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Encyclopedia > The Lord of the Rings film trilogy
The Lord of the Rings trilogy

The poster for the whole trilogy is a montage that features a whole range of characters and scenes from all three movies.
Directed by Peter Jackson
Produced by Peter Jackson
Barrie M. Osborne
Fran Walsh
Tim Sanders (1st film)
Written by Novel:
J. R. R. Tolkien
Screenplay:
Fran Walsh
Philippa Boyens
Peter Jackson
Stephen Sinclair (2nd film only)
Distributed by New Line Cinema
Release date(s) 20012003
Running time 557 minutes (Theatrical)
683 minutes (Extended Edition)
Country Flag of New Zealand New Zealand
Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom
Flag of the United States United States
Language English
Budget $280 million
Gross revenue $2.91 billion

The Lord of the Rings film trilogy consists of three live action fantasy epic films: The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring (2001), The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers (2002) and The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King (2003) (often abbreviated to LotR, FotR, TTT, and RotK).[1] The trilogy is based on the three-volume book The Lord of the Rings by J. R. R. Tolkien, and while it follows the book's general storyline, it also features some additions to and deviations from the source material. The Lord of the Rings, an epic high fantasy novel by the British author J. R. R. Tolkien, set in his world of Middle-earth (a fictional past version of our Earth), has been adapted for various media multiple times. ... Image File history File links Ringstrilogyposter. ... An imaginary world composed of photorealistic inanimate, human, and plant objects spurs a psychological impact upon the viewer. ... For other persons named Peter Jackson, see Peter Jackson (disambiguation). ... Barrie M. Osborne is a movie producer, executive producer, production manager and director. ... Fran Walsh and her husband Peter Jackson Frances Walsh MNZM is an Academy Award-winning screenwriter and film producer and also a musician. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Tolkien redirects here. ... Philippa Boyens 2003 with her son Calum Gittins and her daughter Phoebe Gittins in Wellington (New Zealand) Philippa Boyens is a New Zealand screenwriter who co-wrote the screenplay for Peter Jacksons film series The Lord of the Rings with Peter Jackson and Fran Walsh, for which the trio... New Line redirects here. ... For the 1968 science-fiction film and novel, see 2001: A Space Odyssey The year 2001 in film involved some significant events. ... The year 2003 in film involved some significant events. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_New_Zealand. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... In film and video, live action refers to works that are acted out by flesh-and-blood actors, as opposed to animation. ... For other uses, see Fantasy (disambiguation). ... The epic film is a film genre typically featuring expensive production values, an emotionally moving music soundtrack, and dramatic themes. ... The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring is a film, released on Wednesday, December 19, 2001, directed by Peter Jackson with a runtime of 178 minutes (2 hours, 58 minutes). ... For the 1968 science-fiction film and novel, see 2001: A Space Odyssey The year 2001 in film involved some significant events. ... This title can refer to either: The Two Towers (book), the second part of The Lord of the Rings by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... The year 2002 in film involved some significant events. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The year 2003 in film involved some significant events. ... This article is about the novel. ... Tolkien redirects here. ...


Set in the fictional world of Middle-earth, the three films follow the young hobbit Frodo Baggins as he and a Fellowship embark on a quest to destroy the One Ring, and thus ensure the destruction of its maker, the Dark Lord Sauron. The Fellowship becomes divided and Frodo continues the quest together with his loyal companion Sam and the treacherous Gollum. Meanwhile, the wizard Gandalf and Aragorn, heir in exile to the throne of Gondor, unite and rally the Free Peoples of Middle-earth, who are ultimately victorious in the War of the Ring. A map of the Northwestern part of Middle-earth at the end of the Third Age, courtesy of the Encyclopedia of Arda. ... For other uses, see Hobbit (disambiguation). ... Frodo redirects here. ... Spoiler warning: The Fellowship of the Ring, as described in the first volume of The Lord of the Rings, which bears the same name, is a union of 9 representatives from each of the free peoples in Middle-earth, the number chosen to match the 9 Ringwraiths. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about a fictional character from J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth fantasy writings. ... Samwise Gamgee, later known as Samwise Gardner[2] or Samwise the Brave and commonly known as Sam, is a fictional character in J.R.R. Tolkiens Middle-earth legendarium. ... This article is about the fictional character. ... In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, the Wizards of Middle-earth are a small group of beings outwardly resembling Men but possessing much greater physical and mental power. ... For other uses, see Gandalf (disambiguation). ... Aragorn II is a fictional character from J. R. R Tolkiens Middle-earth legendarium. ... For other uses, see inheritance (disambiguation). ... Exile (band) may refer to: Exile - The American country music band Exile - The Japanese pop music band Category: ... For the city in Ethiopia, see Gondar. ...  men of Númenórean descent  Northmen  other men  elves  ents  hobbits  dwarves  enslaved peoples (orcs, trolls, dragons etc. ... Combatants Free peoples: Gondor, Rohan, Dale, Esgaroth, Erebor, The Shire, Lothlórien, the Woodland Realm and the Fangorn forest Evil forces: Under Sauron: Mordor, Rhûn, Morgul, Harad, Umbar, Khand Under Saruman: Isengard, Dunland Commanders Gandalf (died but later resurrected) Aragorn Théoden† Éomer Denethor† Dáin II† Brand† Galadriel...


The films were co-written, co-produced and directed by Peter Jackson and distributed by New Line Cinema. Considered to be one of the biggest movie projects ever undertaken, with an overall budget of $280 million, the entire project took eight years, with the filming for all three films done simultaneously and entirely in Jackson's native New Zealand. For other persons named Peter Jackson, see Peter Jackson (disambiguation). ... New Line redirects here. ...


The trilogy was a great financial success, with the films being the 14th, 7th, and 2nd highest-grossing film of all time, respectively, unadjusted for inflation. The films were critically acclaimed, winning 17 out of 30 Academy Awards nominated in total, as well as wide praise for the cast and for the innovative practical and digital special effects.[2][3][4] Each film in the trilogy also had Special Extended Editions, released a year after the theatrical release on DVD. Jackson is collaborating with Guillermo del Toro on two prequels, one of which will be based on The Hobbit, for release in 2011 and 2012. The following is a non-definitive list of the all-time highest-grossing films. ... Although he never won an Oscar for any of his movie performances, the comedian Bob Hope received two honorary Oscars for his contributions to cinema. ... Computer-generated imagery[1] (also known as CGI) is the application of the field of computer graphics or, more specifically, 3D computer graphics to special effects in films, television programs, commercials, simulators and simulation generally, and printed media. ... Guillermo del Toro Gómez (born October 9, 1964 in Guadalajara, Jalisco) is an Academy Award-nominated Mexican film director. ... A prequel is a work that portrays events which include the structure, conventions, and/or characters of a previously completed narrative, but occur at an earlier time. ... For other uses, see Hobbit (disambiguation) and There and Back Again (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Development

Director Peter Jackson first came into contact with The Lord of the Rings when he saw Ralph Bakshi's 1978 film, which he found confusing. Afterwards, he read a tie-in edition of the book[5] during a twelve-hour train journey from Wellington to Auckland when he was seventeen. Jackson's reaction was, "I can't wait until somebody makes a movie of this book because I'd like to see it!"[6] For other persons named Peter Jackson, see Peter Jackson (disambiguation). ... This article is about the novel. ... Ralph Bakshi (October 29, 1938) is an American director of animated and occasionally live-action films. ... J.R.R. Tolkiens The Lord of the Rings is a 1978 animated fantasy film directed by Ralph Bakshi. ... For the first Duke of Wellington, see Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington. ... For other uses, see Auckland (disambiguation). ...


In 1995, Jackson was finishing The Frighteners and considered The Lord of the Rings as a new project, wondering "why nobody else seemed to be doing anything about it".[6] With the new developments in computer-generated imagery following Jurassic Park, Jackson set about planning a fantasy film that would be relatively serious and feel "real". By October, he and his partner Fran Walsh teamed up with Miramax Films boss Harvey Weinstein to negotiate with Saul Zaentz who had held the rights to the book since the early 1970s, pitching an adaptation of The Hobbit and two films based on The Lord of the Rings. Negotiations then stalled when Universal Studios offered Jackson a remake of King Kong.[7] Weinstein was furious, and further problems arose when it turned out Zaentz did not have distribution rights to The Hobbit; United Artists, which was in the market, did. By April 1996 the rights question was still not resolved.[7] Jackson decided to move ahead with King Kong before filming The Lord of the Rings, prompting Universal to enter a deal with Miramax to receive foreign earnings from The Lord of the Rings whilst Miramax received foreign earnings from King Kong.[7] For the Matt Helm spy novel by Donald Hamilton, see The Frighteners (novel). ... Computer-generated imagery[1] (also known as CGI) is the application of the field of computer graphics or, more specifically, 3D computer graphics to special effects in films, television programs, commercials, simulators and simulation generally, and printed media. ... Jurassic Park is a 1993 science fiction film directed by Steven Spielberg, based on the novel of the same name by Michael Crichton. ... Fran Walsh and her husband Peter Jackson Frances Walsh MNZM is an Academy Award-winning screenwriter and film producer and also a musician. ... Miramax Films is a film production and distribution brand that was a Big Ten film motion picture distribution and production company headquartered in New York City before being bought out by The Walt Disney Company. ... Harvey Weinstein at Cannes, 2002 Harvey Weinstein CBE (Hon) (born March 19, 1952) is an American film producer and movie studio chairman. ... It has been suggested that The Saul Zaentz Film Center be merged into this article or section. ... Film rights, like dramatic rights, these belong to the author, who may sell or option them to someone in the film industry - a producer or director, for example (or sometimes a specialist broker of such properties) - who will then try to gather the other professionals and secure the financial backing... For other uses, see Hobbit (disambiguation) and There and Back Again (disambiguation). ... This article is about the American media conglomerate. ... In film, a remake is a newer version of a previously released film or a newer version of the source (play, novel, story, etc. ... This is about the original movie and novel. ... This article is about the film studio. ...


When Universal cancelled King Kong in 1997,[8] Jackson and Walsh immediately received support from Weinstein and began a six-week process of sorting out the rights. Jackson and Walsh asked Costa Botes to write a synopsis of the book and they began to re-read the book. Two to three months later, they had written their treatment.[9] The first film would have dealt with what would become The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring, The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers (film), and the beginning of The Return of the King, ending with the death of Saruman, and Gandalf and Pippin going to Minas Tirith. In this treatment, Gwaihir and Gandalf visit Edoras after escaping Saruman, Gollum attacks Frodo when the Fellowship is still united, and Farmer Maggot, Glorfindel, Radagast, Elladan and Elrohir are present. Bilbo attends the Council of Elrond, Sam looks into Galadriel's mirror, Saruman is redeemed before he dies and the Nazgûl just make it into Mount Doom before they fall.[9] They presented their treatment to Harvey and Bob Weinstein, the latter of whom they focused on impressing with their screenwriting as he had not read the book. They agreed upon two films and a total budget of $75 million.[9] King Kong is a 2005 remake of the 1933 King Kong film about a fictional giant ape called Kong. ... A chain of title is the sequence of historical transfers of title to a property. ... Costa Botes is a writer, director, and cinematographer. ... Look up summary in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A treatment or more properly film treatment is a short piece of prose intended to be turned into a screenplay for a motion picture. ... The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring is a film, released on Wednesday, December 19, 2001, directed by Peter Jackson with a runtime of 178 minutes (2 hours, 58 minutes). ... Saruman is a fictional character in J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth legendarium. ... For other uses, see Gandalf (disambiguation). ... Peregrin Took (T.A. 2990–F.A. 70), better known to his friends as Pippin, is a fictional character from J. R. R. Tolkiens universe of Middle-earth, a Hobbit, and one of Frodo Bagginss youngest but dearest friends. ... Minas Tirith (IPA: ), originally named Minas Anor, is a heavily fortified city in J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth writings, which was the capital of Gondor in the second half of the Third Age. ... Farmer Maggot is a Hobbit in J.R.R. Tolkiens Middle-earth universe. ... In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, Glorfindel is an Elf, a Noldor who appears in the tales of Middle-earth. ... Radagast the Brown is one of the five Wizards in J. R. R. Tolkiens fantasy epic The Lord of the Rings and is mentioned in The Hobbit. ... Elladan and Elrohir are fictional characters in J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth, the sons of Elrond Half-elven and Celebrían and older brothers of Arwen. ... Bob Weinstein, along with brother Harvey Weinstein, was head of Miramax Studios. ... Screenwriting refers to the art and craft of writing screenplays for film or television. ...


During mid-1997,[10] Jackson and Walsh began writing with Stephen Sinclair.[9] Sinclair's partner, Philippa Boyens, was a major fan of the book and joined the writing team after reading their treatment.[10] It took 13–14 months to write the two film scripts,[10] which were 147 and 144 pages respectively. Sinclair left the project due to theatrical obligations. Amongst their revisions, Sam, Merry, and Pippin are caught eavesdropping and forced to go along with Frodo. Gandalf's account of his time at Orthanc was pulled out of flashback and Lothlórien was cut, with Galadriel attending the Council of Elrond. Denethor, Boromir's father, also attends the Council. Other changes included having Arwen rescue Frodo, and the action sequence involving the cave troll. Arwen was even going to kill the Witch-king. Most significantly, there was an all-new sequence. A Ringwraith kills Saruman and attacks Gandalf at Orthanc. Seeing this from the Seeing Seat, now at Emyn Muil rather than Amon Hen, Frodo puts on the Ring and draws him all the way to the Seat on his Fell beast. Frodo manages to save Sam and stabs the wraith in its heart.[9] Philippa Boyens 2003 with her son Calum Gittins and her daughter Phoebe Gittins in Wellington (New Zealand) Philippa Boyens is a New Zealand screenwriter who co-wrote the screenplay for Peter Jacksons film series The Lord of the Rings with Peter Jackson and Fran Walsh, for which the trio... Galadriel is a fictional character created by J. R. R. Tolkien, appearing in The Lord of the Rings. ... This article is about the Steward of Gondor in the time of the War of the Ring. ... This article is about the fictional character. ... The Witch-king Angmar is a fictional character created by J. R. R. Tolkien, the chief of the Ringwraiths of Middle-earth. ... In the fiction of J.R.R. Tolkien, the Nazgûl (Black Speech: Ringwraiths, sometimes written Ring-wraiths), also known as the Nine Riders or Black Riders (or simply the Nine), are evil servants of Sauron in Middle-earth. ... Emyn Muil In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional Middle-earth the hills of Emyn Muil upon either side of Nen Hithoel are a maze of impenetrable rocky crags. ... Amon Hen (Sindarin for Hill of the Eye) is the name of a fictional hill in J. R. R. Tolkiens fantasy world of Middle-earth. ... Éowyn and the Nazgûl by Ted Nasmith In J. R. R. Tolkiens The Lord of the Rings, fell beast is the authors description of the flying carrion-eating pterosaur-like creatures on which the Nazgûl rode after being unhorsed at the Ford of Bruinen. ...


Trouble struck when Marty Katz was sent to New Zealand. Spending four months there, he told Miramax that the films were more likely to cost $150 million, and with Miramax unable to finance this, and with $15 million already spent, they decided to merge the two films into one. On June 17, 1998, Bob Weinstein presented a treatment of a single two-hour film version of the book. He suggested cutting Bree and the Battle of Helm's Deep, "losing or using" Saruman, merging Rohan and Gondor with Éowyn as Boromir's sister, shortening Rivendell and Moria as well as having Ents prevent the Uruk-hai kidnapping Merry and Pippin.[9] Upset by the idea of "cutting out half the good stuff"[10] Jackson balked, and Miramax declared that any script or work completed by Weta Workshop was theirs.[9] Jackson went around Hollywood for four weeks,[10] showing a thirty-five minute video of their work, before meeting with Mark Ordesky of New Line Cinema.[11] At New Line Cinema, Robert Shaye viewed the video, and then asked why they were making two films when the book was published as three volumes; he wanted to make a film trilogy. Now Jackson, Walsh, and Boyens had to write three new scripts.[10] is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Bree is a fictional village in J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth, east of the Shire and south of Fornost Erain. ... The Battle of the Hornburg (or Battle of Helms Deep) is a fictional battle in J. R. R. Tolkiens novel The Lord of the Rings. ... Saruman is a fictional character in J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth legendarium. ... For other uses, see Rohan (disambiguation). ... For the city in Ethiopia, see Gondar. ... Éowyn (T.A. 2995–F.A. ?), a shieldmaiden of Rohan, is a character in J. R. R. Tolkiens fantasy universe of Middle-earth who appears in his most famous work, The Lord of the Rings. ... This article is about the son of Denethor II. For the son of Denethor I, see Boromir (Steward). ... Location of Rivendell in Middle-earth marked in red Rivendell (Sindarin: Imladris) is an Elven outpost in Middle-earth, a fictional realm created by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, Moria was an ominous name given by the Eldar to what had once been an enormous underground complex in north-western Middle-earth, comprising a vast network of tunnels, chambers, mines and huge halls or mansions, that ran under and ultimately through... For other uses, see ENT. Ents are a fictional race from J. R. R. Tolkiens fantasy world of Middle-earth. ... Weta Workshop is a physical effects company based in Miramar, New Zealand, producing effects for television and film. ... Mark Lowell Ordesky (born April 22, 1963 in Sacramento County, California, USA) is the current President of Fine Line Features, a film producer and director. ... New Line redirects here. ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ... A trilogy is a set of three works of art, usually literature or film, that are connected and can be seen as a single work, as well as three individual ones. ...


The expansion to three films allowed much more creative freedom, although Jackson, Walsh, and Boyens had to restructure their script accordingly. The three films do not correspond exactly to the three volumes of the trilogy, but rather represent a three-part adaptation. Jackson takes a more chronological approach to the story than did Tolkien. Frodo's quest is the main focus, and Aragorn is the main sub-plot,[12] and many sequences (such as Tom Bombadil and the Scouring of the Shire) that do not contribute directly to those two plots were left out. Much effort was put into creating satisfactory conclusions and making sure exposition did not bog down the pacing. Amongst new sequences, there are also expansions on elements Tolkien kept ambiguous, such as the battles and the creatures. Film adaptation is the transfer of a written work to a feature film. ... Chronology is the science of locating events in time. ... Tom Bombadil is a supporting character in J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium. ... The Scouring of the Shire is the second to last chapter in J. R. R. Tolkiens The Lord of the Rings. ... Exposition is a literary technique by which information is conveyed about events that have occurred prior to the beginning of a novel, play, movie or other work of fiction. ... Battles is an American instrumental rock band. ... Screenshot of Creatures 3 This is an entry about an artificial life computer program series. ...


Above all, most characters have been altered for extra drama: Aragorn, Théoden, and Treebeard have added or modified elements of self-doubt, whilst the personalities of Galadriel, Elrond, and Faramir have been darkened. Boromir and Gollum are (arguably) relatively more sympathetic, whilst some characters such as Legolas, Gimli, Saruman, and Denethor have been simplified. Some characters, such as Arwen and Éomer, have been combined with lesser book characters such as Glorfindel and Erkenbrand, and as a general matter lines of dialog have sometimes been switched around between locations or characters depending on suitability of the scenes. New scenes were also added to expand on characterization. During shooting, the screenplays continued to evolve, in part due to contributions from cast looking to further explore their characters.[10] Most notable amongst these rewrites was the character Arwen, who was originally planned as a warrior princess, but reverted back to her book counterpart, who remains physically inactive in the story (though she sends moral and military support).[13] Aragorn II is a fictional character from J. R. R Tolkiens Middle-earth legendarium. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens The Lord of the Rings, Théoden was the seventeenth King of Rohan, and last of the Second Line. ... Treebeard or (Sindarin) Fangorn is a fictional character from J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth. ... Galadriel is a fictional character created by J. R. R. Tolkien, appearing in The Lord of the Rings. ... Elrond Half-elven is a fictional character in J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth legendarium. ... This article is about the son of Denethor. ... This article is about the son of Denethor II. For the son of Denethor I, see Boromir (Steward). ... This article is about the fictional character. ... Legolas is a character in J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium, featured in The Lord of the Rings. ... Gimli is a fictional character from J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth legendarium, featured in The Lord of the Rings. ... Saruman is a fictional character in J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth legendarium. ... This article is about the Steward of Gondor in the time of the War of the Ring. ... This article is about the fictional character. ... Éomer is a supporting character in J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium. ... In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, Glorfindel is an Elf, a Noldor who appears in the tales of Middle-earth. ... Erkenbrand is a character from J. R. R. Tolkiens novel The Lord of the Rings. ... Characterization is the process of conveying information about characters in fiction or conversation. ... A film being made in Warsaw, Bracka street Filmmaking is the process of making a film, from an initial story idea or commission through scriptwriting, shooting, editing and finally distribution to an audience. ... This article is about the fictional character. ... For other uses, see Princess (disambiguation). ...


Production design

Alan Lee at Worldcon 2005 in Glasgow, August 2005.
Alan Lee at Worldcon 2005 in Glasgow, August 2005.

Jackson began storyboarding the trilogy with Christian Rivers in August 1997 and assigned his crew to begin designing Middle-earth at the same time.[14] Jackson hired long-time collaborator Richard Taylor to lead Weta Workshop on five major design elements: armour, weapons, prosthetics/make-up, creatures, and miniatures. In November 1997,[10] famed Tolkien illustrators Alan Lee and John Howe joined the project. Most of the imagery in the films is based on their various illustrations.[15] Grant Major was charged with the task of converting Lee and Howe's designs into architecture, creating models of the sets, whilst Dan Hennah worked as art director, scouting locations and organizing the building of sets. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 528 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (921 × 1046 pixel, file size: 558 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Alan Lee at Worldcon 2005 in Glasgow, August 2005. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 528 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (921 × 1046 pixel, file size: 558 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Alan Lee at Worldcon 2005 in Glasgow, August 2005. ... The Lord of the Rings film trilogy began its production design in August 1997. ... Storyboarding is a seven step structure used to focus any topic. ... Christian Rivers is a New Zealand filmmaker. ... Richard Taylor, 2003 Richard Taylor is the creator and head of New Zealand movie prop and special effects company Weta Workshop. ... Weta Workshop is a physical effects company based in Miramar, New Zealand, producing effects for television and film. ... Alan Lee 2003 in (New Zealand) Alan Lee (born August 20, 1947) is an English book illustrator and movie conceptual designer. ... John Howe 2003 John Howe (born August 21, 1957 in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada) is a book illustrator, living in Neuchatel, Switzerland. ... This article is about building architecture. ... The term art director, is an overall title for a variety of similar job functions in advertising, publishing, film and television, the Internet, and video games. ...


Jackson's vision of Middle-earth was described as being "Ray Harryhausen meets David Lean" by Randy Cook.[16] Jackson wanted a gritty realism and historical regard for the fantasy, and attempted to make the world rational and believable. For example, the New Zealand army helped build Hobbiton months before filming began so the plants could really grow.[17] Creatures were designed to be biologically believable, such as the enormous wings of the Fell beast to help it fly.[18] In total, 48,000 pieces of armour, 500 bows, and 10,000 arrows were created by Weta Workshop.[19] They also created many prosthetics, such as 1,800 pairs of Hobbit feet for the lead actors,[10] as well as many ears, noses, and heads for the cast, and around 19,000 costumes were woven and aged.[10] Every prop was specially designed by the Art Department, taking the different scales into account.[10] A map of the Northwestern part of Middle-earth at the end of the Third Age, courtesy of the Encyclopedia of Arda. ... Ray Harryhausen, with creations from Clash of the Titans. ... Sir David Lean KBE (March 25, 1908 – April 16, 1991) was an Academy Award-winning English film director and producer, best remembered for big-screen epics such as Lawrence of Arabia, The Bridge on the River Kwai, Doctor Zhivago and A Passage to India. ... Éowyn and the Nazgûl by Ted Nasmith In J. R. R. Tolkiens The Lord of the Rings, fell beast is the authors description of the flying carrion-eating pterosaur-like creatures on which the Nazgûl rode after being unhorsed at the Ford of Bruinen. ...


Filming

Principal photography for all three films was conducted concurrently in many locations within New Zealand's conservation areas and national parks between October 11, 1999, and December 22, 2000, a period of 274 days. Pick-up shoots were conducted annually from 2001 to 2004. The trilogy was shot at over 150 different locations[19], with seven different units shooting, as well as soundstages around Wellington and Queenstown. As well as Jackson directing the whole production, other unit directors included John Mahaffie, Geoff Murphy, Fran Walsh, Barrie Osbourne, Rick Porras, and any other assistant director, producer, or writer available. Jackson monitored these units with live satellite feeds, and with the added pressure of constant script re-writes and the multiple units interpreting his envisioned result, he only got around four hours of sleep a night.[13] Due to the remoteness of some of the locations, the crew would also bring survival kits in case helicopters could not reach the location to bring them home in time.[10] The New Zealand Department of Conservation was criticised for approving the filming within national parks without adequate consideration of the adverse environmental effects and without public notification.[20] The adverse effects of filming battle scenes in Tongariro National Park later required restoration work.[21] Principal photography for The Lord of the Rings film trilogy was conducted concurrently in New Zealand from October 11, 1999 through to December 22, 2000 for 274 days. ... Principal Photography refers to the phase of film production during which the movie is actually shot, as distinct from pre-production and post-production. ... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... A pick-up is a term used in filmmaking to refer to small, relatively minor shots filmed or recorded after the fact to augment footage already shot. ... For the first Duke of Wellington, see Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington. ... For other places with the same name, see Queenstown (disambiguation). ... Fran Walsh and her husband Peter Jackson Frances Walsh MNZM is an Academy Award-winning screenwriter and film producer and also a musician. ... Tongariro National Park is the oldest national park in New Zealand, located in the central North Island. ...


Cast

Cast lists for adaptations of The Lord of the Rings
Cast of The Lord of the Rings (1978 film)
Cast of The Lord of the Rings (1981 radio)
Cast of The Lord of the Rings (2001-3 films)

The Lord of the Rings, an epic high fantasy novel by the British author J. R. R. Tolkien, set in his world of Middle-earth (a fictional past version of our Earth), has been adapted for various media multiple times. ... This article is about the novel. ... J.R.R. Tolkiens The Lord of the Rings is a 1978 animated fantasy film directed by Ralph Bakshi. ... In 1981 BBC Radio 4 broadcast a dramatisation of J. R. R. Tolkiens The Lord of the Rings in 26 half-hour stereo instalments. ... This article is about the Peter Jackson film trilogy. ... Elijah Jordan Wood (born January 28, 1981) is an American actor. ... Frodo redirects here. ... Sean Astin (born Sean Patrick Duke[1] on February 25, 1971 in Santa Monica, California) is a film actor, director, and Oscar-nominated producer best known for his film roles as Mikey Walsh in The Goonies, the title character of Rudy, Samwise Gamgee in the Lord of the Rings trilogy... Samwise Gamgee, later known as Samwise Gardner[2] or Samwise the Brave and commonly known as Sam, is a fictional character in J.R.R. Tolkiens Middle-earth legendarium. ... Viggo Peter Mortensen, Jr. ... Aragorn II is a fictional character from J. R. R Tolkiens Middle-earth legendarium. ... Sir Ian Murray McKellen, CH, CBE (born 25 May 1939) is an English stage and screen actor, the recipient of the Tony Award and two Oscar nominations. ... For other uses, see Gandalf (disambiguation). ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... Meriadoc Brandybuck, usually referred to as Merry, is a fictional character from J.R.R. Tolkiens Middle-earth, featured throughout his most famous work, The Lord of the Rings. ... Billy Boyd (born 28 August 1968 in Glasgow) is a Scottish actor most widely known for playing Peregrin Took (Pippin), in the film adaptations of The Lord of the Rings (2001-2003) and Barrett Bonden in Peter Weirs film Master and Commander: The Far Side of the World (2003). ... Peregrin Took (T.A. 2990–F.A. 70), better known to his friends as Pippin, is a fictional character from J. R. R. Tolkiens universe of Middle-earth, a Hobbit, and one of Frodo Bagginss youngest but dearest friends. ... Orlando Jonathan Blanchard Bloom[1] (born 13 January 1977) is an English actor. ... Legolas is a character in J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium, featured in The Lord of the Rings. ... John Rhys-Davies (born May 5, 1944) is an English actor best known for his supporting roles as the charismatic Arab excavator Sallah in the Indiana Jones films, and the dwarf Gimli in The Lord of the Rings trilogy (in which he also voiced the towering Ent, Treebeard). ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens The Lord of the Rings, Gimli is a Dwarf of Durins Folk who is chosen to accompany Frodo Baggins as a member of the Fellowship of the Ring on the quest to destroy the One Ring. ... Treebeard or (Sindarin) Fangorn is a fictional character from J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth. ... Shaun Mark Bean (born 17 April 1959) is an English film and stage actor. ... This article is about the son of Denethor II. For the son of Denethor I, see Boromir (Steward). ... Andy Serkis (born 20 April 1964) is an English actor and director best known for his work with Peter Jackson. ... Gollum is a fictional character from J. R. R. Tolkiens universe of Middle-earth. ... This article is about the fictional character. ... Sala Baker (born September 22, 1976) is an actor and stuntman from Wellington, New Zealand. ... This article is about a fictional character from J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth fantasy writings. ... For other persons named Christopher Lee, see Christopher Lee (disambiguation). ... Saruman is a fictional character in J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth legendarium. ... Bernard Hill (born December 17, 1944, Manchester, England, UK) is a British actor of film, stage and television. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens The Lord of the Rings, Théoden was the seventeenth King of Rohan, and last of the Second Line. ... Miranda Otto (born December 16, 1967) is an Australian Film Institute-nominated and Logie Award-winning Australian actress. ... Éowyn (T.A. 2995–F.A. ?), a shieldmaiden of Rohan, is a character in J. R. R. Tolkiens fantasy universe of Middle-earth who appears in his most famous work, The Lord of the Rings. ... Karl-Heinz Urban (born June 7, 1972) is a New Zealand actor. ... Éomer is a supporting character in J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium. ... David Wenham (born 21 September 1965) is an Australian actor who has appeared in movies, television series and theatre productions. ... This article is about the son of Denethor. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Elrond Half-elven is a fictional character in J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth legendarium. ... Liv Tyler (born Liv Rundgren, on July 1, 1977, at Mount Sinai Hospital in New York City, New York[1]) is an American actress and model. ... This article is about the fictional character. ... Sir Ian Holm Sir Ian Holm CBE (born 12 September 1931), born as Ian Holm Cuthbert, is an English actor. ... Bilbo Baggins (2890 Third Age - ? Fourth Age) is an important character in J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium. ... Catherine Élise Cate Blanchett (born May 14, 1969) is an Academy Award- and Golden Globe Award-winning Australian actress and stage director. ... Galadriel is a fictional character created by J. R. R. Tolkien, appearing in The Lord of the Rings. ... Marton Csokas as Celeborn in The Fellowship of the Ring. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens fantasy book The Lord of the Rings, Celeborn (pronounced with a hard c as in cat) is the Elven husband of Galadriel; Lord of the Galadhrim; and co-ruler along with Galadriel of Lothlórien. ... Craig Parker as Haldir in The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers. ... Haldir is a fictional character from J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth. ... Lawrence Makoare (b. ... This article is about the characters from The Lord of the Rings film trilogy. ... Lawrence Makoare (b. ... One interpretation of Gothmog as an orc at the Battle of the Pelennor Fields in Peter Jacksons Return of the King Gothmog is a fictional character from J.R.R. Tolkiens Middle-earth fictional universe. ... Bradford Claude Dourif (March 18, 1950, Huntington, West Virginia) is an American Academy Award nominated actor. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens novel The Lord of the Rings, Gríma (Wormtongue) is the chief advisor to King Théoden of Rohan. ... Nathaniel Lees is a New Zealand born actor of Samoan heritage, best known for his role as Captain Mifune in The Matrix trilogy and his role as Uglúk in The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers. ... Orc or Ork, an Old English word (orc-néas orc-corpses in Beowulf) for the zombie-like monsters of Grendels race was revived by J. R. R. Tolkien in his Middle-earth legendarium. ... John Noble, 2003 in Wellington (New Zealand) John Noble (born August 20, 1948) is an Australian film, television actor and theatre director of more than 80 plays. ... This article is about the Steward of Gondor in the time of the War of the Ring. ... Lawrence Makoare (b. ... The Witch-king of Angmar, also known as the Lord of the Nazgûl and the Black Captain among other names, is a fictional character from the novel The Lord of the Rings by J. R. R. Tolkien, set in the fantasy world of Middle-earth. ... Paul Norell (born February 11, 1952 in London) is an English actor. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens high fantasy world of Middle-earth, the Dead Men of Dunharrow (also referred as the Shadow Host, the Grey Host, the oathbreakers, or simply the Dead) were the shades of Men of the White Mountains (Ered Nimrais), who were cursed to remain in Middle... Spence as Charlie in the 1974 Peter Weir film The Cars That Ate Paris Bruce Spence (born September 17, 1945 in Auckland, New Zealand) is an Australian actor. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth, the Mouth of Sauron was the name given to the Dark Lord Saurons servant and emissary. ... Harry Sinclair portrays Isildur in The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring Harry Sinclair (born 1959 in Auckland, New Zealand) is a filmmaker, actor, and musician. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth, Isildur was a Dúnadan of Númenor, elder son of Elendil. ... Peter McKenzie as Elendil Peter McKenzie is an actor who is best known for his portrayal as Elendil in Peter Jacksons The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring. ... In Middle-earth, the fantasy universe of J. R. R. Tolkien, Elendil was a heroic figure. ... Mark Ferguson (born February 28, 1961 in Sydney) is an New Zealand-based Australian actor and television presenter. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium, Ereinion Gil-galad was the son of Orodreth,[1] and his mother was a Sindarin Elf. ... Bruce Hopkins (born November 25, 1955) is an actor from New Zealand, most famous for his portrayal of Gamling in the Lord of the Rings movie trilogy by Peter Jackson. ... Bruce Hopkins portryas Gamling in The Lord of the Rings film trilogy. ...

Special effects

The first film has around 540 effect shots, the second 799, and the third 1,488 (2,730 in total). The total increases to 3,420 with the extended editions. 260 visual effect artists began work on the trilogy, and the number doubled by The Two Towers. The crew, led by Jim Rygiel and Randy Cook, worked long hours, often overnight, to produce special effects within a short space of time. Jackson's active imagination was a driving force. For example, several major shots of Helm's Deep were produced within the last six weeks of post-production of The Two Towers, and the same happened again within the last six weeks on The Return of the King. The Lord of the Rings film trilogy used many groundbreaking practical and digital visual effects. ...


Post-production

Each film had the benefit of a full year of post-production time before its respective December release, often finishing in October–November, with the crew immediately going to work on the next film. In the later part of this period, Jackson would move to London to supervise the scoring and continue editing, whilst having a computer feed for discussions to The Dorchester Hotel, and a "fat pipe" of Internet connections from Pinewood Studios to look at the special effects. He had a Polycom video link and 5.1 surround sound to organise meetings, and listen to new music and sound effects generally wherever he was. The extended editions also had a tight schedule at the start of each year to complete special effects and music. This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... The gatehouse at Pinewood Studios Pinewood Studios is a major British film studio situated in Iver Heath, Buckinghamshire. ... Polycom is a company noted for making expensive teleconferencing and videoconferencing equipment. ...


Editing

To avoid pressure, Jackson hired a different editor for each film. John Gilbert worked on the first film, Mike Horton and Jabez Olssen on the second and longtime Jackson collaborator Jamie Selkirk and Annie Collins on the third. Daily rushes would often last up to four hours, with scenes being done throughout 1999–2002 for the rough (4 1/2 hours) assemblies of the films.[10] In total, six million feet of film (over 1,100 miles)[19] was edited down to the 11 hours and 23 minutes (683 minutes) of Extended DVD running time. This was the final area of shaping of the films, when Jackson realised that sometimes the best scripting could be redundant on screen, as he picked apart scenes every day from multiple takes. Jamie Selkirk is a film editor and producer most prominently known for his work on the The Lord of the Rings film trilogy. ... Annie Collins is a film editor from New Zealand, best known for her work on The Return of the King. ...


Editing on the first film was relatively easygoing, with Jackson coming up with the concept of an Extended Edition later on, although after a screening to New Line they had to re-edit the beginning for a prologue. The Two Towers was always acknowledged by the crew as the most difficult film to make, as "it had no beginning or end", and had the additional problem of inter-cutting storylines appropriately. Jackson even continued editing the film when that part of the schedule officially ended, resulting in some scenes, including the reforging of Andúril, Gollum's back-story, and Saruman's demise, being moved to The Return of the King. Later, Saruman's demise was controversially cut from the cinema edition (but included in the extended edition) when Jackson felt it was not starting the third film effectively enough.[22] As with all parts of the third film's post-production, editing was very chaotic. The first time Jackson actually saw the completed film was at the Wellington premiere. Image:Anduril large. ...


Deleted scenes

Many filmed scenes remain unused, even in the Extended Editions. Many of these scenes remain omitted largely because they significantly change or add to the plot of Tolkien's original storyline. Deletions include:

  • Additional footage from the Battle of the Last Alliance in the FotR prologue.
  • An obscure shot from the trailers of two Elven girls playing about in Rivendell.
  • Scene mentioned in FotR commentary, about an animal disrupting Frodo and Sam while they sleep, after seeing the Wood Elves. Many animals were used, including rabbits and deer. [10]
  • Dialogue from the Council of Elrond, such as Gandalf explaining how Sauron forged the One Ring.[10]
  • An attack by Orcs from Moria on Lothlórien after the Fellowship leaves Moria. Jackson replaced this with a more suspenseful entrance for the Fellowship. Much of the lost footage can be seen as promotional material on the FotR theatrical DVD and tie-in books, documentary footage on the Extended Editions, and Trading Cards.
  • More Arwen footage, including a flashback scene of her first meeting with a beardless Aragorn (seen in the Two Towers teaser).
  • Faramir having a vision of Frodo becoming like Gollum.[13]
  • Footage of Arwen at Helm's Deep, cut by Jackson during a revision to the film's plot. Foreshadowing this sequence were scenes where Arwen and Elrond visit Galadriel at Lothlórien (seen in The Two Towers teaser trailer). The scene was edited down to a telepathic communication between Elrond and Galadriel.[13]
  • Théoden speaking to the troops in the armoury, prior to the Battle of Helm's Deep.
  • Éowyn defending the refugees in the Glittering Caves from Uruk-hai intruders.[23]
  • An unknown scene displayed in The Two Towers preview of Éomer lowering a spear while riding his horse in a forest.
  • A line of dialogue during the death of Saruman, in which he reveals that Wormtongue poisoned Théodred, giving further context as to why Wormtongue kills Saruman and Legolas in turn kills Wormtongue.[24]
  • A conversation between Elrond and Arwen in a library in Rivendell, after Arwen decides to wait for Aragorn. Elrond leaves, saying, "I cannot protect you anymore."[25]
  • Aragorn having his armour fitted during the preparations for the Battle of the Black Gate. This was the final scene filmed during principal photography.[16]
  • Sauron fighting Aragorn at the Black Gate. A computer-generated Troll was placed over Sauron due to Jackson feeling the scene was inappropriate. Sauron is also seen in a beautiful form as Annatar, Giver of Gifts.[16]
  • Also at the Black Gate sequence, Pippin was seen in the trailer holding a wounded Merry, a scene which takes place after the Battle of the Pelennor Fields upon Pippin discovering Merry under the mûmak.
  • Further epilogue footage, including that of Legolas and Gimli, as well as Éowyn and Faramir's wedding and Aragorn's death and funeral.[26]

Peter Jackson has stated that he would like to include some of these unused scenes in a future "Ultimate Edition" home video release (probably high-definition) of the film trilogy. They will not be re-inserted into the movies but available for viewing separately. This edition will also include outtakes.[27] This article is about the fictional character. ... Combatants Gondor, Rohan, Arnor (Rangers of the North), Eagles Mordor, Harad, Rhûn Participants Gandalf, Imrahil, Éomer, Aragorn, Gwaihir, Legolas, Gimli, Pippin Sauron†, Mouth of Sauron, Khamûl† In J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium, the Battle of the Morannon or Battle of the Black Gate is a fictional event... In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional lands of Middle-earth, a mûmak (plural mûmakil) is a pachyderm of the southern land of Harad, similar to but much larger than todays elephant, and said to be its ancestor. ...


Music

The Ring Goes South The music for the The Lord of the Rings film trilogy was composed, orchestrated and conducted by Howard Shore. ... Image File history File links The_Lord_of_the_Rings-The_Ring_Goes_South. ...

The theme of The Lord of the Rings film trilogy, composed by Howard Shore.
Problems listening to the file? See media help.

Howard Shore composed the trilogy's music. He was hired in August 2000[28] and visited the set, and watched the assembly cuts of films 1 and 3. Although the first film had some of its score recorded in Wellington,[10] virtually all of the trilogy's score was recorded in Watford Town Hall and mixed at Abbey Road Studios. Jackson planned to advise the score for six weeks each year in London, though for The Two Towers he stayed for twelve. As a Beatles fan, Jackson had a photo tribute done there on the zebra crossing.[13] Howard Leslie Shore (born October 18, 1946) is an Oscar, Golden Globe and Grammy Award-winning Canadian composer, best known for composing the scores to The Lord of the Rings film trilogy and films of David Cronenberg. ... Howard Leslie Shore (born October 18, 1946) is an Oscar, Golden Globe and Grammy Award-winning Canadian composer, best known for composing the scores to The Lord of the Rings film trilogy and films of David Cronenberg. ... Country Constituent area Region East of England County Hertfordshire Borough Watford Government leadership=Mayor & Cabinet  - Type Borough  - Mayor Dorothy Thornhill (Liberal Democrat  - mp Claire Ward Area  - Borough 55. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Beatles appeared on The Ed Sullivan Show in 1964 as part of their first tour of the United States, promoting their first hit single there, I Want To Hold Your Hand. ... A zebra crossing in Sydney, Australia A zebra crossing in Marine Parade, Singapore A zebra crossing is a type of pedestrian crossing used in many places around the world. ...


The score is primarily played by the London Philharmonic Orchestra, and many artists such as Ben Del Maestro, Enya, Renee Fleming, Sir James Galway, and Annie Lennox contributed. Even actors Billy Boyd, Viggo Mortensen, Liv Tyler, Miranda Otto (extended cuts only for the latter two), and Peter Jackson (for a single gong sound in the second film) contributed to the score. Fran Walsh and Philippa Boyens also wrote the lyrics to various music and songs, which David Salo translated into Tolkien's languages. The third film's end song, Into the West, was a tribute to a young filmmaker Jackson and Walsh befriended named Cameron Duncan, who died of cancer in 2003.[16] The London Philharmonic Orchestra (LPO), based in London, is one of the major orchestras of the United Kingdom. ... Ben Del Maestro is a singer, most famous for performing with The London Oratory School Scholars on The Lord of the Rings soundtracks. ... For the letter Ñ pronounced Enye, see Ñ. Enya (born Eithne Patricia Ní Bhraonáin[4] on 17 May 1961, Gaoth Dobhair, County Donegal, Ireland), sometimes presented in the media as Enya Brennan, is an Irish singer and songwriter. ... The American soprano Renée Fleming (born 14 February 1959) is a leading opera singer. ... James Galway and his golden flute Sir James Galway (born December 8, 1939) is a Northern Ireland-born virtuoso flutist from Belfast, often called The Man With the Golden Flute. ... Annie Lennox (born 25 December 1954) is a Scottish musician, vocalist, and Academy Award-winning songwriter. ... Billy Boyd (born 28 August 1968 in Glasgow) is a Scottish actor most widely known for playing Peregrin Took (Pippin), in the film adaptations of The Lord of the Rings (2001-2003) and Barrett Bonden in Peter Weirs film Master and Commander: The Far Side of the World (2003). ... Viggo Peter Mortensen, Jr. ... Liv Tyler (born Liv Rundgren, on July 1, 1977, at Mount Sinai Hospital in New York City, New York[1]) is an American actress and model. ... Miranda Otto (born December 16, 1967) is an Australian Film Institute-nominated and Logie Award-winning Australian actress. ... For other persons named Peter Jackson, see Peter Jackson (disambiguation). ... Into the West is part of the Return of the King Soundtrack. ... Cameron Duncan (April 20, 1986 – November 12, 2003) was a writer and director from New Zealand. ...


Shore composed a main theme for The Fellowship rather than many different character themes, and its strength and weaknesses in volume are depicted at different points in the trilogy. On top of that, individual themes were composed to represent different cultures. Infamously, the amount of music Shore had to write every day for the third film increased dramatically to around seven minutes.[16]


Sound

Sound technicians spent the early part of the year trying to find the right sounds. Some, such as animal sounds like tigers' and walruses', were bought. Human voices were also used. Fran Walsh contributed to the Nazgûl scream and David Farmer the Warg howls. Other sounds were unexpected: The Fell Beast's screech is taken from that of a donkey, and the mûmakil's bellow comes from the beginning and end of a lion's roar. In addition, ADR was used for most of the dialogue. In filmmaking, dubbing or looping is the process of recording or replacing voices for a motion picture. ...


The technicians worked with New Zealand locals to get many of the sounds. They re-recorded sounds in abandoned tunnels for an echo-like effect in the Moria sequence. 10,000 New Zealand cricket fans provided the sound of the Uruk-hai army in The Two Towers, with Jackson acting as conductor during a single cricket break.[13] They spent time recording sounds in a graveyard at night, and also had construction workers drop stone blocks for the sounds of boulders firing and landing in The Return of the King. Mixing took place between August and November at "The Film Mix", before Jackson commissioned the building of a new studio in 2003. The building, however, had not yet been fully completed when they started mixing for The Return of the King.[16] In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, Moria was an ominous name given by the Eldar to what had once been an enormous underground complex in north-western Middle-earth, comprising a vast network of tunnels, chambers, mines and huge halls or mansions, that ran under and ultimately through...


Releases

The online promotional trailer for the trilogy was first released on April 27, 2000, and shattered records for download hits, registering 1.7 million hits in the first 24 hours of its release.[29] The trailer used a selection from the soundtrack for Braveheart, and The Shawshank Redemption among other cuts. In 2001, 24 minutes of footage from the trilogy, primarily the Moria sequence, was shown at the Cannes Film Festival, and was very well received.[30] The showing also included an area designed to look like Middle-earth.[19] A full description of the footage can be found here: [2] is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... For the moshing term Braveheart, see Wall of death (moshing). ... For the novella, see Rita Hayworth and Shawshank Redemption. ... In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, Moria was an ominous name given by the Eldar to what had once been an enormous underground complex in north-western Middle-earth, comprising a vast network of tunnels, chambers, mines and huge halls or mansions, that ran under and ultimately through... The Cannes Film Festival (French: le Festival de Cannes), founded in 1939, is one of the worlds oldest, most influential and prestigious film festivals. ... A map of the Northwestern part of Middle-earth at the end of the Third Age, courtesy of the Encyclopedia of Arda. ...


The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring was released December 19, 2001. It grossed $47 million in its U.S. opening weekend and made around $871 million worldwide. A preview of The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers was attached at the end of the cinema release for the film.[31] is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ...


A promotional trailer was later released. The trailer contained some music re-scored from the film Requiem for a Dream.[32] The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers was released December 18, 2002. It grossed $62 million in its first U.S. weekend and out-grossed its predecessor, grossing $926 million worldwide. Requiem for a Dream is a 2000 film adaptation of a 1978 novel of the same name. ... is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ...


The promotional trailer for The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King was debuted exclusively before the New Line Cinema film Secondhand Lions on September 23, 2003.[33] Released December 17, 2003, its first U.S. weekend gross was $72 million, and became the second film (after Titanic) to gross over $1 billion worldwide. This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Secondhand Lions is a 2003 American adventure/comedy film about a young boy who is sent to live with his two eccentric but mysterious great-uncles on a farm in Texas. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Titanic is a 1997 disaster romance film directed, written, produced and edited by James Cameron about the sinking of the RMS Titanic. ...


Each film was released on standard two-disc edition DVDs containing previews of the next film. The success of the theatrical cuts brought about four-disc Extended Editions, with new editing, added special effects and music. These are not Director's Cuts, however, as Jackson has said he prefers the theatrical versions.[34]


With the extended cuts of the films and their respective special features spread over two discs apiece, the Special Extended Edition DVD sets were issued as follows:

  • The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring, November 12, 2002. Containing 30 minutes more footage, in a green sleeve. It contains an Alan Lee painting of the Fellowship entering Moria, and the Moria Gate on the back of the sleeve. An Argonath styled bookend was issued within a Collector's Edition.
  • The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers, November 18, 2003. It contains 44 minutes more footage. A Rohirrim sun symbol decorates the back of its red sleeve and a Lee painting of Gandalf the White's entrance. The Collector's Edition contained a Sméagol statue, with a crueler-looking statue of his Gollum persona available for order during a limited time.
  • The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King December 14, 2004. It has 52 minutes more footage, and a blue sleeve with the White Tree of Gondor. The Lee painting is of the Grey Havens. The Collector's Edition included a model of Minas Tirith, with Minas Morgul available for order during a limited time.

The Special Extended DVD Editions also had in-sleeve maps of the Fellowship's travels. They have also played at movie theaters, most notably for a December 16, 2003, marathon screening (dubbed "Trilogy Tuesday") culminating in a midnight screening of the third film. is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens The Lord of the Rings, The Argonath, also known as The Gates of Argonath or The Pillars of the Kings, is a fictional monument comprising two enormous pillars, carved in the likenesses of Isildur and Anárion, standing upon either side of the River... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A typical megaplex (AMC Rolling Hills 20 in Rolling Hills Estates, California). ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


On August 28, 2006, both versions were put together in a Limited Edition "branching" version plus a new feature-length documentary by Costa Botes. The complete trilogy was released in a six Disc set on November 14, 2006. is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Costa Botes is a writer, director, and cinematographer. ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Public and critical response

The Lord of the Rings film trilogy is the highest grossing motion picture trilogy worldwide of all time, besting such other film franchises as the Star Wars original trilogy and The Godfather. The film trilogy also tied a record for the total number of Academy Awards won.[35] The DVD cover of the Star Wars trilogy. ... This article is about the 1972 film. ... Academy Award The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, are the most prominent and most watched film awards ceremony in the world. ...


The majority of critics have also praised the trilogy, with Kenneth Turan of the Los Angeles Times writing that "the trilogy will not soon, if ever, find its equal".[36] In particular, performances from Ian McKellen,[37] Sean Astin,[38] Sean Bean, Andy Serkis, and Bernard Hill stood out for many in audience polls, and special effects for the battles and Gollum were praised. A few critics such as Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times did not rank the trilogy so highly, and while praising the special effects, Ebert was critical of the story,[39] and none of the films appeared in his "Top 10" lists for their respective years.[40] Some were also critical of the films' pacing and length: "It's a collection of spectacular set pieces without any sense of momentum driving them into one another" according to the Philadelphia Weekly.[41] Overall however, the films received a positive 93% critics rating on rottentomatoes.com, (92% for FotR, 96% for TTT and 94% for Rotk) a consensus amongst film critics. Kenneth Turan is an American film critic, currently writing for the Los Angeles Times. ... This just IN !!!:paris hiltons new dog. ... Sir Ian Murray McKellen, CH, CBE (born 25 May 1939) is an English stage and screen actor, the recipient of the Tony Award and two Oscar nominations. ... Sean Astin (born Sean Patrick Duke[1] on February 25, 1971 in Santa Monica, California) is a film actor, director, and Oscar-nominated producer best known for his film roles as Mikey Walsh in The Goonies, the title character of Rudy, Samwise Gamgee in the Lord of the Rings trilogy... Shaun Mark Bean (born 17 April 1959) is an English film and stage actor. ... Andy Serkis (born 20 April 1964) is an English actor and director best known for his work with Peter Jackson. ... Bernard Hill (born December 17, 1944, Manchester, England, UK) is a British actor of film, stage and television. ... Roger Joseph Ebert (born June 18, 1942) is a Pulitzer Prize-winning American film critic. ... The Chicago Sun-Times is an American daily newspaper published in Chicago. ... Rotten Tomatoes (http://www. ...


The trilogy appears in many "Top 10" film lists, such as the Dallas-Fort Worth Film Critics Association's Top 10 Films, Time Magazine's All-Time 100 Movies, James Berardinelli's Top 100,[42] and The Screen Directory's "Top Ten Films of All Time" (considering the trilogy as "one epic film split into three parts").[43]. In 2007, USA Today named the trilogy as the most important films of the past 25 years.[44] Dallas-Fort Worth Film Critics Associations Top 10 Films is a list of 10 films selected by the Dallas-Fort Worth Film Critics Association to honor the best films of the year. ... James Berardinelli (born September 1967, New Brunswick, New Jersey) is an online film critic. ... USA Today is a national American daily newspaper published by the Gannett Company. ...


The Lord of the Rings trilogy has outsold other contemporary trilogies such as the Pirates of the Caribbean films, the first three Harry Potter films, the Spider-Man film series and the Star Wars prequels.[45] The Pirates of the Caribbean films are a trilogy of pirate adventure films directed by Gore Verbinski, written by Ted Elliott and Terry Rossio and produced by Jerry Bruckheimer. ... The Harry Potter film series are the fantasy films based on the Harry Potter series of novels by British author J. K. Rowling. ... The Spider-Man film series currently consists of three superhero films based on the fictional Marvel Comics character of the same name, portrayed by Tobey Maguire. ... Revenge of the Sith is the third film of the prequel trilogy. ...


Academy Awards

The three films together were nominated for a total of 30 Academy Awards, of which they won 17, a record for any movie trilogy. The Return of the King won in every category in which it was nominated, an extremely rare feat; its Oscar for Best Picture was widely perceived as an award by proxy for the entire trilogy. The Return of the King also tied a record for the total number of Academy Awards won, 11, with Ben-Hur and Titanic. No actors in any of the three films won Oscars, although Ian McKellen was nominated for his work in The Fellowship of the Ring. Academy Award The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, are the most prominent and most watched film awards ceremony in the world. ... Academy Award The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, are the most prominent and most watched film awards ceremony in the world. ... Ben-Hur is a 1959 epic film directed by William Wyler, and is the third version of Lew Wallaces novel, Ben-Hur: A Tale of the Christ (1880). ... Titanic is a 1997 disaster romance film directed, written, produced and edited by James Cameron about the sinking of the RMS Titanic. ... Sir Ian Murray McKellen, CH, CBE (born 25 May 1939) is an English stage and screen actor, the recipient of the Tony Award and two Oscar nominations. ...

  • The Fellowship of the Ring — Nominations: 13, Wins: 4
  • The Two Towers — Nominations: 6, Wins: 2
  • The Return of the King — Nominations: 11,Wins: 11
Award Awards Won
The Fellowship of the Ring The Two Towers The Return of the King
Art Direction Nomination Nomination Win
Cinematography Win
Costume Design Nomination Win
Directing Nomination Win
Film Editing Nomination Nomination Win
Makeup Win Win
Music (Original Score) Win Win
Music (Original Song) Nomination
("May It Be")
Win
("Into the West")
Best Picture Nomination Nomination Win
Sound Editing Win
Sound Mixing Nomination Nomination Win
Supporting Actor Nomination
(Ian McKellen)
Visual Effects Win Win Win
Writing (Previously Produced or Published) Nomination Win

As well as Academy Awards, each film of the trilogy won MTV Movie Awards' Best Film, and the Hugo Awards for Best Dramatic Presentation categories. The first and third films also won the Best Film BAFTAs. The soundtrack for The Two Towers did not receive a nomination because of a rule prohibiting a soundtrack including music from a previous soundtrack to be eligible for nomination. This rule was overturned in time for The Return of the King to receive the Oscar for Best Music Score. Sir Ian Murray McKellen, CH, CBE (born 25 May 1939) is an English stage and screen actor, the recipient of the Tony Award and two Oscar nominations. ... The MTV Movie Awards is a film awards show presented annually on MTV (Music Television). ... The Hugo Award is given every year for the best science fiction or fantasy stories of the previous year, and for related areas in fandom, art and dramatic presentation. ... The British Academy of Film and Television Arts (BAFTA), is a British organization that hosts annual awards shows for film, television, childrens film and television, and interactive media. ...


Reactions to changes in the movies from the book

See also: List of original characters in The Lord of the Rings film trilogy

While the films were generally well received, some readers of the book have decried certain changes[46][47] made in the movie adaptation. Various changes made to characters such as Gandalf, Aragorn, Arwen, Denethor, Faramir, and Gimli, as well as to the main protagonist Frodo himself;[48] and changes made to events (such as the Elves participating at the Battle of Helm's Deep, and Faramir taking the hobbits to Osgiliath);[49], taken together, are seen to alter the tone and themes from those found in the book. This article is about the characters from The Lord of the Rings film trilogy. ... For other uses, see Gandalf (disambiguation). ... Aragorn II is a fictional character from J. R. R Tolkiens Middle-earth legendarium. ... This article is about the fictional character. ... This article is about the Steward of Gondor in the time of the War of the Ring. ... This article is about the son of Denethor. ... Gimli is a fictional character from J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth legendarium, featured in The Lord of the Rings. ... Frodo redirects here. ... Combatants Isengard Rohan Commanders Saruman Théoden, Aragorn, Gandalf, Éomer Strength 10,000 Uruk-hai and common Orcs of Isengard, 2,000-5,000 Dunlendings, an unknown number of orc-human hybrids about 2,000 Rohirrim; reinforced by 1,000 more Rohirrim in the morning, and thousands of Huorns Casualties... In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, Osgiliath is a city of Middle-earth, the old capital city of Gondor. ...


Many have also decried the wholesale deletion of the penultimate chapter of the novel, "The Scouring of the Shire",[50] a part Tolkien felt thematically necessary. The Scouring of the Shire is a chapter from the fantasy novel The Lord of the Rings by J. R. R. Tolkien. ...


Wayne G. Hammond, a noted Tolkien scholar, has said of the first two films: ... Wayne G. Hammond is a scholar known for his research and writings on the works of J. R. R. Tolkien. ... The works of J. R. R. Tolkien have generated a body of academic research, studying different facets such as Tolkien as a writer of fantasy literature Tolkiens invented languages As A Writer Splintered Light: Logos And Language In Tolkiens World Verlyn Flieger (1st Edition 1983, Revised Edition 2002...

"I find both of the Jackson films to be travesties as adaptations... faithful only on a basic level of plot... Cut and compress as necessary, yes, but don't change or add new material without very good reason... In the moments in which the films succeed, they do so by staying close to what Tolkien so carefully wrote; where they fail, it tends to be where they diverge from him, most seriously in the area of characterization. Most of the characters in the films are mere shadows of those in the book, weak and diminished (notably Frodo) or insulting caricatures (Pippin, Merry, and Gimli)... [T]he filmmakers sacrifice the richness of Tolkien's story and characters, not to mention common sense, for violence, cheap humor, and cheaper thrills... [S]o many of its reviewers have praised it as faithful to the book, or even superior to it, all of which adds insult to injury and is demonstrably wrong..."[46][51]

Some fans of the book who disagreed with such changes have released fan edits of the films, which removed many of the changes to bring them closer to the original. A combined 8-hour version of the trilogy exists, called The Lord of the Rings: The Purist Edition.[52][53] A fan edit is a version of a film modified by a viewer, that removes, reorders, or adds material in order to create a new interpretation of the film. ...


Supporters of the trilogy assert that it is a worthy interpretation of the book and that most of the changes were necessary.[54] Many who worked on the trilogy are fans of the book, including Christopher Lee, who (alone among the cast) had actually met Tolkien in person,[55] and Boyens once noted that no matter what, it is simply their interpretation of the book. Jackson once said that to simply summarise the story on screen would be a mess, and in his own words, "Sure, it's not really The Lord of the Rings ... but it could still be a pretty damn cool movie."[56][57] Other fans also claim that, despite any changes, the films serve as a tribute to the book, appealing to those who have not yet read it, and even leading some to do so. The Movie Guide for The Encyclopedia of Arda (an online Tolkien encyclopedia) states: For other persons named Christopher Lee, see Christopher Lee (disambiguation). ... In the works of J. R. R. Tolkien, Arda is the name given to the Earth in a period of fictional prehistory, wherein the places mentioned in The Lord of the Rings and related material once existed. ...

"It seems appropriate to end with a word of acknowledgement of Peter Jackson and everyone else associated with the movie version of The Lord of the Rings. Though of course they haven't come close to the scope and intricacy of the original story — that would be quite impossible — what they have produced is still nothing less than a masterpiece. The film-makers, and of course Peter Jackson in particular, have to be admired merely for having the courage to take on such an immense challenge, let alone to produce such an exceptional result. The complete story of The Lord of the Rings is probably unfilmable, but Peter Jackson has come closer than anyone could have imagined possible."[58]

Three films or one?

The films were shot together and then edited into three separate films released theatrically over a span of three successive years. Hence a significant number of fans and critics have come to regard the trilogy as a single film.[citation needed] The book, which was meant to be a single novel, was first released in three parts for marketing and budget reasons. This fostered the assumption that it is a trilogy.[citation needed] Similarly, Jackson's trilogy is essentially one long 10-hour film, or eleven and a half hours if the extended editions are combined. Time magazine placed the trilogy in its top 100 list under a single heading. While this grouping into a single entity is debated, it is not unusual as Krzysztof Kieślowski's The Decalogue which was originally released as ten separate short films with intersecting themes and characters. It now is regarded by the majority of critics as a single work. Satyajit Ray's The Apu Trilogy is also often grouped together. (Clockwise from upper left) Time magazine covers from May 7, 1945; July 25, 1969; December 31, 1999; September 14, 2001; and April 21, 2003. ... Krzysztof KieÅ›lowski   (June 27, 1941 Warsaw, Poland – March 13, 1996 Warsaw, Poland) was an influential Oscar-nominated Polish film director and screenwriter, known internationally for his film cycles Three Colors and The Decalogue. ... Dekalog (The Decalogue) (1988) is a Polish film series, originally made as a television miniseries, directed by Krzysztof KieÅ›lowski and co-written by KieÅ›lowski with Krzysztof Piesiewicz, with music by Zbigniew Preisner. ... Satyajit Ray (Bengali:  ) (May 2, 1921–April 23, 1992) was a Bengali Indian filmmaker and polymath. ... The Apu trilogy is a series of three films directed by Satyajit Ray. ...


Legacy

The release of the films saw a surge of interest in The Lord of the Rings and Tolkien's other works, vastly increasing his impact on popular culture.[59] For example, in 2003, the BBC conducted a poll to find the U.K.'s favourite book, and The Lord of the Rings won, at the height of anticipation for the third film.[60] Despite higher sales, it was rumoured that the Tolkien family became split on the trilogy, with Christopher Tolkien and Simon Tolkien feuding over whether or not it was a good idea to adapt.[61] Christopher Tolkien has since denied these claims saying, "My own position is that The Lord Of The Rings is peculiarly unsuitable to transformation into visual dramatic form. The suggestions that have been made that I 'disapprove' of the films, to the extent of thinking ill of those with whom I may differ, are wholly without foundation." He added that he had never "expressed any such feeling".[62] Capitalizing on the trilogy's success, a musical adaptation of the book was launched in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, in 2006, but it closed after mostly poor reviews. A shortened version opened in London, UK, in the summer of 2007. The success of the films has also spawned the production of video games and many other kinds of merchandise. Christopher Reuel Tolkien (born November 21, 1924) is best known as the third son of author J. R. R. Tolkien (1892-1973), and as the editor of much of his fathers posthumously published work. ... Simon Tolkien (born 1959) is a British barrister and novelist. ... This article is about the musicals. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... This article is about the musicals. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent...


As a result of the success of the trilogy, Peter Jackson has become a player in the movie business (sometimes called a mogul) in the mold of Steven Spielberg and George Lucas, in the process befriending some industry heavyweights like Bryan Singer, Frank Darabont and James Cameron. Jackson has since founded his own film production company Wingnut Films, and Wingnut Interactive and a video-game company. He was also finally given a chance to remake King Kong in 2005; although it was not as successful, it nevertheless still received critical acclaim. Jackson has been called a "favourite son" of New Zealand.[63] In 2004, Howard Shore toured with The Lord of the Rings Symphony, consisting of two hours of the score. Along with the Harry Potter films, the trilogy has renewed interest in the fantasy film genre. Around the same time, fellow New Zealand director Andrew Adamson began The Chronicles of Narnia film series, credited by many to be stylistically influenced by The Lord of the Rings,[citation needed] being also shot in New Zealand and having art direction from Weta Workshop, as well as its own extended edition. Mogul may mean: a bump in the snow in alpine skiing, a Mongolian the Mughal empire, or any member of its ruling dynasty by extension, any ruler or powerful person, such as a industrial mogul or media mogul a railroad steam locomotive type called the Mogul the largest size light... Steven Allan Spielberg KBE (born December 18, 1946)[1] is an American film director, producer and screenwriter. ... George Walton Lucas, Jr. ... Bryan Singer (born September 17, 1965) is an American film director. ... Frank Darabont (born January 28, 1959) is a three-time Academy Award nominated[1]American film director, screenwriter and producer. ... For other persons named James Cameron, see James Cameron (disambiguation). ... Peter Jackson in Wellington (New Zealand) Peter Jackson CNZM is a film writer, director and producer born in Pukerua Bay, New Zealand to Bill and Joan Jackson on October 31, 1961. ... Wingnut Interactive is a video game development studio that was formed in 2006 from a partnership between Microsoft Game Studios and director Peter Jackson. ... King Kong is a 2005 remake of the 1933 King Kong film about a fictional giant ape called Kong. ... This article is about the Harry Potter series of novels. ... Andrew Adamson is a New Zealand-born film director based mainly in Los Angeles, California, USA, where he made the blockbuster animation films, Shrek and Shrek 2 for which he received an Academy Award nomination. ... The Chronicles of Narnia is a series of fantasy films from Walt Disney Pictures and Walden Media based on the series of novels, The Chronicles of Narnia written by C.S. Lewis in the 1950s. ...


Motion capture was used for characters in King Kong, I, Robot and Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Man's Chest. Kingdom of Heaven is one of many epics to use the MASSIVE technology. Tourism for New Zealand is up, possibly due to its exposure in the trilogy,[64] with the tourism industry in the country waking up to an audience's familiarity.[65] Motion capture, or mocap, is a technique of digitally recording the movements of real things — usually humans — it originally developed as an analysis tool in biomechanics research, but has grown increasingly important as a source of motion data for computer animation. ... King Kong is a 2005 remake of the 1933 King Kong film about a fictional giant ape called Kong. ... For other uses, see I, Robot (disambiguation). ... This article is about the film. ... The Massive user interface A battle simulated using Massive Massive (Multiple Agent Simulation System in Virtual Environment) is a high-end computer animation and artificial intelligence software package used for generating crowd-related visual effects for film and television. ...


In December 2002, The Lord of the Rings Motion Picture Trilogy: The Exhibition opened at the Te Papa museum in Wellington, New Zealand. As of 2007, the exhibition has travelled to seven other cities around the world. Te Papa (Our Place), The Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa The Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa is the national museum of New Zealand. ... For the first Duke of Wellington, see Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington. ... 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Prequels

Peter Jackson and Fran Walsh expressed interest in 1995 in filming The Hobbit, which would be part one of a trilogy (the other two would have been films based on The Lord of the Rings).[66] Frustration arose when Jackson's producer, Harvey Weinstein, discovered Saul Zaentz had production rights to The Hobbit, but distribution rights still belonged to United Artists. The studio was on the market, so Weinstein's attempts to buy those rights were unsuccessful. Weinstein asked Jackson to press on with adapting The Lord of the Rings.[67] MGM bought United Artists, while New Line earned the rights to produce The Lord of the Rings. New Line has a limited-time option on The Hobbit, with their hold on the rights set to expire in 2010.[68] In September 2006, MGM expressed interest in teaming up with New Line and Jackson to make the film.[69] For other persons named Peter Jackson, see Peter Jackson (disambiguation). ... Fran Walsh and her husband Peter Jackson Frances Walsh MNZM is an Academy Award-winning screenwriter and film producer and also a musician. ... For other uses, see Hobbit (disambiguation) and There and Back Again (disambiguation). ... Harvey Weinstein at Cannes, 2002 Harvey Weinstein CBE (Hon) (born March 19, 1952) is an American film producer and movie studio chairman. ... It has been suggested that The Saul Zaentz Film Center be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about the film studio. ... MGM logo Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer or MGM, is a large media company, involved primarily in the production and distribution of cinema and television programs. ... In computing, a newline is a special character or sequence of characters indicating the end of a line. ...


In March 2005, Jackson launched a lawsuit against New Line, claiming he had lost revenue from merchandising, video, and computer games releases associated with The Fellowship of The Ring.[70] Jackson felt the lawsuit was minor, and that New Line would still let him make the film.[71] New Line co-founder Robert Shaye was annoyed with the lawsuit and said in January 2007 that Jackson would never again direct a film for New Line, accusing him of being greedy.[68] But in August 2007, after a string of flops, Shaye was trying to repair his relationship with the director. He said, "I really respect and admire Peter and would love for him to be creatively involved in some way in The Hobbit."[72] In September, New Line was fined $125,000 for failing to provide requested accounting documents.[68] The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring is a film, released on Wednesday, December 19, 2001, directed by Peter Jackson with a runtime of 178 minutes (2 hours, 58 minutes). ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ...


On December 18, 2007, it was announced that Jackson would be executive producer of The Hobbit and its sequel. It was hoped that back-to-back shooting on these films would begin in 2009 for December 2010 and December 2011 releases, respectively. New Line and MGM will co-finance the film, and the latter studio will distribute the films outside North America — New Line's first ever such deal with another major studio.[73] Producer Mark Ordesky will return to supervise the prequels,[74] and each film will cost around US$150 million.[75] The films are now expected for 2011/2012, and the New Line-MGM distribution agreement remains in place.[76] In April 2008, Guillermo del Toro signed on to direct both pictures, and he will move to New Zealand for four years after finishing Hellboy II: The Golden Army to develop the duology with Jackson and the teams at WETA and Wingnut Films.[77] is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Mark Lowell Ordesky (born April 22, 1963 in Sacramento County, California, USA) is the current President of Fine Line Features, a film producer and director. ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... Guillermo del Toro Gómez (born October 9, 1964 in Guadalajara, Jalisco) is an Academy Award-nominated Mexican film director. ...


The Tolkien Estate filed a lawsuit against New Line on February 11, 2008, for violating Tolkien's original deal with Saul Zaentz that they would earn 7.5% of the gross from a film adaptation. The Estate is seeking compensation of $150 million, because they were only paid $62,500 before production of the trilogy began. A court order was also filed that would allow the Tolkien Trust to terminate any rights to future films based on Tolkien's work, including The Hobbit and the second derivative prequel.[78] The Tolkien Estate is the legal body which manages the copyrights of J. R. R. Tolkiens works. ... is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ...


Del Toro met with Ian McKellen, Andy Serkis (who hope to reprise their roles as Gandalf and Gollum respectively), concept artists John Howe and Alan Lee, Weta Workshop head Richard Taylor, make-up artist Gino Acevedo and composer Howard Shore to keep continuity with the previous films. Del Toro said that he thought the world of The Hobbit is a "world that is slightly more golden at the beginning, a very innocent environment [...] taking you from a time of more purity to a darker reality throughout the film, but [in a manner] in the spirit of the book". He also intends to push the technology of animatronics to new levels; "We really want to take the state-of-the-art animatronics and take a leap ten years into the future with the technology we will develop for the creatures in the movie. We have every intention to do for animatronics and special effects what the other films did for virtual reality."[77] He will also bring in European comic book artists to compliment Howe and Lee's style on the trilogy, and he wants every actor from the trilogy to reprise their roles.[79] Sir Ian Murray McKellen, CH, CBE (born 25 May 1939) is an English stage and screen actor, the recipient of the Tony Award and two Oscar nominations. ... Andy Serkis (born 20 April 1964) is an English actor and director best known for his work with Peter Jackson. ... For other uses, see Gandalf (disambiguation). ... This article is about the fictional character. ... John Howe 2003 John Howe (born August 21, 1957 in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada) is a book illustrator, living in Neuchatel, Switzerland. ... Alan Lee 2003 in (New Zealand) Alan Lee (born August 20, 1947) is an English book illustrator and movie conceptual designer. ... Weta Workshop is a physical effects company based in Miramar, New Zealand, producing effects for television and film. ... Richard Taylor, 2003 Richard Taylor is the creator and head of New Zealand movie prop and special effects company Weta Workshop. ... Howard Leslie Shore (born October 18, 1946) is an Oscar, Golden Globe and Grammy Award-winning Canadian composer, best known for composing the scores to The Lord of the Rings film trilogy and films of David Cronenberg. ... Audio-Animatronics or just animatronics is a form of robotics created by Disneys Imagineers for several shows and attractions at Disney theme parks, and subsequently expanded on and used by other companies. ... Special effects (abbreviated SPFX or SFX) are used in the film, television, and entertainment industry to create effects that cannot be achieved by normal means, such as depicting travel to other star systems. ... This article is about the simulation technology. ...


MGM expressed interest in another prequel film, set between The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings.[80] Jackson concurred, stating "one of the drawbacks of The Hobbit is [that] it's relatively lightweight compared to Lord of the Rings... There [are] a lot of sections in which a character like Gandalf disappears for a while. From memory — I mean, I haven't read it for a while now — but I think he references going off to meet with the White Council, who are actually characters like Galadriel and Saruman and people that we see in Lord of the Rings. He mysteriously vanishes for a while and then comes back, but we don't really know what goes on."[71] Del Toro confirmed the sequel would be about "trying to reconcile the facts of the first movie with a slightly different point of view. You would be able to see events that were not witnessed in the first."[79] For other uses, see Gandalf (disambiguation). ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium, the White Council is a group of Elves and Wizards of Middle-earth, formed in 2463 T.A. to contest the growing power of Dol Guldur, at the request of Galadriel. ... Galadriel is a fictional character created by J. R. R. Tolkien, appearing in The Lord of the Rings. ... Saruman is a fictional character in J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth legendarium. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Abbreviations. elvish.org. Retrieved on 2006-10-12.
  2. ^ The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring. Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved on 2006-10-12.
  3. ^ The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers. Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved on 2006-10-12.
  4. ^ The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King. Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved on 2006-10-12.
  5. ^ Ian Nathan. "Peter Jackson", Empire, 2003-11-28, pp. 90. 
  6. ^ a b Sibley (2001), p.11-12
  7. ^ a b c Brian Sibley (2006). "Cheats, Spooks, Hobbits and Apes", Peter Jackson: A Film-maker's Journey. London: Harper Collins, 310-328. ISBN 0-00-717558-2. 
  8. ^ Watkin, Tim (2001-08-12). The 'Rings' movies, a potted history. New Zealand Herald. Retrieved on 2006-12-21.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g Brian Sibley (2006). "Quest for the Ring", Peter Jackson: A Film-maker's Journey. London: Harper Collins, 329-87. ISBN 0-00-717558-2. 
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring Appendices [DVD]. New Line Cinema.
  11. ^ Sibley (2006), p.388–92
  12. ^ Head, Steve (2002-12-13). An interview with Peter Jackson. IGN. Retrieved on 2006-10-24.
  13. ^ a b c d e f The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers "Appendices" [DVD]. New Line Cinema.
  14. ^ Russell, Gary (2003). The Art of the Two Towers. Harper Collins. 
  15. ^ The Art of Film. JW's LOTR fansite. Retrieved on 2006-10-15.
  16. ^ a b c d e f The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King "Appendices" [DVD]. New Line Cinema.
  17. ^ "Hobbiton is being built", The One Ring.net, 2006-04-12. Retrieved on 2006-10-15. 
  18. ^ French, Lawrence (2005). Peter Jackson From Gore to Mordor - Ray Harryhausen visits Middle-earth. Nexus, 149–150. ISBN 0-85965-356-0. 
  19. ^ a b c d Sibley, Brian (2002). The Making of the Movie Trilogy. Harper Collins. 
  20. ^ Johnson, S. 2002. 'The Lord of the Rings and Vertical Limits Film Concessions and the Conservation Act 1987', 4 Butterworths Resource Management Bulletin Vol. 11:125-129, Butterworths of NZ, Wellington, New Zealand.
  21. ^ Tongariro/Taupo Conservation Awards 2005, Department Of Conservation Regional Awards, retrieved 1 February 2008.
  22. ^ "Hey, what happened to Saruman?", CNN.com, 2003-12-17. Retrieved on 2006-10-15. 
  23. ^ The Fellowship of the Ring DVD preview of The Two Towers (2002)
  24. ^ Peter Jackson in The Return of the King audio commentary
  25. ^ The Return of the King trailer
  26. ^ Knowles, Harry (2000-12-17). There and Back Again: A Geek's Adventures in Middle-earth, CHAPTER FOUR!. Ain't It Cool News. Retrieved on 2006-10-15.
  27. ^ Peter Jackson talks of Lord of the Rings Ultimate Box Set. The Movie Blog.com. Retrieved on 2005-01-14.
  28. ^ Davidson, Paul. "Lord of the Rings Composer Confirmed", IGN, 2000-08-15. Retrieved on 2006-11-14. 
  29. ^ http://www.xenite.org/faqs/lotr_movie/download-press-release.html
  30. ^ IGN: LOTR Footage Wows Journalists
  31. ^ A Longer Fellowship Ending? by Paul Davidson, last retrieved on 5 August 2006
  32. ^ Movie Answer Man. rogerebert.com.
  33. ^ [http://www.movieweb.com/news/14/1714.php MovieWeb.com's News for 23 September 2003, last retrieved on 5 August 2006
  34. ^ [1] IGN DVD's extended Return of the King review by Andy Patrizio. December 8, 2004, last retrieved on 23 November 2007
  35. ^ Remaking King Kong an honor for Jackson by John Horn, last retrieved on 5 August 2006[dead link]
  36. ^ Return of the King review at CalendarLive.com by Kenneth Turan, last retrieved on 5 August 2006
  37. ^ Daily Poll Results
  38. ^ Daily Poll Results
  39. ^ Review of The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King from http://rogerebert.suntimes.com/
  40. ^ Ebert's 10 Best Lists: 1967-present
  41. ^ Ringing Hollow by Sean Burns, last retrieved on 28 January 2007
  42. ^ James Berardinelli. Berardinelli's All-Time Top 100. Reelviews. Retrieved on 2007-03-16.
  43. ^ Top Ten Films of All Time accessed February 10, 2007
  44. ^ Susan Wloszczyna. "Hollywood highlights: 25 movies with real impact", USA Today, 2007-07-02. Retrieved on 2007-07-03. 
  45. ^ boxofficemojo.com – Worldwide Box Office Figures
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See also

The animated films:

J. R. R. Tolkiens The Hobbit was adapted into an animated television movie by the team at Rankin-Bass Productions in 1977. ... J.R.R. Tolkiens The Lord of the Rings is a 1978 animated fantasy film directed by Ralph Bakshi. ... DVD cover The Return of the King is an animated adaptation of the novel by J. R. R. Tolkien which was released by Rankin/Bass as a TV special in 1980. ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
The Lord of the Rings (movies)
Middle-earth Portal
  • Official site of the films
  • The Hobbit: The Official Movie Blog
  • TheOneRing.net
  • The Frodo Franchise
  • The Lord of the Rings film trilogy at the Arts & Faith Top 100 Spiritually Significant Films list
  • What To Do With The Time That Is Given: Vocation in The Lord of the Rings Essay-length review of the film cycle as compared with the original book on the theme of vocation, or calling. Originally published in The Mars Hill Review.
Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... Image File history File links Arda. ... For other persons named Peter Jackson, see Peter Jackson (disambiguation). ... Bad Taste is a low-budget 1987 cult film, one of the first directed by Peter Jackson, in which aliens invade the fictional New Zealand village of Kaihoro (population 78) in order to harvest human beings for their intergalactic fast food franchise but are repelled by a four-man paramilitary... Meet The Feebles (1989) is a black comedy film by director Peter Jackson. ... Braindead (New Zealand 1992), released as Dead Alive in North America, is an extreme zombie horror-comedy directed by Peter Jackson. ... Heavenly Creatures is a 1994 fantasy thriller film directed by Peter Jackson and written with his partner Fran Walsh. ... Forgotten Silver (1995) is a New Zealand film mockumentary that purports to tell the story of a pioneering New Zealand filmmaker. ... For the Matt Helm spy novel by Donald Hamilton, see The Frighteners (novel). ... The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring is a film, released on Wednesday, December 19, 2001, directed by Peter Jackson with a runtime of 178 minutes (2 hours, 58 minutes). ... This title can refer to either: The Two Towers (book), the second part of The Lord of the Rings by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... King Kong is a 2005 remake of the 1933 King Kong film about a fictional giant ape called Kong. ... The Lovely Bones is a film adaptation of the 2002 American novel The Lovely Bones by Alice Sebold, currently scheduled to be released on March 13, 2009. ... The Untitled Tintin Project is an announced film project of three back-to-back features that are going to be based on The Adventures of Tintin, a series of comic books created by Belgian artist Georges Remi, better known by his pen name, Hergé. Steven Spielberg and Peter Jackson have... This article is about the novel. ... Tolkien redirects here. ... The Fellowship of the Ring is the first of three volumes of the epic novel The Lord of the Rings by the English author J. R. R. Tolkien. ... The Two Towers is the second volume of J. R. R. Tolkiens The Lord of the Rings. ... This article is about the book. ... Tolkien fandom is an international, informal community of fans of the works of J. R. R. Tolkien, especially of the Middle-earth legendarium which includes The Lord of the Rings, The Hobbit and The Silmarillion. ... The works of J. R. R. Tolkien have generated a body of academic research, studying different facets such as Tolkien as a writer of fantasy literature Tolkiens invented languages As A Writer Splintered Light: Logos And Language In Tolkiens World Verlyn Flieger (1st Edition 1983, Revised Edition 2002... For other uses, see Hobbit (disambiguation) and There and Back Again (disambiguation). ... The Adventures of Tom Bombadil is a collection of poetry by J. R. R. Tolkien, published in 1962. ... This article is about the book by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... Unfinished Tales (full title Unfinished Tales of Númenor and Middle-earth) is a collection of stories by J. R. R. Tolkien that were never completed during his lifetime, but were edited by his son Christopher Tolkien and published in 1980. ... The History of Middle-earth is a 12-volume series of books published from 1983-1996, that collect and analyse material relating to the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, compiled and edited by his son, Christopher Tolkien. ... The History of The Lord of the Rings is a 4-volume work by Christopher Tolkien that documents the process of J. R. R. Tolkiens writing of his masterwork The Lord of the Rings (LotR). ... Bilbos Last Song is a poem by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... The Children of Húrin (2007) is a completion of a tale by J. R. R. Tolkien begun in 1918. ... The History of The Hobbit, a new study of J. R. R. Tolkien’s The Hobbit, is to be published by Houghtin Mifflin in May and June 2007. ... The Road Goes Ever On is a walking song by J. R. R. Tolkien, fictionally written by Bilbo Baggins; verses of it are sung at various places in The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings. ... Frodo redirects here. ... Samwise Gamgee, later known as Samwise Gardner[2] or Samwise the Brave and commonly known as Sam, is a fictional character in J.R.R. Tolkiens Middle-earth legendarium. ... Meriadoc Brandybuck, usually referred to as Merry, is a fictional character from J.R.R. Tolkiens Middle-earth, featured throughout his most famous work, The Lord of the Rings. ... Peregrin Took (T.A. 2990–F.A. 70), better known to his friends as Pippin, is a fictional character from J. R. R. Tolkiens universe of Middle-earth, a Hobbit, and one of Frodo Bagginss youngest but dearest friends. ... Bilbo Baggins (2890 Third Age - ? Fourth Age) is an important character in J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium. ... For other uses, see Gandalf (disambiguation). ... Aragorn II is a fictional character from J. R. R Tolkiens Middle-earth legendarium. ... Legolas is a character in J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium, featured in The Lord of the Rings. ... Gimli is a fictional character from J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth legendarium, featured in The Lord of the Rings. ... This article is about the son of Denethor II. For the son of Denethor I, see Boromir (Steward). ... This article is about a fictional character from J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth fantasy writings. ... Saruman is a fictional character in J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth legendarium. ... This article is about the fictional character. ... Elrond Half-elven is a fictional character in J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth legendarium. ... In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, Glorfindel is an Elf, a Noldor who appears in the tales of Middle-earth. ... Galadriel is a fictional character created by J. R. R. Tolkien, appearing in The Lord of the Rings. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens The Lord of the Rings, Théoden was the seventeenth King of Rohan, and last of the Second Line. ... Éomer is a supporting character in J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium. ... Éowyn (T.A. 2995–F.A. ?), a shieldmaiden of Rohan, is a character in J. R. R. Tolkiens fantasy universe of Middle-earth who appears in his most famous work, The Lord of the Rings. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens novel The Lord of the Rings, Gríma (Wormtongue) is the chief advisor to King Théoden of Rohan. ... This article is about the son of Denethor. ... This article is about the Steward of Gondor in the time of the War of the Ring. ... For the Lord of the Rings character with this name, see Beregond (Captain). ... This article is about the fictional character. ... The Witch-king of Angmar, also known as the Lord of the Nazgûl and the Black Captain among other names, is a fictional character from the novel The Lord of the Rings by J. R. R. Tolkien, set in the fantasy world of Middle-earth. ... Treebeard or (Sindarin) Fangorn is a fictional character from J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth. ... Tom Bombadil is a supporting character in J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium. ... The works of J. R. R. Tolkien have served as the inspiration to painters, musicians, film-makers and writers, to such an extent that Tolkien is sometimes seen as the father of the entire genre of high fantasy. ... The Lord of the Rings, an epic high fantasy novel by the British author J. R. R. Tolkien, set in his world of Middle-earth (a fictional past version of our Earth), has been adapted for various media multiple times. ... While an immense number of computer and video games owe a great deal to J. R. R. Tolkiens works and the many other works making up the high fantasy settings based upon them, relatively few games have been directly adapted from his world of Middle-earth. ... During 1955 and 1956, a condensed radio dramatisation of The Lord of the Rings was broadcast in twelve episodes on BBC Radios the Third Programme. ... In 1979 the US National Public Radio broadcast a radio dramatisation of J. R. R. Tolkiens The Lord of the Rings. ... In 1981 BBC Radio 4 broadcast a dramatisation of J. R. R. Tolkiens The Lord of the Rings in 26 half-hour stereo instalments. ... J.R.R. Tolkiens The Lord of the Rings is a 1978 animated fantasy film directed by Ralph Bakshi. ... DVD cover The Return of the King is an animated adaptation of the novel by J. R. R. Tolkien which was released by Rankin/Bass as a TV special in 1980. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
The Lord of the Rings film trilogy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4149 words)
The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring (2001).
The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring was released December 19, 2001.
The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring, November 12, 2002.
The Lord of the Rings - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (7238 words)
The Lord of the Rings in its turn is considered to have had a great impact on modern fantasy, and the impact of Tolkien's works is such that the use of the words "Tolkienian" and "Tolkienesque" have been recorded in the Oxford English Dictionary.
The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring
Adaptations of The Lord of the Rings
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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