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Encyclopedia > The Oresteia

The Oresteia is a trilogy of tragedies about the end of the curse on the House of Atreus, written by Aeschylus. Two Furies, from an ancient vase. ... For other uses, see Tragedy (disambiguation). ... Look up Curse in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Atreus. ... This article is about the ancient Greek playwright. ...

It is the only surviving trilogy of ancient Greek plays, although the fourth play, Proteus, a satyr play that would have been performed with it, has not survived. The trilogy was originally performed at the Dionysia festival in Athens in 458 BC, where it won first prize. The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... This article is about Proteus in Greek mythology. ... Papposilenus playing the crotals, theatrical type of the satyr play, Louvre Satyr plays were an ancient Greek form of tragicomedy, similar to the modern-day burlesque style. ... The Dionysia was a large religious festival in ancient Athens in honour of the god Dionysus, the central event of which was the performance of tragedies and comedies. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 5th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 500s BC 490s BC 480s BC 470s BC 460s BC - 450s BC - 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC Years: 463 BC 462 BC 461 BC 460 BC 459 BC - 458 BC - 457 BC 456 BC...




"The Murder of Agamemnon" by Pierre-Narcisse Guérin Image File history File links Murder_of_agamemnon. ...

Written by Aeschylus
Chorus Elders of Argos
Characters watchman
Setting Argos, before the royal palace

This article is about the ancient Greek playwright. ... This article is about the city in Greece. ... After the murder (1882 painting) Clytemnestra (or Clytaemestra) ‘‘(Eng. ... This article is about a character in Greek mythology. ... For other uses, see Cassandra (disambiguation). ... In Greek mythology, Aegisthus (goat strength, also transliterated as Aegisthos or Aigísthos) was the son of Thyestes and his daughter, Pelopia. ...


Agamemnon details the homecoming of Agamemnon, King of Argos, from the Trojan War. Waiting at home for him is his wife, Clytemnestra, who has been planning his murder as revenge for the sacrifice of their daughter, Iphigenia. Furthermore, in the ten years of Agamemnon's absence, Clytemnestra has entered into an adulterous relationship with Aegisthus, Agamemnon's cousin and the scion of a dispossessed branch of the family, who is determined to regain the throne he believes should rightfully belong to him. This article is about a character in Greek mythology. ... This article is about the city in Greece. ... The fall of Troy, by Johann Georg Trautmann (1713–1769). ... After the murder (1882 painting) Clytemnestra (or Clytaemestra) ‘‘(Eng. ... 112 Iphigenia is an asteroid. ... In Greek mythology, Aegisthus (goat strength, also transliterated as Aegisthos or Aigísthos) was the son of Thyestes and his daughter, Pelopia. ... This article is on the car division of Toyota. ...


The play opens to Clytemnestra awaiting the return of her husband, having been told that the mountaintop beacons have given the sign that Troy has fallen. Though she pretends to love her husband, she is furious that he sacrificed their daughter, Iphigenia. This is not made clear here, but it would have been familiar to the audience. A servant stands on top of the roof, reporting that he has been crouching there "like a dog" (kunos diken) for years, "under the instruction of a man-hearted woman." He laments the fortunes of the house, but promises to keep silent: "A huge ox has stepped onto my tongue." However, when Agamemnon returns, he brings with him Cassandra, his slave and concubine. This, of course, serves to anger Clytemnestra further. For other uses of Troy or Ilion, see Troy (disambiguation) and Ilion (disambiguation). ... 112 Iphigenia is an asteroid. ... For other uses, see Cassandra (disambiguation). ... Wiktionary has related dictionary definitions, such as: slave Slave may refer to: Slavery, where people are owned by others, and live to serve their owners without pay Slave (BDSM), a form of sexual and consenual submission Slave clock, in technology, a clock or timer that synchrnonizes to a master clock... A swampy marsh area ...

The main action of the play is the agon between Clytemnestra and Agamemnon. She attempts to persuade Agamemnon to step on a purple (sometimes red) tapestry or carpet to walk into their home. The problem is that this would indicate hubris on Agamemnon's part, and he does not wish to do this. Eventually, for reasons that are still heavily debated, Clytemnestra does convince Agamemnon to cross the purple tapestry to enter the oikos, where she kills him in the bath: she ensnares him in a robe and as he struggles to free himself she hacks him with three strokes of a pelekus. Agamemnon is murdered in much the same way an animal is killed for sacrifice with three blows, the last strike accompanied by a prayer to a god. Look up agon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Hubris or hybris (Greek ), according to its modern usage, is exaggerated self pride or self-confidence (overbearing pride), often resulting in fatal retribution. ... An oikos (ancient Greek: οίκος, plural: οίκοι) is the ancient Greek equivalent of a household, house, or family. ... Minoan symbolic labrys of gold, 2nd millennium BC: many Arkalochori Axes have been found in the Arkalochori cave. ...

Whilst Clytemnestra and Agamemnon are offstage, Cassandra discusses with the chorus whether or not she ought to enter the palace, knowing that she too will be murdered. Cassandra is a daughter of King Priam of Troy. Apollo has cursed her, giving her the gift of clairvoyance, but on the condition that no one who heard her prophesies would believe them. In Cassandra's speech, she runs through many gruesome images of the history of the House of Atreus, and eventually chooses to enter the house knowing that she cannot avoid her fate. The chorus, in this play a group of the elders of Argos, hear the death screams of Agamemnon, and frantically debate on a course of action. The Greek chorus (choros) is believed to have grown out of the Greek dithyrambs and tragikon drama in tragic plays of the ancient Greek theatre. ... King Priam killed by Neoptolemus, son of Achilles, detail of an Attic red-figure amphora In Greek mythology, Priam (Greek Πρίαμος, Priamos) was the king of Troy during the Trojan War, and youngest son of Laomedon. ... For other uses, see Apollo (disambiguation). ... Clairvoyance, from 17th century French Clair meaning clear and voyant meaning seeing, is a term used to describe the transference of information about an object, location or physical event through means other than the 5 traditional senses (See Psi). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Atreus. ...

A platform is soon rolled out displaying the gruesome dead bodies of Agamemnon and Cassandra, along with Clytemnestra, who attempts to explain her action. Later, Aegisthus struts out and delivers an arrogant speech to the chorus, who nearly enter into a brawl with Aegisthus and his henchmen. However, Clytemnestra halts the dispute, saying that "There is pain enough already. Let us not be bloody now." The play closes with the chorus reminding the usurpers that Orestes, the son of Agamemnon, will surely return to exact vengeance. Look up Usurper in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Orestes Ορεστης is a Greek name, literally he who stands on the mountain, or mountain-dweller. Orestes can refer to: In Greek mythology, the son of Agamemnon. ... Revenge is retaliation against a person or group in response to wrongdoing. ...

The Libation Bearers

The Libation Bearers

"Electra" by Sir William Blake Richmond Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (636x700, 102 KB) William Blake Richmond – Electra on the tomb of Agamemnon (1874) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Electra The Oresteia Electra (Euripides) ...

Written by Aeschylus
Chorus Trojan slave women
Characters Orestes
Setting Argos, at the tomb of Agamemnon

This article is about the ancient Greek playwright. ... For other uses of Troy or Ilion, see Troy (disambiguation) and Ilion (disambiguation). ... Orestes Ορεστης is a Greek name, literally he who stands on the mountain, or mountain-dweller. Orestes can refer to: In Greek mythology, the son of Agamemnon. ... Electra at the Tomb of Agamemnon In Greek mythology, Electra was daughter of Agamemnon and Clytemnestra. ... Clytemnestra (also Klytaimnéstra or Clytaemnestra, praiseworthy wooing) was the wife of Agamemnon, king of the Greek kingdom of Mycenae or Argos. ... Pylades and Orestes by Francois Bouchot In Greek mythology, Pylades is the son of King Strophius of Phocis and is mostly known for his strong friendship with Orestes. ... In Greek mythology, Aegisthus (goat strength, also transliterated as Aegisthos or Aigísthos) was the son of Thyestes and his daughter, Pelopia. ... This article is about the city in Greece. ... This article is about a character in Greek mythology. ...


The Libation Bearers (also known as Choephoroe) is the second play of the Oresteia. It deals with the reunion of Agamemnon's children, Electra and Orestes, and their revenge. Electra at the Tomb of Agamemnon In Greek mythology, Electra was daughter of Agamemnon and Clytemnestra. ... The Remorse of Orestes by William-Adolphe Bouguereau For other uses, see Orestes (disambiguation). ...


In the palace of Argos, Clytemnestra, who now shares her bed and the throne with her lover Aegisthus, is roused from slumber by a nightmare: she dreamt that she gave birth to a snake, and the snake now feeds from her breast and draws blood along with milk. Alarmed by this, a possible sign of the gods' wrath, she orders her daughter, the princess Electra, whom in the meantime Clytemnestra has reduced to the virtual status of a slave-girl, to pour libations on Agamemnon's grave. A group of women (the libation bearers of the title) are to assist her. Libation scene, Greek red figure cup, c. ...

Electra arrives at the grave of her father and comes upon a man by the tombstone, who has just placed a lock of his hair on the stone. As they start to speak, it gradually and rather agonizingly becomes apparent that the man is her brother Orestes (who had been sent away to the royal court of Phocis since infancy for safety reasons), and who has, in her thoughts, been her only hope of revenge. Orestes believes that he is that snake, so together with Electra they plan to avenge their father by killing their mother Clytemnestra and her new husband, Aegisthus. Phocis (Greek, Modern: Φωκίδα/Fokída, Ancient/Katharevousa: Φωκίς/Phokis; named after the Greek mythological personage Phocus) is an ancient district of central Greece and a prefecture of modern Greece located in Sterea Hellas, one of the thirteen peripheries of Greece. ...

Orestes wavers about killing his own mother, but is guided by Apollo and his close friend Pylades, the son of the king of Phocis, that it is the correct course of action. Orestes and Pylades pretend to be ordinary travellers from Phocis, and ask for hospitality at the palace. They even tell the Queen that Orestes is dead. Delighted by the news, Clytemnestra sends a servant to summon Aegisthus. Orestes kills the usurper first, and then his mother. As soon as he exits the palace, the Furies, being only visible to him, begin to haunt and torture him as he flees in agony. This delineates the crimes of Clytemnestra and Orestes.[citation needed] The Furies do not hunt down Clytemnestra for her crime of mariticide, but they do hunt down Orestes for his crime of matricide as is their function: to them, crimes against blood bonds are far more significant than crimes against marriage bonds.[citation needed]. For other uses, see Apollo (disambiguation). ... Pylades and Orestes by Francois Bouchot In Greek mythology, Pylades is the son of King Strophius of Phocis and is mostly known for his strong friendship with Orestes. ... Two Furies, from an ancient vase. ... This article is about suffering. ... After the murder (1882 painting) Clytemnestra (or Clytaemestra) ‘‘(Eng. ... Mariticide (not to be confused with matricide); from the Latin maritus (married) & cidium (killing), literally means the murder of ones married partner, but has become most associated with the murder of a husband by his wife. ... Matricide is the act of killing ones mother. ...

References in other Greek Dramas

Pietro Pucci of Cornell University argues that in referencing The Libation Bearers in his own Electra, Euripides made a social commentary on the relationship between truth and evidence. Euripides criticized the scene of recognition when Electra realizes that lock of hair on Agamemnon's tomb is Orestes'. In his own play Electra, Euripides has Electra make a scathing remark about the ridiculous notion that one could recognize a brother solely by a lock of hair, a footprint and an article of clothing. [1] What Euripides (presumably purposefully) ignores in Aeschylus' play was the religious significance of the act of placing a lock of hair on a tomb, which was a much more powerful clue as to who left the lock than the actual nature of the hair. Only a friend of Agamemnon's would dare approach his grave and leave a lock of hair, and even more importantly, this ritual had a specific father/ male heir significance. Aeschylus' Electra, therefore, recognized her brother based on her faith in a religious act. Euripides' Electra, on the other hand, judges the situation solely on evidence, and comes to the wrong conclusion that Orestes cannot be present, when in fact the audience knows that he is there and the two characters have in fact just spoken to each other. This commentary suggests that Euripides is referring to the then pertinent argument over evidence and truth, an issue which had no weight when Aeschylus was writing. [2]

The Eumenides

The Eumenides

"The Remorse of Orestes" by William-Adolphe Bouguereau Download high resolution version (947x836, 225 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Orestes (mythology) William-Adolphe Bouguereau gallery Categories: Paintings containing nudity ...

Written by Aeschylus
Chorus The Furies
Characters Priestess
Ghost of Clytaemnestra
Athenian citizens
Setting before the temple of Apollo at Delphi and in Athens

This article is about the ancient Greek playwright. ... In Greek mythology the Erinyes (the Romans called them the Furies) were female personifications of vengeance. ... For other uses, see Apollo (disambiguation). ... Orestes Ορεστης is a Greek name, literally he who stands on the mountain, or mountain-dweller. Orestes can refer to: In Greek mythology, the son of Agamemnon. ... Clytemnestra (also Klytaimnéstra or Clytaemnestra, praiseworthy wooing) was the wife of Agamemnon, king of the Greek kingdom of Mycenae or Argos. ... For other uses, see Athena (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Athens (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Delphi (disambiguation). ...


The Eumenides (also known as The Furies) is the final play of the Oresteia, in which Orestes, Apollo, and the Furies go before a jury of Athenians at the Areopagus (Rock of Ares, a flat rocky hill by the Athenian agora where the homicide court of Athens held its sessions), to decide whether Orestes' murder of his mother, Clytemnestra, makes him worthy of the torment they have inflicted upon him. This article concerns the Classical judicial body. ... Stoa of the ancient agora de Thessaloniki An agora (αγορά), translatable as marketplace, was a public space and an essential part of an ancient Greek polis or city-state. ...


Orestes is tormented by the Furies, chthonic deities that avenge patricide and matricide. He, at the instigation of his sister Electra and the god Apollo, has killed their mother Clytemnestra, who had killed their father, King Agamemnon, who had killed his daughter and their sister, Iphigenia. Orestes finds a refuge and a solace at the new temple of Apollo in Delphi, and the god, unable to deliver him from the Furies' unappeasable wrath, sends him along to Athens under the protection of Hermes, while he casts a drowsy spell upon the pursuing Furies in order to delay them. For other uses, see Chthon (disambiguation). ... Patricide is (i) the act of killing ones father, or (ii) a person who kills his or her father. ... Matricide is the act of killing ones mother. ... For other uses, see Delphi (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Hermes (disambiguation). ...

Clytemnestra's ghost appears from the woods and rouses the sleeping Furies, urging them to continue hunting Orestes. The Furies' first appearance on stage is haunting: they hum a tune in unison as they wake up, and seek to find the scent of blood that will lead them to Orestes' tracks. Ancient tradition says that on the play's premiere this struck so much fear and anguish in the audience, that a pregnant woman named Neaira suffered a miscarriage and died on the spot. Neaera or Neaira can refer to: Neaera (band), a German death metal/metalcore band. ... Miscarriage or spontaneous abortion is the natural or spontaneous end of a pregnancy at a stage where the embryo or the fetus is incapable of surviving, generally defined in humans at a gestation of prior to 20 weeks. ...

The Furies' tracking down of Orestes in Athens is equally haunting: Orestes has clasped Athena's small statue in supplication, and the Furies close in on him by smelling the blood of his slain mother in the air. Once they do see him, they can also see rivulets of blood soaking the earth beneath his footsteps. For other uses, see Athena (disambiguation). ... Supplication (also known as petitioning) is the most common form of prayer, wherein a person asks a supernatural deity to provide something, either for the person who is praying or for someone else on whose behalf a prayer of supplication is being made. ...

As they surround him, Athena intervenes and brings in a jury of twelve Athenians to judge her supplicant. Apollo acts as attorney for Orestes, while the Furies act as advocates for the dead Clytemnestra. During the trial, Apollo convinces Athena that, in a marriage, the man is more important than the woman, by pointing out that Athena was born only of Zeus and without a mother (Zeus swallows Metis). Before the trial votes are counted, Athena votes in favour of Orestes. After being counted, the votes on each side are equal. Athena then persuades the Furies to accept her decision. They eventually submit. (However, in Euripides' Iphigeneia in Tauris, the Furies continue to haunt Orestes even after the trial.) Athena then renames them Eumenides (The Kindly Ones). The Furies will now be honored by the citizens of Athens and ensure their prosperity. Athena also declares that henceforth hung juries should result in the defendant being acquitted, as mercy should always take precedence over harshness. For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation). ... Metis can refer to a number of things: Metis was a Titaness and the first wife of Zeus. ... A statue of Euripides. ... Iphigeneia in Tauris (in Greek: ) is a drama by the playwright Euripides, written sometime between 414 BC and 412 BC. It bears much in common with another of Euripides plays, Helen, and is often described as a romance, a melodrama, or an escape play. ...


Although Proteus, the satyr play which originally followed the first three plays of The Oresteia, is lost, it is widely believed to have been based on the story told in Book IV of Homer's Odyssey. In 2002, Theatre Kingston mounted a production of The Oresteia in the translation by Ted Hughes and included a free reconstruction of Proteus based on the episode in The Odyssey and loosely arranged according to the structure of extant satyr plays. For other uses, see Homer (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Odyssey (disambiguation). ... The Furies in Theatre Kingstons 2002 production of The Oresteia Theatre Kingston is a theatre company located in Kingston, Ontario, Canada. ... 1 Aspinall Street, Mytholmroyd, West Yorkshire, where Ted Hughes was born. ...


That the play ends on a happy note may surprise modern readers, to whom the word tragedy denotes a drama ending in misfortune. The word did not carry this meaning in ancient Athens, and many of the extant Greek tragedies end happily. For other uses, see Drama (disambiguation). ...

Worth noting here is the metaphorical aspect of this entire drama. The change from an archaic self-help justice by personal revenge to administration of justice by trial symbolises the passage from a primitive society governed by instincts, to a modern society governed by reason: justice is decided by a jury of peers, representing the citizen body and its values, and the gods themselves sanction this transition by taking part in the judicial procedure, arguing and voting on an equal footing with the mortals. This theme of the polis self-governed by consent through lawful institutions, as opposed to tribalism and superstition, recurs in Greek art and thought. This article is about metaphor in literature and rhetoric. ... For other uses, see Instinct (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Society (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Reason (disambiguation). ... This article is about the concept of justice. ... A polis (πόλις, pronunciation pol-is) plural: poleis (πόλεις) is a city, a city-state and also citizenship and body of citizens. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Superstition (disambiguation). ...

The dramatization of societal transformation in this myth (the transition to governance by laws) is both a boast and justification of the then relatively new judicial system. The concept of objective intervention by an impartial entity against which no vengeance could be taken (the state) marked the end of continuous cycles of bloodshed, a transition in Greek society reflected by the transition in their mythology--the Furies are a much greater part of older Greek myths than comparatively more recent ones. The reflection of societal struggles and social norms in mythology makes plays like these of special interest today, offering poignant cultural and historical insights.

The Oresteia in the arts and popular culture

Opera, Ballet and incidental music

  • Several composers have written musical treatments of all or part of Aeschylus' trilogy. From the late 19th century comes Sergey Taneyev's full-length opera Oresteia. In the 20th century Soviet composer Yury Alexandrovich Falik composed a one-act ballet Oresteia; Darius Milhaud supplied incidental music for the plays, the Vienese composer Ernst Krenek wrote Leben des Orest (1929), and Iannis Xenakis wrote at least three works for voices and instruments based the trilogy. There is also the one-act opera Il furore di Oreste by Flavio Testi (from Libation-Bearers) and "Prologue," by Harrison Birtwistle (from Agamemnon), for tenor and chamber ensemble.
  • Richard Strauss, educated as Germans of his generation ever were in the Greek and Roman Classics, composed in 1908 Elektra, a startling and provocative one-act opera which kicked itself immediately into the standard repertory.

Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sergei Ivanovich Taneyev (also Taneev or Taneiev) (November 25 (old system??), 1856 - June 19, 1915), a pupil of Piotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky was a Russian composer, teacher, theorist and author. ... Oresteia (Орестея in Cyrillic) is an opera in three parts, eight tableaux, by Sergei Taneyev, composed during 1887-1894. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... Darius Milhaud Darius Milhaud (IPA: ) (September 4, 1892 – June 22, 1974) was a French composer and teacher. ... Ernst Krenek Ernst Krenek (August 23, 1900 – December 22, 1991) was an Austrian-born composer of Czech ancestry; throughout his life he insisted that his name be written Krenek rather than KÅ™enek, and that it should be pronounced as a German word. ... Leben des Orest (The life of Orestes) is a grand opera in five acts (eight scenes) with words and music both by Ernst Krenek, his opus 60 and the first of his libretti with an antique setting. ... Iannis Xenakis in 1975. ... Sir Harrison Paul Birtwistle, CH (born July 15, 1934) is a British composer, widely seen as one of the most significant modern composers from that country. ... This article is about Tenor vocalists in music. ... This article is about the German composer of tone-poems and operas. ... Elektra is a one-act opera by Richard Strauss, to a German-language libretto by Hugo von Hofmannsthal adapted from his drama of 1903—the first of many such collaborations between composer and librettist. ...


  • The Italian poet and filmmaker Pier Paolo Pasolini planned to make a version of the trilogy, set in an unnamed African colony. His goal was to use the Oresteia to comment on the emergence of democracy in Africa. However, during a research expedition captured in the documentary Notes for an African Orestes (1975), a group of African students objected to the project on the grounds that an ancient European text would have little to say about modern African history and that Pasolini was treating Africa as a single entity and not as a continent of diverse, complex cultures. Pasolini abandoned the project.
  • A version of Oresteia, set in modern Greece, is presented in 1975 film The Travelling Players by Theo Angelopoulos.

Pier Paolo Pasolini (March 5, 1922 – November 2, 1975) was an Italian poet, intellectual, film director, and writer. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Photo of Angelopoulos Theodoros Angelopoulos (Θόδωρος Αγγελόπουλος in Greek) (born April 27, 1936) is a noted Greek film director. ...

Stage works

  • Irish playwright Marina Carr loosely borrows the plot of the first two parts of the Oresteia in her 2002 play, Ariel, which is set in the contemporary Irish midlands.
  • Obie and Oppenhiemer Award-winning Playwright/Director Robert O'Hara wrote and directed the world premiere of "Good Breeding", an adaptation of the Greek Oresteia inspired by the works of Aeschylus and Euripides. The Curse on the House of Atreus is turned upside down in this Erotic exploration of Love, Lust and Revenge. It was first performed at the University of California San Diego, UCSD, on February 16, 2007.
  • French playwright and philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre closely based his play The Flies (French: Les Mouches) on the Oresteia. He tellingly recreates the intense persecution of Orestes by the Furies, but the reactions of Orestes are transformed by Sartre's existentialist philosophy.
  • American playwright Eugene O'Neill based Mourning Becomes Electra on the Oresteia. It is likewise composed of three plays, with themes corresponding to Aeschylus' trilogy. It takes place at the end of the American Civil War as opposed to the Trojan War.

Marina Carr (b. ... The University of California, San Diego (popularly known as UCSD) is a public, coeducational university located in La Jolla, California. ... Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (June 21, 1905 – April 15, 1980), normally known simply as Jean-Paul Sartre (pronounced: ), was a French existentialist philosopher and pioneer, dramatist and screenwriter, novelist and critic. ... The Flies (known in the original French as Les Mouches) is a play by Jean-Paul Sartre. ... Existentialism is a philosophical movement emphasizing individualism, individual freedom, and subjectivity. ... Eugene Gladstone ONeill (October 16, 1888 – November 27, 1953) was a Nobel- and four-time Pulitzer Prize-winning American playwright. ... Mourning Becomes Electra is the title for a trilogy of plays by Eugene ONeill, first performed in 1931. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total...


  • Poet Robinson Jeffers's The Tower Beyond Tragedy is a modern, verse version of the Oresteia including references to the World Wars.
  • Poet T. S. Eliot's play The Family Reunion is based on The Eumenides.
  • Poet Sylvia Plath's poem The Colossus alludes to the blue sky of the Oresteia.

John Robinson Jeffers (January 10, 1887–January 20, 1962) was an American poet, known for his work about the central California coast. ... Thomas Stearns Eliot, OM (September 26, 1888 – January 4, 1965), was a poet, dramatist and literary critic. ... Sylvia Plath (October 27, 1932 – February 11, 1963) was an American poet, novelist, and short story writer. ...

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This page is a candidate for speedy deletion, because: vanity page, dictionary style If you disagree with its speedy deletion, please explain why on its talk page or at Wikipedia:Speedy deletions. ... Maynard James Keenan (born April 17, 1964, as James Herbert Keenan) is an American rock singer. ... Faith and the Muse is an underground band composed of two musicians, Monica Richards and William Faith. ... A Perfect Circle (often referred to as APC) was an alternative rock supergroup, formed by guitarist Billy Howerdel. ... Evidence of Heaven is the third album by Faith and the Muse. ... Mer de Noms is the first studio album by the alternative rock band A Perfect Circle. ... Virgin Steele is a Heavy metal band from New York, founded in 1981, but more recently they have displayed progressive and symphonic metal elements. ... In popular music, a concept album is an album which is unified by a theme, which can be instrumental, compositional, narrative, or lyrical (Shuker 2002, p. ...


Plays by Aeschylus

Robert Browning (May 7, 1812 – December 12, 1889) was a British poet and playwright whose mastery of dramatic verse, especially dramatic monologues, made him one of the foremost Victorian poets. ... Arthur S. Way (1847- ? ) was an English classical scholar and poet, born at Dorking. ... Edmund Doidge Anderson Morshead (1849 - October 24, 1912) was an English classicist and teacher. ... Herbert Weir Smyth (born Wilmington, Delaware, August 8, 1857 – died 1937) was an American classical scholar. ... Gilbert Murray (or George Gilbert Aime) (January 2, 1866 - 1957) was a British classical scholar and diplomat. ... Frederick Louis MacNeice (September 12, 1907 – September 3, 1963) was a British and Irish poet and playwright. ... This article is about a character in Greek mythology. ... Richmond Alexander Lattimore (May 6, 1906 - February 26, 1984) was an American poet and translator known for his translations of the Greek classics, especially his versions of the Iliad and Odyssey, still considered superior despite their age. ... Robert Fagles is a Professor of Comparative Literature at Princeton University. ... David Grene (1913-2002) was a professor of classics at the University of Chicago from 1937 until his death. ... Wendy Doniger (born November 20, 1940) is an American Divinity Professor, active in international religious studies since 1973. ... Peter Meineck is a professor of classics and artist in residence at New York University, where he teaches ancient drama, Greek Literature, and classical mythology. ... 1 Aspinall Street, Mytholmroyd, West Yorkshire, where Ted Hughes was born. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Aischylos_Büste. ... This article is about the ancient Greek playwright. ... The Persians (Πέρσαι) is a tragedy by the ancient Greek playwright Aeschylus. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Επτά επί Θήβας The Seven Against Thebes is a mythic narrative that finds its classic statement in the play by Aeschylus (467 BCE) concerning the battle between the Seven led by Polynices and the army of Thebes headed by Eteocles and his supporters, traditional Theban... The Suppliants (Greek Hiketides, also translated as The Suppliant Maidens) is a play by Aeschylus. ... The Eumenides redirects here. ... The Eumenides redirects here. ... The Eumenides redirects here. ... Prometheus Bound is an Ancient Greek tragedy. ...


  1. ^ Euripides Heautontimoroumenos Pietro Pucci. Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association, Vol. 98. (1967), pp. 365-371. Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0065-9711%281967%2998%3C365%3AEH%3E2.0.CO%3B2-8
  2. ^ Euripides Heautontimoroumenos Pietro Pucci. Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association, Vol. 98. (1967), pp. 365-371. Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0065-9711%281967%2998%3C365%3AEH%3E2.0.CO%3B2-8

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Oresteia (697 words)
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When The Oresteia was first produced in 458 B.C., Athens was in full flush of the exuberant energy that was driving it to greatness.
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Of all the works of Aeschylus the strongest in dramatic force is the Oresteia, a series consisting of the Agamemnon, the Choëphoræ (or Libation Bearers) and the Eumenides, the only one of his trilogies that has come down to us.
It was probably the last that he exhibited at Athens, and upon it he seems to have lavished all the splendors of his genius, that he might leave to his fellow citizens something worthy of his country and himself.
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