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Encyclopedia > The Manchurian Candidate (1962 film)
The Manchurian Candidate
Directed by John Frankenheimer
Produced by George Axelrod
John Frankenheimer
Written by Novel:
Richard Condon
Screenplay:
George Axelrod
Starring Frank Sinatra
Laurence Harvey
Janet Leigh
Angela Lansbury
Henry Silva
James Gregory
Douglas Henderson (actor)
Leslie Parrish
John McGiver
Khigh Dhiegh
Release date(s) October 24, 1962
Running time 126 min.
Language English
IMDb profile

The Manchurian Candidate (1962) is a Cold War political thriller film adapted from the 1959 thriller novel, by Richard Condon, directed by John Frankenheimer, and features Frank Sinatra, Laurence Harvey, Angela Lansbury, and Janet Leigh. The central concept of the film is that the son of a prominent, right-wing political family has been brainwashed as an unwitting assassin for the International Communist Conspiracy. The Manchurian Candidate was nationally released on Wednesday, October 24, 1962, at the zenith of the Cuban Missile Crisis. Image File history File links The_Manchurian_Candidate_1962_movie. ... John Michael Frankenheimer (February 19, 1930 – July 6, 2002) was an American film director. ... George Axelrod (June 9th, 1922 - June 21st, 2003) was an American screenwriter, producer, playwright and film director. ... John Michael Frankenheimer (February 19, 1930 – July 6, 2002) was an American film director. ... Richard Thomas Condon (born March 18, 1915 in New York, New York; died April 9, 1996 in Dallas, Texas), was a satirical and thriller novelist best known for conspiratorial books such as The Manchurian Candidate. ... George Axelrod (June 9th, 1922 - June 21st, 2003) was an American screenwriter, producer, playwright and film director. ... Sinatra redirects here. ... Laurence Harvey (October 1, 1928 – November 25, 1973) was an Academy Award-nominated Lithuanian-born actor who achieved fame in British and American films. ... Janet Leigh (July 6, 1927 – October 3, 2004), born Jeanette Helen Morrison, was an American actress. ... Angela Lansbury CBE (born October 16, 1925) is a four-time Tony-winning, six-time Golden Globe-winning, three-time Oscar-nominated, and eighteen-time Emmy-nominated English actress. ... Henry Silva (born September 15, 1928) is an actor of Puerto Rican descent who has played a wide variety of movie roles. ... James Gregory (December 23, 1911 - September 16, 2002) was a great American character actor noted for playing brash roles such as McCarthy-like Senator Joseph Iselin in the Manchurian Candidate (1962) and loudmouthed Inspector Luger in Barney Miller (TV-Series 1975 - 1982). ... Leslie Parrish (born March 18, 1935) is an American actress who starred under her birth name, Marjorie Helen Parrish, until she changed it in 1959. ... John Irwin McGiver (November 5, 1913 - September 9, 1975) was an American character actor who made many appearances in television and motion pictures. ... Khigh Alx Dheigh (b. ... is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... The Manchurian Candidate is a 1959 thriller novel written by Richard Condon, later adapted into films in 1962 and 2004. ... Richard Thomas Condon (born March 18, 1915 in New York, New York; died April 9, 1996 in Dallas, Texas), was a satirical and thriller novelist best known for conspiratorial books such as The Manchurian Candidate. ... John Michael Frankenheimer (February 19, 1930 – July 6, 2002) was an American film director. ... Sinatra redirects here. ... Laurence Harvey (October 1, 1928 – November 25, 1973) was an Academy Award-nominated Lithuanian-born actor who achieved fame in British and American films. ... Angela Lansbury CBE (born October 16, 1925) is a four-time Tony-winning, six-time Golden Globe-winning, three-time Oscar-nominated, and eighteen-time Emmy-nominated English actress. ... Janet Leigh (July 6, 1927 – October 3, 2004), born Jeanette Helen Morrison, was an American actress. ... Brainwashing (also known as thought reform or as re-education) consists of any effort aimed at instilling certain attitudes and beliefs in a person — sometimes unwelcome beliefs in conflict with the persons prior beliefs and knowledge. ... is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... President Kennedy in a crowded Cabinet Room during the Cuban Missile Crisis. ...

Contents

Plot

During the Korean War and the Second Red Scare, the Soviets have developed a technique based on "brainwashing" and akin to hypnosis, whereby a person can be snapped into and out of a trance, ordered to do things with full compliance, and have no memory of such actions afterwards. The Soviets kidnap a patrol of U.S. soldiers fighting in Korea, take them to Manchuria in the People's Republic of China to be brainwashed and then covertly release them back to the American forces. To cover their tracks, the Communists implant false memories in the American soldiers' minds and provide a subconscious trigger whereby one soldier, Raymond Shaw, could be snapped into and out of hypnosis. Even after full reintegration with American society, the soldiers have no conscious knowledge of their experience. Combatants United Nations:  Republic of Korea,  Australia,  Belgium,  Luxembourg,  Canada,  Colombia,  Ethiopia,  France,  Greece,  Luxembourg,  Netherlands,  New Zealand,  Philippines,  South Africa,  Thailand,  Turkey,  United Kingdom,  United States Medical staff:  Denmark,  Australia,  Italy,  Norway,  Sweden Communist states:  Democratic People’s Republic of Korea,  Peoples Republic of China,  Soviet Union Commanders... A 1947 comic book published by the Catechetical Guild Educational Society warning of the dangers of a Communist takeover. ... CCCP redirects here. ... Brainwashing (also known as thought reform or as re-education) consists of any effort aimed at instilling certain attitudes and beliefs in a person — sometimes unwelcome beliefs in conflict with the persons prior beliefs and knowledge. ... For the novel by Lucas Hyde, see Hypnosis (novel). ... For other uses, see United States (disambiguation) and US (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... A false memory is a memory of an event that did not happen or is a distortion of an event, as determined by externally corroborated facts of the event. ... See also: Unconscious mind. ...


Major Bennett Marko (Frank Sinatra), Sergeant Raymond Shaw (Laurence Harvey) and the rest of their platoon believe Shaw saved their lives in combat, for which he receives the Medal of Honor when they return to the U.S. They also (literally) automatically describe him as the "kindest, bravest, warmest most wonderful human being" they have ever known in their lives. Deep down, however, they know that he is a cold, sad, unsociable loner. As Marko puts it, "It isn't as if Raymond's hard to like. He's impossible to like!" Sinatra redirects here. ... Laurence Harvey (October 1, 1928 – November 25, 1973) was an Academy Award-nominated Lithuanian-born actor who achieved fame in British and American films. ... The Medal of Honor is the highest military decoration awarded by the United States. ...


After the war is over, Marko begins to have a recurring nightmare in which Raymond, under a trance during a bizarre demonstration before the Soviet and Chinese brass, kills two of his comrades. He tries to investigate the mystery but receives no support from Army Intelligence for whom he now works because there is no proof to support his position. This changes when he learns that another platoon member has been having the same nightmare and identifies the same Communist personnel. Marko then sets out to uncover the mystery with Army Intelligence support. The Army intelligence logo. ...


The Communists intend to use Raymond as a sleeper agent. They use the queen of diamonds in a deck of playing cards as a subconscious trigger to compel him to follow their orders, which he doesn't remember afterwards. As a Manchurian doctor, seen earlier in Marko's nightmare, explains, Shaw's brain "hasn't been 'washed,' as they say; it has been dry cleaned." To test their unwitting assassin, the Manchurian doctor and a Soviet operative have Shaw murder his employer, a newspaper publisher. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Some typical modern playing cards. ... See also: Unconscious mind. ... The human brain In animals, the brain (enkephalos) (Greek for in the skull), is the control center of the central nervous system, responsible for behavior. ...


Raymond's mother (played by Angela Lansbury; the character is named Eleanor Iselin in the novel but no first name is mentioned in the film) is the driving force behind her husband and Raymond's step-father, Senator John Yerkes Iselin (James Gregory), a bombastic McCarthy-esque demagogue, whom most people dismiss as a fool. Raymond hates them both, especially Iselin, but also his mother who has such a domineering personality. In one scene, John Iselin-as-McCarthy-clone is established when (with the approval of his wife) he interrupts a televised Congressional briefing of the Secretary of Defense and accuses him of knowing that some 207 Defense Department employees are Communist agents, which sets off a chaotic reaction among journalists and a shocked, enraged reaction from the Secretary. Angela Lansbury CBE (born October 16, 1925) is a four-time Tony-winning, six-time Golden Globe-winning, three-time Oscar-nominated, and eighteen-time Emmy-nominated English actress. ... James Gregory (December 23, 1911 - September 16, 2002) was a great American character actor noted for playing brash roles such as McCarthy-like Senator Joseph Iselin in the Manchurian Candidate (1962) and loudmouthed Inspector Luger in Barney Miller (TV-Series 1975 - 1982). ... This article is about the U.S. senator from Wisconsin (1947-1957). ... Demagogy (from Greek demos, people, and agogos, leading) refers to a political strategy for obtaining and gaining political power by appealing to the popular prejudices, fears, and expectations of the public — typically via impassioned rhetoric and propaganda, and often using nationalistic or populist themes. ... The United States Secretary of Defense is the head of the United States Department of Defense, concerned with the armed services and The Secretary is a member of the Presidents Cabinet. ... The United States Department of Defense, abbreviated DoD or DOD and sometimes called the Defense Department, is a civilian Cabinet organization of the United States government. ...


In fact, unknown to even Raymond, the Iselins are Communist agents with plans to go all the way to the White House. Mrs. Iselin herself is the American operative who is to use Raymond in the final step of the operation. For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ...


For a while Raymond does find happiness with Jocelyn Jordan (Leslie Parrish), the daughter of one of his step-father's political rivals, Senator Thomas Jordan (John McGiver). What starts as a joke along the line of Romeo and Juliet turns into genuine romance and the young couple marry. Although he is pleased with the match, Senator Jordan makes it clear to Raymond's mother that he will still stop her husband's bid for the U.S. Vice-Presidency. She in turn uses Raymond to assassinate Jordan and, in the process, Raymond also kills his own wife (he was programmed to kill any witness to crimes he committed while under the direction of his operative). Leslie Parrish (born March 18, 1935) is an American actress who starred under her birth name, Marjorie Helen Parrish, until she changed it in 1959. ... John Irwin McGiver (November 5, 1913 - September 9, 1975) was an American character actor who made many appearances in television and motion pictures. ... Romeo and Juliet in the famous balcony scene by Ford Madox Brown For other uses, see Romeo and Juliet (disambiguation). ... The Vice President of the United States (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS[1] or Veep) is the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ...


Mrs. Iselin then primes Raymond to assassinate their party's presidential candidate at the nomination convention. In the aftermath, Senator Iselin, having been the vice-presidential candidate, will become the presidential nominee by default and will make a fiery speech (prepared ahead of time). The assassination will cause mass hysteria, paving Iselin's way to the White House and justifying the new president's emergency powers "that would make martial law seem like anarchy." President Iselin would thereby be controlled by the Communists, a candidate made in Manchuria. assassin, see Assassin (disambiguation) Jack Ruby assassinated Lee Harvey Oswald in a very public manner. ... Speeches by important party figures are key features of the convention; here, former President Jimmy Carter addresses the 2004 Democratic National Convention. ... Mass hysteria, also called collective hysteria or collective obsessional behavior, is the sociopsychological phenomenon of the manifestation of the same or similar hysterical symptoms by more than one person. ... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ... A state of emergency is a governmental declaration that may suspend certain normal functions of government, may work to alert citizens to alter their normal behaviors, or may order government agencies to implement emergency preparedness plans. ... For other uses, see Martial law (disambiguation). ... Anarchy (from Greek: anarchía, no authority) has a popular meaning of disorder[1]. However it has a more precise meaning in political philosophy to describe any human society which exists without a state. ...


In a moving scene, Mrs. Iselin admits, to an apparently still hypnotised Raymond, that she has been a Communist agent for years. She required an assassin for the final step of taking over the U.S., but had no idea that it would be her own son. After all, the world has plenty of killers who hardly require brainwashing to carry out their assignments. Raymond was chosen because it meant the Russians and Chinese increasing their hold on Mrs. Iselin and, once the deed is done, she intends to take her revenge on them all. For other uses, see United States (disambiguation) and US (disambiguation). ...


Marko, however, figures out a way to block Raymond's subconscious triggers, presenting him with a trick deck made entirely of queens of diamonds and telling him to ignore any future orders. Although Marko's attempts seem to fail at first, Raymond in fact keeps control over himself at the party convention and takes his revenge by killing his mother and Iselin. He then commits suicide wearing the Medal of Honor which he now truly merits.


Critical response

Angela Lansbury was nominated for an Academy Award as Best Supporting Actress, and Ferris Webster was nominated for Best Film Editing. In addition, Lansbury was named Best Supporting Actress by the National Board of Review and won the Golden Globe for Best Supporting Actress. Although he never won an Oscar for any of his movie performances, the comedian Bob Hope received two honorary Oscars for his contributions to cinema. ... Ferris Webster (April 29, 1912–February 4, 1989), an American film editor, was nominated for Academy Awards for his work on The Blackboard Jungle (1955), The Manchurian Candidate (1962), and The Great Escape (1963). ... The National Board of Review of Motion Pictures was founded in 1909 in New York City, just 13 years after the birth of cinema, to protest New York City Mayor George B. McClellan, Jr. ... The Golden Globe Awards are American awards for motion pictures and television programs, given out each year during a formal dinner. ...


The film is consistently in the top 100 on the IMDb's list of top 250 films (No. 87 as of November 2007). It was No. 67 on the American Film Institute's "100 Years, 100 Movies," and No. 17 on its "100 Years, 100 Thrills" lists. The Internet Movie Database (IMDb) is an online database of information about movies, actors, television shows, production crew personnel, and video games. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The film received a rare 100 per cent rating from Rotten Tomatoes [1]. Prominent American film critic Roger Ebert ranks The Manchurian Candidate as an exemplary "Great Film", declaring that it "is inventive and frisky, takes enormous chances with the audience, and plays not like a 'classic' but as a work as alive and smart as when it was first released."[2] This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Roger Joseph Ebert (born June 18, 1942) is a Pulitzer Prize-winning American film critic. ...


In April 2007, Angela Lansbury's character was selected by Newsweek as one of the ten greatest villains in cinema history. The Newsweek logo Newsweek is a weekly news magazine published in New York City and distributed throughout the United States and internationally. ...


Production

For Raymond's mother, Sinatra had wanted Lucille Ball, but Frankenheimer had worked with Lansbury in a mother role in a previous film, All Fall Down, and insisted on having her for the part [1]. Lucille Désirée Ball (August 6, 1911 – April 26, 1989) was an iconic American comedian, actress and star of the landmark sitcoms I Love Lucy, The Lucy Show, and Heres Lucy. ... All Fall Down is an album by the speed-punk band Against All Authority. ...


Although Lansbury plays Raymond Shaw's mother, she was in fact only three years older than Harvey.


Janet Leigh plays Marco's love interest. A bizarre conversation on a train between her character and Marco has been interpreted by some — notably, film critic Roger Ebert — as implying that Leigh's character, Eugenie Rose Chaney, is working for the Communists to activate Marco's programming, much as the queen of diamonds activates Shaw's. It is a rather strange conversation between people who have only just met, and almost appears to be an exchange of passwords. Frankenheimer himself admits that he had no idea whether or not "Rosie" was supposed to be an agent of any sort; he merely lifted the train conversation straight from the Condon novel, in which there is no such implication [1]. Janet Leigh (July 6, 1927 – October 3, 2004), born Jeanette Helen Morrison, was an American actress. ... For other uses, see Train (disambiguation). ... Roger Joseph Ebert (born June 18, 1942) is a Pulitzer Prize-winning American film critic. ...


On the DVD audio commentary of the film, the director stated his belief that it contained the first-ever Karate fight in an American motion picture. This is however untrue, as the 1955 MGM film Bad Day at Black Rock has a short Karate fight scene between Spencer Tracy and Ernest Borgnine. For other uses, see Karate (disambiguation). ... Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ... MGM logo Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer or MGM, is a large media company, involved primarily in the production and distribution of cinema and television programs. ... Bad Day at Black Rock is a 1955 film which tells the story of a stranger who comes to a small town to give the father of a Japanese_American soldier the medals that his son won. ... Spencer Tracy (April 5, 1900 – June 10, 1967) was a two-time Academy Award-winning American film and stage actor who appeared in 74 films from 1930 to 1967. ... Ernest Borgnine (born Ermes Effron Borgnino in Hamden, Connecticut on January 24, 1917[1][2] ) is a Golden Globe, BAFTA and Academy Award winning American actor. ...


The famous interrogation sequence where Raymond and Marco confront each other in the hotel room opposite the convention are the rough cuts. When first filmed Sinatra was out of focus and when they tried to re-shoot the scene he was simply not as effective as he had been in the first take. Frustrated, Frankenheimer decided in the end to simply use the original out-of-focus takes. Critics praised him for showing Marco from Raymond's distorted point-of-view [1].


For the scene in the convention hall prior to the assassination, Frankenheimer was at a loss as to how Marco would pinpoint Raymond's sniper's nest. Eventually he decided on a method similar to Alfred Hitchcock's Foreign Correspondent. Frankenheimer notes that what would be plagiarism in the 1960s would now be looked upon as an homage [1]. Sir Alfred Joseph Hitchcock KBE (August 13, 1899 â€“ April 29, 1980) was an iconic and highly influential British-born film director and producer who pioneered many techniques in the suspense and thriller genres. ... Foreign Correspondent is a 1940 film which tells the story of an American reporter who becomes involved in espionage in England during the onset of World War II. It stars Joel McCrea, George Sanders, Laraine Day, Herbert Marshall, Albert Bassermann and Robert Benchley. ... For other uses, see Plagiarism (disambiguation). ... For a description of the medieval homage ceremony see commendation ceremony Homage is generally used in modern English to mean any public show of respect to someone to whom you feel indebted. ...


Legacy

The Karate fight in Candidate takes place in Raymond's apartment between Marco and Raymond's Korean manservant (Henry Silva). It is similar to the later battles between Inspector Clouseau and his Oriental manservant Cato in The Pink Panther movies. Henry Silva (born September 15, 1928) is an actor of Puerto Rican descent who has played a wide variety of movie roles. ... Peter Sellers in one of a number of appearances as Inspector Clouseau Inspector Jacques Clouseau (later chief inspector) is a fictional detective in Blake Edwardss Pink Panther series. ... This article is about the Pink Panther film series. ...


Nu metal band Slipknot make reference to the film in their song Wait and Bleed. These lyrics were then adopted by the band Manchurian Candidate [3]. References to the film were also mentioned in the self-titled song Manchurian Candidate. Nu metal (also called aggro metal, or nü metal using the traditional heavy metal umlaut) is a musical genre that has origins in the mid 1990s. ... Slipknot (sometimes typeset as SlipKnoT to fit their logo) is a Grammy winning American metal band from Des Moines, Iowa. ... Wait and Bleed is a single by the band Slipknot on their second album Slipknot (self titled). ...


In April 2007, Angela Lansbury's character was selected by Newsweek as one of the ten greatest villains in cinema history. The Newsweek logo Newsweek is a weekly news magazine published in New York City and distributed throughout the United States and internationally. ...


Angela Petrelli on the show Heroes was inspired by Mrs. John Iselin. Angela Petrelli, portrayed by Cristine Rose, is a fictional character featured in the television show Heroes. ... This article is about the type of character. ...


2004 film version

Director Jonathan Demme adapted Condon's novel into a film which starred Denzel Washington, Liev Schreiber and Meryl Streep. Demme's adaptation made substantial changes to Condon's story, replacing Cold War tension with an anti-corporation perspective, and setting it during the Gulf War over Kuwait. John Iselin was taken out and it is Raymond who is the Manchurian candidate, albeit still a brainwashed one, while Marco becomes the potential assassin. The Manchurian Candidate is a 2004 U.S. American film based on the 1959 novel The Manchurian Candidate by Richard Condon, and a reimagining of the previous 1962 film. ... Jonathan Demme (born February 22, 1944, in Baldwin, New York) is an American film director, producer and writer. ... Denzel Hayes Washington, Jr. ... Liev Schreiber (born October 4, 1967) is a Tony Award-winning American actor. ... Mary Louise Streep, mostly known as Meryl Streep (born June 22, 1949) is an Academy Award-winning American actress who has worked in theatre, television, and film. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Corporation (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ...


Condon's novel describes an incestuous relationship between Raymond and his mother. For his film, Frankenheimer could only go so far as a kiss on the lips between Harvey and Lansbury. Demme's version between Schreiber and Streep is more explicit. Incest is defined as sexual intercourse between closely related persons. ...


Demme's film did receive generally positive reviews and was successful at the box office.


The Kennedy Assassination

Hollywood rumour holds that Sinatra removed the film from distribution after the John F. Kennedy assassination, though the evidence for this is conflicting. Certainly the film was rarely shown in the decades after 1963, but it did appear as part of the Thursday Night Movies series on CBS on September 16, 1965 and again later that season. It was also shown twice on NBC, once in the spring of 1974 and again in the summer of 1975. Sinatra did not acquire distribution rights to The Manchurian Candidate until the late 1970s. He was involved in a theatrical re-release of the film in 1988. The film has aired on a fairly regular basis on the Turner Classic Movies and American Movie Classics cable networks. President Kennedy with his wife, Jacqueline, and Texas Governor John Connally in the presidential limousine just moments before his assassination The assassination of John F. Kennedy, the thirty-fifth President of the United States, took place on Friday, November 22, 1963, in Dallas, Texas, USA at 12:30 p. ... This article is about the broadcast network. ... is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... Turner Classic Movies (TCM) is a cable television channel featuring commercial-free classic movies, mostly from the Turner Entertainment and Warner Bros. ... AMC was originally a basic cable channel that aired classic movies, largely pre-1950s, in a commercial-free, generally unedited format. ...


Similar rumours and treatment surround the film Suddenly! in which Sinatra himself starred as a Presidential assassin. Suddenly is a 1954 film noir starring antagonist Frank Sinatra, sheriff Sterling Hayden, grandpa James Gleason, and mother Nancy Gates. ...


See also

// This is a list of fictional stories in which assassinations feature as an important plot element. ... The conspiracy thriller (or paranoid thriller) is a subgenre of the thriller which flourished in the 1970s in the US (and was echoed in other parts of the world) in the wake of a number of high-profile scandals and controversies (most notably Vietnam, the assassination of President Kennedy, Chappaquiddick... “MKULTRA” redirects here. ... The Bourne Identity is a 1980 spy fiction thriller by Robert Ludlum about an amnesiac who must discover who he is and why several different groups, including an assassin and the CIA, are trying to kill him. ... Seven Days in May is a political thriller novel published by Harper & Row, New York in 1962(current hardcover edition: ISBN 0-06-012436-9) written by Fletcher Knebel and Charles W. Bailey. ... The Simultaneous Man is a 1970 science fiction novel by Ralph Blum, where brainwashing and psychosurgery techniques are used to create a copy of the experiences and memories of one person in the body of another. ... Telefon is a 1975 novel by Walter Wager with a mind control theme. ... The Deadly Assassin is a serial in the British science fiction television series Doctor Who, which was first broadcast in four weekly parts from October 30 to November 20, 1976. ... The Boys from Brazil is a 1978 thriller made by Incorporated Television Company (ITC) and Lew Grade and distributed by 20th Century Fox. ... The spy film genre deals with the subject of fictional espionage, either in a realistic way or as a basis for fantasy. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c d Director John Frankenheimer's audio commentary, available on The Manchurian Candidate DVD

External links


 
 

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