radicals were a parliamentary political grouping in the United Kingdom in the early to mid 19th century, who drew on earlier ideas of radicalism and helped to transform the Whigs into the Liberal Party. ...


Inception of Darwin's theory

Charles Darwin's education at the University of Edinburgh gave him direct involvement in Robert Edmund Grant's evolutionist developments of the ideas of Erasmus Darwin and Jean-Baptiste Lamarck. Then at Cambridge University his theology studies convinced him of William Paley's argument of "design" by a Creator while his interest in natural history was increased by the botanist John Stevens Henslow and the geologist Adam Sedgwick, both of whom believed strongly in divine creation. During the voyage of the Beagle Charles Darwin became convinced by Charles Lyell's uniformitarianism, and puzzled over discrepancies between Lyell's uniformitarian idea that each species had its "centre of creation" and the evidence he saw. On his return Richard Owen showed that fossils Darwin had found were of extinct species related to current species in the same locality, and John Gould startlingly revealed that completely different birds from the Galápagos Islands were species of finches distinct to each island. The inception of Darwins theory began with a search for explanations of contradictions in current Creationist ideas, and led him to formulate his theory of evolution which was eventually published in his book On the Origin of Species. ... Charles Darwins education gave him knowledge of medicine as well as the theology of current faith based ideas. ... The University of Edinburgh, founded in 1582,[4] is a renowned centre for teaching and research in Edinburgh, Scotland. ... Robert Edmond Grant (1793-1874), born in Edinburgh and educated at Edinburgh University as a doctor, became one of the foremost biologists of the early 19th century at Edinburgh and subsequently a professor at London University, particularly noted for his influence on Charles Darwin. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Stone-cast bust of Erasmus Darwin, by W. J. Coffee, c 1795 Erasmus Darwin (12 December 1731 – 18 April 1802), was an English physician, natural philosopher, physiologist, inventor and poet. ... Jean-Baptiste Lamarck. ... The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University), located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and has a reputation as one of the worlds most prestigious universities. ... At Wikiversity you can learn more and teach others about Theology at: The School of Theology Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... William Paley William Paley (July 1743 – May 25, 1805) was an English divine, Christian apologist, utilitarian, and philosopher. ... A teleological argument (or a design argument) is an argument for the existence of God or a creator based on perceived evidence of order, purpose, design and/or direction in nature. ... Table of natural history, 1728 Cyclopaedia Natural history is an umbrella term for what are now often viewed as several distinct scientific disciplines of integrative organismal biology. ... John Stevens Henslow (February 6, 1796 - May 16, 1861) was an English botanist and geologist. ... Adam Sedgwick (March 22nd, 1785–January 27, 1873) was one of the founders of modern geology. ... On its second voyage, much of it chronicled by Charles Darwin in his book, The Voyage of the Beagle, the HMS Beagle crossed the Atlantic towards Tierra Del Fuego, and carried out surveying especially of the West coast of South America, as well as a number of Pacific islands. ... Charles Lyell The frontispiece from Principles of Geology Sir Charles Lyell, 1st Baronet, KT, (November 14, 1797 – February 22, 1875), Scottish lawyer, geologist, and populariser of uniformitarianism. ... This article, Richard Owen, includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... John Gould John Gould (14 September 1804 – 3 February 1881) was an English ornithologist. ... Orthographic projection centred over the Galápagos. ... Genera Many, see text Finches are seed-eating passerine birds, the many species of which are found chiefly in the northern hemisphere, but also to a limited extent in Africa and South America. ...


By early 1837 Darwin was speculating on transmutation in a series of secret notebooks. He investigated the breeding of domestic animals, consulting William Yarrell and reading a pamphlet by Yarrell's friend Sir John Sebright which commented that "A severe winter, or a scarcity of food, by destroying the weak and the unhealthy, has all the good effects of the most skilful selection." At the zoo in 1838 he had his first sight of an ape, and the orang-utan's antics impressed him as being "just like a naughty child" which from his experience of the natives of Tierra del Fuego made him think that there was little gulf between man and animals despite theological doctrines that only mankind possessed a soul. Transmutation of species refers to the altering of one species into another. ... William Yarrell (June 3, 1784 - September 1, 1856) was an English bookseller and naturalist. ... For the chess opening, see Sokolsky Opening. ... Tierra del Fuego Cerro Sombrero Village, Chile. ...


In late September 1838 he began reading the 6th edition of Malthus's Essay on the Principle of Population which reminded him of Malthus's statistical proof that human populations breed beyond their means and compete to survive, at a time when he was primed to apply these ideas to animal species. Darwin applied to his search for the Creator's laws the Whig social thinking of struggle for survival with no hand-outs. By December 1838 he was seeing a similarity between breeders selecting traits and a Malthusian Nature selecting from variants thrown up by chance so that "every part of newly acquired structure is fully practised and perfected", thinking this "the most beautiful part of my theory". Robert Thomas Malthus, FRS (13th February, 1766 – 29th December, 1834), usually known as Robert Malthus, although he preferred to be known as Thomas Malthus, was an English demographer and political economist. ...


First writings on the theory

Darwin was well aware of the implication the theory had for the origin of humanity and the real danger to his career and reputation as an eminent geologist of being convicted of blasphemy. He worked in secret to consider all objections and prepare overwhelming evidence supporting his theory. He increasingly wanted to discuss his ideas with his colleagues, and in January 1842 sent a tentative description of his ideas in a letter to Lyell, who was then touring America. Lyell, dismayed that his erstwhile ally had become a Transmutationist, noted that Darwin "denies seeing a beginning to each crop of species". The Development of Darwins theory began with a search for explanations of contradictions in current faith based ideas, and led him to formulate his theory of evolution which was eventually published in his book On the Origin of Species, a turning point in the history of evolutionary thought. ... Charles Lyell The frontispiece from Principles of Geology Sir Charles Lyell, 1st Baronet, KT, (November 14, 1797 – February 22, 1875), Scottish lawyer, geologist, and populariser of uniformitarianism. ...


Despite problems with illness, Darwin formulated a 35 page "Pencil Sketch" of his theory in June 1842 then worked it up into a larger "essay". The botanist Joseph Dalton Hooker became Darwin's mainstay, and late in 1845 Darwin offered his "rough Sketch" for comments without immediate success, but in January 1847 when Darwin was particularly ill Hooker took away a copy of the "Sketch". After some delays he sent a page of notes, giving Darwin the calm critical feedback that he needed. Darwin made a huge study of barnacles which established his credentials as a biologist and provided more evidence supporting his theory. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Joseph Dalton Hooker Joseph Dalton Hooker Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker, GCSI, OM, FRS, MD (June 30, 1817 – December 10, 1911) was an English botanist and traveller. ... Superorders Acrothoracica Thoracica Rhizocephala A barnacle is a type of arthropod belonging to infraclass Cirripedia in the subphylum Crustacea and is hence distantly related to crabs and lobsters. ...


The publication of the anonymous Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation (1844) paved the way for the acceptance of Origin. Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation was a book published anonymously in England in 1844. ...


Publication

In the spring of 1856 Lyell drew Darwin's attention to a paper on the "introduction" of species written by Alfred Russel Wallace, a naturalist working in Borneo, and urged Darwin to publish to establish priority. Darwin was now torn between the desire to set out a full and convincing account and the pressure to quickly produce a short paper. He ruled out exposing himself to an editor or counsel which would have been required to publish in an academic journal. On 14 May 1856 he began a "sketch" account and, by July, had decided to produce a full technical treatise on species. The publication of Darwins theory followed on from the development of Darwins theory of evolution and culminated in the publication of his book On the Origin of Species. ... Alfred Russel Wallace, OM, FRS (January 8, 1823 – November 7, 1913) was a British naturalist, explorer, geographer, anthropologist and biologist. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Kalimantan. ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


Darwin pressed on, overworking, and was throwing himself into his work with his book on Natural Selection well under way, when on 18 June 1858 he received a parcel from Wallace enclosing about twenty pages describing an evolutionary mechanism, an unexpected response to Darwin's recent encouragement, with a request to send it on to Lyell. Darwin wrote to Lyell that "your words have come true with a vengeance,... forestalled" and he would, "of course, at once write and offer to send [it] to any journal" that Wallace chose, adding that "all my originality, whatever it may amount to, will be smashed". Lyell and Hooker agreed that a joint paper should be presented at the Linnean Society, and on 1 July 1858 the Wallace and Darwin papers entitled respectively On the Tendency of Species to form Varieties; and on the Perpetuation of Varieties and Species by Natural Means of Selection were read out, to surprisingly little reaction. June 18 is the 169th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (170th in leap years), with 196 days remaining. ... 1858 (MDCCCLVIII) is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Alfred Russel Wallace, OM, FRS (January 8, 1823 – November 7, 1913) was a British naturalist, explorer, geographer, anthropologist and biologist. ... The Linnean Society of London is the worlds premier society for the study and dissemination of taxonomy. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1858 (MDCCCLVIII) is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Two scientific papers; On the Tendency of Species to form Varieties by Alfred Russel Wallace and on the Perpetuation of Varieties and Species by Natural Means of Selection by Charles Darwin were presented to the Linnean Society of London in 1858 that first publicised Darwin — Wallace theory of evolution...


On 20 July 1858 Darwin started work on an "abstract" trimmed from his Natural Selection, writing much of it from memory. Lyell made arrangements with the publisher John Murray, who agreed to publish the manuscript sight unseen, and to pay Darwin two-thirds of the net proceeds. Darwin had initially decided to call his book An abstract of an Essay/on the/Origin/of/Species and Varieties/Through natural selection/, but with Murray's persuasion it was eventually changed to the snappier title: On the Origin of Species with the title page adding by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life, a long book title as was common during the Victorian era.[8] July 20 is the 201st day (202nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 164 days remaining. ... 1858 (MDCCCLVIII) is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... John Murray is a British publishing house, renowned for the roster of authors it has published in its history, including Jane Austen, Lord Byron and Charles Darwin. ... Queen Victoria (shown here on the morning of her accession to the Throne, 20 June 1837) gave her name to the historic era The Victorian era of the United Kingdom marked the height of the British Industrial Revolution and the apex of the British Empire. ...


Publication of The Origin

The Origin was first published on 24 November 1859, price fifteen shillings. The book was offered to booksellers at Murray's autumn sale on 22 November, and all available copies were taken up immediately. In total 1250 copies were printed, but after deducting presentation and review copies, and five for Stationers' Hall copyright, around 1,170 copies were available for sale.[9] The second edition of 3,000 copies was quickly brought out on 7 January 1860,[10] and added "by the Creator" into the closing sentence, so that from then on it read "There is grandeur in this view of life, with its several powers, having been originally breathed by the Creator into a few forms or into one; and that, whilst this planet has gone circling on according to the fixed law of gravity, from so simple a beginning endless forms most beautiful and most wonderful have been, and are being evolved." November 24 is the 328th day (329th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1859 (MDCCCLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Before decimalisation in 1971, a shilling had a value of 12d (old pence), and was equal to 1/20th of a pound: there were 240 (old) pence to the pound. ... November 22 is the 326th day (327th on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 7 is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ...


During Darwin's lifetime the book went through six editions, with cumulative changes and revisions to deal with counter-arguments raised. The third edition came out in 1861 with a number of sentences rewritten or added and an introductory appendix, An Historical Sketch of the Recent Progress of Opinion on the Origin of Species,[11] while the fourth in 1866 had further revisions. The fifth edition published on 10 February 1869 incorporated more changes again, and for the first time included Herbert Spencer's phrase "survival of the fittest". February 10 is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Herbert Spencer (27 April 1820 – 8 December 1903) was an English philosopher and prominent classic-liberal political theorist. ... Herbert Spencer coined the phrase, survival of the fittest. ...


In January 1871 Mivart published On the Genesis of Species, the cleverest and most devastating critique of natural selection in Darwin's lifetime. Darwin took it personally and from April to the end of the year made extensive revisions to the Origin, using the word "evolution" for the first time and adding a new chapter to refute Mivart. He told Murray of working men in Lancashire clubbing together to buy the 5th edition at fifteen shillings, and he wanted a new cheap edition to make it more widely available. St George Jackson Mivart (November 30, 1827 - April 1, 1900) was an English biologist. ... Lancashire is a county in North West England, bounded to the west by the Irish Sea. ...


The sixth edition was published by Murray on 19 February 1872 with "On" dropped from the title, at a price halved to 7s 6d by using minute print. Sales increased from 60 to 250 a month. John Murray is a British publishing house, renowned for the roster of authors it has published in its history, including Jane Austen, Lord Byron and Charles Darwin. ... February 19 is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1872 (MDCCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Before decimalisation in 1971, a shilling had a value of 12d (old pence), and was equal to 1/20th of a pound: there were 240 (old) pence to the pound. ... Above: A variety of coins considered to be lower-value, including an Irish 2p piece and many US pennies. ...


On the Origin of Species, as presented

After the words "On the Origin of Species" on page i, page ii shows quotations.[12] The first, by William Whewell from his Bridgewater Treatise, sets out the idea that in natural theology events in the material world are brought about "by the establishment of general laws" rather than by individual miracles. The second by Francis Bacon from his Advancement of Learning argues that we should study both the word of God in the Bible and the works of God in nature together, so that the works of God teach us how to interpret the word of God.[4] From the second to sixth editions, a third quotation is included, from the Analogy of Revealed Religion by the eighteenth century bishop Joseph Butler. This describes natural as meaning "stated, fixed or settled" by "an intelligent agent" who can equally carry out single supernatural miracles.[13] William Whewell In later life William Whewell (May 24, 1794 – March 6, 1866) was an English polymath, scientist, Anglican priest, philosopher, theologian, and historian of science. ... Natural theology is the attempt to find evidence of a God or intelligent designer without recourse to any special or supposedly supernatural revelation. ... Natural theology is the knowledge of God accessible to all rational human beings without recourse to any special or supposedly supernatural revelation. ... Francis Bacon, 1st Viscount St Alban (22 January 1561 – 9 April 1626) was an English philosopher, statesman, and essayist, but is best known as a philosophical advocate and defender of the scientific revolution. ... Joseph Butler (May 18, 1692 O.S. – June 16, 1752) was an English bishop, theologian, apologist, and philosopher. ...


These quotations relate theology to nature, and in the book Darwin includes various comments aiming to harmonise science and religion, in line with Isaac Newton's belief in the glory of a rational God who established a law-abiding cosmos rather than a capricious deity.[14] The quotations are followed by the title page (as illustrated above), then the index. The book then begins with the Introduction, though from the 3rd edition onwards this is preceded by An Historical Sketch giving due credit to his predecessors in ideas of evolution and natural selection. At Wikiversity you can learn more and teach others about Theology at: The School of Theology Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... Galunggung in 1982, showing a combination of natural events. ... Part of a scientific laboratory at the University of Cologne. ... Sir Isaac Newton, (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727) [ OS: 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727][1] was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, and alchemist, regarded by many as the greatest figure in the history of science. ...


Introduction

WHEN on board H.M.S. 'Beagle,' as naturalist, I was much struck with certain facts in the distribution of the inhabitants of South America, and in the geological relations of the present to the past inhabitants of that continent. These facts seemed to me to throw some light on the origin of species—that mystery of mysteries, as it has been called by one of our greatest philosophers.[15]

Darwin starts with a reference to the distribution of rheas, Galapagos tortoises and mockingbirds inspiring doubts in species being fixed, and the close relationship of the giant fossils he found to their small modern relatives on the same continent. He then cites the question which John Herschel had raised in correspondence with Charles Lyell just before Darwin met Herschel in South Africa.[16] Darwin mentions his years of work on his theory, and Wallace arriving at the same conclusion leading him to "publish this Abstract" of his incomplete work. He then outlines his ideas, and sets out its essence of his theory: Binomial name Rhea pennata dOrbigny, 1834 Synonyms Pterocnemia pennata Darwins Rhea (Rhea pennata), also known as the Lesser Rhea, is the smaller of the two extant species of rhea at 90 to 100 centimeters (3 ft to 3 ft 4 in) tall, and has larger wings than other... Binomial name Geochelone nigra (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824) The Galápagos tortoise (or giant Galápagos tortoise), Geochelone nigra, is the largest living tortoise. ... Genera Melanotis Mimus Nesomimus Mockingbirds are a group of New World passerine birds from the Mimidae family. ... John Herschel Sir John Frederick William Herschel (7 March 1792 – 11 May 1871) was an English mathematician and astronomer. ... Charles Lyell The frontispiece from Principles of Geology Sir Charles Lyell, 1st Baronet, KT, (November 14, 1797 – February 22, 1875), Scottish lawyer, geologist, and populariser of uniformitarianism. ...

As many more individuals of each species are born than can possibly survive; and as, consequently, there is a frequently recurring struggle for existence, it follows that any being, if it vary however slightly in any manner profitable to itself, under the complex and sometimes varying conditions of life, will have a better chance of surviving, and thus be naturally selected. From the strong principle of inheritance, any selected variety will tend to propagate its new and modified form.[17]

Variation under domestication and under nature

Chapter I discusses the considerable amount of variation of plants and animals in conditions of domestication.[18] Darwin partly attributes this to different conditions of life, and (incorrectly) to domestication itself as well as to changed habits producing an inherited effect. He discusses how domestication has been going on since the neolithic period, then turns in detail to his studies of domestic pigeons. "The diversity of the breeds is something astonishing", yet all show evidence of being descendants of the same species of rock pigeons. He describes breeding methods, and introduces the term artificial selection (though environmental changes, such as more food and protection from predators, were also factors). Dogs and sheep were among the first animals to be domesticated. ... The Neolithic, (Greek neos=new, lithos=stone, or New Stone Age) was a period in the development of human technology that is traditionally the last part of the Stone Age. ... Binomial name Columba livia Gmelin, 1789 The Rock Pigeon (Columba livia) is a member of the bird family Columbidae, doves and pigeons. ... This Chihuahua mix and Great Dane show the wide range of dog breed sizes created using artificial selection. ...


In chapter II Darwin considers variation under nature,[19] and shows that the nineteenth-century definition of species was chiefly a matter of opinion, since this discovery of new linking forms often degraded species to varieties. In biology, a species is one of the basic units of biodiversity. ... In botanical nomenclature, variety is a rank below that of species: As such, it gets a ternary name (a name in three parts). ...


Struggle for existence, and natural selection

At the start of chapter III on struggle for existence Darwin reiterates how this results in varieties, "which I have called incipient species", becoming distinct species, grouped into genera.[20]

Owing to this struggle for life, any variation, however slight and from whatever cause proceeding, if it be in any degree profitable to an individual of any species, in its infinitely complex relations to other organic beings and to external nature, will tend to the preservation of that individual, and will generally be inherited by its offspring.... I have called this principle, by which each slight variation, if useful, is preserved, by the term of Natural Selection, in order to mark its relation to man's power of selection.[21]

In the 5th and 6th editions he added "But the expression often used by Mr. Herbert Spencer, of the Survival of the Fittest, is more accurate, and is sometimes equally convenient." [22] Herbert Spencer (27 April 1820 – 8 December 1903) was an English philosopher and prominent classic-liberal political theorist. ... Herbert Spencer coined the phrase, survival of the fittest. ...


He discusses the universal struggle for existence as shown by De Candolle and Lyell, emphasising that he uses the term "in a large and metaphorical sense, including dependence of one being on another". The rate of increase in population which would follow if all offspring survived leads to a Malthusian struggle: "It is the doctrine of Malthus applied with manifold force to the whole animal and vegetable kingdoms". In reviewing checks to such increase he discusses the complex interdependencies which we now term ecology, including the effects of the introduction of new species by colonists. He notes that competition is most severe between closely related forms, "which fill nearly the same place in the economy of nature". A. P. de Candolle A. P. de Candolle (February 4, 1778 - September 9, 1841) was one of the great botanists of all time. ... Charles Lyell The frontispiece from Principles of Geology Sir Charles Lyell, 1st Baronet, KT, (November 14, 1797 – February 22, 1875), Scottish lawyer, geologist, and populariser of uniformitarianism. ... Malthusianism is a brand of the Manchester School capitalist-type political/economic thought developed during the industrial revolution on the basis of the writings of Thomas Malthus. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Chapter IV then turns in detail to natural selection under the "infinitely complex and close-fitting.. mutual relations of all organic beings to each other and to their physical conditions of life".[23] Darwin takes as an example a country where a change in conditions leads to extinction of some species, possibly immigration of others more suited and, where suitable variations occur, descendants of species becoming increasingly adapted to the changing conditions. He does not suggest that every variation and every character must have a selection value, though it would be extremely rash to set down any characters as valueless to their owners. Importantly, he does not suggest that every individual with a favourable variation must be selected, or that the selected or favoured animals are better or higher, but merely that they are more adapted to their surroundings. Having no knowledge of Mendelian genetics, he tries to deal with anticipated blending of inherited characteristics. Darwins illustrations of beak variation in the finches of the Galápagos Islands, which hold 13 closely related species that differ most markedly in the shape of their beaks. ... Mendel is the last name of Gregor Mendel (1822-1884), often called the father of Genetics. ... DNA, the molecular basis for inheritance. ...


Darwin then introduces what he calls sexual selection to explain seemingly non-funcional differences between sexes, as in beautiful plumage of birds. He draws attention to cross-breeding between varieties giving "vigour and fertility to the offspring", with close interbreeding having the opposite effect, in what he thinks may be a universal law. This explains features found in flowers which avoid self-fertilisation and attract insects to cross-pollinate.[24] He thinks that natural selection leading to new species is most favoured by isolation of a population, or by open areas with large populations leading to increased numbers of variations. The effect of natural selection in forming species is expected to be very slow, and often intermittent, but given the effectiveness of artificial selection, he "can see no limit to the amount of change, to the beauty and infinite complexity of the coadaptations between all organic beings, one with another and with their physical conditions of life, which may be effected in the long course of time by nature's power of selection." With the aid of a tree diagram and calculations he indicates the "divergence of character" from original species into multiple new species and genera, branches stopping or falling off as extinction occurs, while fresh buds form new branches in "the great Tree of life... with its ever branching and beautiful ramifications."[25] Illustration from The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex by Charles Darwin showing the Tufted Coquette Lophornis ornatus, female on left, ornamented male on right. ... A phylogenetic tree, also called an evolutionary tree or a tree of life, is a tree showing the evolutionary interrelationships among various species or other entities that are believed to have a common ancestor. ... Darwins work was originally entitled Phylogeny via Oogeny. ...


Variation and heredity

One of the chief difficulties for Darwin and other naturalists in his time was that there was no agreed-upon model of heredity — in fact, the idea of heredity had not been completely separated conceptually from the idea of the development of the organism. Darwin himself saw variation and heredity as two essentially antagonistic forces, with most genes working to preserve the fixity of a type rather than acting as the agent of species variability. Darwin's own model of heredity worked out in later works, which he dubbed "Pangenesis", was a mixture of a number of different ideas about heredity at the time. It contained what are now considered to be essentially Lamarckian aspects, whereby the effects of use and dis-use of different parts of the body in the parent could be transmitted to the child. Beyond this, it was essentially a model of "blended" heredity, by which the contributions of two parents (in the form of particles he called "gemmules") were roughly equal. Darwin was confident that even in this model, over long periods of time species would still be able to evolve. Heredity (the adjective is hereditary) is the transfer of characteristics from parent to offspring through their genes, or the transfer of a title, style or social status through the social convention known as inheritance (for example, a Hereditary Title may be passed down according to relevant customs and/or laws). ... Pangenesis was Charles Darwins hypothetical mechanism for heredity. ... Jean-Baptiste Lamarck. ...


It was not until the early 20th century that a model of heredity would become completely integrated with a model of variation, with the advent of the modern evolutionary synthesis known as neo-Darwinism. It is a common trope in the history of evolution and genetics written by scientists, rather than historians, to claim that Darwin's lack of an adequate model of heredity was the source of suspicion about his theory, but later historians of science have adequately documented the fact that this was not the source of most objections to Darwin, and that later scientists, such as Karl Pearson and the biometric school, could develop compelling models of evolution by natural selection with even a relatively simple "blending" model of heredity such as that used by Darwin.[26] This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... In literature, a trope is a familiar and repeated symbol, meme, theme, motif, style, character or thing that permeates a particular type of literature. ... Karl Pearson FRS (March 27, 1857 – April 27, 1936) established the discipline of mathematical statistics. ...


Compatibility with Lamarckian inheritance

Contrarily to a common opinion, Darwin did not initially rule out possibility of inherited acquired traits, and even mentions it explicitly in chapter 7:

When the first tendency was once displayed, methodical selection and the inherited effects of compulsory training in each successive generation would soon complete the work; and unconscious selection is still at work, as each man tries to procure, without intending to improve the breed, dogs which will stand and hunt best. On the other hand, habit alone in some cases has sufficed; no animal is more difficult to tame than the young of the wild rabbit; scarcely any animal is tamer than the young of the tame rabbit; but I do not suppose that domestic rabbits have ever been selected for tameness; and I presume that we must attribute the whole of the inherited change from extreme wildness to extreme tameness, simply to habit and long-continued close confinement.

Nevertheless, there is a distinction between Lamarck's theory and Darwin's one: while Darwin's theory stays valid whether acquired traits are transmitted or not, Lamarck's theory becomes inoperative if acquired traits cannot be transmitted.


Public reaction

Caricature of Darwin as an ape in the Hornet magazine.
Caricature of Darwin as an ape in the Hornet magazine.

Public reaction can be partitioned into three overlapping realms: scientific, religious, and philosophical. The reaction to Darwins theory came quickly after the publication of Darwins theory which had followed twenty years of development of Darwins theory of evolution. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


At the time of publication, the educated public generally held the belief that science was a "friend of humanity"[27] and that the natural world was orderly. This belief was based in part on advances made by Frenchman Louis Pasteur, who, in 1859, finally laid to rest the theory of spontaneous generation,[28] and Isaac Newton's laws of motion and gravitation, which were perceived as timeless and absolute.[27] Louis Pasteur (December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French chemist best known for his remarkable breakthroughs in microbiology. ... This article focuses on the history of thought regarding abiogenesis (the spontaneous generation of life from non-living sources). ... Sir Isaac Newton, (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727) [ OS: 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727][1] was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, and alchemist, regarded by many as the greatest figure in the history of science. ... Newtons First and Second laws, in Latin, from the original 1687 edition of the Principia Mathematica. ... Isaac Newtons theory of universal gravitation (part of classical mechanics) states the following: Every single point mass attracts every other point mass by a force pointing along the line combining the two. ...


After publication, Darwin's theories were discussed and debated extensively, in part due to Huxley's popular "working-men's lectures". With the publication of the 6th edition, the book's price was halved, increasing sales and disseminating Darwin's revolutionary ideas even more widely. The supply and demand model describes how prices vary as a result of a balance between product availability at each price (supply) and the desires of those with purchasing power at each price (demand). ...


The book contradicted then-prevailing scientific doctrines, as well as widely held religious beliefs that held the Creator ordained not only the laws of nature but also directly created kinds. The idea of supernatural design in nature served two purposes; one scientific, and the other religious. Design made nature orderly, and hence made science possible. Supernatural design also gave sanction to "the moral and religious endeavors of man."[29]

Theologian Charles Hodge, a critic of Darwin's theories, also praised Darwin for his intellectual honesty.
Theologian Charles Hodge, a critic of Darwin's theories, also praised Darwin for his intellectual honesty.

The religious controversy was fueled in part by one of Darwin's most vigorous defenders, Thomas Henry Huxley, who opined that Christianity is "a compound of some of the best and some of the worst elements of Paganism and Judaism, moulded in practice by the innate character of certain people of the Western World."[30] Perhaps the most uncompromising of the evolutionist philosophers was the German Ernst Heinrick Haeckel, a professor of biology, who dogmatically affirmed that nothing spiritual exists, and instead asserted that all life descended from protoplasm that spontaneously combined from essential protoplasmic elements in antiquity. In "What is Darwinism?" the theologian Charles Hodge argued that Darwin's theories were tantamount to atheism.[31] This is an argument that had been made by many almost immediately after Darwin's first publication. As Hodge pointed out, evolution does not seem to originate from a divine source, and some viewed God as a less powerful force in the universe. During an 1860 debate between Bishop Wilberforce and Thomas Huxley, the bishop of Oxford is reputed to have asked Huxley, "Is it on your grandfather's or your grandmother's side that you claim descent from a monkey?"[32] Image File history File links Charles_Hodge. ... Image File history File links Charles_Hodge. ... Thomas Huxley Thomas Henry Huxley F.R.S. (May 4, 1825 – June 29, 1895) was a British biologist, known as Darwins Bulldog for his defence of Charles Darwins theory of evolution. ... Christianity percentage by country, purple is highest, orange is lowest Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch... Look up pagan, heathen in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Ernst Haeckel. ... Charles Hodge Charles Hodge (1797 – 1878) was the principal of Princeton Theological Seminary between 1851 and 1878. ... “Atheist” redirects here. ...


Darwin's revolutionary theory unintentionally changed the way some humans saw themselves and their world. If one accepted that humans were descended from animals, it became clear that humans also are a type of animal. The natural world took on a darker tinge in the minds of many, as animals in the wild are understood to be in a constant state of deadly competition with one another. The world was also seen in a less permanent fashion; since the world was apparently much different millions of years ago, it dawned on many that the impact of human beings would lessen and perhaps disappear altogether over time.


The dizzying effect of Darwin's theory on the middle classes of Europe and United States was softened by the so-called Social Darwinists, such as Herbert Spencer, who promoted the virtues of social competition in fields outside biology.[33] While religious controversies continue to this day, some scientific and religious thinkers dismiss apparent contradictions by simply rationalizing that not all questions that can be asked have answers "in terms of the alternatives that the questions themselves present."[34] That is to say, historically, whenever questions are answered, be it in the realm of science or religion, answers invariably lead to additional unanswered questions. Better to consider science one method of gleaning natural truth, and scripture as a different method of building a relationship with and understanding of God.[35] This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Herbert Spencer (27 April 1820 – 8 December 1903) was an English philosopher and prominent classic-liberal political theorist. ...


While arguments against Darwin's theories were often vigourously presented in defense of religion, the ramifications of these arguments had scientific and philosophical applications.[29] The American botanist and Darwin promoter Asa Gray tried to reconcile design doctrine with evolution by arguing that evolution is the secondary effect, or modus operandi, of the first cause, design.[36] Asa Gray, Botanist Asa Gray (November 18, 1810 - January 30, 1888) is considered the most important American botanist of the 19th century. ...


Many of the debates did not center around Darwin's specifically proposed mechanism for evolution — natural selection — but rather on the concept of evolution in general. Though Darwin himself was too sickly to defend his work in public, four of his close scientific friends took up the cause of promoting Darwin's work and defending it against critics. Chief among these were Huxley, who argued for the evidence of evolution in anatomical morphology, and Joseph Dalton Hooker, the Royal botanist at Kew Gardens. In the United States, Asa Gray worked in close correspondence with Darwin to assure the theory's spread despite the opposition of one of the most prominent scientists in the country at the time, Louis Agassiz, and helped to facilitate American publication of the book. The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference (ISBN 0-316-31696-2) is a book by Malcolm Gladwell, first published by Little Brown in 2000. ... Joseph Dalton Hooker Joseph Dalton Hooker Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker, GCSI, OM, FRS, MD (June 30, 1817 – December 10, 1911) was an English botanist and traveller. ... Kew Gardens is the name of several places: Kew Gardens is a commonly-used name for the Royal Botanic Gardens in Kew, London, United Kingdom Kew Gardens is the name of a park in The Beaches neighborhood of Toronto, Ontario, Canada Kew Gardens is also the name of a neighborhood... Asa Gray, Botanist Asa Gray (November 18, 1810 - January 30, 1888) is considered the most important American botanist of the 19th century. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

In his 1863 Evidence as to Man's Place in Nature, Darwin's friend Thomas Huxley exaggerated the size of the Gibbon while presenting the anatomical argument explicit in the above frontispiece.
In his 1863 Evidence as to Man's Place in Nature, Darwin's friend Thomas Huxley exaggerated the size of the Gibbon while presenting the anatomical argument explicit in the above frontispiece.

Scientific reaction to Darwin's theory was mixed. Many well-respected members of the scientific community, such as the aforementioned Agassiz and the anatomist Richard Owen, came out strongly against Darwin's work. On the whole, though, Darwin was successful in convincing many scientists, especially of the younger generations, that evolution had happened in one form or another. Over the course of the next two decades, most scientists and educated lay-people would come to believe that evolution had occurred. Natural selection, though, did not find wide support, and was actively attacked and relatively unpopular until its revival during the creation of the modern evolutionary synthesis in the 1920s and 1930s. Similarly, Darwin's notion that evolution occurred gradually was also often attacked, and many of the evolutionary theories which flourished during what Peter J. Bowler has called the "eclipse of Darwinism" were forms of "saltationism", in which new species arose through "jumps" rather than gradual adaptation. Download high resolution version (1103x660, 307 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1103x660, 307 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Thomas Huxley Thomas Henry Huxley F.R.S. (May 4, 1825 – June 29, 1895) was a British biologist, known as Darwins Bulldog for his defence of Charles Darwins theory of evolution. ... Genera Hylobates Hoolock Nomascus Symphalangus Gibbons are the small apes that are grouped in the family Hylobatidae. ... This article, Richard Owen, includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Peter J. Bowler is a historian of biology who has written extensively on the history of evolutionary thought and on the history of genetics. ... In biology, saltation (from Latin, saltus, leap) is a sudden change from one generation to the next, that is large, or very large, in comparison with the usual variation of an organism. ...


From the 1860s until the 1930s, Darwinian "selectionist" evolution was not universally accepted by scientists, while evolution of some form generally was (a variety of evolutionary theories competed for scientific approval, including neo-Darwinism, neo-Lamarckism, orthogenesis, and mutation theory). In the 1930s, the work of a number of biologists and statisticians (especially R. A. Fisher) created the modern synthesis of evolution, which merged Darwinian selection theory with sophisticated statistical understandings of Mendelian genetics. Orthogenesis, orthogenetic evolution or autogenesis, is the hypothesis that life has an innate tendency to move in a unilinear fashion due to some internal or external driving force. The hypothesis is based on Essentialism, finalism and cosmic teleology and proposes an intrinsic drive which slowly transforms species. ... Mutationism refers to the concept briefly held by some in the early 20th century — but now discredited — that mutations are the main mechanism of evolution. ... Sir Ronald Fisher Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher, FRS (February 17, 1890 – July 29, 1962) was an evolutionary biologist, geneticist and statistician. ... The modern evolutionary synthesis (often referred to simply as the modern synthesis), neo-Darwinian synthesis or neo-Darwinism, brings together Charles Darwins theory of the evolution of species by natural selection with Gregor Mendels theory of genetics as the basis for biological inheritance. ... Mendelian inheritance (or Mendelian genetics or Mendelism) is a set of primary tenets that underlie much of genetics developed by Gregor Mendel in the latter part of the 19th century. ...


Today, the overwhelming majority of scientists in the fields of earth and life sciences (over 99.8%) consider Darwin's theory correct. For example, Mark Isaak writes "Often, claims that scientists reject evolution or support creationism are exaggerated or fraudulent. Many scientists doubt some aspects of evolution, especially recent hypotheses about it. All good scientists are skeptical about evolution (and everything else) and open to the possibility, however remote, that serious challenges to it may appear. Creationists frequently seize such expressions of healthy skepticism to imply that evolution is highly questionable. They fail to understand that the fact that evolution has withstood many years of such questioning really means it is about as certain as facts can get."[37] A significant proportion of non-scientists in the United States and a few other countries disagree, often on religious grounds.[38] The creation-evolution controversy (also termed the creation vs. ...


Misconceptions, and comparison to Wallace's theory

Darwin was not the first to form evolutionary theories. The idea that species might evolve, i.e., that current species have arisen from previous ones, was already under discussion at the time, and several mechanisms had been proposed dating back to Anaximander's theory of aquatic descent in the sixth century B.C., as well as Jean-Baptiste Lamarck's 1809 hypothesis on the inheritance of acquired characteristics, which was well known at the time of publication.[27] Evolutionary thought has roots in antiquity as philosophical ideas conceived during the Ancient Greek and Roman eras. ... Anaximander Possibly what Anaximanders map looked like Anaximander (Greek: Αναξίμανδρος)(c. ... Jean-Baptiste Lamarck. ... The inheritance of acquired characters (or characteristics) is the hereditary mechanism by which changes in physiology acquired over the life of an organism (such as muscle enlarged through use) are transmitted to offspring. ...


Darwin's achievements were fourfold: Firstly, to propose a credible mechanism (natural selection); secondly, to provide a great deal of new evidence for evolution; thirdly, to present his ideas in a compelling book; and fourthly, to ally with other highly motivated and influential biologists and philosophers in a concerted effort to publicize and advocate his ideas. On every point, Darwin was successful. Darwins illustrations of beak variation in the finches of the Galápagos Islands, which hold 13 closely related species that differ most markedly in the shape of their beaks. ...


Like many great scientists, Darwin did not invent his theory from the ground up. He seized upon earlier research to create a comprehensive and defendable theory. As he subsequently acknowledged, others before him published brief statements outlining the principle of natural selection, but he was not aware of these little known statements until after publication of the Origin. Instead, he and Wallace put forth the first convincing and coherent mechanism of evolution: natural selection. Darwin's work, through its long list of facts and its support by prominent naturalists, established for most that evolution of some form did occur—that there was no fixity of species—even if there was considerable disagreement on the mechanism. Also contrary to a common understanding, Darwin did not invent the phrase "survival of the fittest", but added this in the 5th edition of The Origin of Species, giving due credit to the philosopher Herbert Spencer (who had introduced the phrase in his Principles of Biology of 1864) and usually using the phrase "Natural Selection, or the Survival of the Fittest". Other aspects of Darwin's overall theory which themselves evolved over time were: common descent, sexual selection, gradualism, and pangenesis. Darwins illustrations of beak variation in the finches of the Galápagos Islands, which hold 13 closely related species that differ most markedly in the shape of their beaks. ... Alfred Russel Wallace, OM, FRS (January 8, 1823 – November 7, 1913) was a British naturalist, explorer, geographer, anthropologist and biologist. ... Herbert Spencer coined the phrase, survival of the fittest. ... Herbert Spencer (27 April 1820 – 8 December 1903) was an English philosopher and prominent classic-liberal political theorist. ... A group of organisms is said to have common descent if they have a common ancestor. ... Illustration from The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex by Charles Darwin showing the Tufted Coquette Lophornis ornatus, female on left, ornamented male on right. ... Gradualism is the belief that changes occur, or ought to occur, slowly in the form of gradual steps (see also incrementalism) In politics, the concept of gradualism is used to describe the belief that change ought to be modified in small, discrete increments rather than abrubt changes such as revolutions... Pangenesis was Charles Darwins hypothetical mechanism for heredity. ...


Darwin's explanation of natural selection was slightly different from that given by Wallace. Darwin used comparison to selective breeding and artificial selection as a means for understanding natural selection. No such connection between selective breeding and natural selection was made by Wallace; he expressed it simply as a basic process of nature and did not think the phenomena were in any way related. On Wallace's own first edition of The Origin of Species, he crossed out every instance of the phrase "natural selection" and replaced with it Spencer's "survival of the fittest." He also ruled out much of the ideas of Lamarckian inheritance present in Darwin's work, calling it "quite unnecessary." Darwin and Wallace would disagree on many substantive issues later in their lives especially, most bitterly on the question of whether human consciousness had itself evolved (to Darwin's horror, Wallace eventually turned against this and towards spiritualism). Darwins illustrations of beak variation in the finches of the Galápagos Islands, which hold 13 closely related species that differ most markedly in the shape of their beaks. ... Selective breeding in domesticated animals is the process of developing a cultivated breed over time. ... This Chihuahua mix and Great Dane show the wide range of dog breed sizes created using artificial selection. ... Lamarckism or Lamarckian evolution is a theory put forward by the French biologist Jean-Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet, Chevalier de Lamarck, based on heritability of acquired characteristics, the once widely accepted idea that an organism can pass on characteristics that it acquired during its lifetime to its offspring. ... By 1853, when the popular song Spirit Rappings was published, Spiritualism was the object of intense curiosity. ...


Philosophical implications

According to Ernst Mayr, Darwin's evolutionary thinking rests on a rejection of essentialism, which assumes the existence of some perfect, essential form for any particular class of existent, and treats differences between individuals as imperfections or deviations away from the perfect essential form. Darwin embraced instead what Mayr calls "population thinking", which denies the existence of any essential form and holds that a class is the conceptualization of the numerous unique individuals. Individuals, in short, are real in an objective sense, while the class is an abstraction, an artifact of epistemology. This emphasis on the importance of individual differences is necessary if one believes that the mechanism of evolution, natural selection, operates on individual differences. In philosophy, essentialism is the view, that, for any specific kind of entity it is at least theoretically possible to specify a finite list of characteristics —all of which any entity must have to belong to the group defined. ...


Mayr claims essentialism had dominated Western thinking for two thousand years, and that Darwin's theories thus represent an important and radical break from traditional Western philosophy. Ripples of Darwin's thought can now be seen in fields such as economics and complexity theory, suggesting that Darwin's influence extends well beyond the field of biology.


The historian of science Peter J. Bowler has suggested that many of the "implications" attributed to Darwinism had little to do with Darwin's theories themselves. Many of the so-called "Darwinists" of the late-nineteenth century, such as Herbert Spencer and Ernst Haeckel, were actually very non-Darwinian in many aspects of their thought and theory, and even the biggest supporters of Darwin, such as Thomas Henry Huxley, were suspicious as to whether natural selection was really what caused evolution. Nevertheless, Darwin became quickly identified with evolution in general and hailed as the figurehead of many conceptual changes in both science and society, whether or not all of these ideas were stated explicitly or at all in Darwin's work itself.[39] Peter J. Bowler is a historian of biology who has written extensively on the history of evolutionary thought and on the history of genetics. ... Herbert Spencer (27 April 1820 – 8 December 1903) was an English philosopher and prominent classic-liberal political theorist. ... Ernst Haeckel. ... Thomas Huxley Thomas Henry Huxley F.R.S. (May 4, 1825 – June 29, 1895) was a British biologist, known as Darwins Bulldog for his defence of Charles Darwins theory of evolution. ...


The philosopher Daniel Dennett recapitulated those philosophical implications in his book Darwin's Dangerous Idea. Daniel Clement Dennett (b. ... cover Darwins Dangerous Idea: Evolution and the Meanings of Life (1995) is a controversial book by Daniel Dennett that argues that Darwinian processes are the central organising force not only in biology (which is not controversial), but also in most other aspects of the Universe, including the human mind...


Reviews

Contemporary

William Benjamin Carpenter (October 29, 1813 - November 10, 1885) was an English physiologist and naturalist. ... Thomas Huxley Thomas Henry Huxley F.R.S. (May 4, 1825 – June 29, 1895) was a British biologist, known as Darwins Bulldog for his defence of Charles Darwins theory of evolution. ... This article, Richard Owen, includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Thomas Huxley Thomas Henry Huxley F.R.S. (May 4, 1825 – June 29, 1895) was a British biologist, known as Darwins Bulldog for his defence of Charles Darwins theory of evolution. ... A photo of Samuel Wilberforce by Lewis Carroll Samuel Wilberforce (September 7, 1805 - July 19, 1873), English bishop, third son of William Wilberforce, was born at Clapham Common, London. ... Andrew Murray FRSE FLS (19 February 1812–10 January 1878) was a Scottish botanist. ... Henry Charles Fleeming Jenkin (March 25, 1833 - June 12, 1885) was Professor of Engineering at Edinburgh University, remarkable for his versatility. ...

Modern

  • Janet Browne (2007). Darwin's Origin of Species: A Biography. ISBN 978-0871139535

Professor Janet Browne is known principally as the author of Charles Darwin: Voyaging and The Power of Place. ...

Citations

  1. ^ Freeman 1977, Ansary 2006
  2. ^ Gamlin 1993, pp. 20-23
  3. ^ Mayr 1982, Darwin 1859, Chapter XIV. Recapitulation and Conclusion.
  4. ^ a b Moore 2006
  5. ^ Desmond & Moore 1991, p. 34-35.
  6. ^ Browne 1995, p. 129, 139-140.
  7. ^ Desmond & Moore 1991, p. 295.
  8. ^ Freeman 1977
  9. ^ Freeman 1977
  10. ^ Darwin 1958, p. 122
  11. ^ Darwin 1861, p. xiii
  12. ^ Darwin 1859, p. ii.
  13. ^ Darwin 1859, p. ii.
  14. ^ Phipps 1983
  15. ^ Darwin 1859, p. 1.
  16. ^ Eldredge 2006
  17. ^ Darwin 1859, p. 5.
  18. ^ Darwin 1859, p. 7 Chap. 1.
  19. ^ Darwin 1859, p. 44 Chap. I1.
  20. ^ Darwin 1859, p. 60 Chap. I1I.
  21. ^ Darwin 1859, p. 61.
  22. ^ Darwin 1872, p. 49.
  23. ^ Darwin 1859, p. 61.
  24. ^ Darwin 1859, p. 87-101.
  25. ^ Darwin 1859, p. 117-130.
  26. ^ Bowler 1989
  27. ^ a b c Burns, Ralph, Lerner, & Standish 1982, p. 962
  28. ^ Levine & Evers 1999
  29. ^ a b Dewey 1994, p. 26
  30. ^ Burns, Ralph, Lerner, & Standish 1982, p. 965, Huxley 1902
  31. ^ Hodge 1874, p. 177
  32. ^ Lucas 1979, see also BBC 2006 which mentions the debate but not the monkey descent question.
  33. ^ Burns, Ralph, Lerner, & Standish 1982, p. 965
  34. ^ Dewey 1994, p. 31
  35. ^ Winston 2006
  36. ^ Dewey 1994, p. 27
  37. ^ Isaak 2005
  38. ^ Chang 2006
  39. ^ Bowler 1989

References

This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. Mir Tamim Ansary is an afghan-american author and activist. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... January 14 is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The British Broadcasting Corporation,which is usually known as the BBC, is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world in terms of audience numbers, employing 26,000 staff in the United Kingdom alone and with a budget of more than GB£4 billion. ... The British Broadcasting Corporation,which is usually known as the BBC, is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world in terms of audience numbers, employing 26,000 staff in the United Kingdom alone and with a budget of more than GB£4 billion. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... January 14 is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Peter J. Bowler is a historian of biology who has written extensively on the history of evolutionary thought and on the history of genetics. ... Professor Janet Browne is known principally as the author of Charles Darwin: Voyaging and The Power of Place. ... Professor Janet Browne is known principally as the author of Charles Darwin: Voyaging and The Power of Place. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... February 21 is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 21 is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ronald William Clark (1916-1987) was a British author of biography and non-fiction. ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 15 is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 31 is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... June 11 is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 31 is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... Sir Francis Darwin, F.R.S. (August 16th 1848 - 19th September 1925) was the botanist son of Charles Darwin. ... The Autobiography of Charles Darwin is the autobiography of the British naturalist Charles Darwin which was published in 1887, five years after his death. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 15 is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... Emma Nora Barlow (née Darwin; 1885 -1989), granddaughter of the British naturalist Charles Darwin, edited and published previously unseen examples of her grandfathers work. ... The Autobiography of Charles Darwin is the autobiography of the British naturalist Charles Darwin which was published in 1887, five years after his death. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 15 is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... James Moore, philosopher of science at the University of Cambridge and visiting scholar at Harvard University, is noted as the author of several biographies of Charles Darwin. ... John Dewey (October 20, 1859 – June 1, 1952) was an American philosopher, psychologist, and educational reformer, whose thoughts and ideas have been greatly influential in the United States and around the world. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 15 is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 15 is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 15 is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Charles Hodge Charles Hodge (1797 – 1878) was the principal of Princeton Theological Seminary between 1851 and 1878. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... January 14 is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Thomas Henry Huxley, FRS (4 May 1825 – 29 June 1895) [1] was an English biologist, known as Darwins Bulldog for his advocacy of Charles Darwins theory of evolution. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 15 is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Thomas Henry Huxley, FRS (4 May 1825 – 29 June 1895) [1] was an English biologist, known as Darwins Bulldog for his advocacy of Charles Darwins theory of evolution. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... January 14 is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... January 14 is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Steve Joness book Almost like a Whale is a modern introduction to Charles Darwins Origin of Species and closely follows its structure. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... January 14 is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... January 14 is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Robert Thomas Malthus, FRS (13th February, 1766 – 29th December, 1834), usually known as Robert Malthus, although he preferred to be known as Thomas Malthus, was an English demographer and political economist. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 15 is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article has been identified as possibly containing errors. ... The Growth Of Biological Thought is a book written by Ernst Mayr, first published in 1982. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 15 is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... James Moore, philosopher of science at the University of Cambridge and visiting scholar at Harvard University, is noted as the author of several biographies of Charles Darwin. ... James Moore, philosopher of science at the University of Cambridge and visiting scholar at Harvard University, is noted as the author of several biographies of Charles Darwin. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 15 is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... January 11 is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Professor Robert Winston Robert Maurice Lipson Winston, Baron Winston (born July 15, 1940) is a British scientist, politician, and television presenter. ... The British Broadcasting Corporation,which is usually known as the BBC, is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world in terms of audience numbers, employing 26,000 staff in the United Kingdom alone and with a budget of more than GB£4 billion. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... January 15 is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 15 is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Encyclopædia Britannica, the 11th edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

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Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... November 15 is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive, and distribute cultural works. ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive, and distribute cultural works. ...

Charles Darwin
v  d  e
Darwin's life
Education | Voyage on HMS Beagle | Inception of theory | Development of theory | Publication of theory | Reaction to theory
Orchids to Variation | Descent of Man to Emotions | Insectivorous plants to Worms
Darwin's family, beliefs and health
Darwin — Wedgwood family | Views on religion | Illness
Darwin's writings
The Voyage of the Beagle
Zoology of the Voyage of H.M.S. Beagle
On the Tendency of Species to form Varieties; and on the Perpetuation of Varieties and Species by Natural Means of Selection
The Origin of Species | The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex
The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals | The Power of Movement in Plants
Autobiography | Correspondence

 
 

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