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Encyclopedia > The Nutcracker
Important Ballets & *Revivals of Marius Petipa

*Paquita (1847, *1881)
*Le Corsaire (1858, 1863, 1868, 1885, 1899)
The Pharaoh's Daughter (1862, *1885, *1898)
Le Roi Candaule (1868, *1891, *1903)
Don Quixote (1869, *1871)
La Bayadère (1877, *1900)
*Giselle (1884, 1899, 1903)
*Coppélia (1884)
*La Fille Mal Gardée (1885)
*La Esmeralda (1886, 1899)
The Talisman (1889)
The Sleeping Beauty (1890)
The Nutcracker (1892)
Cinderella (1893)
The Awakening of Flora (1894)
*Swan Lake (1895)
*The Little Humpbacked Horse (1895)
The Cavalry Halt (1896)
Raymonda (1898)
The Seasons (1900)
Harlequinade (1900)
This article is about the story by E.T.A. Hoffmann. ... Maestro Marius Ivanovich Petipa, Maître de Ballet of the Imperial Theatres. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 529 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1544 × 1748 pixels, file size: 364 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photo by an unknown photographer of the choregrapher Marius Petipa. ... Paquita is a ballet in two acts and three scenes. ... The Bavarian State Ballet in the scene Le Jardin Animé from the companys partial reconstruction of Marius Petipas 1899 revival of Le Corsaire, Munich, 2007 Le Corsaire (The Pirate) is a ballet in three acts, with a libretto based on the poem The Corsair by Lord Byron. ... The Pharaohs Daughter is a ballet by Marius Petipa, first performed in 1862. ... Olga Preobrajenskaya as Queen Nisia in the Pas de Venus from the Petipa/Pugni Tsar Kandavl, St. ... Svetlana Zakharova as Kitri in the Entrance of Kitri from the Bolshoi Ballets production of the Petipa/Gorsky/Minkus Don Quixote, Moscow, 2006 The ballet Don Quixote is based on the famous Miguel de Cervantes novel Don Quixote de la Mancha. ... The Entrance of the Shades (Entrée de lombres) of the scene The Kingdom Of the Shades from the Kirov/Mariinsky Ballets 1941 production of La Bayadère, St. ... Anna Pavlova as Giselle in Act I (ca. ... Giuseppina Bozzachi as Swanhilda in the Saint-Léon/Delibes Coppélia. ... Nadia Nerina as Lise and David Blair as Colas in the Pas de Ruban from Act I of Sir Frederick Ashtons La Fille Mal Gardée, London, 1960 La Fille Mal Gardée (The Badly Watched Daughter) is a Ballet presented in 2 Acts, inspired Choffarts engraving of... Poster advertising Carlotta Grisi in the Pas de Truandaise for the premiere of the ballet La Esmeralda, given at Her Majestys Theatre, London, 1844 La Esmeralda is a ballet in 3 acts, 5 scenes, inspired by Notre Dame de Paris by Victor Hugo. ... Mathilde Kschessinskaya costumed as Niriti for the Grand Pas des Fleurs of Act II in Nikolai Legats revival of Petipas The Talisman, St. ... The Sleeping Beauty (Russian: , Spyashchaya Krasavitsa) is a ballet in a prologue and three acts, Opus 66, by Pyotr Tchaikovsky. ... Mariia Anderson as the Fairy Godmother in the Petipa/Ivanov/Cecchetti/Fitinhof-Schell Cinderella, St. ... Mathilde Kschessinskaya as Flora (left) and Vera Trefilova as Amour/Cupid (right) in the Petipa/Drigo The Awakening of Flora, St. ... The 1895 Petipa/Ivanov/Drigo revival of Swan Lake is a famous version of the ballet Swan Lake. ... The Little Humpbacked Horse, or The Tsar Maiden (aka Konyok Gorbunok ili Tsar-Devitsa, or Le Petit cheval bossu, ou La Tsar-Demoiselle) Magic Ballet in 4 Acts-8 Scenes with apotheosis. ... Natalia Bessmertnova as Raymonda and Gediminas Taranda as Abderakhman in the Grand Pas daction from the Bolshoi Ballets production of the Petipa/Glazunov Raymonda. ... See also Commedia dellarte // The Harlequinade is a type of theatrical performance piece, usually a slapstick adaptation of the Commedia dellarte, which dates back to England in the mid 18th century. ...

The Nutcracker (Russian: Щелкунчик, Shchelkunchik) Op. 71, is a fairy tale-ballet in two acts, three scenes, by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, composed in 1891–92. Alexandre Dumas père's adaptation of the story by E. T. A. Hoffmann was set to music by Tchaikovsky (written by Marius Petipa and commissioned by the director of the Imperial Theatres Ivan Vsevolozhsky in 1891). In Western countries, this ballet has become perhaps the most popular ballet performed, primarily around Christmas time. A fairy tale is a story, either told to children or as if told to children, concerning the adventures of mythical characters such as fairies, goblins, elves, trolls, giants, and others. ... For other uses, see Ballet (disambiguation). ... “Tchaikovsky” redirects here. ... Alexandre Dumas redirects here. ... This article is about the story by E.T.A. Hoffmann. ... This article is about the author and critic known as E. T. A. Hoffmann. ... Maestro Marius Ivanovich Petipa, Maître de Ballet of the Imperial Theatres. ... Ivan Vsevolozhsky, circa 1880 Ivan Alexandrovich Vsevolozhsky (1835 - 1909) was the Director of the Imperial Theatres in Russia from 1881 to 1898. ... Occident redirects here. ... For other uses, see Christmas (disambiguation). ...

The composer made a selection of eight of the more popular numbers from the ballet before the ballet's December 1892 premiere, forming The Nutcracker Suite, Op. 71a, intended for concert performance. The suite was first performed, under the composer's direction, on 19 March 1892 at an assembly of the St. Petersburg branch of the Musical Society[1]. The suite became instantly popular; the complete ballet did not achieve its great popularity until around the mid-1960s.

Among other things, the score of The Nutcracker is noted for its use of the celesta, an instrument that the composer had already employed in his much lesser known symphonic poem The Voyevoda (premiered 1891).^  Although well-known in The Nutcracker as the featured solo instrument in the "Dance of the Sugar Plum Fairy" from Act II, it is employed elsewhere in the same act. French type, four-octave Celesta The Celesta (IPA ) is a struck idiophone operated by a keyboard. ... A symphonic poem or tone poem is a piece of orchestral music, in one movement, in which some extra-musical programme provides a narrative or illustrative element. ...



Scored for: For other uses, see Instrumentation (disambiguation). ...

2 piccolos
3 flutes
2 oboes
English horn
2 clarinets (B-flat, A)
bass clarinet (B-flat, A)
2 bassoons
4 horns (F)
2 trumpets (B-flat, A)
3 trombones
side drum
bass drum
toy instruments (rattle, trumpet, drums, cuckoo, quail, cymbals)
celesta (or piano)
2 harps
SA chorus
violins I
violins II
double basses.

A woodwind instrument is a musical instrument in which sound is produced by blowing through a mouthpiece against an edge or by a vibrating reed, and in which the pitch is varied by opening or closing holes in the body of the instrument. ... This article is about the instrument in the flute family. ... For other uses, see Flute (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Oboe (disambiguation). ... Cor anglais The cor anglais or English horn is a musical instrument of the woodwind family. ... Two soprano clarinets: a B♭ clarinet (left, with capped mouthpiece) and an A clarinet (right, with no mouthpiece). ... The bass clarinet is a musical instrument of the clarinet family. ... The bassoon is a woodwind instrument in the double reed family that typically plays music written in the bass and tenor registers and occasionally even higher. ... Image of a trumpet, foreground, a piccolo trumpet behind, and a flugelhorn in background. ... The horn is a brass instrument consisting of tubing wrapped into a coiled form. ... Trumpeter redirects here. ... The trombone is a musical instrument in the brass family. ... For other uses, see Tuba (disambiguation). ... Percussion instruments are played by being struck, shaken, rubbed or scraped. ... A timpanist in the United States Air Forces in Europe Band. ... A triangle. ... Renoirs 1909 painting Dancing girl with castanets Castanets A castanet is a percussion instrument (idiophone), much used in oriental (Moorish and Ottoman music), Roman music, Spanish music and Latin American music. ... “Buben” redirects here. ... The snare drum or side drum is a tubular drum made of wood or metal with skins, or heads, stretched over the top and bottom openings. ... For the Japanese rock band, see Cymbals (band). ... A bass drum is a large drum that produces a note of low definite or indefinite pitch. ... A tam tam is also a kind of Gong A tam is also kind of Jamaican hat, probably from the Irish tam-o-shanter. ... Most orchestral glockenspiels are mounted in a case. ... A rattle may be: bird-scaring rattle, a Slovene device used to drive birds off vineyards and a folk instrument football rattle, a noisy ratchet device for showing approval, used by sports fans. ... Trumpeter redirects here. ... For other uses, see Drum (disambiguation). ... Genera See text. ... This article is about the bird. ... For the Japanese rock band, see Cymbals (band). ... The Other or constitutive other (also referred to as othering) is a key concept in continental philosophy, opposed to the Same. ... French type, four-octave Celesta The Celesta (IPA ) is a struck idiophone operated by a keyboard. ... A short grand piano, with the lid up. ... For other uses, see Harp (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For the Anne Rice novel, see Violin (novel). ... For the Anne Rice novel, see Violin (novel). ... For other uses, see Viola (disambiguation). ... This article is about the stringed musical instrument. ... Side and front views of a modern double bass with a French bow. ...


Composition history

Tchaikovsky himself was less satisfied with this than his last ballet. Though he accepted the commission from Ivan Vsevolozhsky, he did not particularly want to write it (though he did write to a friend while composing the ballet: "I am daily becoming more and more attuned to my task.")[citation needed] Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (Russian Пётр Ильи́ч Чайко́вский, sometimes transliterated as Piotr, Anglicised as Peter Ilich), (May 7, 1840 – November 6, 1893 (N.S.); April 25, 1840 – October 25, 1893 (O.S.)) was a Russian composer of the Romantic era. ... Ivan Vsevolozhsky, circa 1880 Ivan Alexandrovich Vsevolozhsky (1835 - 1909) was the Director of the Imperial Theatres in Russia from 1881 to 1898. ...

While composing the ballet, Tchaikovsky is said to have argued with a friend who wagered the composer that he could not write a tune based on the notes of the octave in sequence. Tchaikovsky asked if it mattered whether the notes were in ascending or descending order, and was assured it did not. This resulted in the beautiful haunting tune of the Adagio Pas de Deux in the Second Act. The composer won his wager.

Performance history

St. Petersburg Premiere
The first performance of the ballet was held as a double premiere together with Tchaikovisky's last opera Iolanta on December 18, 1892, at the Mariinsky Theatre in St Petersburg, Russia. Who exactly choreographed the first production has been debated. Although Lev Ivanov, Second Balletmaster to the St. Petersburg Imperial Theatres is often credited, contemporary accounts credit Marius Petipa, Premier Maître de Ballet of the St. Petersburg Imperial Theatres. The ballet was conducted by Riccardo Drigo, with Antoinetta Dell-Era as the Sugar Plum Fairy, Pavel Gerdt as Prince Coqueluche, Stanislava Belinskaya as Clara, Sergei Legat as the Nutcracker-Prince, and Timofei Stukolkin as Drosselmeyer. Iolanthe (Iolanta in transliteration) in an opera in one act by Pyotr Tchaikovsky to a Russian libretto by the composers brother Modest Tchaikovsky, based the Danish play Kong Renés Datter (King René’s Daughter) by Henrik Hertz. ... is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Maryinsky (or Mariinsky) Theatre (or Theater), is the St Petersburg theatre where the Mariinsky Ballet is located. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... Lev Ivanov (1834 – 1901) was a Russian ballet dancer and choreographer. ... Maestro Marius Ivanovich Petipa, Maître de Ballet of the Imperial Theatres. ... Riccardo Drigo, Circa 1900 Riccardo Eugenio Drigo (June 30, 1846 - October 1, 1930) was an Italian composer and conductor who spent many years working with the Saint Petersburg Imperial Ballet and Imperial Opera. ... Pavel Gerdt Pavel Andreyevich Gerdt, better known as Paul Gerdt (1844-1917), was the foremost male dancer of the Mariinsky Theatre for 50 years. ...

In other countries
The ballet was first performed outside Russia in 1934 in England and in the United States in 1944 by the San Francisco Ballet, staged by its artistic director Willam Christensen. New York City Ballet first performed George Balanchine's Nutcracker in 1954. SF Ballet program book, April 2006 San Francisco Ballet, or SFB, is a San Francisco, USA based ballet company, founded in 1933 as part of San Francisco Opera Ballet. ... A Retrospective on Willam Christensen By Karen Anne Webb There are moments in history when, concerning certain subjects and given certain questions, the least informed and most informed will give exactly the same, correct response; a third segment who in fact does know something about the subject, will fall flat... Logo of the New York City Ballet The New York City Ballet is a ballet company founded in 1948 by choreographer George Balanchine and Lincoln Kirstein originally known as the American Ballet. ... George Balanchine (January 9 (O.S.) = January 22 (N.S.), 1904–April 30, 1983) was one of the 20th centurys foremost choreographers, and one of the founders of American ballet. ...


Note: The two lists of characters below are derived from the score (see reprint of Soviet ed.: Peter Tchaikovsky, The Nutcracker: a ballet in two acts. For piano solo. Op. 71. Melville, N.Y.: Belwin Mills Publ. Corp., [n.d.], p. 4). Productions of the ballet vary in their fidelity to this assignment of roles.

Characters (translated from Russian preliminaries of the Soviet ed.)

  • President Silberhaus
  • His wife
  • Their children:
    • Clara [Marie] ("Клара [Мари]" in the score)
    • Fritz
  • Marianna, the President's niece
  • Counselor Drosselmeyer, Godfather of Clara and Fritz
  • Nutcracker
  • Sugar Plum Fairy, sovereign of sweets
  • Prince Koklyush [Orgeat]
  • Major-domo
  • Harlequin
  • Soldier
  • Columbine
  • Mama Gigogne
  • Mouse King
  • Relatives, guests, people in costume, children, servants, mice, dolls, hares, toys, soldiers, gnomes, snowflakes, fairies, sweets, pastries, sweetmeats, moors, pages, princesses, retinues, buffoons, shepherdesses, flowers, etc.

The following more detailed, and somewhat different, extrapolation of the characters (in order of appearance) is drawn from an examination of the stage directions in the score (Soviet ed., where they are printed in the original French with added Russian translation in editorial footnotes):


  • President
  • His wife
  • Invitees
  • Children, including
    • Clara and Fritz [children of the President]
  • Parents dressed as "incroyables"
  • Counsilor Drosselmeyer
  • Dolls [spring-activated]:
    • Doll, appearing out of a cabbage [1st gift]
    • Soldier, appearing out of a pie or tart [2nd gift]
  • Nutcracker [3rd gift, at first a normal-sized toy, then full-sized and "speaking", then a Prince]
  • Owl [on clock, changing into Drosselmeyer]
  • Mice
  • Sentinel [speaking role]
  • Hare-Drummers
  • Soldiers [of the Nutcracker]
  • Mouse King
  • Gnomes, with torches
  • Snowflakes
  • Sugar Plum Fairy
  • Clara
  • Prince
  • 12 Pages
  • [Eminent members of the court]
  • [Performer(s) for Spanish dance]
  • [Performer(s) for Arab dance]
  • [Performer(s) Chinese dance]
  • [Performer(s) Russian dance]
  • [Performers for dance of the reed-flutes (= Fr. "mirlitons"; Russ. = "пастушки," shepherdesses)]
  • Mother Gigogne
  • Buffoons (= Fr. polichinelles)
  • Flowers
  • Prince Orgeat [Koklyush]


Konstantin Ivanov's original sketch for the set of The Nutcracker (1892)

The story has been published in many book versions including colourful children-friendly versions. The plot revolves around a German girl named Clara Stahlbaum or Clara Silverhaus. In some Nutcracker productions, Clara is called Marie. (In Hoffmann's tale, the girl's name actually is Marie or Maria, while Clara - or "Klärchen" - is the name of one of her dolls.) Image File history File links Nutcracker_design. ... Image File history File links Nutcracker_design. ...

Act I
The work opens with a brief “Miniature Overture”, which also opens the Suite. The music sets the fairy mood by using upper registers of the orchestra exclusively. The curtain opens to reveal the Stahlbaums' house, where a Christmas Eve party is under way. Clara, her little brother Fritz, and their mother and father are celebrating with friends and family, when the mysterious godfather, Herr Drosselmeyer, enters. He quickly produces a large bag of gifts for all the children. All are very happy, except for Clara, who has yet to be presented a gift. Herr Drosselmeyer then produces three life-size dolls, which each take a turn to dance. When the dances are done, Clara approaches Herr Drosselmeyer asking for her gift. It would seem that he is out of presents, and Clara runs to her mother in a fit of tears and disappointment.

Drosselmeyer then produces a toy Nutcracker, in the traditional shape of a soldier in full parade uniform. Clara is overjoyed, but her brother Fritz is jealous, and breaks the Nutcracker.

The party ends and the Stahlbaum family go to bed. While everybody is sleeping, Herr Drosselmeyer repairs the Nutcracker. Then Clara wakes up and sees her window open. When the clock strikes midnight, Clara hears the sound of mice. She wakes up and tries to run away, but the mice stop her. Alternatively, perhaps Clara is still in a dream: the Christmas tree suddenly begins to grow to enormous size, filling the room. The Nutcracker comes to life, he and his band of soldiers rise to defend Clara, and the Mouse King leads his mice into battle. Here Tchaikovsky continues the miniature effect of the Overture, setting the battle music predominantly in the orchestra's upper registers.

A conflict ensues, and when Clara helps the Nutcracker by holding the Mouse King by the tail or throwing her shoe at the Mouse King, the Nutcracker seizes his opportunity and stabs him. The mouse dies. The mice retreat, taking their dead leader with them. The Nutcracker is then transformed into a prince. (In Hoffmann's original story, and in the Royal Ballet's 1985 and 2001 versions, the Prince is actually Drosselmeyer's nephew, who had been turned into a Nutcracker by the Mouse King, and all the events following the Christmas party have been arranged by Drosselmeyer in order to break the spell.) Royal Ballet may refer to: Royal Ballet, London Birmingham Royal Ballet Royal Winnipeg Ballet Royal Danish Ballet There is also an article about the Royal Ballet School in London, England. ...

Clara and the Prince travel to a world where dancing Snowflakes greet them and fairies and queens dance, welcoming Clara and the Prince into their world. The score conveys the wondrous images by introducing a wordless children’s chorus. The curtain falls on Act I.

Act II

Konstantin Ivanov's original sketch for the set of The Nutcracker, Act II (1892)
Konstantin Ivanov's original sketch for the set of The Nutcracker, Act II (1892)

Clara and the Prince arrive at the Land of the Sugar Plum Fairy. The Sugar Plum Fairy and the people of the Land of Sweets dance for Clara and the Prince in the dances of Dew Drop Fairy, the Spanish dancers (sometimes Chocolate), the Chinese dancers (sometimes Tea), the Arabian dancers (sometimes Coffee), the Russian dancers (sometimes Candy Canes--their dance is called the Trepak), Mother Ginger and her Polichinelles (sometimes Bonbons, Taffy Clowns, or Court Buffoons in Baryshnikov's production), the Reed Flutes (sometimes Marzipan shepherds or Mirlitons), the Sugar Plum Fairy, and the Waltz of the Flowers. The dances in the Land of the Sugar Plum Fairy are not always performed in this order. Image File history File links Nutcracker_set_designs. ... Image File history File links Nutcracker_set_designs. ... Trepak is a musical term referring to a Russian form of dance song built on a quick duple meter. ...

After the festivities, Clara wakes up under the Christmas tree with the Nutcracker toy in her arms and the curtain closes. (In Balanchine's version, however, she is never shown waking up; instead, after all the dances in the Kingdom of Sweets have concluded, she rides off with the Nutcracker/Prince on a Santa Claus-like flying sleigh, complete with reindeer, and the curtain falls. This gives the impression that the "dream" actually happens in reality, as in Hoffmann's original story. The 1985 Royal Ballet version seems to imply the same thing, since at the end, Drosselmeyer's nephew, who had really been transformed into a nutcracker, reappears in human form at the toymaker's shop.) A typical depiction of Santa Claus. ... Royal Ballet may refer to: Royal Ballet, London Birmingham Royal Ballet Royal Winnipeg Ballet Royal Danish Ballet There is also an article about the Royal Ballet School in London, England. ...

New choreography

(left to right) Sergei Legat, as the Nutcracker; an unidentified child as a gingerbread soldier; and Lydia Rubtsova as Marianna in Vsevolozhsky's costumes for the Ivanov/Petipa/Tchaikovsky The Nutcracker. St. Petersburg, 1892
(left to right) Sergei Legat, as the Nutcracker; an unidentified child as a gingerbread soldier; and Lydia Rubtsova as Marianna in Vsevolozhsky's costumes for the Ivanov/Petipa/Tchaikovsky The Nutcracker. St. Petersburg, 1892

Willam Christensen Image File history File links Nutcracker_cast. ... Image File history File links Nutcracker_cast. ...

It was not until 1944 that the first complete production in the U.S. took place, performed by the San Francisco Ballet, and choreographed by Willam Christensen. The company was the first in the U.S. to make the ballet an annual tradition. SF Ballet program book, April 2006 San Francisco Ballet, or SFB, is a San Francisco, USA based ballet company, founded in 1933 as part of San Francisco Opera Ballet. ... A Retrospective on Willam Christensen By Karen Anne Webb There are moments in history when, concerning certain subjects and given certain questions, the least informed and most informed will give exactly the same, correct response; a third segment who in fact does know something about the subject, will fall flat...

George Balanchine

See also: List of New York City Ballet repertory

In 1954 George Balanchine followed in Christensen's footsteps by choreographing and premiering his New York City Ballet version. Balanchine's Nutcracker has since been staged in New York every year, performed live on television twice - although its first television edition, on the TV anthology Seven Lively Arts, was severely abridged - and made into a poorly received full-length feature film starring Macaulay Culkin in 1993. Its stage success contributed greatly to making productions of The Nutcracker annual Christmas season traditions all over the world - a phenomenon that did not really come to flower until the late 1960s. In Balanchine's version, the roles of Clara (here called Marie) and the Nutcracker are danced by children, and so their dances are choreographed to not be as difficult as the ones performed by the adults. Logo of the New York City Ballet The New York City Ballet is a ballet company founded in 1948 by choreographer George Balanchine and Lincoln Kirstein originally known as the American Ballet. ... Seven Lively Arts was a Sunday afternoon anthology television series produced by CBS television and executive producer John Houseman. ... Macaulay Carson Culkin (born August 26, 1980) is an American actor. ... The Christmas season (also known as the holiday season) is a term that covers the time when two interconnected periods of celebration are held. ...

Mikhail Baryshnikov

The popularity of the Balanchine Nutcracker could be said to have been seriously challenged, however, by the highly acclaimed American Ballet Theatre version choreographed by and starring Mikhail Baryshnikov, which premiered in 1976 at the Kennedy Center, was re-staged for television and first telecast by CBS in 1977, and is now a TV holiday classic. Angel Corella as Aminta in the 2006 production of Ashtons ballet Sylvia. ... For the Russian athlete, see Aleksandr Baryshnikov. ... The Kennedy Center as seen from the Potomac River. ... This article is about the broadcast network. ...

Baryshnikov omits the roles of the Sugar Plum Fairy and her Cavalier, and gives their dances to Clara and the Prince; so that in his version, the two do not merely sit out most of the entire second act as they do in other productions (notably Balanchine's). In addition, although the Mother Ginger and her Clowns music is heard, we never see Mother Ginger herself, only four court clowns who perform the dance.

In Baryshnikov's version, contrary to what is often written, it is not Clara's brother Fritz who breaks the Nutcracker, but an unnamed drunken guest at the Christmas party who is trying to make the toy "grow" to life-size. He is last seen tipsily leaving with the other guests.

The stage version of this production originally starred Baryshnikov, Marianna Tcherkassky as Clara, and Alexander Minz as Drosselmeyer, However, for the TV version the role of Clara went to Gelsey Kirkland, and it is Kirkland, not Tcherkassky, who has been widely seen in this production of the ballet. Clara is considered one of Gelsey Kirkland's most memorable roles. Gelsey Kirkland (born December 29, 1952, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania) is an American ballet dancer. ...

Except for Tcherkassky, the rest of the cast of this production also appeared in it on television. The television version was not a live performance of the ballet, but a special presentation shot on videotape in a TV studio (with no studio audience) in Toronto, Canada. Motto: Diversity Our Strength Map of Ontario Counties, Toronto being red Area: 641 sq. ...

The Baryshnikov Nutcracker has since become both the most popular television version of the work and the bestselling videocassette and DVD version of the ballet. It usually outsells not only every other video version of The Nutcracker, including the 1993 film of Balanchine's version, but every other ballet video as well. It is still telecast annually on some PBS stations. In 2004, it was re-mastered and reissued on DVD with a markedly improved visual image showing far greater detail and more vivid colors than before, as well as sound that, if not present-day state-of-the-art, was far better than its original 1977 audio. It is only one of two versions of the ballet to have been nominated for Emmys - the other was Mark Morris's intentionally exaggerated and satirical take on the ballet, The Hard Nut, telecast on PBS in 1992. (Seven Lively Arts did win an Emmy for Best New Program of 1957, so one could say that The Nutcracker was included in that win, although the award itself did not specifically say so.) A bestseller is a book that is identified as extremely popular by its inclusion on a list of top-sellers. ... DVD (also known as Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc - see Etymology) is a popular optical disc storage media format. ... An Emmy Award. ... Mark Morris in 2006 Mark Morris (born: August 29, 1956) is an American modern dancer, choreographer and director whose work is acclaimed for its craftsmanship, ingenuity, humor, and at times eclectic musical accompaniments. ...

Years later, Alessandra Ferri danced the role of Clara in a stage revival of Baryshnikov's production. Alessandra Ferri (born in 1963) is an Italian ballerina, dancing as a Principal Dancer with the American Ballet Theatre in New York, Prima Ballerina with the La Scala Ballet in Milan, and as an international guest artist. ...

Mark Morris

In 1990, Mark Morris began work on his version of The Nutcracker, taking inspiration from the horror-comic artist Charles Burns. The art of Charles Burns is personal and deeply instilled with archetypal concepts of guilt, childhood, adolescent sexuality, and poignant, nostalgic portrayals of post-war America. Charles Burns (born September 27, 1955 in Washington, D.C.) is an award-winning U.S. cartoonist and illustrator. ...

He enlisted a team of collaborators to create a world not unlike that of Burns’ world, where stories take comic book clichés and rearrange them into disturbing yet funny patterns.

Morris turned to Adrianne Lobel to create sets that would take Hoffmann’s tale out of the traditional German setting and into Burns’ graphic, black and white view of things. With these immense sets and scrims, lighting designer James F. Ingalls created a dark world within retro 1960s suburbia and costume designer Martin Pakledinaz created costumes that helped bring to life Burns’ world, described as being “at the juncture of fiction and memory, of cheap thrills and horror.” The last of 10 pieces Mark Morris created during his time as Director of Dance at the National Opera House of Belgium, the piece was his most ambitious work to date. He called it The Hard Nut.

The Hard Nut premiered on January 12, 1991 at the Théâtre Royal de la Monnaie in Brussels, just short of the 100th anniversary of the creation of Tchaikovsky’s classic score. Audiences found it a shocking but exhilarating version of Tchaikovsky’s ballet, its impact still felt year after year. Shortly after the premiere, MMDG returned to the United States, having finished their three-year residency at the Monnaie. But the Monnaie seemed the most fitting stage to film the production so the company returned six months later with film crew in hand for encore performances in Belgium’s national opera house that were made available on VHS and Laserdisc. A DVD release is scheduled in 2007.

Recent Russian versions

There have been notable Russian productions of the ballet in recent years, performed by the Bolshoi Ballet and the Kirov Ballet respectively. These have also been released on DVD. The Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow houses the world renowned Bolshoi Ballet, which has been home to some of the worlds greatest ballet dancers, including Anna Pavlova, Vaslav Nijinsky, Rudolf Nureyev, Mikhail Baryshnikov and Natalia Makarova. ... The Mariinsky Ballet is one of the most famous ballet schools in history (formerly the Kirov Ballet, and also the Academic State Theatre), located in St. ...

The music

Ivan Vsevolozhksy's original costume sketch for The Nutcracker (1892)
Ivan Vsevolozhksy's original costume sketch for The Nutcracker (1892)

The music in Tchaikovsky's ballet is some of the composer's most popular. The music belongs to the Romantic Period and contains some of his most memorable melodies, which are frequently used in television and film. The Trepak, or Russian dance, is one of the most recognizable pieces in the ballet, along with the famous Waltz of the Flowers and March, as well as the ubiquitous Dance of the Sugar Plum Fairy, which can be heard in several commercials during the Christmas season. The ballet contains surprisingly advanced harmonies and a wealth of melodic invention unsurpassed in ballet music. Nevertheless, the composer's reverence for Rococo and late 18th century music can be detected in passages such as the Overture, the "Entrée des parents," and "Tempo di Grossvater" in Act I. Image File history File links Vzevolozhsky's_costume_sketch_for_Nutcracker. ... Image File history File links Vzevolozhsky's_costume_sketch_for_Nutcracker. ... “Tchaikovsky” redirects here. ... The expression romantic music and the homophone phrase Romantic music have two essentially different meanings. ... Trepak is a musical term referring to a Russian form of dance song built on a quick duple meter. ... A style of 18th century French art and interior design, Rococo style rooms were designed as total works of art with elegant and ornate furniture, small sculptures, ornamental mirrors, and tapestry complementing architecture, reliefs, and wall paintings. ...

One novelty in Tchaikovsky's original score was the use of the celesta, a new instrument Tchaikovsky had discovered in Paris. He wanted it genuinely for the character of the Sugar Plum Fairy to characterize her because of its "heavenly sweet sound". It appears not only in her "Dance," but also in other passages in Act II. Tchaikovsky also uses toy instruments during the Christmas party scene. Tchaikovsky was proud of the celesta's effect, and wanted its music performed quickly for the public, before he could be "scooped." Everyone was enchanted. French type, four-octave Celesta The Celesta (IPA ) is a struck idiophone operated by a keyboard. ...

Suites derived from this ballet became very popular on the concert stage. The composer himself extracted a suite of eight pieces from the ballet, but that authoritative move has not prevented later hands from arranging other selections and sequences of numbers. Eventually one of these ended up in Disney's Fantasia. In any case, The Nutcracker Suite should not be mistaken for the complete ballet. In music, a suite is an organized set of instrumental or orchestral pieces normally performed at a single sitting, as a separate musical performance, not accompanying an opera, ballet, or theater-piece. ... Old logo from 1985-2006 Walt Disney Pictures refers to several different entities associated with The Walt Disney Company: Walt Disney Pictures, the film banner, was established as a designation in 1983, prior to which Disney films since the death of Walt Disney were released under the name of the... Fantasia is a 1940 motion picture, produced by Walt Disney and first released on November 13, 1940 in the United States. ...

Although the original ballet is only 90 minutes long, and therefore much shorter than Swan Lake or The Sleeping Beauty, some modern staged performances have omitted or re-ordered some of the music, or inserted selections from elsewhere, thus adding to the confusion over the suites. In fact, most of the very famous versions of the ballet have had the order of the dances slightly re-arranged, if they have not actually altered the music. The Valse des cygnes from Act II of the Ivanov/Petipa edition of Swan Lake. ... The Sleeping Beauty (Russian: , Spyashchaya Krasavitsa) is a ballet in a prologue and three acts, Opus 66, by Pyotr Tchaikovsky. ...

  • The 1954 George Balanchine New York City Ballet version, broadcast on TV in heavily abridged form in 1957 by CBS, restaged by the network in more complete form in 1958, and filmed with Macaulay Culkin in the title role for movie theatres in 1993, adds to Tchaikovsky's score an entr'acte that the composer wrote for Act II of "The Sleeping Beauty". It is used as a transition between the departure of the guests and the battle with the mice. During this transition, Clara's mother appears in the living room and throws a blanket over the girl, who has crept downstairs and fallen asleep on the sofa; then Drosselmeyer appears, repairs the Nutcracker, and binds the jaw with a handkerchief. In addition, the "Dance Of The Sugar Plum Fairy" is moved from near the end of Act II to near the beginning of the second act, just after the Sugar Plum Fairy makes her first appearance. To help the musical transition, the tarantella that comes before the dance is also cut.
  • In 1964, on New Year's Eve, ABC-TV telecast a one-hour abridgement of choreographer Lew Christensen's version created for the San Francisco Ballet (the choreographer was one of Willam Christensen's brothers).
  • A filmed German-American co-production, first telecast in the United States by CBS in 1965, hosted and narrated by Eddie Albert, and choreographed by Kurt Jacob, featured a largely German, but still international cast made up from several companies, including Edward Villella, Patricia McBride and Melissa Hayden from the New York City Ballet. It aired on CBS annually between 1965 and 1968, and then was withdrawn from American network television. Famed German dancer Harald Kreutzberg appeared (in what was probably his last role) in the dual roles of Drosselmeyer and the Snow King (though in one listing, Drosselmeyer has been re-christened Uncle Alex Hoffman — presumably a reference to E.T.A. Hoffmann, who wrote the original tale).[1] This production cut the ballet down to a one-act version lasting slightly less than an hour, and drastically re-ordered all the dances, even to the point of altering the storyline (instead of defeating the Mouse King, who does not even appear in this production, Clara and the Nutcracker must now journey to the Castle of the Sugar Plum Fairy, where the Fairy will wave her wand and turn the Nutcracker back into a Prince). This production inserted some music from Tchaikovsky's The Sleeping Beauty, as two bluebirds were brought in as characters to dance the Bluebird Pas de Deux from that work.
  • Rudolf Nureyev's 1967 version for the Royal Ballet, in which he dances both the roles of Drosselmeyer and the Prince, but not the Nutcracker, changes the order of some of the musical numbers, repeating the music of the "mice attack" and the departure of the guests at the end, and omitting the Final Waltz and Apotheosis which normally conclude the ballet. It was videotaped in 1968.
  • In Baryshnikov's American Ballet Theatre version, all of the original Tchaikovsky score is used, but the order of most of the dances in Act II (the section of the ballet with the least plot) is changed, and the "Arabian Dance" had to be omitted in the television version in order to bring the program in at 90 minutes (counting the three commercial breaks). Drosselmeyer makes his appearance at the Christmas party earlier, just before the Marche, and the music normally used for his entrance is here used as scoring for the puppet show. Baryshnikov also turned the Adagio from the "Pas de Deux" into a dance for Clara and the Prince rather than one for the Sugar Plum Fairy and her Cavalier, making it the emotional climax by shifting it to immediately before the "Final Waltz and Apotheosis" which closes the ballet.
  • Pacific Northwest Ballet's Nutcracker, staged in 1983 and filmed for movie theatres in 1986 (as Nutcracker: The Motion Picture) features sets and costumes by Maurice Sendak. It adds a duet from Tchaikovsky's opera The Queen of Spades that is heard during the Christmas party sequence. In addition, the Dance of the Sugar Plum Fairy is placed very early in the second act, rather than its traditional place toward the end, and is danced by the dream Clara. This one also omits the Sugar Plum Fairy herself. It should be noted that this version tries to be truer to E. T. A. Hoffmann’s original story, complete with its darker aspects and a second act with more context and flavor, although much of that flavor comes from the imaginations of Sendak and choreographer Kent Stowell, rather than from the actual Hoffmann story.
  • In the Royal Ballet, London's 1985 version, telecast on A&E, Tchaikovsky's score is used and the original order of the dances is not changed at all, but the Mother Ginger dance is omitted. This version was re-staged with some of the same dancers taking different roles, as well as with new dancers, in 2001. In the 2001 version, Alina Cojocaru danced the role of Clara, a role danced in 1985 by Julie Rose. Anthony Dowell, who had danced the Sugar Plum Fairy's Cavalier in 1985, danced the role of Drosselmeyer in the 2001 version, telecast by PBS.
  • Another ice skating version, 1994's Nutcracker on Ice, starring Oksana Baiul as Clara and Victor Petrenko as Drosselmeyer, was originally telecast on NBC, and is now shown on several cable stations. It was also condensed to slightly less than an hour, radically altering and compressing both the music and the storyline.
  • Still another one-hour ice skating version, also called Nutcracker on Ice, was staged on television in 1995, starring Peggy Fleming as the Sugar Plum Fairy, Nicole Bobek as Clara, and Todd Eldredge as the Nutcracker.
  • And yet another version of Nutcracker on Ice, this one starring Tai Babilonia as Clara and Randy Gardner as the Nutcracker/ Prince, was released straight-to-video in 1998, appearing on DVD in 2007.

However, nearly all of the CD and LP recordings of the complete ballet present Tchaikovsky's score exactly as he originally conceived it. Outdoor ice skating in Austria Ice skating is travelling on ice with skates, narrow (and sometimes parabolic) blade-like devices moulded into special boots (or, more primitively, without boots, tied to regular footwear). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Robin Cousins was a British figure skater who won a gold medal at the 1980 Winter Olympics. ... For other uses, see HBO (disambiguation). ... Mikhail Mikhailovich Ippolitov-Ivanov (November 19, 1859 – January 28, 1935) was a Russian composer, conductor and teacher. ... Caucasian Sketches is an orchestral suite written in 1894 by Russian composer Mikhail Ippolitov-Ivanov. ... George Balanchine (January 9 (O.S.) = January 22 (N.S.), 1904–April 30, 1983) was one of the 20th centurys foremost choreographers, and one of the founders of American ballet. ... Macaulay Carson Culkin (born August 26, 1980) is an American actor. ... Entracte is French for between the acts. It can have the meaning of a pause between two parts of a stage production, synonym to intermission, but is more often used to indicate that part of a theatre production that is performed between acts as an intermezzo or interlude. ... The American Broadcasting Company (ABC) is an American television network. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Edward Albert Heimberger (April 22, 1906 – May 26, 2005) was a popular Oscar and Emmy Award-nominated American stage, film, character actor, gardener, and humanitarian activist, perhaps best known for playing Bing Edwards in the Brother Rat films, or for his role in the 1960s television comedy Green Acres. ... Edward Villella (born October 1, 1936, Bayside, New York) is an American ballet dancer and choreographer, frequently cited as Americas most celebrated male dancer. ... Melissa Hayden (born Mildred Herman, April 25, 1923, Toronto; died August 9, 2006, Winston-Salem, North Carolina) was a well-known ballerina who spent most of her career with the New York City Ballet. ... Logo of the New York City Ballet The New York City Ballet is a ballet company founded in 1948 by choreographer George Balanchine and Lincoln Kirstein originally known as the American Ballet. ... Harald Kreutzberg (1902 - 1968) German dancer and choreographer. ... The Sleeping Beauty (Russian: , Spyashchaya Krasavitsa) is a ballet in a prologue and three acts, Opus 66, by Pyotr Tchaikovsky. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Angel Corella as Aminta in the 2006 production of Ashtons ballet Sylvia. ... The Pacific Northwest Ballet is a ballet company and based in Seattle, Washington in the United States. ... Maurice Bernard Sendak (born June 10, 1928) is an American writer and illustrator of childrens literature who is best known for his book Where the Wild Things Are, published in 1963. ... The Queen of Spades (Пиковая дама in Russian, Pikovaya dama in transliteration) is an opera in three acts by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky to a Russian libretto by the composers brother Modest Tchaikovsky, based on a short story by the poet Aleksandr Pushkin. ... The Royal Ballet, which is based at the Royal Opera House in Covent Garden, London, is the leading ballet company in the United Kingdom. ... A&E is a three-letter abbreviation with multiple meanings, as described below: A&E Network (Arts and Entertainment), an American television network the Accident and Emergency department of a hospital This page concerning a three-letter acronym or abbreviation is a disambiguation page—a list of articles associated with... Alina Cojocaru(born May 27, 1981) is a female principal dancer with the Royal Ballet in London. ... Sir Anthony Dowell (born 1943 in London, England) is a famous ballet dancer and was Artistic Director of Englands Royal Ballet from 1986 to 2001, when he officially retired. ... Not to be confused with Public Broadcasting Services in Malta. ... Oksana Baiul (Ukrainian: ) (born November 16, 1977) is a professional figure skater and Olympic gold medalist. ... Petrenko skates in 2002. ... This article is about the television network. ... Peggy Gale Fleming (born July 27, 1948 in San Jose, California) is an American figure skater who won an Olympic gold medal in 1968. ... Nicole Bobeck (born December 24, 1975) Launceston, Tasmania, Australia is a American figure skater. ... Todd James Eldredge (born August 28, 1971 in Chatham, Massachusetts) is an American figure skater. ... Tai Reina Babilonia (born 1960) is a U.S. figure skater, the partner of Randy Gardner. ... Randy Gardner is a U.S. figure skater, the partner of Tai Babilonia. ... CD may stand for: Compact Disc Canadian Forces Decoration Cash Dispenser (at least used in Japan) CD LPMud Driver Centrum-Demokraterne (Centre Democrats of Denmark) Certificate of Deposit ÄŒeské Dráhy (Czech Railways) Chad (NATO country code) Chalmers Datorförening (computer club of the Chalmers University of Technology) a 1960s... A 12-inch record (left), a 7-inch record (right), and a CD (above) Two 7 singles (left), two colored 7 singles (middle), and two 7 singles with large spindle holes (right). ...


(Numbers given according to the piano score from the Soviet collected edition of the composer's works, as reprinted Melville, NY: Belwin Mills [n.d.], in English where possible, with explanations added here in square brackets).

Act One

Tableau I
No.1 Scene of decorating and lighting the Christmas tree
No.2 March
No.3 Little Gallop [of the children] and entry of the parents
No.4 Scene dansante [Drosselmeyer's arrival and distribution of presents]
No.5 Scene and dance of the Grandfather
No.6 Scene [Departure of the guests -- DAYTIME]
No.7 Scene [the battle]
Tableau II
No.8 Scene [a pine forest in winter]
No.9 Waltz of the Snowflakes

Act Two

Tableau III
No.10 Scene [Introduction]
No.11 Scene [Arrival of Clara and the Prince]
No.12 Divertissement
a. Chocolate (Spanish dance)
b. Coffee (Arabian dance)
c. Tea (Chinese dance)
d. Trepak (Russian Dance)
e. Dance of the Mirlitons [also known as "Dance of the Reed-Flutes," "Dance of the Shepherdesses," and "Marzipan"]
f. Mother Ginger and the clowns [or "Mother Ginger and her children"]
No.13 Waltz of the Flowers [featuring the "Dew Drops" in Balanchine's production]
No.14 Pas de Deux: Adagio (Sugar-Plum Fairy and a cavalier)
Variation I (for the male dancer) [Tarantella]
Variation II (for the female dancer) [Dance of the Sugar-Plum Fairy]
No.15 Final Waltz and Apotheosis

Probably the most distinguished and celebrated song in Tchaikovskys ballet The Nutcracker, Trepak can arguably be the most popular song of the ballet, as well as the whole Christmas holiday. ... Mirliton can mean: A vegetable or its vine, also known as the chayote A class of musical instruments with a membrane that vibrates in the manner of that of a kazoo or the eunuch flute. ...

Concert excerpts and arrangements

Tchaikovsky: Suite from the ballet The Nutcracker

The suite derived and abridged from the ballet became more popular for a time than the ballet itself, partly due to its inclusion in Walt Disney's Fantasia. The outline below represents the selection and sequence of the Nutcracker Suite culled by the composer. For the company founded by Disney, see The Walt Disney Company. ... Fantasia is a 1940 motion picture, produced by Walt Disney and first released on November 13, 1940 in the United States. ...

I. Overture
II. Danses caractéristiques
a. Marche
b. Dance of the Sugar-Plum Fairy [ending altered from ballet-version]
c. Russian Dance (Trepak)
d. Arabian Dance
e. Chinese Dance
f. Reed-Flutes
III. Waltz of the Flowers

Pletnev: Concert suite from The Nutcracker, for solo piano

The pianist and conductor Mikhail Pletnev adapted some of the music into a virtuosic concert suite for piano solo: Mikhail Vasilievich Pletnev (Russian: Михаил Васильевич Плетнёв, Mikhail Vaciljievič Pletnev) (born 14 April 1957) in Arkhangelsk, Russia is a pianist, conductor, and composer. ...

a. March
b. Dance of the Sugar-Plum Fairy
c. Tarantella
d. Intermezzo
e. Russian Trepak
f. China Dance
g. Andante

Popular adaptations

Pop versions

In 1962 a novelty boogie piano arrangement of the "Marche", entitled "Nut Rocker", was a #1 single in the UK, and #21 in the USA. Credited to B. Bumble and the Stingers, it was produced by Kim Fowley and featured studio musicians Al Hazan (piano), Earl Palmer (drums), Tommy Tedesco (guitar) and Red Callender (bass). "Nut Rocker" has subsequently been covered by many others including The Shadows, Emerson, Lake & Palmer, and the Dropkick Murphys. "Nut Rocker" is commonly connected to the NHL team the Boston Bruins. In 2004, The Invincible Czars (from Austin, Texas) arranged, recorded, and now annually perform the entire suite for rock band - guitar, bass, keyboard, drums, trumpet, saxophone, and violin - reinventing the music with the stylistic, rhythmic, and dynamic twists and turns that mark their original music. Boogie-woogie is a style of piano-based blues that became very popular in the late 1930s and early 1940s, and was extended from piano, to three pianos at once, guitar, big band, and country and western music, and even gospel. ... In music, an arrangement refers either to a rewriting of a piece of existing music with additional new material or to a fleshing-out of a compositional sketch, such as a lead sheet. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... B. Bumble and the Stingers were an instrumental ensemble from the early 1960s, who specialized in rocking up classical melodies. ... Kim Fowley (born 1942) is an American pop and rock singer, songwriter, and record producer, best known for helping record the 1966 novelty record Theyre Coming to Take me Away, Ha Ha, recorded by Jerry Samuels under the name of Napoleon XIV. The B-side consisted of the A... Session musicians are musicians available for hire, as opposed to musicians who are either permanent members of a musical outfit or who have acquired fame in their own right. ... Earl Palmer (October 25, 1924) is a legendary drummer and member of the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. ... Thomas J. Tedesco (July 3, 1930 – November 10, 1997) was an American master session musician and renowned jazz fusion and bebop guitarist. ... // In popular music, a cover version, or simply cover, is a new rendition (performance or recording) of a previously recorded song. ... The Shadows were an English instrumental rock n roll group active from the 1950s to the 2000s. ... Emerson, Lake & Palmer (ELP) were an English progressive rock group. ... DKM redirects here. ... NHL can also be an abbreviation for National Historic Landmark or Non-Hodgkins lymphoma. ... The Boston Bruins are a professional mens ice hockey team based in Boston, Massachusetts. ...

The Trans-Siberian Orchestra's first album, Christmas Eve and Other Stories, includes an instrumental piece entitled "A Mad Russian's Christmas," which is a rock version of music from The Nutcracker. Trans-Siberian Orchestra (often abbreviated as TSO) is a rock orchestra founded by Paul ONeill, Robert Kinkel, and Jon Oliva in 1996. ... Christmas Eve and Other Stories is a CD of Christmas carols by the Trans-Siberian Orchestra. ...

On the other end of the scale is the humorous Spike Jones version released in December 1945 and again in 1971 as part of the long play record Spike Jones is Murdering the Classics, one of the rare comedic pop records to be issued on the prestigious RCA Red Seal label. Spike Jones For the music video and film director, see Spike Jonze. ...

Musical comedy version

During the Christmas season of 1961, ABC presented a musical special on television entitled The Enchanted Nutcracker. It starred Robert Goulet and Carol Lawrence, with child actress Linda Canby as Clara, and featured a script by Samuel and Bella Spewack, who had written the libretto for Kiss Me, Kate. The show, advertised as a "free adaptation" of The Nutcracker, was choreographed by Carol Haney. Information on this program is currently scant, so it is not clear how much of Tchaikovsky's music was used, but the story was still about a nutcracker who comes to life and takes a little girl to the Kingdom of Sweets. The Nutcracker was portrayed, not by a dancer, but by French actor Pierre Olaf, who also played a new character named Dr. Gombault. Patrick Adiarte, who had played Prince Chulalongkorn in the 1956 film The King and I, also played a Prince in The Enchanted Nutcracker, though clearly, the Nutcracker and the Prince were two entirely different characters in this version. The roles that Goulet and Lawrence played were also created especially for this adaptation.[2] This television production was shown once and then fell into complete obscurity, never even being rerun on ABC-TV. The American Broadcasting Company (ABC) is an American television network. ... Robert Gerard Goulet (November 26, 1933 – October 30, 2007) was a Grammy- and Tony Award-winning American entertainer. ... Carol Lawrence is a musical theater actress, who has also made numerous appearances in film and television. ... Samuel (September 16, 1899 - October 14, 1971) and Bella Spewack (March 25, 1899 - April 27, 1990) were a Tony Award-winning husband-and-wife writing team. ... Kiss Me, Kate is a musical with a book by Samuel and Bella Spewack and music and lyrics by Cole Porter. ... Carol Haney (December 24, 1924 _ May 10, 1964) was born in New Bedford, Massachusetts and opened a dancing school when she was fifteen years old. ... Ho-Jon is a fictional character in the film M*A*S*H, where he was played by Kim Atwood, and the television series M*A*S*H, where he was played by Patrick Adiarte. ... King Chulalongkorn the Great or Rama V (royal name: Phra Chula Chomklao Chaoyuhua; Thai: ) (September 20, 1853 – October 23, 1910) was the fifth king of the Chakri dynasty of Thailand. ... This article is about the 1956 film, for the musical on which the film was based, see The King and I The King and I is a 1956 musical film made by 20th Century Fox, directed by Walter Lang and produced by Charles Brackett and Darryl F. Zanuck. ...

Animated versions

There have been several animated versions of the original story, but none can really be actually considered an animated version of the ballet itself. All of these invent characters that appear neither in the original E.T.A. Hoffmann story nor in the ballet.

  • Selections from the Nutcracker Suite were heard in the 1940 Disney animation film Fantasia. In this film, the music from The Nutcracker is accompanied by dancing fairies, mushrooms and fish, among others and, as Deems Taylor mentions, the Nutcracker itself is nowhere in sight. As mentioned before, this suite should not be mistaken for the entire Nutcracker. The suite used is a slightly altered version of the Nutcracker Suite selected by the composer [see The Suite in this article]. This version omits the Overture and the Marche, and the remaining dances are reordered (Note: The accompanying animation is provided in parentheses):
1. Danses caractéristiques
a. Dance of the Sugar-Plum Fairy (Dew Fairies)
b. Chinese Dance (Chinese Mushrooms)
c. Reed-Flutes (Blossoms)
d. Arabian Dance (Goldfish)
e. Russian Dance (Thistles and Orchids)
2. Waltz of the Flowers (Frost Fairies & Snow Fairies)
  • In 1990, another animated version, The Nutcracker Prince, starring the voices of Kiefer Sutherland and Megan Follows, was released. This one also used Tchaikovsky's music, but was actually a straightforward full-length animated cartoon, not a ballet film.
  • The Jetlag Productions animation studio produced its own version of the story in 1994 entitled, simply "The Nutcracker". The animated adaptation used some of Tchaikovsky's compositions as well as some original melodies and songs.
  • In 1999, a comedy version entitled The Nuttiest Nutcracker became the first computer-animated film released straight to video. An example of the skewed tone that this version took may be inferred from the fact that Phyllis Diller provided the voice of an obese Sugar Plum Fairy. Some of Tchaikovsky's music was used.
  • Barbie in the Nutcracker is a direct-to-video version of the story starring, of course, Barbie the doll, released in 2001. It significantly alters the storyline.
  • Princess Tutu, an anime that uses elements from many ballets as both music and as part of the storyline, uses the music from The Nutcracker in many places throughout its run, including using an arranged version of the overture as the theme for the main character. Both the first and last episodes feature The Nutcracker as their 'theme', and one of the main characters is named Drosselmeyer.
  • A House of Mouse special Snowed in at the House of Mouse included an animated short, starring Mickey Mouse as the Nutcracker, Minnie Mouse as Clara, Professor Ludwig von Drake as a character based on Herr Drosselmeyer, Goofy as the Sugar Plum Fairy and Donald Duck as the "Duck-stroke-Mouse-stroke-King-type-person" (or the Mouse King) portrayed a brief overview of the story, narrated by John Cleese. The story ran with modern rock-style musical accompaniment.
  • In 2004, Argus International in Moscow produced an animated version of "The Nutcracker and the Mouse King", though it has a different tale to tell. The US version was released in 2005 and it features the voices of Leslie Nielsen as the Mouse King, Robert Hays as the mouse Squeak, Fred Willard as the mouse Bubble, and Eric Idle (of Monty Python fame) as the voice of Herr Drosselmeyer.
  • A 2007 straight-to-video animated film, Tom and Jerry: A Nutcracker Tale, features, of course, the cartoon characters Tom and Jerry, and incorporates elements of the ballet, including some of Tchaikovsky's music, into the film. However, it uses a very different storyline. As in Fantasia, none of the actual characters in the ballet appear, including the Nutcracker himself.

Disney may refer to: The Walt Disney Company and its divisions, including Walt Disney Pictures. ... Fantasia is a 1940 motion picture, produced by Walt Disney and first released on November 13, 1940 in the United States. ... by Sophie Anderson For other uses, see Fairy (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Mushroom (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ... A stop motion animation of a moving coin. ... Nutcracker Fantasy is an animated film by Sanrio. ... For other persons named Christopher Lee, see Christopher Lee (disambiguation). ... Melissa Ellen Gilbert (born May 8, 1964) is an American actress, writer and producer, primarily in movies and television. ... Care Bears Nutcracker Suite is the third and final television special to feature the Care Bears characters. ... For the Disney Channel in other countries, see Disney Channel around the world. ... The Nutcracker Prince is a 1990 animated film made by Lacewood Productions, and released by Warner Bros. ... Kiefer William Frederick Dempsey George Rufus Sutherland (born December 21, 1966) is an Emmy- and Golden Globe Award-winning television and film actor, well known for his lead role of Jack Bauer on the television series 24. ... Follows as Anne Shirley Megan Follows (born Megan Elizabeth Laura Diana Follows on March 14, 1968) is a Canadian actress. ... Jetlag Productions is an American-Japanese animation studios that, just like the similar studio Golden Films, has created a number of animated films based on different, popular childrens stories, at the same time, creating a few original productions. ... Computer animation is the art of creating moving images via the use of computers. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Barbie in the Nutcracker is a direct-to-video Barbie movie that is an adaptation of the Nutcracker ballet story. ... Information Occupation See: Barbies careers Family See: List of Barbies friends and family Created by Ruth Handler Barbie is a best-selling fashion doll launched in 1959. ... Original run 16 August 2002 – 23 May 2003 Episodes 38 Princess Tutu ) is an anime TV-series based on and around ballet and the art of storytelling and fairy tales, particularly those of a Germanic origin. ... Animé redirects here. ... The House of Mouse is a Disney cartoon show where Mickey Mouse and his friends run a nighclub called The House of Mouse, which shows Disney cartons as part of its floor show. ... Mickey Mouse is an Academy Award-winning comic animal cartoon character who has become an icon for The Walt Disney Company. ... Minnie redirects here. ... This article is about the Disney character. ... Donald Duck is an animated cartoon and comic-book character from Walt Disney Productions. ... Cleese redirects here. ... Leslie William Nielsen OC (born February 11, 1926) is a Canadian born American comedian and actor. ... Robert Hays (born July 24, 1947), is an American actor, he is best known for his role in the 1980 movie Airplane! and in the 1982 sequel Airplane II: The Sequel as Ted Striker. ... Fred Willard (born September 18, 1939) is an American comedian and character actor, known for his improvisational comedy skills. ... Eric Idle (born March 29, 1943) is an English comedian, actor, author and composer of comedic songs. ... Monty Python, or The Pythons,[2][3] is the collective name of the creators of Monty Pythons Flying Circus, a British television comedy sketch show that first aired on the BBC on 5 October 1969. ... For other uses, see Tom and Jerry (disambiguation). ...

Jazz versions

In 1960, Duke Ellington and Billy Strayhorn arranged their own adaptation of the Nutcracker Suite for the Duke Ellington Orchestra featuring the Overture, Toot Toot Tootsie Toot (Dance of the Reed-Flutes), Peanut Brittle Brigade (March), Sugar Rum Cherry (Dance of the Sugar Plum Fairy), the Entr'acte, The Volga Vouty (Russian Trepak), Chinoiserie (Chinese Tea), Dance of the Floreadores (Waltz of the Flowers), and Arabesque Cookie (Arabian Coffee). The suite is arranged for the traditional five saxophones (two alto, two tenor, one baritone), four trumpets, a small three trombone section, drums, piano and bass, with second alto doubling on clarinet, bamboo flute, both tenors doubling on clarinet, baritone doubling on bass clarinet, and first trumpet doubling on tambourine. The arrangement has been played by Wynton Marsalis and the Lincoln Center Jazz Orchestra side-by-side with the New York Philharmonic performing the respective original movements. In 1999, the arrangement was expanded to fit Donald Byrd's adaptation of The Nutcracker with modern choreography and themes revolving around an African-American family in Harlem, and an aged Clara's experience through the Civil Rights movement. David Berger composed, arranged, performed, and recorded expansions from Ellington and Strayhorn's suite to mesh with the modern ballet. This article is about the American Jazz composer and performer. ... Billy Strayhorn, photographed by Carl Van Vechten on 14. ... Wynton Learson Marsalis (b. ... The Metropolitan Opera House at Lincoln Center. ... The New York Philharmonic is the oldest active symphony orchestra in the United States, organized during 1842. ...

In 2001, another jazz version appeared on television, this one entitled The Swinging Nutcracker.

Another one, using the Ellington-Strayhorn jazz arrangement of the score, and entitled Nutcracker Sweeties, very recently (2006) appeared on cable television, and is available on DVD. It sets the ballet in the United States during the 1940s, and all of the dances, except for the last two, which he actually sees, are visualized by a World War II soldier on leave roaming the streets of New York in a rented car and listening to the jazz arrangement, which is being broadcast over the radio. The choreography is by David Bintley, and the work is performed by the Birmingham Royal Ballet. Banner advertising the Birmingham Royal Ballet at the Hippodrome The Birmingham Royal Ballet (BRB) is one of the UKs foremost ballet companies, based at the Birmingham Hippodrome in Birmingham, where it enjoys custom-built facilities such as the Jerwood Centre for the Prevention and Treatment of Dance Injuries and...

A variation of The Nutcracker is performed in the Broadway musical Thoroughly Modern Millie. During a scene in a speakeasy, "The Nuttycracker Suite" is played. It features jazz versions of the famous dances within The Nutcracker, especially the Dance of the Sugar Plum Fairy. Musical theater (or theatre) is a form of theater combining music, songs, dance, and spoken dialogue. ... This article is about the 1967 film. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


A humorous adaptation of "The Dance of the Reed Flutes" was used in a 1975 television commercial for "Cadbury's Fruit and Nut" chocolate bars by the Birmingham UK -based chocolate manufacturer Cadbury. The commercial was voiced by writer and television personality Frank Muir and first line of the ditty was "Everyone's a Fruit and Nut case". Cadbury may refer to: // Cadbury Schweppes, a confectionery and beverage company with its headquarters in London Cadbury Dairy Milk Cadburys Creme Egg Cadbury World, visitor attractions created by the Cadbury chocolate company at Birmingham and Dunedin Sir Adrian Cadbury (b. ... Frank Muir (5 February 1920 - 2 January 1998) was an English comedy writer, radio and television personality, and raconteur. ...


Many recordings have been made since the early twentieth century of the Nutcracker Suite, but it was not until the LP album was developed that recordings of the complete ballet began to be made. Because the ballet's approximate hour and a half length, it fit very comfortably onto two LPs. Most CD recordings take up two discs, often with fillers due to the under ninety-minute length of the ballet. An unusual exception is the Valery Gergiev recording, which runs for 81 minutes, and thus fit onto one CD. An LP Long playing (LP), either 10 or 12-inch diameter, 33 rpm (actually 33. ... CD redirects here. ... Valery Gergiev Valery Abisalovich Gergiev, Russian: Вале́рий Абиса́лович Ге́ргиев (born 1953) is a Russian conductor and opera company director. ...

1954, the year in which the Balanchine version of the ballet was first staged, was also the year that the first complete recording - in mono sound - appeared on Mercury Records. It was performed by the Minneapolis Symphony Orchestra, conducted by Antal Dorati, who years later went on to record it complete twice more with other orchestras, on Mercury Records in 1962 and on Philips Records in 1975 respectively. These later recordings were both made in stereo. Some have hailed the 1975 recording, featuring the Amsterdam Concertgebouw Orchestra, as the finest ever made of the complete ballet.[3] It also is faithful to the score in employing a boys choir in the Waltz of the Snowflakes. Many other recordings use an adult or mixed choir. Mercury Records is a record label currently headquartered in the UK, and is a subsidiary of Universal Music Group. ... The Minnesota Orchestra is an American orchestra. ... Antal Dor ti (April 9, 1906 - November 13, 1988) was a conductor and composer. ... Philips Records is a record label that was founded by Dutch electronics giant Philips. ... The Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra (Koninklijk Concertgebouworkest in Dutch) is the best known and most respected orchestra in the Netherlands, and is generally considered to be among the worlds finest. ...

In 1956, the conductor Artur Rodzinski made a complete recording of the ballet on stereo master tapes for Westminster Records, but because stereo was not possible on the LP format in 1956, the ballet was issued in stereo on magnetic tape, and only a mono LP set was issued. (Recently, the Rodzinski performance was issued in stereo on CD.) Artur Rodzinski (January 1, 1892 - November 27, 1958) was a Polish conductor. ... This article is about the spacecraft and the mission. ... Westminster Records was an American classical music record label. ... Compact audio cassette Magnetic tape is a non-volatile storage medium consisting of a magnetic coating on a thin plastic strip. ... CD may stand for: Compact Disc Canadian Forces Decoration Cash Dispenser (at least used in Japan) CD LPMud Driver Centrum-Demokraterne (Centre Democrats of Denmark) Certificate of Deposit České Dráhy (Czech Railways) Chad (NATO country code) Chalmers Datorförening (computer club of the Chalmers University of Technology) a 1960s...

In 1958, the first stereo LP of the complete ballet, with Ernest Ansermet conducting the Orchestre de la Suisse Romande, appeared on Decca Records in the UK and London Records in the U.S.. And with the advent of the stereo era coinciding with the growing popularity of the complete ballet, many other complete recordings of it have been made over the last 30 years. Notable conductors who have done so include Maurice Abravanel, Andre Previn, Valery Gergiev, Mariss Jansons, Seiji Ozawa, Richard Bonynge, Semyon Bychkov and Gennadi Rozhdestvensky. Ernest Alexandre Ansermet (November 11, 1883 – February 20, 1969) was a Swiss conductor. ... The Orchestre de la Suisse Romande (Orchestra of French-speaking Switzerland, OSR) was founded in 1918 by Ernest Ansermet. ... It has been suggested that Decca Music Group be merged into this article or section. ... London Records is a record label headquartered in the United Kingdom, originally marketing records in the United States, Canada and Latin America from 1947 through the 1980s. ... Maurice Abravanel, (January 6, 1903 – September 22, 1993), was a Greek-born Swiss conductor. ... Andr Previn (born April 6, 1929) is a prominent pianist, orchestral conductor, and composer. ... Valery Gergiev Valery Abisalovich Gergiev, Russian: Вале́рий Абиса́лович Ге́ргиев (born 1953) is a Russian conductor and opera company director. ... Mariss Jansons (born 1943) is a prominent Latvian conductor. ... Seiji Ozawa , born September 1, 1935) is a Japanese conductor. ... Richard Bonynge (born September 29, 1930) is an Australian conductor. ... Semyon Bychkov (born November 30, 1952 in Leningrad (now St Petersburg)) is a Russian conductor. ... Gennady Rozhdestvensky (Генна́дий Рожде́ственский) (born 1931) is a Russian conductor. ...

The soundtrack of the 1977 Baryshnikov television production, conducted by Kenneth Schermerhorn, was issued in stereo on a CBS Masterworks 2 LP-set, but it has not appeared on CD. (The 78-minute soundtrack would today fit quite easily onto one CD.) The LP soundtrack recording was, for a time, the only stereo album of the Baryshnikov Nutcracker available, since the show was originally telecast only in mono, and it was not until recently that it began to be telecast with stereo sound. Kenneth Dewitt Schermerhorn (November 20, 1929 – April 18, 2005) was an American composer and orchestra conductor. ... This article is about the spacecraft and the mission. ... CBS Masterworks Records was a subsidiary of CBS Records, producing classical and spoken-word releases as well as Broadway albums. ...

The first complete recording of the ballet in digital stereo was issued in 1985, on a 2-CD RCA set featuring Leonard Slatkin conducting the St. Louis Symphony Orchestra. This album originally had no "filler", but it has recently been re-issued on a multi-CD set containing complete recordings of Tchaikovsky's two other ballets, Swan Lake and The Sleeping Beauty. For other uses, see Digital (disambiguation). ... This article is about the former RCA Corporation. ... Leonard Slatkin (born September 1, 1944) is an American conductor. ... The Saint Louis Symphony Orchestra (SLSO) was founded in 1880, making it the second oldest symphony in the United States after the New York Philharmonic. ... The Valse des cygnes from Act II of the Ivanov/Petipa edition of Swan Lake. ... The Sleeping Beauty (Russian: , Spyashchaya Krasavitsa) is a ballet in a prologue and three acts, Opus 66, by Pyotr Tchaikovsky. ...

The two major theatrical film versions of the ballet, Nutcracker: The Motion Picture, conducted by Sir Charles Mackerras, and George Balanchine's The Nutcracker, conducted by David Zinman, have each had soundtrack recordings as well. Motion Picture and Movie redirects here. ... Sir Alan Charles Maclaurin Mackerras, AC, CH, CBE (born November 17, 1925) is an Australian conductor. ... David Zinman (born New York, 10 July 1936) is an American conductor. ...

Notable albums of excerpts from the ballet, rather than just the usual Nutcracker Suite, were recorded by Eugene Ormandy conducting the Philadelphia Orchestra for Columbia Masterworks, and Fritz Reiner and the Chicago Symphony Orchestra for RCA Victor. Arthur Fiedler and the Boston Pops Orchestra, as well as Erich Kunzel and the Cincinnati Pops Orchestra have also recorded albums of extended excerpts. Neither Ormandy, Reiner, nor Fiedler ever recorded a complete version of the ballet; however, Kunzel's album of excerpts runs 73 minutes, containing more than two-thirds of the music. Eugene Ormandy (November 18, 1899, Budapest, Hungary – March 12, 1985, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) was an eminent American orchestral conductor. ... The Philadelphia Orchestra, based in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, is one of the Big Five symphony orchestras in the United States and usually considered among the finest in the world. ... Columbia Masterworks Records was a record label started in 1927 as Masterworks Records, a subsidiary of Columbia Records. ... This article contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... The Chicago Symphony Orchestra, based in Chicago, Illinois, is one of the leading orchestras in the world. ... Arthur Fiedler (December 17, 1894 – July 10, 1979) was the long-time conductor of the Boston Pops Orchestra, a symphony orchestra that specialized in popular music. ... The Boston Pops Orchestra was founded in 1885 as a subsection of the Boston Symphony Orchestra. ... Erich Kunzel (also known as Erich Kunzel Jr. ... The Cincinnati Pops Orchestra based in Cincinnati, Ohio, United States, was founded in 1977 and Erich Kunzel was named its conductor. ...

Conductors who have recorded only the Nutcracker Suite include such luminaries as Claudio Abbado, Leonard Bernstein, Leopold Stokowski, Mstislav Rostropovich, Herbert von Karajan, Sir Georg Solti, Sir Neville Marriner and James Levine, among many others. Claudio Abbado (born June 26, 1933) is a noted Italian conductor. ... Leonard Bernstein in 1971 Leonard Bernstein (IPA pronunciation: )[1] (August 25, 1918 – October 14, 1990) was an American conductor, composer, and pianist. ... Leopold Stokowski (born Antoni Stanisław Bolesławowicz April 18, 1882 in London, England, died September 13, 1977 in Nether Wallop, England) was the conductor of the Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra, the Philadelphia Orchestra, the NBC Symphony Orchestra, Hollywood Bowl Orchestra and the Symphony of the Air. ... Mstislav Leopoldovich Rostropovich KBE (Russian: Мстисла́в Леопо́льдович Ростропо́вич, Mstislav Leopoldovič Rostropovič, IPA: ), (March 27, 1927 – April 27, 2007), known to close friends as “Slava”, was a Russian cellist and conductor. ... Herbert von Karajan (April 5, 1908 – July 16, 1989) was an Austrian conductor. ... Sir Georg Solti (October 21, 1912 - September 5, 1997) was a well-known orchestral and operatic conductor, who was still actively engaged in performing right up until his death. ... Sir Neville Marriner (born April 15, 1924) is a conductor and violinist. ... James Levine (born June 23, 1943 in Cincinnati, Ohio) is an American orchestral pianist and conductor and most well known as the music director of the Metropolitan Opera in New York. ...

Josh Perschbacher's 2007 organ arrangement and recording included only the Overture, Marche, Dance Sugar Plum Fairy, Russian Dance, Arabian Dance, Chinese Dance, Dance of the Mirlitons, and Waltz of the Flowers. This more closely resembles the selections in Walt Disney's Fantasia (see animated versions above) For the company founded by Disney, see The Walt Disney Company. ... Fantasia is a 1940 motion picture, produced by Walt Disney and first released on November 13, 1940 in the United States. ...


Image File history File links Dance_Of_The_Sugar_Plum_Fairies. ...


  1. ^ Alexander Poznansky, Tchaikovsky: The Quest for the Inner Man, p. 544
  2. ^ The Enchanted Nutcracker (1961) (TV)
  3. ^ Nutcracker

External links

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