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Encyclopedia > The Lord of the Rings (1978 film)
J.R.R. Tolkien's
The Lord of the Rings

An early poster for the film.
Directed by Ralph Bakshi
Produced by Saul Zaentz
Written by Screenplay:
Peter S. Beagle
Chris Conkling
Based on the novel by J. R. R. Tolkien
Starring Christopher Guard
William Squire
Michael Scholes
John Hurt
Simon Chandler
Dominic Guard
Michael Graham Cox
Anthony Daniels
David Buck
Music by Leonard Rosenman
Cinematography Timothy Galfas
Editing by Donald W. Ernst
Distributed by United Artists
Release date(s) November 15, 1978
Running time 132 minutes
Country USA
Language English
Budget US$8,000,000[1]
All Movie Guide profile
IMDb profile

J.R.R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings is a 1978 animated fantasy film directed by Ralph Bakshi. It is an adaptation of the first half of J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings. Set in Middle-earth, the film follows a group of Hobbits, Elves, Men, Dwarves and Wizards who form a Fellowship and embark on a quest to destroy the One Ring made by the Dark Lord Sauron, and with it, ensure his destruction. The screenplay was written by Peter S. Beagle. An earlier draft was written by Chris Conkling, but not used.[2] The film features the voice work of William Squire, John Hurt, Michael Graham Cox and Anthony Daniels. Image File history File links The_Lord_of_the_Rings_(1978). ... Ralph Bakshi (October 29, 1938) is an American director of animated and occasionally live-action films. ... It has been suggested that The Saul Zaentz Film Center be merged into this article or section. ... Peter Soyer Beagle (born in 1939) is an American fantasist and author of novels, nonfiction, and screenplays. ... John Ronald Reuel Tolkien CBE (3 January 1892 – 2 September 1973) was an English philologist, writer and university professor, best known as the author of The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings. ... Christopher Guard (born 5 December 1953 in London, England) is an actor. ... William Squire (29 April 1916 - 3 May 1989) was a British actor of film and television. ... Michael Scholes is an actor. ... John Vincent Hurt CBE (born January 22, 1940) is an Academy Award-nominated British actor. ... Simon Chandler is a television actor. ... Dominic Guard (b. ... Michael Graham Cox (Born January 6 1938 - April 8 1995) was a British actor. ... Anthony Daniels with C-3POs head. ... David Buck (October 17, 1936—January 27, 1989) was an English actor. ... Leonard Rosenman (born September 7, 1924 in Brooklyn, New York) is an American film, television and concert composer. ... The current United Artists logo (a variant was used during the 1980s). ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... ISO 4217 Code USD User(s) the United States, the British Indian Ocean Territory,[1] the British Virgin Islands, East Timor, Ecuador, El Salvador, the Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Palau, Panama, Caicos Islands, and the insular areas of the United States Inflation 2. ... The bouncing ball animation (below) consists of these 6 frames. ... Fantasy films are films with fantastic themes, usually involving magic, supernatural events, make-believe creatures, or exotic fantasy worlds. ... Ralph Bakshi (October 29, 1938) is an American director of animated and occasionally live-action films. ... John Ronald Reuel Tolkien CBE (3 January 1892 – 2 September 1973) was an English philologist, writer and university professor, best known as the author of The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings. ... The Lord of the Rings is an epic high fantasy novel written by the English academic J. R. R. Tolkien. ... A map of the Northwestern part of Middle-earth at the end of the Third Age, courtesy of the Encyclopedia of Arda. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium, Hobbits are a diminutive race that inhabit the lands of Arda. ... Celeborn (portrayed by Marton Csokas), an Elf in Peter Jacksons adaptation of The Fellowship of the Ring. ... The race of Men in J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth books, such as The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings, refers to humanity and does not denote gender. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth, Dwarves (also known as the Naugrim) are beings of short stature who all possess beards and are often friendly with Hobbits, although long suspicious of Elves. ... In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, the Wizards of Middle-earth are a small group of beings outwardly resembling Men but possessing much greater physical and mental power. ... Spoiler warning: The Fellowship of the Ring, as described in the first volume of The Lord of the Rings, which bears the same name, is a union of 9 representatives from each of the free peoples in Middle-earth, the number chosen to match the 9 Ringwraiths. ... The One Ring, also known as the Ruling Ring, The Doom of Man, the Great Ring of Power, The Ring, or Isildurs Bane, is an artifact from J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional Middle-earth universe. ... It has been suggested that Eye of Sauron be merged into this article or section. ... Peter Soyer Beagle (born in 1939) is an American fantasist and author of novels, nonfiction, and screenplays. ... J.R.R. Tolkiens The Lord of the Rings is a 1978 animated fantasy film directed by Ralph Bakshi. ... William Squire (29 April 1916 - 3 May 1989) was a British actor of film and television. ... John Vincent Hurt CBE (born January 22, 1940) is an Academy Award-nominated British actor. ... Michael Graham Cox (Born January 6 1938 - April 8 1995) was a British actor. ... Anthony Daniels with C-3POs head. ...


Director Ralph Bakshi encountered Tolkien's writing in the early days of his career, and made several attempts to produce The Lord of the Rings as an animated film before successfully gaining funding from producer Saul Zaentz and distributor United Artists.[3] The film was produced using rotoscoping, wherein many scenes were shot in live-action first and then traced onto animation cels.[3] The film is notable for featuring some of the most extensive use of the technique. The film received a mixed reaction from critics, and the original distributors refused to fund a sequel that would have covered the remainder of the story. However, the film was a success,[4][5] and sparked new interest in Tolkien's writing, inspiring the production of several further adaptations of the story. It has been suggested that The Saul Zaentz Film Center be merged into this article or section. ... The current United Artists logo (a variant was used during the 1980s). ... Rotoscoping is a technique where animators trace live action movement, frame by frame, for use in animated films. ...

Contents

Plot

In the early years of the Second Age of Middle-earth, the Elven-smiths forged nineteen Rings of Power for mortal Men, the Dwarf-lords, and the tall Elf-kings. Eventually the Dark Lord Sauron made the One Ring to rule them all. As the Last Alliance of Men and Elves fell beneath his power, the Ring fell into the hands of Prince Isildur of the mighty kings from across the sea. After Isildur was killed by Orcs, the Ring lay in the bottom of the river Anduin for years, during which Sauron captured the nine Rings that were made for Men and turned their owners into the Ringwraiths: terrible shadows under his great shadow who roamed the world searching for the One Ring. The Ring was found by two friends. One of them, Sméagol, was so enticed by the Ring's power that he killed his friend Déagol to get it. The Ring warped him into a twisted, gurgling wretch known only as Gollum, until his "precious" was discovered by the hobbit Bilbo Baggins. Years later, in a land called the Shire, Bilbo is celebrating his birthday. In Bilbo's hobbit hole, the wizard Gandalf tells him to leave the Ring for Frodo Baggins. Bilbo finally agrees, and leaves the Shire. Seventeen years pass, during which Gandalf learns that the Shire is in danger—evil forces have learned that the Ring is in the possession of a Baggins. Gandalf meets with Frodo, and explains the Ring's history and the danger it poses to all of Middle-earth. Frodo leaves his home, taking the Ring with him. The Second Age is a fictional time period from J. R. R. Tolkiens universe of Middle-earth. ... A map of the Northwestern part of Middle-earth at the end of the Third Age, courtesy of the Encyclopedia of Arda. ... Celeborn (portrayed by Marton Csokas), an Elf in Peter Jacksons adaptation of The Fellowship of the Ring. ... The bearers of the Rings of Power in Peter Jacksons The Fellowship of the Ring The Rings of Power are fictional artifacts from J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth legendarium. ... The race of Men in J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth books, such as The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings, refers to humanity and does not denote gender. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth, Dwarves (also known as the Naugrim) are beings of short stature who all possess beards and are often friendly with Hobbits, although long suspicious of Elves. ... It has been suggested that Eye of Sauron be merged into this article or section. ... The One Ring, also known as the Ruling Ring, The Doom of Man, the Great Ring of Power, The Ring, or Isildurs Bane, is an artifact from J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional Middle-earth universe. ... The Last Alliance of Elves and Men is an episode in J.R.R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth, Isildur was a Dúnadan of Númenor, elder son of Elendil. ... Númenor is a fictional location from J. R. R. Tolkiens universe of Middle-earth and is intended to be his version of Atlantis. ... This Tolkien article or section may need to be cleaned up and rewritten because it describes a work of fiction in a primarily in-universe perspective. ... Location of Anduin in Middle Earth In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional Middle-earth, Anduin is the Sindarin name for the Great River of Wilderland, the longest river in the Third Age (the original Sindarin name means Long River). ... Nazgûl ilustration. ... Déagol, from J. R. R. Tolkiens fantasy universe of Middle-earth, was the Stoor Hobbit who became the third bearer of the One Ring, after Sauron and Isildur when he found the One Ring while diving in the Gladden river (a tributary to the Anduin) with his cousin... Gollum is a fictional character from J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium, Hobbits are a diminutive race that inhabit the lands of Arda. ... Bilbo Baggins (2890 Third Age - ? Fourth Age) is an important character in J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium. ... The fields of the Shire in the Lord of the Rings movie trilogy The Shire is a region of J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional Middle-earth, described in The Lord of the Rings and other works. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium, Gandalf is a central character in The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings, where he appears as a fairly archetypal wizard, albeit one as equally at home using a sword as employing magic, taking a key role in the latter books... Frodo Baggins is one of the most significant characters in J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium. ...

Pippin, Frodo, Sam, and Merry.

In his journey he is accompanied by three hobbit friends, Pippin, Merry, and Sam. From the start, they are pursued by the Ringwraiths. Narrowly escaping them, they eventually come to Bree, where they meet Strider, another friend of Gandalf who leads them the rest of the way to Rivendell. Frodo is stabbed upon the mountain of Weathertop by the chief of the Ringwraiths, with a knife imbued with evil magic. Part of the knife stays inside him, and he gets sicker as the journey progresses. They meet the Elf Legolas. The Ringwraiths catch up with them, and at a standoff at the ford of Rivendell, the former are swept away by the enchanted river itself. At Rivendell, Frodo is healed by its lord, Elrond. He meets Gandalf again, who has been held captive by his fellow wizard Saruman, who plans to join with Sauron but also wants the Ring for himself. Bilbo, Gandalf, and others argue about what should be done with the One Ring. Frodo volunteers to go to Mordor, where the Ring can be destroyed. Frodo sets forth from Rivendell with eight companions: Gandalf; Aragorn and Boromir, son of the Steward of the land of Gondor; Legolas the Elf; Gimli the Dwarf; and Frodo's original three hobbit companions. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (853x480, 74 KB) // Frodo Baggins, Meriadoc Brandybuck, Peregrin Took and Samwise Gamgee. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (853x480, 74 KB) // Frodo Baggins, Meriadoc Brandybuck, Peregrin Took and Samwise Gamgee. ... Peregrin Took (T.A. 2990–?), better known to his friends as Pippin, is a fictional character from J. R. R. Tolkiens universe of Middle-earth; a Hobbit, and one of Frodo Bagginss youngest but dearest friends. ... Meriadoc Brandybuck, usually referred to as Merry, is a fictional character from J.R.R. Tolkiens Middle-earth, featured throughout his most famous work, The Lord of the Rings. ... Samwise Gamgee (T.A. 2983-F.A. 62; S.R. 1383-1482), a fictional character featured in J. R. R. Tolkiens fantasy world Middle-earth, is Frodo Baggins servant who proves to be the most loyal of the Fellowship of the Ring. ... Bree is a fictional village in J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth, east of the Shire and south of Fornost Erain. ... Aragorn II, son of Arathorn II, is an important character from J. R. R Tolkiens legendarium. ... Location of Rivendell in Middle-earth marked in red Rivendell (Sindarin: Imladris) is an Elven outpost in Middle-earth, a fictional realm created by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, Weathertop (Sindarin Amon Sûl, Hill of Wind) is a significant hill in the Eriador region of Middle-earth, the southernmost and highest summit of the Weather Hills. ... The Witch-king of Angmar, also known as the Lord of the Nazgûl and the Black Captain among other names, is a fictional character from the novel The Lord of the Rings by J. R. R. Tolkien, set in the fantasy world of Middle-earth. ... Legolas is an important character in J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium, featured in The Lord of the Rings. ... Spoiler warning: Elrond the Half-elven (F.A. 525 – ?) is a fictional character of Middle-earth, created by fantasy author J. R. R. Tolkien. ... Saruman is a fictional character in J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth legendarium. ... Mount Doom and Barad-dûr in Mordor, as depicted in the Peter Jackson film. ... Boromir is a supporting character in J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium. ... The Stewards of Gondor were rulers from J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium of Middle-earth. ... Gondor is a fictional kingdom in J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth. ... Legolas is an important character in J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium, featured in The Lord of the Rings. ... Celeborn (portrayed by Marton Csokas), an Elf in Peter Jacksons adaptation of The Fellowship of the Ring. ... Gimli is a fictional character from J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth legendarium, featured in The Lord of the Rings. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth, Dwarves (also known as the Naugrim) are beings of short stature who all possess beards and are often friendly with Hobbits, although long suspicious of Elves. ...


Their attempt to cross the Misty Mountains is foiled by heavy snow, so they are forced to take a path under the mountains via Moria, an ancient Dwarf kingdom, now full of Orcs and other evil creatures, where Gandalf falls into the abyss after battling a Balrog. The remaining eight members of the Fellowship then spend some time in the elf-haven of Lothlórien. They leave Lórien by river. Boromir tries to take the Ring from Frodo, who puts it on to escape him. Frodo decides to leave the others behind and continue his quest alone - but the faithful Sam insists on coming along. Boromir is killed by Orcs while trying to defend Merry and Pippin, whom the Orcs capture, meaning to take them to Isengard through the land of Rohan. After managing to escape the Orcs, and flee into Fangorn Forest, Merry and Pippin meet Treebeard, a huge treelike creature. Aragorn, Gimli and Legolas, tracking Merry and Pippin, find small prints and they follow these into Fangorn Forest, where they find Gandalf, whom they believed had perished in the mines of Moria. The four ride to Rohan's capital, Edoras. Gandalf persuades King Théoden that his people are in danger. Aragorn, Gimli and Legolas then travel to the defensive fortification Helm's Deep. Frodo and Sam, meanwhile, discover Gollum stalking them, and capture him. Frodo pities him, and lets him live in return for guidance to Mount Doom. Gollum promises to lead them to a secret entrance to Mordor. At Helm's Deep, Théoden's forces resist an onslaught of Orcs sent by Saruman, and Gandalf arrives the next morning with the Riders of Rohan just in time — and none escape. The Misty Mountains as seen in the prologue to The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring (2001). ... In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, Moria was an ominous name given by the Eldar to what had once been an enormous underground complex in north-western Middle-earth, comprising a vast network of tunnels, chambers, mines and huge halls or mansions, that ran under and ultimately through... A Balrog fighting Gandalf, as depicted by Ted Nasmith. ... location of Lórien in Middle-earth marked in red This article is about the Lórien of J. R. R. Tolkiens works. ... Rohan (from Sindarin Rochand), is a fictional realm in J. R. R. Tolkiens fantasy era of Middle-earth. ... Treebeard or (Sindarin) Fangorn is a fictional character from J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth. ... An Ash Ent in the Lord of the Rings movie series Ents are a fictional race from J. R. R. Tolkiens fantasy world of Middle-earth. ... Edoras is the grand mountain top capital city of Rohan. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens The Lord of the Rings, Théoden was the seventeenth King of Rohan, and last of the Second Line. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth fantasy writings, Helms Deep was a large valley in the north-western Ered Nimrais (White Mountains). ...


Differences from the book

The movie makes some deviations from the book, but overall follows Tolkien's narrative quite closely. Many parts of the book explaining the transition from one part of the plot to another were omitted, which could make the middle part of the film somewhat difficult to follow if the viewer is unfamiliar with the story. Of the adaptation, Bakshi stated, "Things had to be left out but nothing in the story was really altered."[3]


Omissions

The film greatly condenses Frodo's journey from Bag End to Bree. The subplot of Merry and Pippin's "conspiracy" to help Frodo is reduced to a few sentences. Stop-overs at Farmer Maggot's house, Merry's house, and the house of the mysterious Tom Bombadil deep in the Old Forest are omitted. Maggot and his family and Bombadil and his wife Goldberry are thus all omitted, along with Fatty Bolger, a hobbit in on the conspiracy who accompanied Frodo at the beginning. According to Bakshi, "Tom Bombadil was dropped because he didn't move the story along."[3] As the Bombadil episode is omitted, the subsequent episode of the journey through the Barrow-downs, as well as encounters with Barrow-wights, are omitted as well. Farmer Maggot is a Hobbit in J.R.R. Tolkiens Middle-earth universe. ... Tom Bombadil is a supporting character in J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium. ... Goldberry is a fictional character from J. R. R. Tolkiens The Lord of the Rings. ... Fredegar Fatty Bolger is a fictional character in J. R. R. Tolkiens fantasy novel The Lord of the Rings. ... location of Barrow-downs in Middle-earth marked in red In J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium, the Barrow-downs or Tyrn Gorthad were a series of low hills east of the Shire, behind the Old Forest, and west of the village of Bree. ... Barrow-wights are wraith-like creatures in J. R. R. Tolkiens world of Middle-earth. ...


In the scene where Frodo finds out that his ring is the One Ring, he and Gandalf do not look for "fire-letters" inscribed on the ring as in the book.[6] These "fire-letters", along with the Ring not getting warmed (due to its virtual indestructibility) identify the ring as Sauron's Ring. The latter identifier is included.


Later, Aragorn carries a broken sword up to the Rivendell section of the story where he presents it to the council. He identifies it as the sword of "Elendil of Gondor" who died fighting Sauron. Immediately after, narration states Aragorn is descended from Prince Isildur, who cut off the Ring from Sauron's hand. The book makes clear that Elendil was the king of Gondor (and of a sister realm Arnor, not mentioned in the film), and his broken sword is borne by his rightful heirs. Thus, Aragorn is heir to the throne of Gondor (and Arnor). Elendil is actually Isildur's father, but this is not made clear in the film. Though Aragorn is established as Isildur's descendant in the film, it is not made clear that he is heir to a throne. (Also omitted was the fact that it was Elendil's sword which Isildur used to cut off the Ring.) After Rivendell, the sword is shown whole again, as in the book wherein it is reforged, but the reforging is passed over in the film. The shards of Narsil in Peter Jacksons The Fellowship of the Ring. ... In Middle-earth, the fantasy universe of J. R. R. Tolkien, Elendil was a heroic figure. ... In the fiction of J.R.R. Tolkien, Arnor, or the Northern Kingdom, was a kingdom of the Dúnedain in the land of Eriador in Middle-earth. ... The following list of weapons of Middle-earth includes all weaponry directly taken from J. R. R. Tolkiens fantasy legendarium. ...


The film omits some action scenes, such as a pre-Moria battle with wolves, Legolas shooting down a Ringwraith's mount, and Orc archers shooting at the Fellowship on the river Anduin. Éowyn and the Nazgûl by Ted Nasmith In J. R. R. Tolkiens The Lord of the Rings, fell beast is the authors description of the flying carrion-eating pterosaur-like creatures on which the Nazgûl rode after being unhorsed at the Ford of Bruinen. ...


The terms "Ent" and "Nazgûl" are omitted in favor of "tree-herder" and "Ringwraith".


Modifications

In the film's prologue it is suggested that Sauron learned the craft of Ring-making after the 19 lesser rings were made whilst in the original story it is Sauron who teaches the Elven-smiths this ability. Another scene suggests that the Last Alliance of Men and Elves were losing the war against Sauron which contradicts the original story.[7]


Some changes were cosmetic in nature. For example, Saruman the White adopts the title "Saruman of Many Colours" as in Tolkien's novel. In it he initially wore white but modified his robe.[7] However, in the film his robes are neither white nor multicolored, but are in different shades of red. Legolas wears silver and grey clothes whereas in the book he is "clad in green and brown".[7] Aragorn too wore "rusty green and brown"[8] in the book whereas his garments are in different shades of brown in the film. Boromir wears a horned helmet, which has no precedent in the book. Representation of a horned helmet from a Danish toy. ...


The scene where the Ringwraiths arrive in the hobbits' room and begin slashing at their beds only to find that they are not there is not in the book, wherein the hobbits only find the aftermath of the attack before dawn of the next day.[9] Also, Tolkien implies that the attack was carried out by agents of the Ringwraiths in Bree, possibly including one Bill Ferny, not the Ringwraiths themselves (though they were present in the town). As Aragorn states: Bill Ferny is a fictional character in J. R. R. Tolkiens The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring and The Return of the King. ...

"In dark and loneliness they are strongest; they will not openly attack a house where there are lights and many people - not until they are desperate, not while all the long leagues of Eriador still lie before us. But their power is in terror, and already some in Bree are in their clutch. They will drive these wretches to some evil work: Ferny, and some of the strangers, and, maybe, the gatekeeper too."[10]

The High Elf Glorfindel whom the hobbits and Aragorn meet as they approach Rivendell[11] is replaced by the more prominent Wood-elf Legolas, who appears later in the book, in Rivendell.[7] In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, Glorfindel is an Elf, a Noldor who appears in the tales of Middle-earth. ... Location of Rivendell in Middle-earth marked in red Rivendell (Sindarin: Imladris) is an Elven outpost in Middle-earth, a fictional realm created by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth, the best known Silvan Elves are the Elves of northern Mirkwood and Lothlórien. ... Legolas is an important character in J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium, featured in The Lord of the Rings. ...


Éomer and Éowyn both have no lines. Similar to Legolas and Glorfindel, Éomer's role is merged with that of the minor character Erkenbrand. Éomer is a supporting character in J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium. ... Éowyn (T.A. 2995–F.A. ?), a shieldmaiden of Rohan, is a character in J. R. R. Tolkiens fantasy universe of Middle-earth who appears in his most famous work, The Lord of the Rings. ... Erkenbrand is a character from J. R. R. Tolkiens novel The Lord of the Rings. ...


The depiction of the battle of Helm's Deep differs in some details from the book. Notably, the fortress itself is called "Helm's Deep" in the film while in the book it was called the "Hornburg", and "Helm's Deep" is the name of the valley where it is located,[12] or more precisely, the ravine behind the fortress.[13] The explosive-like "blasting-fire", here the "Fire of Isengard," appears as magical projectiles shot from Isengard itself. Éomer is portrayed as a renegade who Gandalf finds; together, they save the day at Helm's Deep. In the book, he was present at the battle, and Gandalf arrives with Erkenbrand.[12] Combatants Isengard Rohan Commanders Saruman Théoden, Aragorn, Gandalf, Éomer Strength 10,000 Uruk-hai and common Orcs of Isengard, 2,000-5,000 Dunlendings, an unknown number of orc-human hybrids about 2,000 Rohirrim; reinforced by 1,000 more Rohirrim in the morning, and thousands of Huorns Casualties...


Cast

Cast lists for adaptations of The Lord of the Rings
Cast of The Lord of the Rings (1978 film)
Cast of The Lord of the Rings (1981 radio)
Cast of The Lord of the Rings (2001-3 films)

The Lord of the Rings, an epic high fantasy novel by the British author J. R. R. Tolkien, set in his world of Middle-earth (a fictional past version of our Earth), has been adapted for various media multiple times. ... The Lord of the Rings is an epic high fantasy novel written by the English academic J. R. R. Tolkien. ... J.R.R. Tolkiens The Lord of the Rings is a 1978 animated fantasy film directed by Ralph Bakshi. ... In 1981 BBC Radio 4 broadcast a dramatisation of J. R. R. Tolkiens The Lord of the Rings in 26 half-hour stereo instalments. ... The Lord of the Rings film trilogy comprises three live action fantasy epic films; The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring (2001), The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers (2002) and The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King (2003). ... Christopher Guard (born 5 December 1953 in London, England) is an actor. ... William Squire (29 April 1916 - 3 May 1989) was a British actor of film and television. ... Michael Scholes is an actor. ... John Vincent Hurt CBE (born January 22, 1940) is an Academy Award-nominated British actor. ... Simon Chandler is a television actor. ... Dominic Guard (b. ... Norman Bird (30 October 1924 – 22 April 2005) was born in Coalville, Leicestershire, England, and was one of Britains foremost character actors. ... Michael Graham Cox (Born January 6 1938 - April 8 1995) was a British actor. ... Anthony Daniels with C-3POs head. ... David Buck (October 17, 1936—January 27, 1989) was an English actor. ... Peter Woodthorpe (September 25, 1931-August 12, 2004) was an English movie, television and voice actor who is best known for supplying the voice of Gollum in the 1978 Bakshi version of The Lord of the Rings and BBCs 1981 radio serial. ... Philip Stone (April 14, 1924 – June 15, 2003) was an English actor, born Philip Stones in Leeds, West Yorkshire. ... Michael Deacon (born 1933 in Scotland – died 26 December 2000 in Northwood, Middlesex, England) was a Scottish television actor. ... André Morell as Professor Bernard Quatermass in the BBC Television serial Quatermass and the Pit (1958-59). ... Alan Tilvern (born 5 November 1918 in London, England – died 17 December 2003 in London, England) was a British film and television actor. ... Annette Crosbie, OBE (born 12 February 1934) is a Scottish character actress, best known for her many television appearances. ... John Westbrook (1 November 1922 - 16 June 1989) was an English actor. ...

Production

Ralph Bakshi and Saul Zaentz scouting locations in Spain for the live action shoot.

Director Ralph Bakshi was introduced to The Lord of the Rings during the mid-1950s, when he was working as an animator for Terrytoons. In 1957, the young animator started trying to convince people that the story could be told in animation.[3] In the 1970s, Bakshi, who had since achieved box office success producing adult-oriented animated films such as Fritz the Cat, learned that a live-action film adaptation was being produced by United Artists, under the direction of John Boorman. According to Bakshi, he was told that Boorman had planned to produce all three parts of The Lord of the Rings as a single film. "I thought that was madness, certainly a lack of character on Boorman's part. Why would you want to tamper with anything Tolkien did?"[14] When Boorman's proposed adaptation fell apart, Bakshi approached the studio and proposed that he direct a three-part animated film adaptation of the book. "And here comes the horror story, right? They said fine, because Boorman handed in this 700-page script, and do I want to read it? I said, 'Well, is it all three books in one?' They said, 'Yes, but he's changed a lot of the characters, and he's added characters. He's got some sneakers he's merchandising in the middle.' I said, 'No, I'd rather not read it. I'd rather do the books as close as we can, using Tolkien's exact dialogue and scenes.' They said, 'Fine,' which knocked me down, 'because we don't understand a word Boorman wrote. We never read the books. [...] We ain't got time to read it. You understand it, Ralph, so go do it.'"[14] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1500x1058, 219 KB) Summary Ralph Bakshi and Saul Zaentz scouting locations in Spain for live action shoot of The Lord of the Rings (1978 film). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1500x1058, 219 KB) Summary Ralph Bakshi and Saul Zaentz scouting locations in Spain for live action shoot of The Lord of the Rings (1978 film). ... Mighty Mouse, the signature character of the studio. ... Fritz the Cat is a 1972 animated film written and directed by Ralph Bakshi as his feature film debut. ... John Boorman (born January 18, 1933 in Shepperton, Surrey, United Kingdom), is a British filmmaker, currently based in Ireland, best known for his feature films such as Point Blank, Deliverance, Excalibur, and The General. ... The Lord of the Rings, an epic high fantasy novel by the British author J. R. R. Tolkien, set in his world of Middle-earth (a fictional past version of our Earth), has been adapted for various media multiple times. ...


Across the hall from United Artists, located in the same building, was the Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer office, where Bakshi spoke to then-president Dan Melnick. "I thought he would understand what The Rings meant, because UA did not."[14] Bakshi and Melnick made a deal with Mike Medavoy at United Artists, giving Medavoy his money back. "The Boorman script cost $3 million, so Boorman was happy by the pool, screaming and laughing and drinking, 'cause he got $3 million for his script to be thrown out."[14] After Melnick was fired from MGM, the deal fell through.[14] Following this, Bakshi contacted Saul Zaentz (who helped finance Bakshi's first film, Fritz the Cat) and asked him if he wanted to produce The Lord of the Rings. Zaentz agreed to do so. At United Artists, the original three-part adaptation was negotiated down to two parts. Before the production started, Bakshi met with Tolkien's daughter Priscilla to discuss how the film would be made. She showed him the room where her father did his writing and drawing. Bakshi states that "My promise to Tolkien's daughter was to be pure to the book. I wasn't going to say, 'Hey, throw out Gollum and change these two characters.' My job was to say, 'This is what the genius said.'"[15] For alternate meanings of MGM, see MGM (disambiguation). ...


Screenwriting and development

An early draft of the screenplay was written by Chris Conkling, who told the bulk of a story in flashback, from Merry Brandybuck's point of view.[2] After Bakshi and Zaentz saw Conkling's first draft, fantasy author Peter S. Beagle was called in for a rewrite.[2] According to the website of publisher Conlan Press, Beagle wrote multiple drafts of the script for this movie for only $5,000 on the strength of promises from Saul Zaentz to hire him for other, better-paying projects afterward, and Zaentz later reneged on these promises.[16] J.R.R. Tolkiens The Lord of the Rings is a 1978 animated fantasy film directed by Ralph Bakshi. ... Peter Soyer Beagle (born in 1939) is an American fantasist and author of novels, nonfiction, and screenplays. ...


Directing

Ralph Bakshi looks into the camera lens during the live-action shoot.

According to Bakshi, "The directorial problem was directing an epic. Epics tend to drag. The biggest challenge was to be true to the book."[3] When asked what he was trying to accomplish with the film, Bakshi stated "The goal was to bring as much quality as possible to the work. I wanted real illustration as opposed to cartoons. [...] Descriptions were dropped because you actually see it in the film. It's not that important to me how a hobbit looks. Everyone has their own idea of what the characters look like. It's important to me that the energy of Tolkien survives. It's important that the quality of animation matches the quality of Tolkien. Who cares how big Gandalf's nose is? The tendency of animation is just to worry about the drawing. If the movie works, whether you agree about Bilbo's face or not, the rest becomes inconsequential."[3] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x1232, 212 KB) Summary Director Ralph Bakshi looks into the camera lens during the shooting of the live-action footage for the rotoscoped segments in The Lord of the Rings (1978 film). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x1232, 212 KB) Summary Director Ralph Bakshi looks into the camera lens during the shooting of the live-action footage for the rotoscoped segments in The Lord of the Rings (1978 film). ...


Bakshi's major artistic influences on the film were classical illustrators such as Howard Pyle and N. C. Wyeth. Bakshi states that no contemporary illustrators were an influence on the style of the film. Bakshi states that "The film is a clash of a lot of styles like in all my films. I like moody backgrounds. I like drama. I like a lot of saturated color. Of course, a big problem was controlling the artists so they drew alike. How do you have 600 people draw one character alike? The tendency is to want to let the artist have some freedom but then someone would leave off a hat or horn on a hat on a character. [...] I think we've achieved real illustration as opposed to cartoons. Artistically, we can do anything we want."[3] Howard Pyle (March 5, 1853-November 9, 1911) was an American illustrator and writer, primarily of books for young audiences. ... Newell Convers Wyeth (October 22, 1882 – October 19, 1945), known as N.C. Wyeth, was an American artist and illustrator. ...


Animation

Orcs in Moria.
Orcs in Moria.

According to Jim Korkis, publicity for the film announced that Bakshi had created "the first movie painting" by utilizing "an entirely new technique in filmmaking."[3] Much of the film used live-action footage which was then rotoscoped to produce an animated look.[3] This saved production costs and gave the animated characters a more realistic look. For the live-action portion of the production, Bakshi and his cast and crew arrived in Spain where the rotoscope models acted out their parts in costume. According to Bakshi, "I was told that at Disney the actor was told to play it like a cartoon with all that exaggeration. In Lord of the Rings, I had the actors play it straight. The rotoscope in the past has been used in scenes and then exaggerated. The action becomes cartoony. The question then comes up that if you're not going to be cartoony, why animate? [...] It is the traditional method of rotoscoping but the approach is untraditional. It's a rotoscope realism unlike anything that's been seen. It really is a unique thing for animation. The number of characters moving in a scene is staggering. In The Lord of the Rings, you have hundreds of people in the scene. We have cels with a thousand people on them. It was so complex sometimes we'd only get one cel a week from an artist. It turned out that the simple shots were the ones that only had four people in them."[3] Image File history File links Bakshi_Orcs. ... Image File history File links Bakshi_Orcs. ... In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, Moria was an ominous name given by the Eldar to what had once been an enormous underground complex in north-western Middle-earth, comprising a vast network of tunnels, chambers, mines and huge halls or mansions, that ran under and ultimately through... Rotoscoping is a technique where animators trace live action movement, frame by frame, for use in animated films. ...

Bakshi and the Lord of the Rings cast
Bakshi and the Lord of the Rings cast

Many of the actors who contributed voices to this production also acted out their parts for rotoscoped scenes. The actions of Bilbo Baggins and Samwise Gamgee were performed by Billy Barty, while Sharon Baird served as the performance model for Frodo Baggins.[17] Although some cel animation was produced and shot for the film,[18][19] very little of it appears in the final film. Most of the film's crowd and battle scenes use a different technique, in which live-action footage is posterized to produce a more three-dimensional look. In a few shots the two techniques are combined. Of the rotoscoping, Bakshi stated that he "didn't start thinking about shooting the film totally in live action until I saw it really start to work so well. I learned lots of things about the process, like rippling. One scene, some figures were standing on a hill and a big gust of wind came up and the shadows moved back and forth on the clothes and it was unbelievable in animation. I don't think I could get the feeling of cold on the screen without showing snow or an icicle on some guy's nose. The characters have weight and they move correctly."[3] Image File history File links LOTR_cast. ... Image File history File links LOTR_cast. ... Billy Barty (born William John Bertanzetti) (October 25, 1924–December 23, 2000) was an American film actor. ... Sharon Baird (born August 16, 1943) is a television actress. ... An example of a photo in JPEG format (24bit colour or 16. ...


Following the live-action shoot, each frame of the live footage was printed out, and placed behind an animation cel. The details of each frame were copied and painted onto the cel. Both the live-action and animated sequences were storyboarded.[20] Of the production, Bakshi is quoted as saying, "Making two pictures [The live action reference and the actual animated feature.] in two years is crazy. Most directors when they finish editing, they are finished; we were just starting. I got more than I expected. The crew is young. The crew loves it. If the crew loves it, it's usually a great sign. They aren't older animators trying to snow me for jobs next year."[3] Although he continued to use rotoscoping in American Pop, Hey Good Lookin' and Fire and Ice, Bakshi later regretted his use of rotoscoping, stating that he felt that it was a mistake to trace the source footage rather than using it a a guide.[21] American Pop is a 1981 American animated film directed by Ralph Bakshi. ... Hey Good Lookin is a 1982 animated film written, directed, and produced by Ralph Bakshi. ... Fire and Ice, released in 1983, was a collaboration between Ralph Bakshi and Frank Frazetta, distributed by 20th Century Fox, who also distributed 1977s Wizards. ...


Tim Burton worked as a cel painter on the film. He would later become an animator for Disney, and later a film director in his own right.[15][22][23] Timothy Tim William Burton (born August 25, 1958) is an Academy Award-nominated American film director, writer and designer. ... Walt Disney Feature Animation (WDFA) is the animation studio that makes up a key element of The Walt Disney Company. ...


Music

Main article: The Lord of the Rings (soundtrack)

The film's score was composed by Leonard Rosenman. Bakshi had wanted to include music by Led Zeppelin, but was unable to get the rights to do so.[24] The J.R.R. Tolkiens The Lord of the Rings OST is the soundtrack to what was to be the first part of Ralph Bakshis animated film adaptation of J.R.R. Tolkiens The Lord of the Rings, featuring music composed by Leonard Rosenman. ... Leonard Rosenman (born September 7, 1924 in Brooklyn, New York) is an American film, television and concert composer. ... Led Zeppelin were an English rock band that formed in September 1968. ...


Sequel

Later poster depicting a scene not featured in the film that may have been intended for the unproduced sequel.
Later poster depicting a scene not featured in the film that may have been intended for the unproduced sequel.

The film was originally intended to be distributed as The Lord of the Rings Part 1.[14][15] According to Bakshi, when he completed the film, United Artists executives told him that they were planning to release the film without indicating that a sequel would follow, because they felt that audiences would not pay to see half of a film. "I told them they can't drop the Part One, because people are going to come in thinking they'll see the whole film, and it's not there. We had a huge fight, and they released it as Lord Of The Rings. So when it came to the end, people were stunned in the theater, even worse than I ever realized they would be, because they were expecting to see the whole film. People keep telling me I never finished the film. And I keep saying, 'That's right!'"[14] In another interview, Bakshi stated "Had it said 'Part One,' I think everyone would have respected it. But because it didn't say 'Part One,' everyone came in expecting to see the entire three books, and that's where the confusion comes in."[15] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x869, 158 KB) Summary LOTR b style poster. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x869, 158 KB) Summary LOTR b style poster. ...


In interviews, Bakshi sometimes refers to the film as The Lord of the Rings Part 1. According to Bakshi, a few A and B-rolls were shot for Part 2, but no other work was done.[25] Bakshi states that he would have never made the film if he knew what would happen during the production. "I was doing it to save it for Tolkien, because I loved the Rings very much. [...] I think it took more out of me then I got back. [...] [The film] made me realize that I'm not interested in [adapting another writer's story]. That the thing that seemed to interest me the most was shooting off my big mouth, or sitting in a room and thinking about how do you feel about this issue or that issue and how do you get that over to an audience, was the most exciting part of my life."[22] In 2006, Bakshi stated that if he were given the opportunity to finish The Lord of the Rings, he would.[24] B roll is the secondary or safety footage for a film. ...


Comic

Spaniard artist Luis Bermejo realized an adaptation of the movie in Spain for Europe. It consisted on three albums that were released in Finland, Germany, Netherlands, and Spain. Due some copyright problems, the comic wasn't publish on English. Luis Bermejo (frequently credited as Bermejo), born in 1931 in Madrid, Spain, is a Spanish illustrator known for his work in the production of comics and graphic novels in Spain, Italy, Great Britain, and the United States. ...


Reception

Critics were generally mixed in their responses to the film. Roger Ebert called Bakshi's effort a "mixed blessing" and "an entirely respectable, occasionally impressive job ... [which] still falls far short of the charm and sweep of the original story.[26] Vincent Canby of the New York Times called the film "both numbing and impressive."[27] Film website Rotten Tomatoes, which compiles reviews from a wide range of critics, gives the film a score of 50% (with nine out of 18 reviewers giving the film a positive review).[28] The film grossed $30,471,420 at the box office[1][29] (the budget was $8 million).[1] In Leonard Maltin's book Of Mice and Magic: A History of American Animated Cartoons, Maltin cites The Lord of the Rings and Fritz the Cat as the only major box office successes of Bakshi's career.[4] However, United Artists did not provide funding for a sequel. Roger Joseph Ebert (born June 18, 1942) is a Pulitzer Prize-winning American film critic. ... Vincent Canby (July 27, 1924 – September 15, 2000) was an American film critic. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The term box office can refer to either: A place where tickets are sold to the public for admission to a venue The amount of business a particular production, such as a movie or theatre show, does. ... Leonard Maltin (born December 18, 1950 in New York City) is a widely known and respected American film critic. ...


Legacy

Bakshi's film sparked enough interest in Tolkien's work to provoke not only an animated TV special produced by the Rankin-Bass animation studio based on The Return of the King, but a complete adaptation of The Lord of the Rings on BBC Radio. For this broadcast, Michael Graham Cox and Peter Woodthorpe reprised their roles of Boromir and Gollum, respectively. A Television Special is a television program that is essentially a television movie or a short film usually intended to be broadcast sporadically, typically once a year at most. ... Rankin-Bass (aka Videocraft International) is an American production company, known for its seasonal television specials. ... DVD cover The Return of the King is an animated adaptation of the novel by J. R. R. Tolkien which was released by Rankin/Bass as a TV special in 1980. ... In 1981 BBC Radio 4 broadcast a dramatisation of J. R. R. Tolkiens The Lord of the Rings in 26 half-hour stereo instalments. ... BBC Radio is a service of the British Broadcasting Corporation which has operated in the United Kingdom under the terms of a Royal Charter since 1927. ...

 
Peter Jackson took inspiration from Bakshi.

Bakshi's film has also been cited as an influence on director Peter Jackson's film trilogy based on The Lord of the Rings. After initially denying having seen Bakshi's film, Jackson admitted to having first encountered The Lord of the Rings via Bakshi's film,[30] stating that he "enjoyed it and wanted to know more."[31] Bakshi is quoted as saying "Peter Jackson did say that the first film inspired him to go on and do the series, but that happened after I was bitching and moaning to a lot of interviewers that he said at the beginning that he never saw the movie. I thought that was kind of fucked up."[22] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (853x480, 64 KB) Summary Sceen capture from The Lord of the Rings (1978 film). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Peter Jackson CNZM (born October 31, 1961) is a New Zealand filmmaker best known as the director of The Lord of the Rings trilogy, which he, along with Fran Walsh, his long time partner, and Philippa Boyens, adapted from the novels by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... The Lord of the Rings film trilogy comprises three live action fantasy epic films; The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring (2001), The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers (2002) and The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King (2003). ...


Jackson's adaptation borrows from Bakshi's version, most notably the scene of the Nazgûl appearing in the room at Bree and slashing the beds to ribbons thinking the shapes under the sheets to be the hobbits. This is almost identical to Bakshi's version, which is significant as the scene is not depicted in the book. On the audio commentary for the DVD release of The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring, Jackson acknowledges one shot, a low angle of a hobbit at Bilbo's birthday party shouting "Proudfeet!", as an intentional homage to Bakshi's film. On a DVD (or laserdisc), an audio commentary is a bonus track consisting of a lecture or comments by one or more speakers, who talk about the movie as it progresses. ...


Bakshi is quoted as saying that he had "mixed feeling" about Jackson's adaptations, and he had not seen the films. "In some respects I feel good that Peter Jackson continued and went on, and in some respects I feel bad that Saul Zaentz, the producer, and various people never called me, thanked me, or asked my permission to do the movie. [...] Not has anyone sent me a bottle of wine, on the tremendous success. [...] But I have more feelings on the business side of that than I do on the creative side. I'm glad Peter Jackson had a movie to look at—I never did. And certainly there's a lot to learn from watching any movie, both its mistakes and when it works. So he had a little easier time than I did, and a lot better budget."[22]


Warner Bros. (the rights holder to the post-1974 Rankin-Bass library and most of the Saul Zaentz theatrical backlog) has released The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings, and The Return of the King on VHS and DVD, both packaged separately and as a boxed-set "trilogy" of films.[32][33] The Lord of the Rings is currently out of print as a separate release.[34] In 2003, the Online Film Critics Society ranked the film as the 90th greatest animated film of all time.[35] Warner Bros. ... Bottom view of VHS cassette with magnetic tape exposed Top view of VHS cassette with front casing removed The Video Home System, better known by its abbreviation VHS is a recording and playing standard for analog video cassette recorders (VCRs), developed by Victor Company of Japan, Limited (JVC) and launched... Size comparison: A 12 cm Sony DVD+RW and a 19 cm Dixon Ticonderoga pencil. ... The Online Film Critics Society (OFCS) , the professional association for film journalists, scholars and historians who publish their reviews, interviews and essays exclusively or primarily in the online media. ...


References

  1. ^ a b c Business details. Internet Movie Database. Retrieved on 2007-01-09.
  2. ^ a b c Croft, Janet Brennan. Three Rings for Hollywood: Scripts for The Lord of the Rings by Zimmerman, Boorman, and Beagle. University of Oklahoma. Retrieved on 2007-01-09.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Jim Korkis. If at first you don't succeed ... call Peter Jackson. Jim Hill Media. Retrieved on 2007-01-09.
  4. ^ a b Maltin, Leonard (1987). Of Mice and Magic: A History of American Animated Cartoons. Plume. ISBN 0-978-0452259935. 
  5. ^ Diamond, Jamie. "Animation's Bad Boy Returns, Unrepentant", New York Times, July 5, 1992. 
  6. ^ J. R. R. Tolkien (1987). The Fellowship of the Ring. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, "The Shadow of the Past". ISBN 0-395-08255-2. 
  7. ^ a b c d J. R. R. Tolkien (1987). The Fellowship of the Ring. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, "The Council of Elrond". ISBN 0-395-08255-2. 
  8. ^ J. R. R. Tolkien (1987). The Fellowship of the Ring. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, "The Ring Goes South". ISBN 0-395-08255-2. 
  9. ^
  10. ^ J. R. R. Tolkien (1987). The Fellowship of the Ring. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, "Strider". ISBN 0-395-08255-2. 
  11. ^ J. R. R. Tolkien (1987). The Fellowship of the Ring. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, "Flight to the Ford". ISBN 0-395-08255-2. 
  12. ^ a b J. R. R. Tolkien (1987). The Two Towers. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, "Helm's Deep". ISBN 0-395-08254-4. 
  13. ^ Carpenter, Humphrey and Tolkien, Christopher (eds.) (1981). The Letters of J. R. R. Tolkien. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, #210. ISBN 0-395-31555-7. 
  14. ^ a b c d e f g Robinson, Tasha (January 31, 2003). Interview with Ralph Bakshi. The Onion A.V. Club. Retrieved on 2007-01-09.
  15. ^ a b c d Riley, Patrick (July 7, 2000). '70s Version of Lord of the Rings 'Devastated' Director Bakshi. Fox News. Retrieved on 2007-01-09.
  16. ^ Beagle/Zaentz FAQ. Conlan Press. Retrieved on 2007-01-09.
  17. ^ The Lord of the Rings (1978) - Full cast and crew. Internet Movie Database. Retrieved on 2007-08-08.
  18. ^ The Lord of the Rings - deleted scenes. The Official Ralph Bakshi website. Retrieved on 2007-08-08.
  19. ^ The Lord of the Rings - gallery image. The Official Ralph Bakshi website. Retrieved on 2007-08-08.
  20. ^ The Lord of the Rings - gallery image. The Official Ralph Bakshi website. Retrieved on 2007-08-08.
  21. ^ Gallagher, John A. (1983). The Directors Series: Interview with Ralph Bakshi (Part One). Retrieved on 2007-08-08.
  22. ^ a b c d Interview with Ralph Bakshi. IGN Filmforce. Retrieved on 2007-01-09.
  23. ^ Bakshi Board Exlusive Interview #8. Ralph Bakshi Forum. Retrieved on 2007-03-22.
  24. ^ a b Bakshi Board Exclusive Interview #6. Ralph Bakshi Forum. Retrieved on 2007-01-09.
  25. ^ Bakshi Board Exclusive Interview #3. Ralph Bakshi Forum. Retrieved on 2007-01-09.
  26. ^ Ebert, Roger (January 1, 1978). Review of The Lord of the Rings. Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved on 2007-01-09.
  27. ^ Canby, Vincent. "Review of The Lord of the Rings", New York Times, 1978. Retrieved on 2007-01-09. 
  28. ^ Tomatometer for The Lord of the Rings. Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved on 2007-01-09.
  29. ^ Box office data for The Lord of the Rings. Box Office Mojo. Retrieved on 2007-01-09.
  30. ^ Peter Jackson, as quoted at the Egyptian Theater in Hollywood, on February 6th, 2004. Audio; Retrieved on 2006-11-29.
  31. ^ Peter Jackson interview, Explorations (the Barnes & Noble Science Fiction newsletter), October/November 2001. Link; Archive; Retrieved on 2006-11-29.
  32. ^ ASIN: B00005UM49. Amazon.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-04.
  33. ^ ASIN: B00005RJ2W. Amazon.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-04.
  34. ^ ASIN: B00005MP5B. Amazon.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-04.
  35. ^ Top 100 Animated Features of All Time. Online Film Critics Society. Retrieved on 2007-01-09.

The Internet Movie Database (IMDb) is an online database of information about movies, actors, television shows, production crew personnel, and video games. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... John Ronald Reuel Tolkien CBE (3 January 1892 – 2 September 1973) was an English philologist, writer and university professor, best known as the author of The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings. ... The Fellowship of the Ring is the first of three volumes of the epic novel The Lord of the Rings by the English author J. R. R. Tolkien. ... i suck for crack!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!11Houghton Mifflin Company is a leading educational publisher in the United States. ... John Ronald Reuel Tolkien CBE (3 January 1892 – 2 September 1973) was an English philologist, writer and university professor, best known as the author of The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings. ... The Fellowship of the Ring is the first of three volumes of the epic novel The Lord of the Rings by the English author J. R. R. Tolkien. ... i suck for crack!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!11Houghton Mifflin Company is a leading educational publisher in the United States. ... John Ronald Reuel Tolkien CBE (3 January 1892 – 2 September 1973) was an English philologist, writer and university professor, best known as the author of The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings. ... The Fellowship of the Ring is the first of three volumes of the epic novel The Lord of the Rings by the English author J. R. R. Tolkien. ... i suck for crack!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!11Houghton Mifflin Company is a leading educational publisher in the United States. ... John Ronald Reuel Tolkien CBE (3 January 1892 – 2 September 1973) was an English philologist, writer and university professor, best known as the author of The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings. ... The Fellowship of the Ring is the first of three volumes of the epic novel The Lord of the Rings by the English author J. R. R. Tolkien. ... i suck for crack!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!11Houghton Mifflin Company is a leading educational publisher in the United States. ... John Ronald Reuel Tolkien CBE (3 January 1892 – 2 September 1973) was an English philologist, writer and university professor, best known as the author of The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings. ... The Fellowship of the Ring is the first of three volumes of the epic novel The Lord of the Rings by the English author J. R. R. Tolkien. ... i suck for crack!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!11Houghton Mifflin Company is a leading educational publisher in the United States. ... John Ronald Reuel Tolkien CBE (3 January 1892 – 2 September 1973) was an English philologist, writer and university professor, best known as the author of The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings. ... The Two Towers is the second volume of J. R. R. Tolkiens The Lord of the Rings. ... i suck for crack!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!11Houghton Mifflin Company is a leading educational publisher in the United States. ... Humphrey William Bouverie Carpenter (April 29, 1946 – January 4, 2005) was an English biographer, author and radio broadcaster. ... Christopher Reuel Tolkien (born November 21, 1924) is best known as the third son of author J. R. R. Tolkien (1892-1973), and as the editor of much of his fathers posthumously published work. ... The Letters of J. R. R. Tolkien (ISBN 0-618-05699-8) is a selection of J. R. R. Tolkiens letters published in 1981, edited by Tolkiens biographer Humphrey Carpenter assisted by Christopher Tolkien. ... i suck for crack!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!11Houghton Mifflin Company is a leading educational publisher in the United States. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Internet Movie Database (IMDb) is an online database of information about movies, actors, television shows, production crew personnel, and video games. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 81st day of the year (82nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Box Office Mojo is a website that tracks box office revenue in a systematic way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Peter Jackson CNZM (born October 31, 1961) is a New Zealand filmmaker best known as the director of The Lord of the Rings trilogy, which he, along with Fran Walsh, his long time partner, and Philippa Boyens, adapted from the novels by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... Graumans Egyptian Theatre, 1922 Graumans Egyptian Theatre, at 6712 Hollywood Boulevard in Hollywood, California is a world famous movie theatre that opened in 1922. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 29 is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 29 is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Amazon. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Amazon. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Amazon. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Online Film Critics Society (OFCS) , the professional association for film journalists, scholars and historians who publish their reviews, interviews and essays exclusively or primarily in the online media. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

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