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Encyclopedia > The Odyssey

The Odyssey (Greek: Οδύσσεια, Odusseia) is one of the two major ancient Greek epic poems (the other being the Iliad), attributed to the poet Homer. The poem is commonly dated to between 800 and 600 BC. The poem is, in part, a sequel to the Iliad, and concerns the events that befall the Greek hero Odysseus in his long journey back to his native land Ithaca after the fall of Troy. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1152x781, 181 KB)Odysseus and Nausicaä - by Charles Gleyre - from Project Gutenberg eText 13725 - http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1152x781, 181 KB)Odysseus and Nausicaä - by Charles Gleyre - from Project Gutenberg eText 13725 - http://www. ... Odysseus and the Sirens. ... Odysseus and Nausicaä - by Charles Gleyre In Greek mythology, Nausicaa, (also Náusikaa or Nausicaä) was a daughter of King Alcinous of the Phaeaceans. ... Categories: Stub | 1806 births | 1874 deaths | Swiss painters | Natives of Vaud ... Odyssey is an ancient Greek epic poem by Homer. ... The epic is a broadly defined genre of poetry, and one of the major forms of narrative literature. ... The Iliad (Ancient Greek Ιλιάς, Ilias) is, along with the Odyssey, one of the two major Greek epic poems traditionally attributed to Homer, a supposedly blind Ionian poet. ... The Homère Caetani bust at the Louvre, a 2nd century Roman copy of a 2nd century BC Greek original. ... The Iliad (Ancient Greek Ιλιάς, Ilias) is, along with the Odyssey, one of the two major Greek epic poems traditionally attributed to Homer, a supposedly blind Ionian poet. ... Odysseus and the Sirens. ... For other places named Ithaca, see Ithaca (disambiguation). ... Walls of the excavated city of Troy Troy (Ancient Greek Τροία Troia, also Ίλιον Ilion; Latin: Troia, Ilium) is a legendary city, center of the Trojan War, described in the Trojan War cycle, especially in the Iliad, one of the two epic poems attributed to Homer. ...


It takes Odysseus ten years to return to his native land of Ithaca after 10 years of war; during his 20-year absence, his son Telemachus and his wife Penelope must deal with a group of unruly suitors who compete for Penelope's hand in marriage, since it is assumed that Odysseus has died. For other places named Ithaca, see Ithaca (disambiguation). ... Telemachus and Mentor Telemachus departing from Nestor, painting by Henry Howard (1769–1847) Telemachus (also transliterated as Telemachos or Telémakhos; literally, far-away fighter) is a figure in Greek mythology, the son of Odysseus and Penelope. ... Penelope represented as a statue in the Vatican, Rome Penélopê (Πηνελοπεια) is a character of the Odyssey, one of the two great epic poems (the other being the Iliad; both are attributed to Homer) of ancient Greek literature. ...


The poem is considered one of the foundational texts of the Western canon and continues to be read in both Homeric Greek and translations around the world. While today's Odyssey is usually a printed text, the original poem was an oral composition sung by a trained bard, in an amalgamated Ancient Greek dialect, using a regular metrical pattern called dactylic hexameter. Each of the 12,110 hexameter lines of the original Greek consists of six feet; each foot is a dactyl or a spondee. Among the most impressive elements of the text are its strikingly modern non-linear plot, and its elevation of the status of women and the lower classes. In the English language as well as many others, the word odyssey has come to refer to an epic voyage. The Western canon is a canon of books and art (and specifically one with very loose boundaries) that has allegedly been highly influential in shaping Western culture. ... Homeric Greek is the dialect of Ancient Greek that was used by Homer in the Iliad and Odyssey. ... See: International System of Units, colloquially called the Metric System, and also metrication. ... Dactyllic hexameter (also known as heroic hexameter) is a form of meter in poetry or a rhythmic scheme. ... In verse, a foot is the basic unit of meter used to describe rhythm. ... A dactyl (Gr. ... In poetry, a spondee is a metrical foot consisting of two long syllables. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...

Contents


Character of Odysseus

Main article: Odysseus.

Odysseus' main heroic trait is his mētis, or "cunning intelligence"; he is often described as the "Peer of Zeus in Council". This intelligence is most often manifested by Odysseus' use of disguise and deceptive speech. His disguises take forms both physical (altering his appearance) and verbal, such as telling the Cyclops Polyphemus that his name is "Nobody", then escaping after blinding Polyphemus (When queried by other cyclops about why he is screaming, Polyphemus replies that "Nobody" is hurting him). Odysseus and the Sirens. ... Deception is providing intentionally misleading information to others. ... Polyphemus the Cyclops. ... Odysseus and his men blinding the cyclop Polyphemus (detail of a proto-attic amphora, c. ...


Structure

The Odyssey consists of twenty-four books and begins, as do many ancient epics, in medias res, meaning that the action begins in the middle of the plot, and that prior events are described through flashbacks or storytelling. The first four books, known as the Telemachy, trace Telemachus' efforts to maintain control of the palace in the face of suitors who would have his inheritance, and his mother Penelope's hand in marriage. Failing that, Athena encourages him to find his father. In book 5, we find Odysseus near the end of his journey, a not entirely unwilling captive of the beautiful nymph Calypso, with whom he has spent 7 of his 10 lost years. Released from her wiles by the intercession of his patroness Athena and her father Zeus, he departs. His raft is destroyed by his nemesis Poseidon, who is angry because Odysseus blinded his son, Polyphemus. When Odysseus washes up on Scheria, home to the Phaeacians, the naked stranger is treated with traditional Greek hospitality even before he reveals his name. Odysseus satisfies the Phaeacians' curiosity, telling them - and us - of all his adventures since departing from Troy. This renowned, extended "flashback" leads him back to where he stands, his tale told. The shipbuilding Phaeacians finally loan him a ship to return to Ithaca, where, home at last, he regains his throne, reunites with his son, metes out justice to the suitors, and reunites with his faithful wife Penelope. In medias res (Latin for into the middle of things) is a literary technique where the narrative starts in the middle of the story instead of from its beginning (ab ovo or ab initio). ... The Telemachy is a term used to describe the first four books of Homers epic poem the Odyssey. ... Telemachus and Mentor Telemachus departing from Nestor, painting by Henry Howard (1769–1847) Telemachus (also transliterated as Telemachos or Telémakhos; literally, far-away fighter) is a figure in Greek mythology, the son of Odysseus and Penelope. ... Penelope represented as a statue in the Vatican, Rome Penélopê (Πηνελοπεια) is a character of the Odyssey, one of the two great epic poems (the other being the Iliad; both are attributed to Homer) of ancient Greek literature. ... In Greek mythology Kalypsō (Greek: Καλυψώ, I will conceal), or Calypso, was a sea nymph, daughter of Atlas, who delayed Odysseus on her dark and depressing island (Ogygia) for seven years. ... Helmeted Athena, of the Velletri type. ... Statue of Zeus Phidias created the 12-m (40-ft) tall statue of Zeus at Olympia about 435 BC. The statue was perhaps the most famous sculpture in ancient Greece, imagined here in a 16th-century engraving. ... Neptune reigns in the city centre, Bristol, formerly the largest port in England outside London. ... Odysseus and the Sirens. ... Odysseus and his men blinding the cyclop Polyphemus (detail of a proto-attic amphora, c. ... Nausicaa takes Odysseus to the palace Σχερία (Scheria, Skhería) or Phaeacia was a phantom island mentioned in the Greek mythology and literature as the homeland of the Phaeacians and the last destination of Odysseus before coming back home to Ithaca. ... In Greek mythology, Scheria, Skhería, or Phaeacia, is an island, the land of the Phaeacians. ... For other places named Ithaca, see Ithaca (disambiguation). ... Penelope represented as a statue in the Vatican, Rome Penélopê (Πηνελοπεια) is a character of the Odyssey, one of the two great epic poems (the other being the Iliad; both are attributed to Homer) of ancient Greek literature. ...


Plot summary

Book I

"Tell of the storm-tossed man, O Muse, who wandered long after he sacked the sacred citadel of Troy." With the invocation of the muse Homer begins his epic, though the hero himself is still offstage. Urged on by Athena, the gods decide that Odysseus has been marooned too long on the island of the nymph Calypso. Athena also decides to pay a visit to Ithaca to see Odysseus' son Telemachus. Walls of the excavated city of Troy Troy (Ancient Greek Τροία Troia, also Ίλιον Ilion; Latin: Troia, Ilium) is a legendary city, center of the Trojan War, described in the Trojan War cycle, especially in the Iliad, one of the two epic poems attributed to Homer. ... In Greek mythology Kalypsō (Greek: Καλυψώ, I will conceal), or Calypso, was a sea nymph, daughter of Atlas, who delayed Odysseus on her dark and depressing island (Ogygia) for seven years. ... Telemachus and Mentor Telemachus departing from Nestor, painting by Henry Howard (1769–1847) Telemachus (also transliterated as Telemachos or Telémakhos; literally, far-away fighter) is a figure in Greek mythology, the son of Odysseus and Penelope. ...


Book II

Meanwhile, the mansion of Odysseus is infested with suitors for the hand of his wife Penelope. Everyone assumes Odysseus is dead. Encouraged by Athena who arrives in the form of Mentor, Telemachus calls an assembly to ask for help. He breaks down and cries and is pushed off the platform by Athena. Antinous mocks Telemachus. He issues an ultimatum to Telemachus: "Either you force your mother to marry a suitor, or we ruin your house." Telemachus refuses to comply. Zeus sends an omen of the suitors' doom. Two eagles swoop down, tearing each other's throats and necks with their talons. The suitors mock Halitherses, who makes the prophecy. Afterwards, Telemachus, accompanied by Athena, sets sail for Pylos to seek news of his father. Dates romantically sharing a chili cheese dog, in a dream sequence Courtship (sometimes called dating or going steady) is the process of selecting and attracting a mate for marriage. ... Statue of Zeus Phidias created the 12-m (40-ft) tall statue of Zeus at Olympia about 435 BC. The statue was perhaps the most famous sculpture in ancient Greece, imagined here in a 16th-century engraving. ...


Book III

Telemachus arrives safely in Pylos, where he is welcomed with much pomp. Nestor, the king of Pylos, tells Telemachus what he knows of the fates of the other Achaean leaders: Diomedes, Idomeneus and most of the other kings arrived home safely, while Agamemnon was piteously and treacherously murdered by his wife and her lover. Nestor gives Telemachus an escort to assure a safe journey inland to Sparta, where Menelaus reigns. The word may have one of the following meanings. ...


Book IV

Menelaus tells what he learned of Odysseus while stranded in Egypt after the war. He was advised by a goddess to disguise himself and three members of his crew in seal pelts and then pounce on the Old Man of the Sea. If they could hold him down while he transformed himself into various animals and shapes, then he would send them on their homeward way and give news of their companions. Menelaus did as instructed and was informed that Odysseus was presently being held against his will by the nymph Calypso. Families Odobenidae Otariidae Phocidae Pinnipeds (fin-feet, lit. ... A pelt is the skin of a (generally) wild animal. ... Proteus as seen by Andrea Alciato In Greek mythology, Proteus is an early sea-god, one of several deities whom Homer calls the Old Man of the Sea[1], whose name suggests the first, as protogonos is the firstborn. He became the son of Poseidon in the Olympian theogony (Odyssey...

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2388x1536, 128 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Odyssey ...

Book V

Zeus, the King of the Gods, sends his messenger Hermes skimming over the waves on magic sandals to Calypso's island. Calypso promises Odysseus immortality, but he refuses. At last all fails. Though the nymph isn't happy about it, she agrees to let Odysseus go. But the raft on which he sets sail is destroyed by his enemy, the god Poseidon, who lashes the sea into a storm with his trident. Odysseus barely escapes with his life and washes ashore days later, half-drowned. He staggers into an olive thicket and falls asleep. Hermes bearing the infant Dionysus, by Praxiteles Hermes (Greek IPA ), in Greek mythology, is the god of boundaries and of the travelers who cross them, of shepherds and cowherds, of orators, literature and poets, of athletics, of weights and measures and invention and commerce in general, of liars, and of... Neptune reigns in the city centre, Bristol, formerly the largest port in England outside London. ... A massive sculpture of Lord Shiva holding a trident (Trishula) Poseidon sculpture holding a trident For other uses, see Trident (disambiguation). ...


Book VI

Odysseus wakes up to the sound of maidens laughing. Princess Nausicaa of the Phaeacians has come down to the riverside to wash some clothes because Athena came to her in a dream and instructed her to do so. Now she and her handmaids are frolicking after the chore. Odysseus approaches as a supplicant, and Nausicaa is kind enough to instruct him how to get the king's help in returning to his home. Odysseus and Nausicaä - by Charles Gleyre In ancient Greek literature, Nausicaa (often rendered Nausicaä; Greek: Ναυσικάα), a daughter of King Alcinous (Alkínoös) of the Phaeacians and Queen Arete, appears in Homers Odyssey (odysseía). ...


Book VII

Thus, then, did Ulysses wait and pray; but the girl drove on to the town. When she reached her father's house she drew up at the gateway, and her brothers- comely as the gods- gathered round her, took the mules out of the wagon, and carried the clothes into the house, while she went to her own room, where an old servant, Eurymedusa of Apeira, lit the fire for her. This old woman had been brought by sea from Apeira, and had been chosen as a prize for Alcinous because he was king over the Phaecians, and the people obeyed him as though he were a god. Then Minerva said, "Yes, father stranger, I will show you the house you want, for Alcinous lives quite close to my own father."


Book VIII

The next day is declared a holiday in honor of the guest, whose name the king still does not know. Angered, he takes up a discus and throws it with such violence that everyone drops to the ground. That night at a banquet, as the court bard entertains with songs of the Trojan War, Odysseus is heard sobbing. "Enough!" shouts the king. "Our friend finds this song displeasing. Won't you tell us your name, stranger, and where do you hail from?"


Book IX

"My name is Odysseus of Ithaca, and here is my tale since setting out from Troy. We destroyed a city called Ísmaros, the domain of the Cicones, first off, but then reinforcements arrived and we lost many comrades. Next we visited the Lotus Eaters, and three of my crew tasted this strange plant. They lost all desire to return home and had to be carried off by force. On another island we investigated a cave full of sheep pens. The herdsman turned out to be as big as a barn, with a single glaring eye in his forehead. This Cyclops promptly ate two of my men for dinner. We were trapped in the cave by a boulder in the doorway that only the Cyclops could budge, so we couldn't kill him while he slept. Instead we sharpened a pole and used it to gouge out his eye. We escaped by clinging to the undersides of his sheep." Lotus-eaters beckon Odysseus and his men In Greek mythology, the Lotophagi (lotus-eaters) were a race of people from an island near Northern Africa dominated by lotus plants. ...


A more humourous version of this event is portrayed in Cyclops by Euripides, the only complete satyr play to have survived. The Cyclops is an Ancient Greek satyr play by Euripides, the only complete satyr play that has survived. ... A statue of Euripides Euripides (Greek: Ευριπίδης) (c. ... Satyr plays were an ancient Greek form of comedy, similar to the modern-day burlesque style. ...


Book X

"Next we met the Keeper of the Winds, who sent us on our way with a steady breeze. He'd given me a leather bag, which my crew mistook for booty. They opened it and released a hurricane that blew us back to where we'd started. We ended up among the Laestrygonians, giants who bombarded our fleet with boulders and gobbled down our shipmates. The few survivors put in at the island of the enchantress Circe. My men were entertained by her and then, with a wave of her wand, turned into swine. Hermes the god gave me an herb, called moly, that protected me. Circe told me that to get home I must travel to the land of Death, then she gave me specific instructions how to cross the Oceanus and reach the entry to the underworld where two big rivers flow into Acheron." Aeolus Aiolos (), Latinized as Æolus, Eolus, Æolos, or Aiolus, was the name of three personages in Greek Mythology. ... This article is about weather phenomena. ... The Laestrygonians (or Laestrygones, Laistrygones, Laistrygonians,Lestrygonians) were a mythological tribe of gigantic cannibals. ... Circe, a painting by Edward Burne-Jones. ... Binomial name Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758 Synonyms The domestic pig is usually given the scientific name Sus scrofa, though some authors call it , reserving for the wild boar. ... Death is the full cessation of vital functions in the biological life. ... Oceanus or Okeanos refers to the ocean, which the Greeks and Romans regarded as a river circling the world. ... Hades [from Greek Hadēs (), originally Haidēs () or Aïdēs (); of uncertain origin,[1] although it has been ascribed to Greek unseen[2]] refers to both the ancient Greek abode of the dead and the god of that underworld. ...


Book XI (also known as Nekyia)

"We traveled to the underworld to hear from the blind prophet Tiresias. There I saw the ghost of my mother, Anticleia, as well as many of my fallen comrades who died before Troy. Finally I encountered the ghost of Tiresias, who foretold the path I must travel to finally return to Ithaca and make amends to Poseidon." In Ancient Greek Epic Poetry, Nekyia refers to the 11th rhapsody (chapter) of the [Odyssey], which describes the descent of Odysseus to the underworld. ... In Greek mythology, Tiresias (also transliterated as Teiresias) was a blind prophet, the son of the shepherd Everes and the nymph Chariclo. ... Anticleia was Odysseus mother in the Homers epic poem The Odyssey. Its not certain exactly how she died, but in any case, Odysseus met her in his trip to the Kingdom of the Dead. ...

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2112x1404, 102 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Odyssey ...

Book XII

"At sea once more we had to pass the Sirens, whose sweet singing lures sailors to their doom. I had stopped up the ears of my crew with wax, and I alone listened while tied to the mast, powerless to steer toward shipwreck. Next came Charybdis, who swallows the sea in a whirlpool, then spits it up again. Avoiding this we skirted the cliff where Scylla exacts her toll. Each of her six slavering maws grabbed a sailor and wolfed him down. Finally we were becalmed on the island of the Sun. My men disregarded all warnings and sacrificed his cattle, so back at sea Zeus sent a thunderbolt that smashed the ship. I alone survived, washing up on the island of Calypso." A Greek amphora depicting Odysseus encounter with the sirens. ... In Greek mythology, Charybdis, or Kharybdis (sucker down, Greek Χάρυβδις), is a sea monster, daughter of Poseidon and Gaia, who swallows huge amounts of water three times a day and then belches it back out again. ... In Greek mythology, Scylla, or Skylla (Greek Σκύλλα) was a name shared by two characters, a female sea monster and a princess. ... Lycian Apollo, early Imperial Roman copy of a fourth century Greek original (Louvre Museum) In Greek and Roman mythology, Apollo (Greek: Απόλλων, Apóllōn; or Απελλων, Apellōn), the ideal of the kouros,[1] was the archer-god of medicine and healing and also a bringer of death-dealing plague; as...


Book XIII

When Odysseus had finished his tale, the king ordered him to go to Ithaca. The sailors put him down on the beach asleep. Athena cast a protective mist about him that kept him from recognizing his homeland. Finally the goddess revealed herself and dispelled the mist. In joy Odysseus kissed the ground. Athena transformed him into an old man as a disguise. Clad in a filthy tunic, he went off to find his faithful swineherd, as instructed by the goddess. In a draw in a mountainous region, a shepherd guides a flock of about 20 sheep amidst scrub and olive trees. ...

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2160x1560, 120 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Odyssey ...

Book XIV

Eumaeus the swineherd welcomed the bedraggled stranger. He threw his own bedcover over a pile of boughs as a seat for Odysseus, who does not reveal his identity. Observing Zeus's commandment to be kind to guests, Eumaeus slaughters a prime boar and serves it with bread and wine. Odysseus, true to his fame as a smooth-talking schemer, makes up an elaborate story of his origins. That night the hero sleeps by the fire under the swineherd's spare cloak, while Eumaeus himself sleeps outside in the rain with his herd. He then later goes and finds Athena to get help to fight the suitors off. In Greek mythology, Eumaeus, or Eumaios, was Odysseus swineherd before he left for the Trojan War. ...


Book XV

Athena summons Telemachus home and tells him how to avoid an ambush by Penelope's suitors. Meanwhile back on Ithaca, Odysseus listens while Eumaeus recounts the story of his life. He was the child of a prosperous mainland king, whose realm was visited by Phoenician traders. His nursemaid, a Phoenician herself, had been carried off by pirates as a girl and sold into slavery. In return for homeward passage with her countrymen, she kidnapped Eumaeus. He was bought by Odysseus' father, whose queen raised him as a member of the family. Phoenician can mean: The Phoenician ancient civilization The Phoenician alphabet The Phoenician languages This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Slavery is the social and legal designation of specific persons as property, for the purpose of providing labor and services for the owner without the right of the slave to refuse, or gain compensation. ...


Book XVI

Telemachus evades the suitors' ambush. Following Athena's instructions, he proceeds to the farmstead of Eumaeus. There he makes the acquaintance of the tattered guest and sends Eumaeus to his mother to announce his safe return. Athena restores Odysseus' normal appearance, enchanting it so that Telemachus takes him for a god. "No god am I," Odysseus assures him, "but your own father, returned after these twenty years." They fall into each other's arms. Later they plot the suitors' doom. Concerned that the odds are fifty-to-one, Telemachus suggests that they might need reinforcements. "Aren't Zeus and Athena reinforcement enough?" asks Odysseus.


Book XVII

Disguised once more as an old beggar, Odysseus journeys to town. On the trail he encounters an insolent goatherd named Melanthius, who curses and kicks him, but fails to knock him over because of his firm stance. At his castle gate, the hero is recognized by a decrepit dog, Argos, that he raised as a pup. Having seen his master again, the old hound dies. At Athena's urging Odysseus begs food from the suitors. One man, Antinous, berates him and refuses so much as a crust. He even hurls his footstool at Odysseus, hitting him in the back. This makes even the other suitors nervous, for sometimes the gods masquerade as mortals to test their righteousness. A goatherd is a person who herds goats for a living. ... Melanthius was a noted Greek painter of the 4th century BC. He belonged to the school of Sicyon, which was noted for fine drawing. ... In Greek mythology, Antinous, son of Eupeithes, was one of the suitors of Penelope during the absence of her husband, Odysseus, at the Trojan war. ...


Book XVIII

Now a real beggar shows up at the palace and warns Odysseus off his turf. This man, Irus, is always running errands for the suitors. Odysseus says that there are pickings enough for the two of them, but Irus threatens fisticuffs and the suitors egg him on. Odysseus rises to the challenge and rolls up his tunic into a boxer's belt. The suitors goggle at the muscles revealed. Not wishing to kill Irus with a single blow, Odysseus breaks his jaw instead. Another suitor, Eurymachus, marks himself for revenge by trying to hit Odysseus with a footstool as Antinous had done. In Greek mythology, Irus was one of several figures: Irus (also Iros or Arnaeus) was a suitor of Penelope, a gigantic beggar that was killed by Odysseus with a giant club. ... Eurymachus was an Ithacan nobleman, one of the leading suitors of Penelope in The Odyssey. ...


Book XIX

Odysseus has a long talk with his queen Penelope but does not reveal his identity. Penelope takes kindly to the stranger and orders her maid Eurycleia to bathe his feet and anoint them with oil. Eurycleia, who was Odysseus' nurse when he was a child, notices a scar above the hero's knee. Odysseus had been gored by a wild boar when hunting on Mount Parnassus as a young man. The maid recognizes her master at once, and her hand goes out to his chin. But Odysseus silences her lest she give away his plot prematurely. Odysseus and Euryclea, by Christian Gottlob Heyne In Greek mythology, Euryclea, or Eurýkleia was the wet-nurse of Odysseus. ... Mount Parnassus (also Mount Parnassos or Liakoura) is a mountain barren limestone in central Greece that towers above Delphi, north of the Gulf of Corinth, and offers scenic views of the surrounding olive groves and countryside. ...


Book XX

Odysseus, sleeping on the portico, is furious as he sees the maidservants leaving the hall to sleep with the suitors - here Homer uses the analogy of a black pudding. He also hears Penelope weeping, until Athena sends her to sleep. The next morning Odysseus asks for a sign, and Zeus sends a clap of thunder out of the clear blue sky. A servant recognizes it as a portent and prays that this day be the last of the suitors' abuse. Odysseus encounters another herdsman. Like the swineherd Eumaeus, this man, who tends the realm's cattle, swears his loyalty to the absent king. A prophet, an exiled murderer whom Telemachus has befriended, shares a vision with the suitors: "I see the walls of this mansion dripping with your blood." The suitors respond with gales of laughter. Omens or portents are signs encountered fortuitously that are believed to foretell the future. ... For the a German literary figure see Johann Gottfried Herder A herder is a worker who lives a semi-nomadic life, caring for various domestic animals, especially in places where these animals wander unfenced pasture lands. ...


Book XXI

Penelope now appears before the suitors in her glittering veil. In her hand is a stout bow left behind by Odysseus when he sailed for Troy. "Whoever strings this bow," she says, "and sends an arrow straight through the sockets of twelve axe heads lined in a row--that man will I marry." The suitors take turns trying to bend the bow to string it, but all of them lack the strength. As it is the festival of Apollo, who was, among other things, god of the bow, the suitors decide to pour libations and drink, leaving the fate of the contest up to the gods. Odysseus asks if he might try. The suitors refuse, saying that he is drunk and comparing him to the centaur Eurytion, fearing that they'll be shamed if the beggar succeeds. Penelope speaks up and says that if he strings the bow, she will not marry him, but instead clothe him and send him on his way. But Telemachus rebukes her and his anger distracts them into laughter. As easily as a bard fitting a new string to his lyre, Odysseus strings the bow and sends an arrow through the axe heads. At a sign from his father, Telemachus arms himself and takes up a station by his side.


Book XXII

Antinous, ringleader of the suitors, is just lifting a drinking cup when Odysseus puts an arrow through his throat. The goatherd sneaks out and comes back with shields and spears for the suitors, but now Athena appears. She sends the suitors' spearthrusts wide, as Odysseus, Telemachus and the two faithful herdsmen strike with volley after volley of lances. They finish off the work with swords. Those of the housemaids who consorted with the suitors are ordered to clear the hall in which the suitors were slain before being hung by the neck in the courtyard, while the treacherous goatherd is chopped to pieces.


Book XXIII

The mansion is purged with fire and brimstone. Odysseus tells everyone to dress in their finest and dance, so that passers-by won't suspect what's happened. Even Odysseus could not hold vengeful kinfolk at bay. Penelope still won't accept that it's truly her husband without some secret sign. She tells a servant to make up his bed in the hall. "Who had the craft to move my bed?" storms Odysseus. "I carved the bedpost myself from the living trunk of an olive tree and built the bedroom around it." Penelope rushes into his arms. Odysseus tells her of his adventures and of the prophecy that he has one more journey to make, at some undetermined future time, before settling into peaceful old age.

Image File history File links OdysseyNestor. ...

Book XXIV

The souls of the dead suitors are led down to Hades, where Agamemnon has been recounting to Achilles the details of the latter's funeral. When the spirit of the suitor Amphimedon tells his own story, Agamemnon praises Odysseus and Penelope and again laments his death at the hands of the faithless Clytemnestra. The next morning Odysseus goes upcountry to the vineyard where his father, old King Laertes, labors like a peasant. Meanwhile, the kin of the suitors have gathered at the assembly ground, where the father of the suitor Antinous fires them up for revenge. Odysseus, his father, and Telemachus meet the challenge. Laertes casts a lance through the helmet of Antinous's father, who falls to the ground in a clatter of armor. But the fighting stops right there. Athena intervenes and stops the fight, and she helps the contending parties reach an agreement to live together in peace down through the years to come. The so-called Mask of Agamemnon. Discovered by Heinrich Schliemann in 1876 at Mycenae. ... GEEEEEEK! ...


Geography in the Odyssey

The text of the Odyssey does not contain many modern place names that can immediately be located on a map. Scholars both ancient and modern are divided as to whether or not the locations were in any way real places or mere inventions. Eratosthenes, the third century BC Alexandrian geographer, ridiculed attempts to identify places mentioned in the Odyssey, saying "you will find the scene of the wanderings of Odysseus when you find the cobbler who sewed up the bag of winds." Those who tend towards real locations point to the high degree of realism present throughout the poem, especially in Homer's description of sailing. It seems most likely that Homer strung together tales of one or more sea voyages and that some locations at least should follow a logical sequence. Even amongst those scholars who believe the locations to have some basis in reality there is much dispute. However, unlike the Iliad which describes the political geography of post-Homeric Greece indicating that bards would sing at the courts of kings who wished to highlight their city's connection with the most world's most famous siege and indicates, the Odyssey may be a more allogorical work. Eratosthenes (Ἐρατοσθένης) Eratosthenes (Greek ) (276 BC - 194 BC) was a Hellenistic mathematician, geographer and astronomer. ... (4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - other centuries) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events The first two Punic Wars between Carthage and Rome over dominance in western Mediterranean Rome conquers Spain Great Wall of China begun Indian traders regularly visited Arabia Scythians occupy... For other uses, see Alexandria (disambiguation). ... The Homère Caetani bust at the Louvre, a 2nd century Roman copy of a 2nd century BC Greek original. ... The Homère Caetani bust at the Louvre, a 2nd century Roman copy of a 2nd century BC Greek original. ...


The traditional orthodox theory, which has been taken as accurate by many including some encyclopedias and other reference works, sees Odysseus driven into the western Mediterranean with most of his adventures taking place between Tunisia, Sardinia, Italy and Sicily. However this theory has a number of flaws which make little sense either from a sailing or identification point of view. Ancient Greek ships were small, rarely ventured out onto the open sea and their captains did not explore unknown territories but instead sought to regain their course if blown off it. The orthodox route includes the following locations: Brockhaus Konversations-Lexikon, 1902 An encyclopedia or encyclopaedia, also (rarely) encyclopædia,[1] is a comprehensive written compendium that contains information on all branches of knowledge or a particular branch of knowledge. ... Odysseus and the Sirens. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... Sardinia (American pronunciation)(Sardegna in Italian, Sardigna or Sardinna in the Sardinian language, is the second largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (Sicily is the largest), between Italy, Spain and Tunisia, south of Corsica. ... Sicilian redirects here. ...

  • The island of Calypso, referred to in the Odyssey as Ogygia, is associated with Gozo, which is part of the Maltese archipelago. Odysseus is said to have landed on the northern shore of the island, on the beach of Ir-Ramla.
  • The lotophagi are located in Tunisia on the basis that this is where a sailing vessel blown off course at Cape Malea could reach at full speed. However, a vessel blown off course would have been more cautious and would not have ventured so far away, especially if trying to reach home.
  • Aeolus is traditionally located in the Aeolian Islands to the north of Sicily. However, for Odysseus' vessels to have caught a favourable wind all the way to Ithaca and then have an unfavourable wind blow them all the way back so that they would have had to sail through the Straits of Messina is extremely implausible.
  • There is a real river Acheron in north west Greece. However, its location has been ignored by many, since the orthodox theory makes no allowances for Odysseus being in that region.
  • The palace of Alcinous, the king of the Phaecians in the Odyssey itself is located on the island of Scherie, which is now suspected to be Corfu.
  • Scylla and Charybdis are traditionally located in the Straits of Messina. However, the channel they inhabit is said to be narrow. The Straits are over two miles wide at their narrowest point, and even wider at the rock traditionally identified as Scylla's. The whirlpools around the straits are not even in the "narrows" and are nothing more than gyrating patches of water caused by the cross-section of two currents.
  • Thrinicia, the island home of Helios' cattle, is said to have been Sicily since the name Thrinicia implies an island connected to the number 3 and Sicily has three corners. However, Sicily is huge by ancient Greek standards and so its three corners are only noticeable on a modern map, not at sea, and it is more likely that the name Thrinicia would have come about because sailors could use it to easily identify an island as they could see it.

More generally the orthodox theory assumes that the ancient Greeks knew about Italy, but there are very few references at all in the Odyssey to any part of the world to the west of Greece, though lands in the east and south such as Egypt and Sudan are mentioned in several places. Calypso might refer to one of several things: Calypso is the name of a sea nymph in Greek mythology; Calypso music is a style of Caribbean folk music; Calypso is the name of an album sung by Harry Belafonte; Calypso is the name of a moon of Saturn; 53 Kalypso... Gozo is an island of the Maltese archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea, second in size to Malta Island. ... Motto: Virtute et Constantia (by valour and firmness) Anthem: L-Innu Malti Capital Valletta Largest city Birkirkara Official language(s) Maltese, English Government Democratic republic  - President of Malta Edward Fenech Adami  - Prime Minister Lawrence Gonzi Independence    - from the UK September 21, 1964  Accession to EU May 1, 2004 Area    - Total... Lotus-eaters beckon Odysseus and his men In Greek mythology, the Lotophagi (lotus-eaters) were a race of people from an island near Northern Africa dominated by lotus plants. ... Cape Malea is a peninsula found in the southeast of the Peloponnese in Greece. ... Aeolus Aiolos (), Latinized as Æolus, Eolus, Æolos, or Aiolus, was the name of three personages in Greek Mythology. ... The Aeolian Islands. ... Sicilian redirects here. ... Satellite photo of the Strait of Messina, taken June 2002. ... The Acheron river is in the Epirus region of north west Greece. ... In Greek mythology, Scylla, or Skylla (Greek Σκύλλα) was a name shared by two characters, a female sea monster and a princess. ... In Greek mythology, Charybdis, or Kharybdis (sucker down, Greek Χάρυβδις), is a sea monster, daughter of Poseidon and Gaia, who swallows huge amounts of water three times a day and then belches it back out again. ... Saltstraumen off Norway. ... Thrinicia, mentioned in Homers Odyssey, is the island home of Helios cattle, is said to have been Sicily since the name Thrinicia implies an island connected to the number 3 and Sicily has three corners. ... Helios in Greek In earlier Greek mythology, the sun was personified as a deity called Hêlios (Greek for the sun), whom Homer equates with the sun Titan, Hyperion. ... Sicilian redirects here. ...


Not all reconstructions are based purely on readings in the classics: Tim Severin sailed a replica Greek sailing vessel (originally built for his attempt to follow Jason's argosy) along the 'natural' route from Troy to Ithaca, following the sailing directions that could be teased out of Homer. Along the way he found locations at the natural turning and dislocation points which fit the pattern much more closely than the orthodox theory. However, he also came to the conclusion that the sequence of adventures from Circe onwards derived from a separate voyage to those that ended with the Laestrygonians, possibly coming via the stories of the Argonauts. He placed many of the later adventures on the northwest Greek coast, near to the river Acheron. Along the way he found on the map Cape Skilla and other names that implied strong mythological links to the Odyssey. His adventure is recounted in The Ulysses Voyage: Sea Search for the Odyssey. Classics, particularly within the Western University tradition, when used as a singular noun, means the study of the language, literature, history, art, and other aspects of Greek and Roman culture during the time frame known as classical antiquity. ... Tim Severin was born in India in 1940. ... Jason (Greek: Ιάσων, Etruscan: Easun) is a hero of Greek mythology who led the Argonauts in the search of the Golden Fleece. ... Argosy (originally meaning a large cargo ship) may refer to: American pulp magazine Argosy Magazine a 1920s British airliner, the Armstrong Whitworth Argosy a 1960s British military transport aircraft, the Armstrong Whitworth AW.660 Argosy the Space Navy of the Systems Commonwealth from the science fiction television series Andromeda. ... Walls of the excavated city of Troy Troy (Ancient Greek Τροία Troia, also Ίλιον Ilion; Latin: Troia, Ilium) is a legendary city, center of the Trojan War, described in the Trojan War cycle, especially in the Iliad, one of the two epic poems attributed to Homer. ... For other places named Ithaca, see Ithaca (disambiguation). ... Circe, a painting by Edward Burne-Jones. ... The Laestrygonians (or Laestrygones, Laistrygones, Laistrygonians,Lestrygonians) were a mythological tribe of gigantic cannibals. ... The Argo, by Lorenzo Costa In Greek mythology, the Argonauts (ancient Greek:Αργοναύται) were a band of heroes who, in the years before the Trojan War, accompanied Jason to Colchis in his quest for the Golden Fleece. ... The Acheron river is in the Epirus region of north west Greece. ...


Near Eastern influences

Scholars have seen strong influences from Near Eastern mythology and literature in the Odyssey. Martin West has noted substantial parallels between the Epic of Gilgamesh and the Odyssey.[1] Both Odysseus and Gilgamesh are known for travelling to the ends of the earth, and on their journeys go to the land of the dead. On his voyage to the underworld Odysseus follows instructions given to him by Circe, a goddess who is the daughter of the sun-god Helios. Her island, Aiaia, is located at the edges of the world, and seems to have close associations with the sun. Like Odysseus, Gilgamesh gets directions on how to reach the land of the dead from a divine helper: in this case she is the goddess Siduri, who, like Circe, dwells by the sea at the ends of the earth. Her home is also associated with the sun: Gilgamesh reaches Siduri's house by passing through a tunnel underneath Mt. Mashu, the high mountain from which the sun comes into the sky. West argues that the similarity of Odysseus' and Gilgamesh's journeys to the edges of the earth are the result of the influence of the Gilgamesh epic upon the Odyssey. Martin Litchfield West (b. ... The Epic of Gilgamesh is a literary work from Babylonia, dating from long after the time that king Gilgamesh was supposed to have ruled. ... According to the Sumerian king list, Gilgamesh was the fifth king of Uruk (Early Dynastic II, first dynasty of Uruk), the son of Lugalbanda. ... Circe, a painting by Edward Burne-Jones. ... Helios in Greek In earlier Greek mythology, the sun was personified as a deity called Hêlios (Greek for the sun), whom Homer equates with the sun Titan, Hyperion. ... In Greek mythology, Aiaia, or Aeaea, was the home of the goddess Circe. ... The Mashu is a great mountain which Gilgamesh passes through (via a tunnel) on his journey after leaving the cedar land, a forest of ten thousand leagues. ...


Derivative works

  • The contemporary play Highway Ulysses by Rinde Eckert tells the story of the journey of a Vietnam veteran travelling to his son, meeting modern day characters akin to characters or monsters in the Odyssey (including the Sirens and Cyclops).
  • "Telemachus Clay" by Lewis John Carlino is a contemporary play about the travels of a young man, Telemachus, in search of the father he never knew in the big city as he meets many strange characters along the way.
  • The 1954 Broadway musical The Golden Apple by librettist John Treville Latouche and composer Jerome Moross was freely adapted from The Illiad and The Odyssey, re-setting the action to America's Washington State in the years after The Spanish-American War, with events inspired by The Illiad in Act One and events inspired by the Odyssey in Act Two.
  • Some of the tales of Sindbad the Sailor from The Book of One Thousand and One Nights (Arabian Nights) were taken from Homer's Odyssey.
  • A modern novel inspired by the Odyssey is James Joyce's Ulysses (1922).
  • Nikos Kazantzakis wrote The Odyssey: A Modern Sequel, a 33,333 line epic poem which continues Odysseus' journeys past the point of his arrival in Ithaca.
  • Andrew Lang and H. Rider Haggard collaborated on The World's Desire in which Odysseus and Helen meet in Egypt at the time of the Exodus.
  • "The Odyssey", a made for TV movie from 2001 made by Hallmark Entertainment and directed by Andrei Konchalovsky is a slightly abbreiviated version of the tale which encompasses Homer's epic. It stars Armand Assante, Greta Scacchi, Isabella Rossellini and Vanessa Williams.
  • The movie O Brother, Where Art Thou? has the basic plot of The Odyssey; Joel and Ethan Coen admit to basing the movie loosely on the Odyssey (and explicitly reference it in the opening credits) but insist that they haven't read it.
  • R.A. Lafferty retold the story in a science fiction setting in his novel Space Chantey.
  • Progressive metal group Symphony X based a 24-minute epic track The Odyssey on the story in their 2002 album, The Odyssey.
  • The animated cartoon Ulysses 31 featured a science-fiction tale of a hero trying to get back to his wife Penelope.
  • The first half of Virgil's Aeneid parallels the Odyssey in structure.
  • Ulysses, a poem by Alfred Lord Tennyson.
  • Tank Girl: Odyssey borrows freely and irreverently from Homer and from James Joyce's Ulysses, casting targets in the contemporary media as the trials the heroine must overcome to get back to her mutant kangaroo boyfriend.
  • Odyssey: A Stage Version, 1993 play, divided into two acts (respectively broken up into 14 and 6 scenes) written by Derek Walcott and originally performed by the Royal Shakespeare Company.
  • In Jean-Luc Godard's film Le Mépris (Contempt) (1963) German film director Fritz Lang plays himself trying to direct a film adaptation of Homer's Odyssey.
  • In Dante's Divine Comedy ("Inferno XXVI"), Odysseus is punished as a fraudulent advisor in Hell, talking about the Hubris of his last voyage (over the edge). (Yet this story is not taken from Homer's Odyssey.)
  • Odds Bodkin has published a retelling of the Odyssey, featuring vocal storytelling and musical accompaniment, entitled "The Odyssey." This work includes most of the plot of Homer's "Odyssey," and is narrated from Odysseus' point of view.
  • The Penelopiad by Margaret Atwood retells the story from the point of view of Penelope.
  • The Desmond Hume storyline on Lost may be based partly on The Odyssey; Desmond goes on a "race around the world" in order to win back his honor and marry his girlfriend Penelope.

Vietnam veteran is a phrase used to describe someone who served in the armed forces of participating countries during the Vietnam War. ... Musical theater (or theatre) is a form of theater combining music, songs, dance, and spoken dialogue. ... 23 The Illuminatus! Trilogy is a series of three novels written by Robert Shea and Robert Anton Wilson. ... John Treville Latouche (November 13, 1914 – August 7, 1956) was a musician and writer. ... Jerome Moross (August 1, 1913 - July 27, 1983) was an American stage and film composer and conductor. ... The Iliad is, with The Odyssey, one of the two major Greek epic poems traditionally attributed to Homer, a blind Ionian poet. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... This article deals with the U.S. state. ... Combatants United States Republic of Cuba Philippine Revolutionaries Spain Casualties 379 U.S. dead; considerably higher though undetermined Cuban and Filipino casualties Unknown[1] The Spanish-American War took place in 1898, and resulted in the United States gaining control over the former colonies of Spain in the Caribbean and... The Iliad is, with The Odyssey, one of the two major Greek epic poems traditionally attributed to Homer, a blind Ionian poet. ... Sindbad the Sailor (also spelled Sinbad, from Persian سندباد—As-Sindibad, 三保 SānbÇŽo, from Chinese ) is the name of a legendary sailor who has numerous fantastic adventures during his voyages throughout the seas east of Africa and south of Asia. ... Queen Scheherazade tells her stories to King Shahryar. ... James Augustine Aloysius Joyce (Irish name Séamas Seoighe; 2 February 1882 – 13 January 1941) was an expatriate Irish writer and poet, widely considered to be one of the most influential writers of the 20th century. ... Ulysses is a 1922 novel by James Joyce, first serialized in parts in the American journal The Little Review from 1918 to 1920, and published in its entirety by Sylvia Beach in 1922, Paris. ... 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Nikos Kazantzakis (Greek Νίκος Καζαντζάκης February 18, 1883, Heraklion, Crete, Greece - October 26, 1957, Freiburg, Germany) was a Greek novelist, poet, playwright and thinker. ... Odyssey, poem of Greek writer, poet and philosopher Nikos Kazantzakis, the largest of his works. ... For the former National Basketball Association player, see Andrew Lang (basketball). ... H. Rider Haggard, author Sir Henry Rider Haggard (June 22, 1856 – May 14, 1925), born in Kessingland, in Suffolk, England, was a Victorian writer of adventure novels set in locations considered exotic by readers in his native England. ... The Worlds Desire, written by H. Rider Haggard and Andrew Lang, is the story of the hero, Odysseus after his return from his untold second journey. ... Exodus is the second book of the Torah (the Pentateuch) and also the Tanakh (the Hebrew Bible), and the Christian Old Testament. ... Andron Sergeyevich Mikhalkov-Konchalovsky (Russian: ) (born August 20, 1937 in Moscow) is an acclaimed Russian film writer and director. ... For the Simpsons episode, see Oh Brother, Where Art Thou?. O Brother, Where Art Thou? is a musical comedy film written and directed by Joel and Ethan Coen, set in Mississippi during the Great Depression (specifically, 1937). ... Joel and Ethan Coen at Cannes 2001 Joel and Ethan Coen, commonly known as The Coen Brothers have written and directed numerous successful films, such as comedies O Brother Where Art Thou, Raising Arizona and The Big Lebowski, as well as darker film noir dramas such as Fargo, Millers... Raphael Aloysius Lafferty (November 7, 1914 - March 18, 2002) was a noted science fiction and fantasy writer. ... Progressive metal (often shortened to prog, or prog metal when differentiating from progressive rock) is a genre of heavy metal music which shares traits with progressive rock including use of complex compositional structures, odd time signatures, and intricate instrumental playing. ... Symphony X is a North American progressive power metal band from New Jersey, which was founded in 1994 by guitarist Michael Romeo. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... // A scene from Cowboy Bebop (1998) Anime ), which is short for the English word animation, in the western world most popularly refers (but not limited) to the medium of animation originating in Japan, with distinctive character and background aesthetics that visually set it apart from other forms of animation (e. ... Ulysses 31 is a Japanese-French anime series (1981) which updates the Greek and Roman mythology of Ulysses (or Odysseus) to the thirty-first century. ... A sculpture of Virgil, probably from the 1st century AD. For other uses, see Virgil (disambiguation). ... The Aeneid is a Latin epic written by Virgil in the 1st century BC (between 29 and 19 BC) that tells the legendary story of Aeneas, a Trojan who traveled to Italy where he became the ancestor of the Romans. ... Ulysses is poem by Alfred Lord Tennyson, written in 1833 but not published until 1842. ... Lord Tennyson, Poet Laureate Alfred Tennyson, 1st Baron Tennyson (August 6, 1809 - October 6, 1892) is generally regarded as one of the greatest English poets. ... Tank Girl was a 1990s English comic strip and the name of the leading character. ... James Augustine Aloysius Joyce (Irish name Séamas Seoighe; 2 February 1882 – 13 January 1941) was an expatriate Irish writer and poet, widely considered to be one of the most influential writers of the 20th century. ... Ulysses is a 1922 novel by James Joyce, first serialized in parts in the American journal The Little Review from 1918 to 1920, and published in its entirety by Sylvia Beach in 1922, Paris. ... Jean-Luc Godard. ... Contempt, also known as Le Mépris in its original French, is a film released in 1963, directed by Jean-Luc Godard. ... Friedrich Anton Christian Lang (December 5, 1890 - August 2, 1976) was an Austrian film director, screenwriter and occasional film producer, one of the best known émigrés from Germanys school of expressionism. ... Dante redirects here. ... Dante shown holding a copy of The Divine Comedy, next to the entrance to Hell, the seven terraces of Mount Purgatory and the city of Florence, in Michelinos fresco. ... Hubris or hybris (Greek ‛′Υβρις) referred in Ancient Greece to a reckless and violent disregard for the personal space of another person resulting in some kind of social degradation for the victim. ... Odds Bodkin is a storyteller who has published a number of spoken and/or musical interpretations of tradidional tales, as well as a number of tales that he, himself, has created. ... The Penelopiad is a fiction novel by Margaret Atwood in which Penelope (the wife of Odysseus and cousin to Helen of Troy) tells about the time her husband was away, how she kept suitors at bay and about his return after 20 years of absence. ... Margaret Atwood Margaret Eleanor Peggy Atwood, CC (born November 18, 1939) is one of Canada’s most important contemporary writers. ... Penelope represented as a statue in the Vatican, Rome Penélopê (Πηνελοπεια) is a character of the Odyssey, one of the two great epic poems (the other being the Iliad; both are attributed to Homer) of ancient Greek literature. ... Desmond David Hume is a recurring fictional character on the ABC television series Lost played by Henry Ian Cusick. ... Lost is an American drama television series that follows the survivors of a plane crash on a mysterious tropical island, somewhere in the South Pacific. ...

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Notes

  1. ^ West, Martin. The East Face of Helicon: West Asiatic Elements in Greek Poetry and Myth. (Oxford 1997) 402-417.


[Sir] Martin West (1804 - 1849)was born in England, the son of a civil servant in the Treasury. ...

Trojan War cycle

Kypria | Iliad | Aithiopis | Little Iliad | Iliou persis | Nostoi | Odyssey | Telegony The Trojan War cycle, also widely known as the Epic Cycle, was a collection of eight Ancient Greek epic poems that related the history of the Trojan War. ... The Kypria (Greek: Κύπρια; Latin: Cypria) is a lost epic of ancient Greek literature. ... The Iliad (Ancient Greek Ιλιάς, Ilias) is, along with the Odyssey, one of the two major Greek epic poems traditionally attributed to Homer, a supposedly blind Ionian poet. ... The Aithiopis (Greek: Αἰθιοπίς; Latin: Aethiopis) is a lost epic of ancient Greek literature. ... The Little Iliad (Greek: Ἰλιὰς μικρά, Ilias mikra; Latin: Ilias parva) is a lost epic of ancient Greek literature. ... The Iliou persis (English: Sack of Ilion; Greek: Ἰλίου πέρσις; also known as Iliupersis, esp. ... The Nostoi (English: Returns; Greek: Νόστοι; also known as Nosti in Latin) is a lost epic of ancient Greek literature. ... The Telegony (Greek: Τηλεγόνεια, Telegoneia; Latin: Telegonia) is a lost epic of ancient Greek literature. ...


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