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Encyclopedia > The Lord of the Rings
The Lord of the Rings

Cover designs for the three volumes of one edition of The Lord of the Rings
Author J. R. R. Tolkien
Country Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom
Language English
Genre(s) High fantasy, Adventure novel, Heroic romance
Publisher Allen & Unwin
Publication date 1954 and 1955
Media type Print (Hardback & Paperback)
Pages 1216 pp (total pages)
Preceded by The Hobbit

The Lord of the Rings is an epic high fantasy novel written by the English academic and philologist J. R. R. Tolkien. The story began as merely a sequel to Tolkien's earlier work, The Hobbit, but eventually developed into a much larger story. It was written in stages between 1937 and 1949, much of it during World War II.[1] Although intended as a single-volume work, it was originally published in three volumes in 1954 and 1955, and it is in this three-volume form that it is popularly known. It has since been reprinted numerous times and translated into many different languages,[2] becoming one of the most popular and influential works in 20th-century literature. // The Lord of the Rings is an epic high fantasy novel written by English academic J. R. R. Tolkien. ... Cover design for The Lord of the Rings by JRRT. This work is copyrighted. ... Tolkien redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... High fantasy is a subgenre of fantasy fiction that is set in invented or parallel worlds. ... The adventure novel is a literary genre of novels that has adventure, an exciting undertaking involving risk and physical danger, as its main theme. ... For the modern genre of romantic fiction, see Romance novel. ... A publisher is a person or entity which engages in the act of publishing. ... Allen & Unwin, formerly a major British publishing house, is now an independent, Australia-based book publisher and distributor. ... Hardcover books A hardcover (or hardback or hardbound) is a book bound with rigid protective covers (typically of cardboard covered with cloth, heavy paper, or sometimes leather). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... For other uses, see Hobbit (disambiguation) and There and Back Again (disambiguation). ... For other meanings of epic, see Epic. ... High fantasy is a subgenre of fantasy fiction that is set in invented or parallel worlds. ... Philology, etymologically, is the love of words. It is most accurately defined as an affinity toward the learning of the backgrounds as well as the current usages of spoken or written methods of human communication. The commonality of studied languages is more important than their origin or age (that is... Tolkien redirects here. ... For other uses, see Hobbit (disambiguation) and There and Back Again (disambiguation). ...


The story of The Lord of the Rings takes place in an alternate pre-history, the Third Age of Middle-earth. The lands of Middle-earth are populated by Men (humans) and other humanoid races (Hobbits, Elves, Dwarves, and Orcs), as well as many other creatures, both real and fantastic (Ents, Wargs, Balrogs, Trolls, etc.). The title of the book refers to the story's main antagonist, the Dark Lord Sauron, who created the Rings of Power and the One Ring that rules them, the ultimate weapon in his campaign to conquer and rule all of Middle-earth. From quiet beginnings in the Shire the story ranges across Middle-earth following the course of the War of the Ring through the eyes of its characters, most notably the hobbits, Frodo Baggins, Samwise Gamgee, Meriadoc Brandybuck and Peregrin Took. The main story is followed in the book by six appendices that provide a wealth of historical and linguistic background material.[3] For other uses, see The Third Age. ... A map of the Northwestern part of Middle-earth at the end of the Third Age, courtesy of the Encyclopedia of Arda. ... The race of Men in J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth books, such as The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings, refers to humanity and does not denote gender. ... The term humanoid refers to any being whose body structure resembles that of a human. ... For other uses, see Hobbit (disambiguation). ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium, an Elf is an individual member of one of the races that inhabit the lands of Arda. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth, Dwarves (also known as the Naugrim) are beings of short stature who all possess beards and are often friendly with Hobbits, although long suspicious of Elves. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens fantasy writings, Orcs or Orks are a race of creatures who are used as soldiers and henchmen by both the greater and lesser villains of The Silmarillion and The Lord of the Rings — Morgoth, Sauron and Saruman. ... For other uses, see ENT. Ents are a fictional race from J. R. R. Tolkiens fantasy world of Middle-earth. ... Varg redirects here, for the Norwegian black metal musician see Varg Vikernes. ... A Balrog fighting Gandalf, as depicted by Ted Nasmith. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens world of Middle-earth, Trolls are very large (twelve feet tall or more) humanoids of great strength and poor intellect. ... This article is about a fictional character from J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth fantasy writings. ... The bearers of the Rings of Power in Peter Jacksons The Fellowship of the Ring The Rings of Power are fictional artifacts from J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth legendarium. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The fields of the Shire in the Lord of the Rings movie trilogy The Shire is a region of J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional Middle-earth, described in The Lord of the Rings and other works. ... Combatants Free peoples: Gondor, Rohan, Dale, Esgaroth, Erebor, The Shire, Lothlórien, the Woodland Realm and the Fangorn forest Evil forces: Under Sauron: Mordor, Rhûn, Morgul, Harad, Umbar, Khand Under Saruman: Isengard, Dunland Commanders Gandalf (died but later resurrected) Aragorn Théoden† Éomer Denethor† Dáin II† Brand† Galadriel... Frodo redirects here. ... Samwise Gamgee, later known as Samwise Gardner[2] or Samwise the Brave and commonly known as Sam, is a fictional character in J.R.R. Tolkiens Middle-earth legendarium. ... Meriadoc Brandybuck, usually referred to as Merry, is a fictional character from J.R.R. Tolkiens Middle-earth, featured throughout his most famous work, The Lord of the Rings. ... Peregrin Took (T.A. 2990–F.A. 70), better known to his friends as Pippin, is a fictional character from J. R. R. Tolkiens universe of Middle-earth, a Hobbit, and one of Frodo Bagginss youngest but dearest friends. ... For the journal, see Linguistics (journal). ...


The Lord of the Rings has been subjected to extensive analysis of its themes and origins, as have all of Tolkien's works. Although a major work in itself, the story is only the last movement of a mythology that Tolkien had worked on since 1917.[4] Influences on this earlier work, and on the story of The Lord of the Rings, include philology, mythology, industrialization, and religion, as well as earlier fantasy works and Tolkien's experiences in World War I.[5] The Lord of the Rings in its turn is considered to have had a great effect on modern fantasy, and the impact of Tolkien's works is such that the use of the words "Tolkienian" and "Tolkienesque" has been recorded in the Oxford English Dictionary.[6] Since the publication of The Lord of the Rings by J. R. R. Tolkien, a wealth of secondary literature has been published discussing the literary themes and archetypes present in the story. ... Mythopoeia (Greek for myth-making) is a narrative genre in modern literature and film where a fictional mythology was created by the author or director. ... Philology, etymologically, is the love of words. It is most accurately defined as an affinity toward the learning of the backgrounds as well as the current usages of spoken or written methods of human communication. The commonality of studied languages is more important than their origin or age (that is... For other uses, see Mythology (disambiguation). ... Industrialisation (or industrialization) or an industrial revolution (in general, with lowercase letters) is a process of social and economic change whereby a human society is transformed from a pre-industrial to an industrial state . ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


The great and enduring popularity of The Lord of the Rings has led to numerous references in popular culture, the founding of many societies by fans of Tolkien's works,[7] and the publication of many books about Tolkien and his works. The Lord of the Rings has inspired, and continues to inspire, artwork, music, films and television, video games, and subsequent literature. Adaptations of The Lord of the Rings have been made for radio, theatre, and film. The 2001–2003 release of Peter Jackson's widely acclaimed Lord of the Rings film trilogy prompted a new surge of interest in The Lord of the Rings and Tolkien's other works.[8] Tolkien fandom is an international, informal community of fans of the works of J. R. R. Tolkien, especially of the Middle-earth legendarium which includes The Lord of the Rings, The Hobbit and The Silmarillion. ... The works of J. R. R. Tolkien have served as the inspiration to painters, musicians, film-makers and writers, to such an extent that Tolkien is sometimes seen as the father of the entire genre of high fantasy. ... While an immense number of computer and video games owe a great deal to J. R. R. Tolkiens works and the many other works making up the high fantasy settings based upon them, relatively few games have been directly adapted from his world of Middle-earth. ... The Lord of the Rings, an epic high fantasy novel by the British author J. R. R. Tolkien, set in his world of Middle-earth (a fictional past version of our Earth), has been adapted for various media multiple times. ... For other persons named Peter Jackson, see Peter Jackson (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Peter Jackson film trilogy. ...

Contents

Background

The History of Arda
Valian Years

Years of the Lamps
Years of the Trees
Years of the Sun Image File history File links Arda. ... The main part of this article relates to a version of Middle-earths history that is considered canon by many Tolkien fans (see: Middle-earth canon); it may contradict parts of The Silmarillion or other texts. ... Based on the works of J. R. R. Tolkien, the Valian Years are a reference to the passage of time between the first arrival of the Ainur in Arda and the first sunrise. ... In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, the Years of the Lamps are the first of the three great time-periods of Arda. ... A map of Aman, courtesy of the Encyclopedia of Arda In J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth legendarium, the Years of the Trees are one of the three great time-periods of Arda. ... In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, the Years of the Sun are the last of the three great time-periods of Arda, together with the Years of the Lamps and the Years of the Trees. ...

Ages of the Children of Ilúvatar

First Age
Second Age
Third Age
Fourth Age and later The main part of this article relates to a version of Middle-earths history that is considered canon by many Tolkien fans (see: Middle-earth canon); it may contradict parts of The Silmarillion or other texts. ... In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, the First Age began with the awakening of the Elves, and ended with the final overthrow of Morgoth by the combined armies of Valinor and Beleriand. ... The Second Age is a fictional time period from J. R. R. Tolkiens universe of Middle-earth. ... For other uses, see The Third Age. ... The Fourth Age and the later ages that followed it, are time periods from J. R. R. Tolkiens universe of Middle-earth, described in his fantasy writings. ...

Final Battle
Timeline of Arda

The historical background of the story of The Lord of the Rings is revealed in stages through the story and the Appendices. It is also elaborated upon in The Silmarillion, published after Tolkien's death. The beginnings of the story stretch back thousands of years before the time of the book. The eponymous Lord of the Rings, the Dark Lord Sauron, secretly forged a great Ring of Power called the One Ring, to enslave the wearers of the other Rings of Power. He launched the War of the Elves and Sauron during which he captured 16 of the 19 Elven Rings and distributed them to seven Dwarf Lords and nine Kings of Men. The Men who possessed the Nine were corrupted over time and became most feared servants, the undead Nazgûl or Ringwraiths. The Dwarves were more resilient against the Rings; they did not fade, and the only effect upon them was an undying lust for Gold. Sauron failed to capture the remaining Three Rings, which remained in the possession of the Elves who had made them, unlike the other Rings, without Sauron's involvement. Sauron had made the master ring himself, making a total of 20 Rings of Power. Spoiler warning: Plot and/or ending details about The Silmarillion follow. ... This article includes several chronologies relating to J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium. ... This article is about the book by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... This article is about a fictional character from J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth fantasy writings. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The bearers of the Rings of Power in Peter Jacksons The Fellowship of the Ring The Rings of Power are fictional artifacts from J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth legendarium. ... In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, the War of the Elves and Sauron was a great war fought in the Second Age. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth legendarium, the Nazgûl (from Black Speech Nazg (ring) and Gûl (wraith, spirit); Ringwraiths, sometimes written Ring-wraiths), also known as the Nine Riders or Black or Dark Riders (or simply the Nine), are evil servants of Sauron. ... For the video game developer see Three Rings Design. ...


The Men of the great island-nation of Númenor helped the hard-pressed Elves, ending the war in a victory against Sauron. About 1500 years later they sent a great force to overthrow Sauron, who surrendered, and was taken to Númenor as a prisoner. Over time, the cunning Sauron poisoned the minds of the Númenóreans against the Valar (deities on Earth) and deceived them into invading the Undying Lands. The Valar responded by destroying Númenor by drowning it beneath the sea. Sauron's spirit escaped to Middle-earth, as did some faithful Númenóreans who had opposed the invasion, led by Elendil and his sons. Númenor is a fictional location from J. R. R. Tolkiens universe of Middle-earth and is intended to be his version of Atlantis. ... The Valar (singular Vala) are characters in J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium. ... In the fictional writings of J. R. R. Tolkien, the Undying Lands are a realm inhabited by immortal beings. ... In Middle-earth, the fantasy universe of J. R. R. Tolkien, Elendil was a heroic figure. ...


More than 100 years later, Sauron again made war against the Númenóreans who had survived and established themselves in Middle-earth. Elendil formed the Last Alliance of Elves and Men with the Elven-king Gil-galad. They marched against Mordor, defeating Sauron's armies and besieging his stronghold Barad-dûr. After seven years of siege, Sauron himself came forth and engaged in single combat with the leaders of the Last Alliance. Combatants Mordor and allies Lindon, Gondor, Arnor and allies Commanders Sauron Gil-galad and Elendil Strength The Hosts of Mordor: Many Orc-hosts. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium, Ereinion Gil-galad was the son of Orodreth,[1] and his mother was a Sindarin Elf. ... Barad-dûr and Mount Doom in Peter Jacksons film The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King. ...

A map of Númenor (called Andor by the Elves).
A map of Númenor (called Andor by the Elves).

Gil-galad and Elendil wrestled with Sauron and were both killed in the battle. Sauron fell also and was vanquished; his spirit fled as he abandoned his damaged body.[9] Elendil's sword Narsil broke beneath him when he fell, and using the hilt-shard his son Isildur cut the One Ring from Sauron's hand. Isildur was advised by Elrond and Cirdan to destroy the One Ring outright by casting it into the volcanic Mount Doom where it was forged, but, attracted to its beauty, he refused and kept it as weregild (compensation) for the deaths of his father and his brother Anárion. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1184x981, 815 KB) Summary A map of Númenor (called Andor by the Elves), made by Hill (it. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1184x981, 815 KB) Summary A map of Númenor (called Andor by the Elves), made by Hill (it. ... Númenor is a fictional location from J. R. R. Tolkiens universe of Middle-earth and is intended to be his version of Atlantis. ... The shards of Narsil in Peter Jacksons The Fellowship of the Ring. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth, Isildur was a Dúnadan of Númenor, elder son of Elendil. ... Elrond Half-elven is a fictional character in J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth legendarium. ... In the fiction of J.R.R. Tolkien, C rdan (ship-maker in Sindarin) the Shipwright is a Sindarin Elf (of which he was one of the wisest princes), a great mariner and shipwright, lord of the Falas during much of the First Age, one of the wisest and perhaps... In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth, Mount Doom, or Orodruin, is a volcano in Mordor where the One Ring was forged in the Crack of Doom, a fiery chasm within the mountain. ... Look up wergeld in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


So began the Third Age of Middle-earth. Two years later, Isildur and his soldiers were ambushed by a band of Orcs at the Gladden Fields. Isildur tried to escape by putting on the Ring, knowing that it made mortal wearers invisible; but the Ring betrayed him and slipped from his finger while he was swimming in the Great River Anduin. He was seen and shot dead by Orcs, and the Ring was lost for two millennia on the river's bottom. For other uses, see The Third Age. ... Combatants Army of Arnor Unknown number of Orcs Commanders Isildur, (High-King of Arnor and Gondor) Elendur (Heir to the Throne) Uruks of Mordor Strength 200 Knights and Soldiers less than 20 archers Unknown Casualties Isildur Elendur Aratan Ciryon 217 men of Arnor Serious casualties The Disater of the Gladden... In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional Middle-earth, Anduin is the Sindarin name for the Great River of Wilderland, the longest river in the Third Age (the original Sindarin name means Long River). ...


It was then found by chance by a river hobbit named Déagol. His relative and friend[9] Sméagol killed him for the Ring and was eventually banished from his home. Sméagol fled into the Misty Mountains where, corrupted by the power of the Ring, he became a loathsome, slimy creature called Gollum. Much later, as told in The Hobbit, another hobbit, Bilbo Baggins, found the Ring seemingly by accident in Gollum's cave, and took it back to his home, Bag End, unaware that it was anything more than just a magic ring. For other uses, see Hobbit (disambiguation). ... Déagol, from J. R. R. Tolkiens fantasy universe of Middle-earth, was the Stoor Hobbit who became the third bearer of the One Ring, after Sauron and Isildur when he found the One Ring while diving in the Gladden river (a tributary to the Anduin) with his cousin... The Misty Mountains as seen in the prologue to The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring (2001). ... This article is about the fictional character. ... For other uses, see Hobbit (disambiguation) and There and Back Again (disambiguation). ... Bilbo Baggins (2890 Third Age - ? Fourth Age) is an important character in J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium. ... Bag End, as it is represented in a Lord of the Rings computer game. ...


Synopsis

See also: List of Middle-earth characters
The west of Middle-earth during the Third Age.
The west of Middle-earth during the Third Age.

The story of the The Lord of the Rings is divided into six "books" and has been published in both one and three volume editions. Book I in The Fellowship of the Ring begins in the Shire with Bilbo's 111th (or "Eleventy-first" in Hobbit speak) birthday party, about 60 years after the end of The Hobbit, and his subsequent disappearance using his magic ring. Departing to retire in Rivendell, he left many of his belongings, including the ring, to his nephew and adoptive heir, Frodo Baggins. After 17 years of investigating, their old friend Gandalf the Grey confirmed that this ring was in fact the One Ring, the instrument of Sauron's power, for which the Dark Lord had been searching for most of the Third Age, and which corrupted others with desire for it and the evil power it held. Unknown to Gandalf, Gollum had made his way to Mordor, where he was captured and the little information he had about the Ring and its whereabouts extracted through torture. The Fellowship of the Ring is the first of three volumes of the epic novel The Lord of the Rings by the English author J. R. R. Tolkien. ... The Two Towers is the second volume of J. R. R. Tolkiens The Lord of the Rings. ... This article is about the book. ... The following is a list of characters from J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth legendarium. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1538x1080, 292 KB)Free use map of Middle-earth from [1] This file is in the public domain, because creator allows free use Please verify that the reason given above is valid! Note: if there is a specific licence tag for... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1538x1080, 292 KB)Free use map of Middle-earth from [1] This file is in the public domain, because creator allows free use Please verify that the reason given above is valid! Note: if there is a specific licence tag for... A map of the Northwestern part of Middle-earth at the end of the Third Age, courtesy of the Encyclopedia of Arda. ... For other uses, see The Third Age. ... The Fellowship of the Ring is the first of three volumes of the epic novel The Lord of the Rings by the English author J. R. R. Tolkien. ... The fields of the Shire in the Lord of the Rings movie trilogy The Shire is a region of J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional Middle-earth, described in The Lord of the Rings and other works. ... For other uses, see Hobbit (disambiguation) and There and Back Again (disambiguation). ... Location of Rivendell in Middle-earth marked in red Rivendell (Sindarin: Imladris) is an Elven outpost in Middle-earth, a fictional realm created by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... Frodo redirects here. ... For other uses, see Gandalf (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Sauron sent the nine Ringwraiths, in the guise of riders in black, to the Shire in search of the Ring. Frodo escaped, with the help of his loyal gardener Samwise "Sam" Gamgee and three close friends, Meriadoc "Merry" Brandybuck, Peregrin "Pippin" Took, and Fredegar "Fatty" Bolger. While Fatty acted as a decoy for the Ringwraiths, Frodo and the others set off to take the Ring to the Elven haven of Rivendell. They were aided by the enigmatic Tom Bombadil through the Old Forest and Barrow-Downs, and by a man called "Strider", who was later revealed to be Aragorn son of Arathorn, the heir to the kingships of Gondor and Arnor, and direct male descendant of Isildur. Aragorn led the hobbits to Rivendell on Gandalf's request. During the journey, Frodo was gravely wounded by the Ringwraiths at the hill of Weathertop. Very ill from his wound, with the help of his companions and the Elf-lord Glorfindel, Frodo entered Rivendell's borders by crossing the ford of the river Bruinen. The Ringwraiths, in close pursuit, were swept away by an enchantment of the river when they entered its waters. Book I ends with Frodo losing consciousness. In the fiction of J.R.R. Tolkien, the Nazgûl (Black Speech: Ringwraiths, sometimes written Ring-wraiths), also known as the Nine Riders or Black Riders (or simply the Nine), are evil servants of Sauron in Middle-earth. ... Samwise Gamgee, later known as Samwise Gardner[2] or Samwise the Brave and commonly known as Sam, is a fictional character in J.R.R. Tolkiens Middle-earth legendarium. ... Meriadoc Brandybuck, usually referred to as Merry, is a fictional character from J.R.R. Tolkiens Middle-earth, featured throughout his most famous work, The Lord of the Rings. ... Peregrin Took (T.A. 2990–F.A. 70), better known to his friends as Pippin, is a fictional character from J. R. R. Tolkiens universe of Middle-earth, a Hobbit, and one of Frodo Bagginss youngest but dearest friends. ... Fredegar Fatty Bolger is a fictional character in J. R. R. Tolkiens fantasy novel The Lord of the Rings. ... Location of Rivendell in Middle-earth marked in red Rivendell (Sindarin: Imladris) is an Elven outpost in Middle-earth, a fictional realm created by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... Tom Bombadil is a supporting character in J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium. ... Aragorn II is a fictional character from J. R. R Tolkiens Middle-earth legendarium. ... For the city in Ethiopia, see Gondar. ... In the fictional legendarium of J. R. R. Tolkien, Arnor, or the Northern Kingdom, was a kingdom of the Dúnedain in the land of Eriador in Middle-earth. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth, Isildur was a Dúnadan of Númenor, elder son of Elendil. ... In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, Weathertop (Sindarin Amon Sûl, Hill of Wind) is a significant hill in the Eriador region of Middle-earth, the southernmost and highest summit of the Weather Hills. ... In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, Glorfindel is an Elf, a Noldor who appears in the tales of Middle-earth. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth, the river Bruinen or Loudwater is a river which appears in The Hobbit as well as The Lord of the Rings. ...


Book II reveals that Frodo had recovered under the care of the Half-elven lord Elrond, master of Rivendell. Frodo met Bilbo, enjoying his retirement, and saw Elrond's daughter Arwen. Later, much of the story's exposition is given during a high council, attended by representatives of the major races of Middle-earth (Elves, Dwarves, and Men) and presided over by Elrond. Gandalf told them of the emerging threat of Saruman, the leader of the Order of Wizards, who wanted the Ring for himself. In order to fulfil an ancient prophecy about the return of the King of Gondor and Arnor, Aragorn was going to war against Sauron armed with Narsil, the broken sword of Elendil. The shards of the sword had been kept safe through the intervening years, and were now reforged in Rivendell and renamed Andúril. In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth, the Half-elven (Sindarin singular Peredhel, plural Peredhil), are the children of the union of Elves and Men. ... Elrond Half-elven is a fictional character in J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth legendarium. ... This article is about the fictional character. ... In The Lord of the Rings by J. R. R. Tolkien, the Council of Elrond is a fictional secret council called by Elrond in Rivendell in order to decide what should be done with the One Ring. ... Saruman is a fictional character in J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth legendarium. ... The shards of Narsil in Peter Jacksons The Fellowship of the Ring. ... Image:Anduril large. ...


The Council decided that the only course of action that could save Middle-earth was to destroy the Ring. But the Ring could not be destroyed by any means other than by casting it into the fires of Mount Doom in which it was forged, in Sauron's domain and stronghold, the land of Mordor. At the council there was much debate about who would take the Ring to Mordor, with each of the representatives of the races of Middle-Earth vying for the task. Surprising all, even himself, Frodo volunteered for the task without forethought; with the support of Gandalf and Elrond, this ended the debate. The council formed the "Fellowship of the Ring" to accompany Frodo, comprised of his three Hobbit companions, Gandalf, Aragorn, Boromir of Gondor, Gimli the Dwarf, and Legolas the Elf, and with Frodo himself they were nine companions to go against the nine Ringwraiths. In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth, Mount Doom, or Orodruin, is a volcano in Mordor where the One Ring was forged in the Crack of Doom, a fiery chasm within the mountain. ... Spoiler warning: The Fellowship of the Ring, as described in the first volume of The Lord of the Rings, which bears the same name, is a union of 9 representatives from each of the free peoples in Middle-earth, the number chosen to match the 9 Ringwraiths. ... This article is about the son of Denethor II. For the son of Denethor I, see Boromir (Steward). ... Gimli is a fictional character from J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth legendarium, featured in The Lord of the Rings. ... Legolas is a character in J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium, featured in The Lord of the Rings. ...


The company journeyed along the foothills of the Misty Mountains, but were blocked from their planned mountain-pass crossing by Saruman who sent an overwhelming storm to divert their path towards his realm. Saruman's attack forced them to travel underground through the abandoned Mines of Moria, where they were tracked by Gollum, who, having been released by Sauron, desperately sought to regain the ring he called his "Precious". When they were almost through the mines the party was attacked by Orcs and a cave-troll. Gandalf battled a Balrog, an ancient demon creature, and fell into a deep chasm, apparently to his death. Escaping from Moria the Fellowship, now led by Aragorn, took refuge in the Elvish wood of Lothlórien, the realm of the Lady Galadriel and the Lord Celeborn. The Fellowship then travelled down the great River Anduin by boat, and Frodo eventually decided to continue the trek to Mordor on his own, largely due to the Ring's growing influence on Boromir and the threat it posed to the others. At the end of the book, Frodo attempted to continue his mission alone, but Sam was able to catch him at the last minute, and the two of them went off together towards Mordor. In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, Moria was an ominous name given by the Eldar to what had once been an enormous underground complex in north-western Middle-earth, comprising a vast network of tunnels, chambers, mines and huge halls or mansions, that ran under and ultimately through... This article is about the fictional character. ... Orc or Ork, an Old English word (orc-neas from Beowulf) for the zombie-like monsters of Grendels race was revived by J. R. R. Tolkien in his Middle-earth legendarium. ... A Balrog fighting Gandalf, as depicted by Ted Nasmith. ... In J.R.R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth, two places are known as Lórien, both exceptionally beautiful. ... Galadriel is a fictional character created by J. R. R. Tolkien, appearing in The Lord of the Rings. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional Middle-earth, Anduin is the Sindarin name for the Great River of Wilderland, the longest river in the Third Age (the original Sindarin name means Long River). ...


The second volume, The Two Towers, deals with two parallel storylines, one in each of its books. Book III details the exploits of the remaining members of the Fellowship who aid the country of Rohan in its war against Saruman. At the beginning of the book, the remaining members of the Fellowship are attacked by Saruman's Orcs, and in the battle Boromir is killed and Merry and Pippin are kidnapped by the Orcs (Saruman, now turned traitor and seeking the One Ring himself, had sent them to intercept the Fellowship and bring any Hobbits to him alive). Aragorn, Legolas and Gimli pursued Merry and Pippin's captors, and met Gandalf, who had returned as "Gandalf the White". He had defeated the Balrog at the cost of his life, but had been sent back to Middle-earth because his work was not finished. The four helped Rohan defeat Saruman's armies at the Battle of the Hornburg. Meanwhile Merry and Pippin, freed from captivity, motivated the ancient, tree-like Ents to attack Saruman at his stronghold of Isengard. The two groups were reunited in the aftermath of battle. Saruman refused to repent of his folly and Gandalf cast him from the Order of Wizards, stripping Saruman of most of his power. The Two Towers is the second volume of J. R. R. Tolkiens The Lord of the Rings. ... For other uses, see Rohan (disambiguation). ... Combatants Isengard Rohan Commanders Saruman Théoden, Aragorn, Gandalf, Éomer Strength 10,000 Uruk-hai and common Orcs of Isengard, 2,000-5,000 Dunlendings, an unknown number of orc-human hybrids about 2,000 Rohirrim; reinforced by 1,000 more Rohirrim in the morning, and thousands of Huorns Casualties... For other uses, see ENT. Ents are a fictional race from J. R. R. Tolkiens fantasy world of Middle-earth. ...


Book IV tells of Frodo and Sam's exploits on the way to Mount Doom. They captured Gollum and convinced him to guide them to the Black Gate, which they found to be impenetrable. Gollum then suggested a secret path into Mordor, through the dreaded valley of Minas Morgul. While travelling there, the three were captured by Rangers of Gondor led by Boromir's brother Faramir. After hearing the story of his Brother's death, Faramir became convinced that the Ring was better off destroyed than used as a weapon. He spared Gollum's life, resupplied the hobbits, and warned them about the path they were to take. At the end of the volume, Gollum betrayed Frodo to the great spider Shelob, hoping to scavenge the Ring from Frodo's remains after she had consumed the hobbit. Shelob's bite paralysed Frodo, but Sam fought her off using Sting. Frodo was soon taken by orcs to the nearby fortress of Cirith Ungol. Sam had thought his master dead, and saved the Ring, but was now left to find Frodo's whereabouts. Meanwhile, Sauron launched an all-out military assault upon Middle-earth, precipitating the War of the Ring, with the Witch-king (leader of the Ringwraiths) leading a large army into battle against Gondor. The Black Gate or Morannon is a location in J. R. R. Tolkiens fantasy universe of Middle-earth. ... Minas Morgul (Sindarin for Tower of Black Magic), also known by its earlier name Minas Ithil (Tower of the Moon), is a fictional city in J.R.R. Tolkiens world of Middle-earth. ... This article is about the son of Denethor. ... Shelob is a character from J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional works of Middle-earth. ... An artifact from J. R. R. Tolkiens fantasy universe of Middle-earth, Sting was an Elvish knife or dagger made in Gondolin in the First Age. ... For the US heavy metal band, see Cirith Ungol (band). ... Combatants Free peoples: Gondor, Rohan, Dale, Esgaroth, Erebor, The Shire, Lothlórien, the Woodland Realm and the Fangorn forest Evil forces: Under Sauron: Mordor, Rhûn, Morgul, Harad, Umbar, Khand Under Saruman: Isengard, Dunland Commanders Gandalf (died but later resurrected) Aragorn Théoden† Éomer Denethor† Dáin II† Brand† Galadriel... The Witch-king of Angmar, also known as the Lord of the Nazgûl and the Black Captain among other names, is a fictional character from the novel The Lord of the Rings by J. R. R. Tolkien, set in the fantasy world of Middle-earth. ... For the city in Ethiopia, see Gondar. ...


The third volume, The Return of the King, begins with Gandalf arriving at Minas Tirith in Gondor with Pippin to alert the city of the impending attack. Merry joined the army of Rohan, while the others led by Aragorn elected to journey through the 'Paths of the Dead' in the hope of enlisting the help of an undead army against the Corsairs of Umbar. Gandalf, Aragorn and the others of the Fellowship then assisted in the final battles against the armies of Sauron, including the siege of Minas Tirith. With the timely aid of Rohan's cavalry and Aragorn's assault up the river, a significant portion of Sauron's army was defeated and Minas Tirith saved. However, Sauron still had thousands of troops available, and the main characters were forced into a climactic all-or-nothing battle before the Black Gate of Mordor, where the alliance of Gondor and Rohan fought desperately against Sauron's armies in order to distract him from the Ringbearer, and hoped to gain time for Frodo to destroy it. This article is about the book. ... Minas Tirith (IPA: ), originally named Minas Anor, is a heavily fortified city in J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth writings, which was the capital of Gondor in the second half of the Third Age. ... The Corsairs of Umbar were a fleet of Men of Umbar in J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth legendarium, allied to Sauron in his war against Gondor. ... Combatants Gondor, Rohan, Dúnedain of the North Mordor, Harad, Rhûn, Khand, Umbar Participants Gandalf, Éomer, Éowyn, Aragorn, Imrahil, Merry, Denethor†, Théoden† Witch-king of Angmar†, Nazgûl, Gothmog† War of the Ring 1st Fords of Isen - 2nd Fords of Isen - Isengard - Hornburg - Lothlórien - Mirkwood - Osgiliath - Pelennor... The Black Gate or Morannon is a location in J. R. R. Tolkiens fantasy universe of Middle-earth. ...


In Book VI, Sam rescued Frodo from captivity. The pair then made their way through the rugged lands of Mordor and, after much struggle, finally reached Mount Doom itself (tailed closely by Gollum). However, at the edge of the Cracks of Doom, the temptation of the Ring proved too great for Frodo; he placed the Ring on his finger and claimed it for himself. While the Ringwraiths flew at top speed toward Mount Doom, Gollum struggled with Frodo for the "Precious" and succeeded in taking the Ring by biting off Frodo's finger. Crazed with triumph, Gollum lost his footing and fell into the fire, destroying the Ring. With the end of the Ring, Sauron's armies lost heart, the Ringwraiths disintegrated, and Aragorn's army was victorious. Location of Orodruin in Middle-earth marked in red In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional Middle-earth universe, Orodruin, or Mount Doom, is a volcano in Mordor where the One Ring was forged by the Dark Lord Sauron in the Crack(s) of Doom or Sammath Naur, a fiery...


Thus, Sauron was banished from the world and his reign ended. Aragorn was crowned king of Gondor and married Arwen, the daughter of Elrond. All conflict was not over, however, for Saruman had managed to escape his captivity in Orthanc and enslave the Shire. Although he was soon overthrown by the Hobbits, and the four heroes helped to restore order and beautify the land again, it was not the same Shire that they had left. At the end, Frodo remained wounded in body and spirit and, accompanied by Bilbo, sailed west over the Sea to the Undying Lands, where he could find peace. The Scouring of the Shire is the second to last chapter in J. R. R. Tolkiens The Lord of the Rings. ...


The Appendices contain much material concerning the timeline of the story, and information on the peoples and the languages of Middle-earth. Notably, Arwen, physically absent for much of the book, is dealt with in full here; her backstory and future with Aragorn are related. This article includes several chronologies relating to J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium. ...


According to Tolkien's timeline, the events depicted in the story occurred between Bilbo's announcement of his T.A. September 22, 3001 birthday party, and Sam's re-arrival to Bag End on T.A. October 6, 3021. Most of the events portrayed in the story occur in 3018 and 3019, with Frodo heading out from Bag End on T.A. September 23, 3018, and the destruction of the Ring six months later on T.A. March 25, 3019. For other uses, see The Third Age. ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see The Third Age. ... is the 279th day of the year (280th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see The Third Age. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see The Third Age. ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Concept and creation

Writing

The Lord of the Rings
Volume I - Volume II - Volume III
Tolkien in army uniform.
Tolkien in army uniform.

The Lord of the Rings was started as a sequel to The Hobbit, a fantasy story published in 1937 that Tolkien had originally written for and read to his children.[10] The popularity of The Hobbit led to demands from his publishers for more stories about hobbits and goblins, and so that same year, at the age of 45, Tolkien began writing the story that would become The Lord of the Rings. The story would not be finished until 12 years later, in 1949, and it would not be fully published until 1955, by which time Tolkien was 63 years old. The Fellowship of the Ring is the first of three volumes of the epic novel The Lord of the Rings by the English author J. R. R. Tolkien. ... The Two Towers is the second volume of J. R. R. Tolkiens The Lord of the Rings. ... This article is about the book. ... Image File history File links Tolkien_1916. ... Image File history File links Tolkien_1916. ... For other uses, see Hobbit (disambiguation) and There and Back Again (disambiguation). ... A goblin is an evil or mischievous creature of folklore, often described as a grotesquely disfigured, elf-like phantom. ...


Tolkien did not originally intend to write a sequel to The Hobbit, and instead wrote several other children's tales, such as Roverandom. As his main work, Tolkien began to outline the history of Arda, telling tales of the Silmarils, and many other stories of how the races and situations that we read about in the Lord of the Rings came to be. Tolkien died before he could complete and put together this work, today known as The Silmarillion, but his son Christopher Tolkien edited his father's work, filled in gaps, and published it in 1977.[11] Some Tolkien biographers regard The Silmarillion as the true "work of his heart",[12] as it provides the historical and linguistic context for the more popular work and for his constructed languages, and occupied the greater part of Tolkien's time. As a result The Lord of the Rings ended up as the last movement of Tolkien's legendarium and in his own opinion "much larger, and I hope also in proportion the best, of the entire cycle."[9] Roverandom is a story written by J.R.R. Tolkien, originally told in 1925. ... In the works of J. R. R. Tolkien, Arda is the name given to the Earth in a period of fictional prehistory, wherein the places mentioned in The Lord of the Rings and related material once existed. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium, the Silmarils (Quenya Silmarilli) are three fictional sacred objects in the form of brilliant star-like jewels which contained the unmarred light of the Two Trees. ... This article is about the book by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... Christopher Reuel Tolkien (born November 21, 1924) is best known as the third son of author J. R. R. Tolkien (1892-1973), and as the editor of much of his fathers posthumously published work. ... The languages of Middle-earth are artificial languages invented by J. R. R. Tolkien and used in his books about Middle-earth, including The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings and The Silmarillion. ...


Persuaded by his publishers, he started 'a new Hobbit' in December 1937.[10] After several false starts, the story of the One Ring soon emerged, and the book mutated from being a sequel to The Hobbit to being, in theme, more a sequel to the unpublished Silmarillion. The idea of the first chapter ("A Long-Expected Party") arrived fully-formed, although the reasons behind Bilbo's disappearance, the significance of the Ring, and the title The Lord of the Rings did not arrive until the spring of 1938.[10] Originally, he planned to write a story in which Bilbo had used up all his treasure and was looking for another adventure to gain more; however, he remembered the Ring and its powers and decided to write about it instead.[10] Once Tolkien considered the Ring, the books really became centred around it and its influence of the inhabitants of Middle-earth. In fact, each book is preceded by the verse: For other uses, see Sequel (disambiguation). ... This article is about the book by J. R. R. Tolkien. ...

Three Rings for the Elven-kings under the sky,
Seven for the Dwarf-lords in their halls of stone,
Nine for Mortal Men doomed to die,
One for the Dark Lord on his dark throne,
In the Land of Mordor where the Shadows lie.
One Ring to rule them all, One Ring to find them,
One Ring to bring them all and in the darkness bind them
In the Land of Mordor where the Shadows lie.
-- J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings[13]

He began with Bilbo as the main character, but decided that the story was too serious to use the fun-loving hobbit. Thus Tolkien looked for an alternate character to carry the ring, and he turned to members of Bilbo's family.[10] He thought about using a son, but this generated some difficult questions, such as the whereabouts of Bilbo's wife and whether he would let his son go into danger. In Greek legend, it was a hero's nephew that gained the item of power, and so the hobbit Frodo came into existence.[10] (Technically Tolkien made Frodo Bilbo's second cousin once removed, but because of age differences the two were to consider each other nephew and uncle.)


Writing was slow due to Tolkien's perfectionism, and was frequently interrupted by his obligations as an examiner, and by other academic duties.[14] According to sources, he seems to have abandoned The Lord of the Rings during most of 1943 and only re-started it in April 1944.[10] This effort was written as a serial for Christopher Tolkien and C. S. Lewis — the former would be sent copies of chapters as they were written while he was serving in South Africa with the Royal Air Force. He made another push in 1946, and showed a copy of the manuscript to his publishers in 1947.[10] The story was effectively finished the next year, but Tolkien did not finish revising earlier parts of the work until 1949.[10] To examine somebody or something is to inspect it closely, hence an examination is a detailed inspection or analysis of an object or person. ... Christopher Reuel Tolkien (born November 21, 1924) is best known as the third son of author J. R. R. Tolkien (1892-1973), and as the editor of much of his fathers posthumously published work. ... Clive Staples Jack Lewis (29 November 1898 – 22 November 1963), commonly referred to as C. S. Lewis, was an Irish author and scholar. ... RAF redirects here. ...


A dispute with his publishers, Allen & Unwin, led to the book being offered to Collins in 1950. He intended The Silmarillion (itself largely unrevised at this point) to be published along with The Lord of the Rings, but A&U were unwilling to do this. After his contact at Collins, Milton Waldman, expressed the belief that The Lord of the Rings itself "urgently needed cutting", he eventually demanded that they publish the book in 1952. They did not do so, and so Tolkien wrote to Allen and Unwin, saying, "I would gladly consider the publication of any part of the stuff."[10] Allen & Unwin, formerly a major British publishing house, is now an independent, Australia-based book publisher and distributor. ... Collins may refer to: Collins (surname) Collins, Georgia Collins, Indiana Collins, Iowa Collins, New York Collins, Wisconsin Fort Collins, Colorado Collins class submarine, the newest class of Australian submarine Collins Classics, an English record label that specialized in classical music Collins Family (see List of Collins family members), fictional wealthy... This article is about the book by J. R. R. Tolkien. ...


Following the massive success of The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien considered a sequel entitled The New Shadow, in which the Gondorians turn to dark cults and consider an uprising against Aragorn's son, Eldarion. Tolkien never went very far with this sequel, as it had more to do with human nature than with epic struggles, and the few pages which were written can be found in The Peoples of Middle-earth. Instead, Tolkien returned to writing and revising his Silmarillion story, though he died before he could finish this, and The Silmarillion was published posthumously by Tolkien's son and literary executor, Christopher Tolkien, in 1977. Eldarion Telcontar is a character from J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium. ... The Peoples of Middle-earth is the 12th and final volume of The History of Middle-earth, edited by Christopher Tolkien from the unpublished manuscripts of his father J. R. R. Tolkien. ... This article is about the book by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... Christopher Reuel Tolkien (born November 21, 1924) is best known as the third son of author J. R. R. Tolkien (1892-1973), and as the editor of much of his fathers posthumously published work. ...


Publication

For publication, due largely to post-war paper shortages, but also to keep the price down, the book was divided into three volumes: The Fellowship of the Ring (Books I and II), The Two Towers (Books III and IV), and The Return of the King (Books V and VI plus six appendices). Delays in producing appendices, maps and especially indices led to the volumes being published later than originally hoped — on 21 July 1954, on 11 November 1954 and on 20 October 1955 respectively in the United Kingdom, and slightly later in the United States. The Return of the King was especially delayed. Tolkien, moreover, did not especially like the title The Return of the King, believing it gave away too much of the storyline. He had originally suggested The War of the Ring, which was dismissed by his publishers.[15] The Fellowship of the Ring is the first of three volumes of the epic novel The Lord of the Rings by the English author J. R. R. Tolkien. ... The Two Towers is the second volume of J. R. R. Tolkiens The Lord of the Rings. ... This article is about the book. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1954 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1954 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ... The History of The Lord of the Rings is a 4-volume work by Christopher Tolkien that documents the process of J. R. R. Tolkiens writing of his masterwork The Lord of the Rings (LotR). ...


The books were published under a 'profit-sharing' arrangement, whereby Tolkien would not receive an advance or royalties until the books had broken even, after which he would take a large share of the profits. An index to the entire three-volume set at the end of third volume was promised in the first volume. However, this proved impractical to compile in a reasonable timescale. Later, in 1966, four indices, not compiled by Tolkien, were added to The Return of the King. Because the three-volume binding was so widely distributed, the work is often referred to as the Lord of the Rings "trilogy". In a letter to the poet W. H. Auden (who famously reviewed the final volume in 1956[16]), Tolkien himself made use of the term "trilogy" for the work[17] though he did at other times consider this incorrect, as it was written and conceived as a single book.[18] It is also often called a novel; however, Tolkien also objected to this term as he viewed it as a romance.[19] A trilogy is a set of three works of art, usually literature or film, that are connected and can be seen as a single work, as well as three individual ones. ... Wystan Hugh Auden (21 February 1907 – 29 September 1973) IPA: ;[1], who signed his works W. H. Auden, was an Anglo-American poet, regarded by many as one of the greatest writers of the 20th century. ... For other uses, see Novel (disambiguation). ... As a literary genre, romance or chivalric romance refers to a style of heroic prose and verse narrative current in Europe from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance. ...


A 1999 British (ISBN 0-261-10387-3) seven-volume box set followed Tolkien's original six-book division, with the Appendices from the end of The Return of the King bound as a separate volume. The individual names for the books were decided based on a combination of suggestions Tolkien had made during his lifetime and the titles of the existing volumes. From Book I to Book VI, these titles were The Ring Sets Out, The Ring Goes South, The Treason of Isengard, The Ring Goes East, The War of the Ring, and The End of the Third Age [2]. The titles The Treason of Isengard, The War of the Ring, and The End of the Third Age were also used as volume titles by Christopher Tolkien in The History of The Lord of the Rings. Christopher Reuel Tolkien (born November 21, 1924) is best known as the third son of author J. R. R. Tolkien (1892-1973), and as the editor of much of his fathers posthumously published work. ... The History of The Lord of the Rings is a 4-volume work by Christopher Tolkien that documents the process of J. R. R. Tolkiens writing of his masterwork The Lord of the Rings (LotR). ...


The name of the complete work is often abbreviated to LotR, or simply 'LR' (Tolkien himself used 'L.R.'), and the three volumes as FR or FotR (The Fellowship of the Ring), TT or TTT (The Two Towers), and RK or RotK (The Return of the King).


Influences

Main article: The Lord of the Rings influences
Gandalf, from a book cover by John Howe.

The Lord of the Rings developed as a personal exploration by Tolkien of his interests in philology, religion (particularly Roman Catholicism),[9] fairy tales, Norse mythology and related Germanic,[20][21] Celtic[22] and Finnish mythology.[23] Tolkien based his Elvish language Quenya on Finnish.[24] Tolkien acknowledged the influences of William Morris and his Huns and Romans, as in The House of the Wolfings or The Roots of the Mountains.[25] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (540x828, 105 KB)Detail of John Howes well-known image of Gandalf. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (540x828, 105 KB)Detail of John Howes well-known image of Gandalf. ... John Howe 2003 John Howe (born August 21, 1957 in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada) is a book illustrator, living in Neuchatel, Switzerland. ... Philology, etymologically, is the love of words. It is most accurately defined as an affinity toward the learning of the backgrounds as well as the current usages of spoken or written methods of human communication. The commonality of studied languages is more important than their origin or age (that is... Catholic Church redirects here. ... A fairy tale is a story, either told to children or as if told to children, concerning the adventures of mythical characters such as fairies, goblins, elves, trolls, giants, and others. ... Norse, Viking or Scandinavian mythology comprises the indigenous pre-Christian religion, beliefs and legends of the Scandinavian peoples, including those who settled on Iceland, where most of the written sources for Norse mythology were assembled. ... The nature and functions of these ancient gods can be deduced from their names, the location of their inscriptions, their iconography, the Roman gods they are equated with, and similar figures from later bodies of Celtic mythology. ... Finnish mythology has many features that it shares with other Finnic mythologies, like the Estonian mythology, and also elements similar with non-Finnic neighbours, especially the the Balts and the Scandinavians. ... Elvish languages are constructed languages used typically by elves in a fantasy setting. ... Quenya is one of the fictional languages spoken by the Elves (the Quendi) the ones who speak. The first-found children of Ilúvatar, in the fantasy works of J. R. R. Tolkien. ...


Specific literature influences on The Lord of the Rings from European mythologies include the Anglo-Saxon poem Beowulf, which influenced the figures of the Rohirrim.[26] Tolkien may have also borrowed elements from the Völsunga saga (the Old Norse basis of the later German Nibelungenlied and Richard Wagner's opera series, Der Ring des Nibelungen, also called the Ring Cycle), specifically a magical golden ring and a broken sword which is reforged. In the Völsungasaga, these items are respectively Andvarinaut and Gram, and very broadly correspond to the One Ring and Narsil/Andúril. This article is about the epic poem. ... The Ramsund carving depicting the Saga of the Völsungs The Volsunga saga is a late 13th century Icelandic prose rendition of the story of Sigurd and Brynhild, and the destruction of the Burgundians. ... The Nibelungenlied, translated as The Song of the Nibelungs, is an epic poem in Middle High German. ... Richard Wagner Wilhelm Richard Wagner (22 May 1813 – 13 February 1883) was a German composer, conductor, music theorist, and essayist, primarily known for his operas (or music dramas as they were later called). ... Der Ring des Nibelungen, (The Ring of the Nibelung), is a cycle of four epic music dramas by the German composer Richard Wagner. ... In Norse mythology, Andvarinaut was a magical ring, first owned by Andvari. ... Illustration by Alan Lee In Norse mythology, Gram was the name of the sword that Sigurd (Siegfried) used to kill the dragon Fafnir. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The shards of Narsil in Peter Jacksons The Fellowship of the Ring. ...


Some locations and characters were inspired by Tolkien's childhood in Sarehole and Birmingham.[27] It has also been suggested that The Shire and its surroundings were based on the countryside around Stonyhurst College in Lancashire where Tolkien frequently stayed during the 1940s.[28] The work was influenced by the effects of his military service during World War I.[29] After publication, these influences led to speculation that the One Ring was an allegory for the nuclear bomb.[30] Tolkien, however, repeatedly insisted that his works were not an allegory of any kind.[31][32] Sarehole is an area in Birmingham, England (formerly a village in Worcestershire, but transfered to the city in 1911) Grid reference SP099818. ... This article is about the British city. ... The fields of the Shire in the Lord of the Rings movie trilogy The Shire is a region of J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional Middle-earth, described in The Lord of the Rings and other works. ... Stonyhurst College is an independent, Roman Catholic school in the Jesuit tradition. ... Lancashire is a non-metropolitan county of historic origin in the North West of England, bounded to the west by the Irish Sea. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Allegory of Music by Filippino Lippi. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, in 1945 lifted nuclear fallout some 18 km (60,000 feet) above the epicenter. ...


Publishing history

The three parts were first published several months apart, in 1954 and 1955 by Allen & Unwin. The novel has since been reissued many times by multiple publishers, as one-, three-, six- or seven-volume sets. There were significant changes in the text from the first editions of the three separate parts to the next three-volume print. Allen & Unwin, formerly a major British publishing house, is now an independent, Australia-based book publisher and distributor. ...


In the early 1960s Donald A. Wollheim, science fiction editor of the paperback publisher Ace Books, theorized that The Lord of the Rings was not protected in the United States under American copyright law because the U.S. hardcover edition had been bound from pages printed in the United Kingdom, with the original intention being for them to be printed in the British edition. Ace Books proceeded to publish an edition, unauthorized by Tolkien and without royalties to him. Tolkien took issue with this and quickly notified his fans of this objection. Grass-roots pressure from these fans became so great that Ace Books withdrew their edition and made a nominal payment to Tolkien, well below what he might have been due in an appropriate publication. However, this poor beginning was overshadowed when an authorized edition followed from Ballantine Books to tremendous commercial success. By the mid-1960s the novel, due to its wide exposure on the American public stage, had become a true cultural phenomenon. Also at this time Tolkien undertook various textual revisions to produce a version of the book that would have an unquestioned US copyright. This would later become the Second Edition of The Lord of the Rings. Years later the copyright theory advanced by Ace Books was repudiated and their paperback edition found to have been a violation of Tolkien's copyright under US law.[33] Donald Allen Wollheim (October 1, 1914 – November 2, 1990) was a science fiction writer, editor, and publisher. ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... Ace Books is the oldest continuing publisher of science fiction & fantasy novels, founded in 1953 by magazine publisher A. A. Wyn. ... United States copyright law governs the legally enforceable rights of creative and artistic works in the United States. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Grassroots democracy is the political processes which are driven by groups of ordinary citizens, as opposed to larger organisations or wealthy individuals with concentrated vested interests in particular policies. ... Ballantine Books, founded in 1952 by Ian Ballantine, is a major book publisher and is currently owned by Random House. ...


Since the original printings of the 1950s and 1960s, many different editions of The Lord of the Rings have appeared. In the 1990s (partly in anticipation of the forthcoming The Lord of the Rings film trilogy) several new editions were released, including a three-volume hardback edition from Houghton-Mifflin, featuring colour illustrations by Alan Lee. In 2004 a new edition was published for the fiftieth anniversary of the book's original publication. This article is about the Peter Jackson film trilogy. ... Alan Lee 2003 in (New Zealand) Alan Lee (born August 20, 1947) is an English book illustrator and movie conceptual designer. ...


Translations

Main article: Translations of The Lord of the Rings

The novel has been translated, with various degrees of success, into dozens of other languages.[34] Tolkien, an expert in philology, examined many of these translations, and had comments on each that reflect both the translation process and his work. To aid translators, and because he was unhappy with some choices made by early translators such as Åke Ohlmarks,[35] Tolkien wrote his "Guide to the Names in The Lord of the Rings" (1967). Because it purports to be a translation of the Red Book of Westmarch, with the English language in the original purporting to represent the Westron of the original, translators need to imitate the complex interplay between English and non-English (Elvish) nomenclature in the book. Philology, etymologically, is the love of words. It is most accurately defined as an affinity toward the learning of the backgrounds as well as the current usages of spoken or written methods of human communication. The commonality of studied languages is more important than their origin or age (that is... Fictional book in J.R.R. Tolkiens legendarium. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens fantasy world of Middle-earth, the Westron or Common Speech is the closest thing to a universal language, at least at the time during which The Lord of the Rings is set. ...


Critical response

The Lord of the Rings has received mixed reviews since its inception, ranging from terrible to excellent. Recent reviews in various media have been, in a majority, highly positive and Tolkien's literary achievement is slowly being acknowledged as a significant one. On its initial review the Sunday Telegraph felt it was "among the greatest works of imaginative fiction of the twentieth century." The Sunday Times seemed to echo these sentiments when in its review it was stated that "the English-speaking world is divided into those who have read The Lord of the Rings and The Hobbit and those who are going to read them." The New York Herald Tribune also seemed to have an idea of how popular the books would become, writing in its review that they were "destined to outlast our time."[36] W. H. Auden, a huge admirer of Tolkien's writings, regarded 'The Lord of the Rings' as a 'masterpiece,' furthermore stating that in some cases it outdid the achievement of Milton's Paradise Lost. Other supporters of the book from the literary world included Iris Murdoch, Naomi Mitchison, Richard Hughes and C.S. Lewis. The Sunday Telegraph is a British broadsheet newspaper, founded in 1961. ... The Sunday Times is a Sunday broadsheet newspaper distributed in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, published by Times Newspapers Ltd, a subsidiary of News International which is in turn owned by News Corporation. ... The New York Herald Tribune was a newspaper created in 1924 when the New York Tribune acquired the New York Herald. ... For other uses, see Paradise Lost (disambiguation). ... Dame Jean Iris Murdoch DBE (July 15, 1919 – February 8, 1999) was an Irish-born British writer and philosopher, best known for her novels, which combine rich characterization and compelling plotlines, usually involving ethical or sexual themes. ... Naomi Margaret Mitchison, CBE (nee Haldane; 1 November 1897 Edinburgh – 11 January 1999 at Carradale) was a Scottish novelist and poet. ... Richard Hughes, British writer Richard Hughes, musician, drummer of Keane Richard Hughes, a football (soccer) player Richard Hughes, a homeopathic doctor Richard cyreve Hughes, Miranda IM lead developer for the 0. ... Clive Staples Lewis (November 29, 1898 – November 22, 1963), commonly referred to as C. S. Lewis, was an author and scholar. ...


Not all original reviews, however, were so kind. New York Times reviewer Judith Shulevitz criticized the "pedantry" of Tolkien's literary style, saying that he "formulated a high-minded belief in the importance of his mission as a literary preservationist, which turns out to be death to literature itself."[37] Critic Richard Jenkyns, writing in The New Republic, criticized a perceived lack of psychological depth. Both the characters and the work itself are, according to Jenkyns, "anemic, and lacking in fiber."[38] Even within Tolkien's literary group, The Inklings, reviews were mixed. Hugo Dyson complained loudly at its readings, and Christopher Tolkien records Dyson as "lying on the couch, and lolling and shouting and saying, 'Oh God, no more Elves.'"[39] However, another Inkling, C. S. Lewis, had very different feelings, writing, "here are beauties which pierce like swords or burn like cold iron. Here is a book which will break your heart." Despite these reviews and its lack of paperback printing until the 1960s, The Lord of the Rings initially sold well in hardback.[40] The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... For other uses, see New Republic. ... The Inklings was a literary discussion group associated with the University of Oxford. ... Hugo Dyson, whose full name was Henry Victor Dyson Dyson, was a member of the Inklings literary group. ... Christopher Reuel Tolkien (born November 21, 1924) is best known as the third son of author J. R. R. Tolkien (1892-1973), and as the editor of much of his fathers posthumously published work. ... Clive Staples Jack Lewis (29 November 1898 – 22 November 1963), commonly referred to as C. S. Lewis, was an Irish author and scholar. ...


Several other authors in the genre, however, seemed to agree more with Dyson than Lewis. Science-fiction author David Brin criticized the book for what he perceived to be its unquestioning devotion to a traditional elitist social structure, its positive depiction of the slaughter of the opposing forces, and its romantic backward-looking worldview.[41] Michael Moorcock, another famous science fiction and fantasy author, is also critical of The Lord of the Rings. In his essay, "Epic Pooh", he equates Tolkien's work to Winnie-the-Pooh and criticizes it and similar works for their perceived Merry England point of view.[42] Incidentally, Moorcock met both Tolkien and Lewis in his teens and claims to have liked them personally, even though he does not admire them on artistic grounds. Glen David Brin, Ph. ... Elitism is the belief or attitude that the people who are considered to be the elite — a selected group of persons with outstanding personal abilities, wealth, specialised training or experience, or other distinctive attributes — are the people whose views on a matter are to be taken the most seriously, or... Romantics redirects here. ... Michael John Moorcock (born December 18, 1939, in London, England) is a prolific English writer primarily of science fiction and fantasy who has also published a number of literary novels. ... Epic Pooh is an article written by an American Science Fiction writer called Michael Moorcock. ... Winnie the Pooh Winnie-the-Pooh is a fictional bear created by A. A. Milne. ... The term Merry England, or in more jocular, half-timbered spelling Merrie England, refers to a semi-mythological, idyllic, and pastoral way of life that the inhabitants of England allegedly enjoyed at some poorly-defined point between the Middle Ages and the onset of the Industrial Revolution. ...


In 1957, it was awarded the International Fantasy Award. Despite its numerous detractors, the publication of the Ace Books and Ballantine paperbacks helped The Lord of the Rings become immensely popular in the 1960s. The book has remained so ever since, ranking as one of the most popular works of fiction of the twentieth century, judged by both sales and reader surveys.[43] In the 2003 "Big Read" survey conducted by the BBC, The Lord of the Rings was found to be the "Nation's best-loved book." In similar 2004 polls both Germany[44] and Australia[45] also found The Lord of the Rings to be their favourite book. In a 1999 poll of Amazon.com customers, The Lord of the Rings was judged to be their favourite "book of the millennium."[46] The International Fantasy Awards were given out in 1951--1955 and in 1957. ... Ace Books is the oldest continuing publisher of science fiction & fantasy novels, founded in 1953 by magazine publisher A. A. Wyn. ... Ballantine Books, founded in 1952 by Ian Ballantine, is a major book publisher and is currently owned by Random House. ... The Big Read was a 2003 survey carried out by the BBC, with the goal of finding the Nations Best-loved Book by way of a viewer vote via the Web, SMS and telephone. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Amazon. ...


Adaptations

A poster for Peter Jackson's The Lord of the Rings trilogy
A poster for Peter Jackson's The Lord of the Rings trilogy

The Lord of the Rings has been adapted for film, radio and stage multiple times. The Lord of the Rings, an epic high fantasy novel by the British author J. R. R. Tolkien, set in his world of Middle-earth (a fictional past version of our Earth), has been adapted for various media multiple times. ... Image File history File links Ringstrilogyposter. ... Image File history File links Ringstrilogyposter. ... For other persons named Peter Jackson, see Peter Jackson (disambiguation). ...


The book has been adapted for radio four times. In 1955 and 1956, the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) broadcast The Lord of the Rings, a 12-part radio adaptation of the story. In the 1960s radio station WBAI in New York produced a short radio adaptation. A 1979 dramatization of The Lord of the Rings was broadcast in the United States and subsequently issued on tape and CD. In 1981, the BBC broadcast The Lord of the Rings, a new dramatization in 26 half-hour instalments. This article is an overview article about the Crown chartered British Broadcasting Corporation formed in 1927. ... During 1955 and 1956, a condensed radio dramatisation of The Lord of the Rings was broadcast in twelve episodes on BBC Radios the Third Programme. ... WBAI, a part of the Pacifica Radio Network, is a non-commercial, listener-supported radio station, broadcasting at 99. ... The Lord of the Rings, an epic high fantasy novel by the British author J. R. R. Tolkien, set in his world of Middle-earth (a fictional past version of our Earth), has been adapted for various media multiple times. ... In 1979 the US National Public Radio broadcast a radio dramatisation of J. R. R. Tolkiens The Lord of the Rings. ... In 1981 BBC Radio 4 broadcast a dramatisation of J. R. R. Tolkiens The Lord of the Rings in 26 half-hour stereo instalments. ...


Three film adaptations have been made. The first was J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings (1978), by animator Ralph Bakshi, the first part of what was originally intended to be a two-part adaptation of the story (hence its original title, The Lord of the Rings Part 1). It covers The Fellowship of the Ring and part of The Two Towers. The second, The Return of the King (1980), was an animated television special by Rankin-Bass, who had produced a similar version of The Hobbit (1977). The third was director Peter Jackson's live action The Lord of the Rings film trilogy, produced by New Line Cinema and released in three instalments as The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring (2001), The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers (2002), and The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King (2003). The final installment of this trilogy was only the second film to break the one-billion-dollar barrier, after 1997's Titanic, and, like Titanic, won a total of 11 Oscars, including 'best motion picture' and 'best director'. The live-action film trilogy has done much in recent years to bring the novel back into the public consciousness.[8] J.R.R. Tolkiens The Lord of the Rings is a 1978 animated fantasy film directed by Ralph Bakshi. ... Ralph Bakshi (October 29, 1938) is an American director of animated and occasionally live-action films. ... The Return of the King is an animated adaptation of the novel by J. R. R. Tolkien which was released by Rankin-Bass as a TV special in 1980. ... Rankin-Bass (aka Videocraft International) is an American production company, known for its seasonal television specials. ... For the planned live action film, see The Lord of the Rings film trilogy#Prequels. ... For other persons named Peter Jackson, see Peter Jackson (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Peter Jackson film trilogy. ... New Line redirects here. ... Titanic is a 1997 disaster romance film directed, written, produced and edited by James Cameron about the sinking of the RMS Titanic. ...


In 1990, Recorded Books published an unabridged audio version of the books (ISBN 1402516274). They hired British actor Rob Inglis — who had previously starred in one-man stage productions of The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings — to read. Inglis performs the books verbatim, using distinct voices for each character, and sings all of the songs. Tolkien had written music for some of the songs in the book;[citation needed] for the rest, Inglis, along with director Claudia Howard, wrote additional music.[citation needed] Abridgement or abridgment is a term defined as shortening or condensing, and is most commonly used in reference to the act of reducing a written work (typically a book) into a shorter form. ... Cassette recording of Patrick OBrians The Mauritius Command An audio book is a recording of the contents of a book read aloud. ...


There have been several stage productions based on the book. Full-length stage adaptations of each of The Fellowship of the Ring (2001), The Two Towers (2002), and The Return of the King (2003) were staged in Cincinnati, Ohio, United States [3]. A large-scale musical theatre adaptation, The Lord of the Rings was first staged in Toronto, Ontario, Canada in 2006 and opened in London in May 2007. Cincinnati redirects here. ... The Black Crook (1866), considered by some historians to be the first musical[1] Musical theatre is a form of theatre combining music, songs, spoken dialogue and dance. ... This article is about the musicals. ... Template:Hide = Motto: Template:Unhide = Diversity Our Strength Image:Toronto, Ontario Location. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...


The most recent production is 'Lord Of The Rings' within the Drury Theatre, in London. This is so successful due to its million pound set and unique intervals. The current Frodo is 'James Byng'


Legacy

The works of J. R. R. Tolkien have served as the inspiration to painters, musicians, film-makers and writers, to such an extent that Tolkien is sometimes seen as the father of the entire genre of high fantasy. ...

Influences on the fantasy genre

The enormous popularity of Tolkien's epic saga greatly expanded the demand for fantasy fiction. Largely thanks to The Lord of the Rings, the genre flowered throughout the 1960s. Many other books in a broadly similar vein were published, including the Earthsea books of Ursula K. Le Guin, The Riftwar Saga by Raymond Feist, The Belgariad by David Eddings, The Sword of Shannara by Terry Brooks, the Thomas Covenant novels of Stephen R. Donaldson; the "Wheel of Time" books of Robert Jordan, and, in the case of the Gormenghast books by Mervyn Peake and The Worm Ouroboros by E. R. Eddison, rediscovered. For other definitions of fantasy see fantasy (psychology). ... Cover to 1991 Bantam Books paperback edition of A Wizard of Earthsea, illustrated by John Jude Palencar Earthsea is a fictional realm created by Ursula K. Le Guin for her short story The Word of Unbinding, published in 1964, but that became more famous in her novel A Wizard of... Ursula Kroeber Le Guin [ˌɜɹsələ ˌkɹobɜɹ ləˈgWɪn] (born October 21, 1929) is an American author. ... The Riftwar Saga is a trilogy written by Raymond E. Feist. ... Raymond E. Feist (born 1945) is an American author, mostly specialising in fantasy fiction. ... The Belgariad is a five-book fantasy epic written by David Eddings. ... David Eddings (born July 7, 1931) is an American author who has written several best-selling series of epic fantasy novels. ... This article is about the fantasy novel. ... Terence Dean Terry Brooks (born January 8, 1944) is a writer of fantasy fiction. ... The Chronicles of Thomas Covenant, the Unbeliever is a fantasy epic by Stephen R. Donaldson. ... For other uses, see Novel (disambiguation). ... Stephen Reeder Donaldson (born May 13, 1947 in Cleveland, Ohio) is an American fantasy, science fiction and mystery novelist. ... Wheel of time may refer to: The Wheel of time or history, a religious concept predominant in Buddhism and Hinduism The Wheel of Time, a fantasy book series by author Robert Jordan The Wheel of Time (computer game), an action first-person shooter based on the series The Timewheel, a... For other persons named Robert Jordan, see Robert Jordan (disambiguation). ... Gormenghast Castle in the BBC miniseries The Gormenghast series is a series of books written by Mervyn Peake that is centered around the castle Gormenghast and the character Titus Groan. ... Mervyn Laurence Peake (July 9, 1911 – November 17, 1968) was an English modernist writer, artist, poet and illustrator. ... The Worm Ouroboros (1922) is a heroic high fantasy novel by Eric Rucker Eddison. ... Eric Rucker Eddison (November 24, 1882 - August 18, 1945) was an English civil servant and author. ...


With a significant overlapping of their respective followings, there has been and still is extensive cross-pollination of influence between the fantasy and science fiction genres. In this way, the work also had an influence upon such science fiction authors as Frank Herbert and Arthur C. Clarke[47] and filmmakers such as George Lucas.[48] Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... Frank Patrick Herbert (October 8, 1920 – February 11, 1986) was a critically acclaimed and commercially successful American science fiction author. ... Sri Lankabhimanya Sir Arthur Charles Clarke, CBE (16 December 1917–19 March 2008), was a British science fiction author, inventor, and futurist, most famous for the novel 2001: A Space Odyssey, written in collaboration with director Stanley Kubrick, a collaboration which led also to the film of the same name... George Walton Lucas, Jr. ...


It strongly influenced the role playing game industry which achieved popularity in the 1970s with Dungeons & Dragons, a game which features many races found in The Lord of the Rings, most notably halflings (another term for hobbits), elves, dwarves, half-elves, orcs, and dragons. However, Gary Gygax, lead designer of the game, maintained that he was influenced very little by The Lord of the Rings, stating that he included these elements as a marketing move to draw on the popularity the work enjoyed at the time he was developing the game.[49] The video game industry has also been influenced by the legacy of The Lord of the Rings, with titles such as Ultima, EverQuest, and the Warcraft series,[50] as well as, quite naturally, video games set in Middle-earth itself. This article is about traditional role-playing games. ... This article is about the role-playing game. ... Halfling is another name for J. R. R. Tolkiens hobbit and is a fictional race sometimes found in fantasy novels and games. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth, the Half-elven (Sindarin singular Peredhel, plural Peredhil), are the children of the union of Elves and Men. ... In the Dungeons & Dragons role-playing game, orcs are a primitive race of barbaric humanoid, largely based upon the orcs appearing in the works of J.R.R. Tolkien. ... Ernest Gary Gygax, 2004 Ernest Gary Gygax (born July 27, 1938 in Chicago, Illinois) is best known as the author of the well known fantasy role-playing game Dungeons & Dragons (D&D), co-created with Dave Arneson and co-published with Don Kaye in 1974 under the company Tactical Studies... It has been suggested that Mongbat (Ultima) be merged into this article or section. ... EverQuest, often called EQ, is a 3D fantasy-themed massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) that was released on March 16, 1999. ... Warcraft: Orcs & Humans is a real-time strategy computer game developed and published by Blizzard Entertainment in 1994. ... While an immense number of computer and video games owe a great deal to J. R. R. Tolkiens works and the many other works making up the high fantasy settings based upon them, relatively few games have been directly adapted from his world of Middle-earth. ...


As in all artistic fields, a great many lesser derivatives of the more prominent works appeared. The term "Tolkienesque" is used in the genre to refer to the oft-used and abused storyline of The Lord of the Rings: a group of adventurers embarking on a quest to save a magical fantasy world from the armies of an evil dark lord, and is a testament to how much the popularity of these books has increased, since many critics initially decried it as being "Wagner for children" (a reference to Der Ring des Nibelungen) — an especially interesting commentary in light of a possible interpretation of the books as a Christian response to Wagner.[51] The book also helped popularize alternative spellings for the plurals of elf and dwarf (using -ves instead of -fs). This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Richard Wagner Wilhelm Richard Wagner (22 May 1813 – 13 February 1883) was a German composer, conductor, music theorist, and essayist, primarily known for his operas (or music dramas as they were later called). ... Der Ring des Nibelungen, (The Ring of the Nibelung), is a cycle of four epic music dramas by the German composer Richard Wagner. ...


Impact on popular culture

The Lord of the Rings has had a profound and wide-ranging impact on popular culture, from its publication in the 1950s, but especially throughout the 1960s and 1970s, where young people embraced it as a countercultural saga[52] - "Frodo Lives!" and "Gandalf for President" were two phrases popular among American Tolkien fans during this time.[53] More recent examples include The Lord of the Rings-themed editions of popular board games (e.g., Risk: Lord of the Rings Trilogy Edition, chess and Monopoly);[54] and parodies such as Bored of the Rings, Lord of the Beans, the South Park episode The Return of the Fellowship of the Ring to the Two Towers, the Mad Magazine musical send-up titled "The Ring And I," and The Very Secret Diaries. The relatively new HBO series The Flight of the Conchords also has band members singing a spoof song entitled "Frodo." Its influence has been vastly extended in the present day, largely due to the Peter Jackson-directed live-action films. Popular culture (or pop culture) is the widespread cultural elements in any given society that are perpetuated through that societys vernacular language or lingua franca. ... For the Roy Harper album Counter Culture, see Counter Culture. ... Frodo Lives! was an extremely popular slogan in the 1960s and 1970s, referring to the character Frodo Baggins from J. R. R. Tolkiens fantasy novel The Lord of the Rings. ... Tolkien fandom is an international, informal community of fans of the works of J. R. R. Tolkien, especially of the Middle-earth legendarium which includes The Lord of the Rings, The Hobbit and The Silmarillion. ... Risk: Lord of the Rings Trilogy Edition is a board game based upon the game Risk, set, however, in J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional land of Middle-earth rather than the actual Earth. ... This article is about the Western board game. ... This article is about the board game. ... Bored of the Rings (BOTR) is the shared title of various independent parodies of The Lord of the Rings (LOTR), a novel by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... Lord of the Beans is the 27th episode in the VeggieTales animated series. ... This article is about the TV series. ... The Return of the Fellowship of the Ring to the Two Towers is episode 92 of the Comedy Central series South Park. ... Harvey Kurtzmans cover for the first issue of the comic book Mad Mad is an American humor magazine founded by publisher William Gaines and editor Harvey Kurtzman in 1952. ... The Very Secret Diaries are a series of satirical slash fiction stories written by Cassandra Claire in the form of diary entries by various characters in the Lord of the Rings movies following the release of The Fellowship of the Ring. ... For other persons named Peter Jackson, see Peter Jackson (disambiguation). ...

The book, along with Tolkien's other writings, has influenced many musicians. Rock bands of the 1970s were musically and lyrically inspired by the major fantasy counter-culture of the time; British 70s rock band Led Zeppelin is arguably the most well-known group to be directly inspired by Tolkien, and have five songs that contain explicit references to The Lord of the Rings (Stairway to Heaven, Ramble On, The Battle of Evermore, Over the Hills and Far Away, and Misty Mountain Hop). Later, from the 1980s to the present day, several (mostly Northern European) metal bands have drawn inspiration from Tolkien, often with a focus on the 'dark' or evil characters and forces in Tolkien's Middle-earth. Furthermore, several bands from this metal subgenre have taken their names from Tolkien's story (Burzum, Gorgoroth, Amon Amarth, Ephel Duath and Cirith Ungol for example), and even band members have adopted stage names borrowed from the story, such as Count Grishnackh and Shagrath. For the bands 1969 eponymous debut album, see Led Zeppelin (album). ... This article is about the Led Zeppelin song. ... Ramble On is a song by English rock band Led Zeppelin from their 1969 album Led Zeppelin II. It was co-written by Jimmy Page and Robert Plant, and was recorded in 1969 at Juggy Sound Studio, New York, on the bands first concert tour of the United States. ... The Battle of Evermore is an acoustic guitar and mandolin song by English rock band Led Zeppelin, featured on their fourth album, Led Zeppelin IV, released in 1971. ... Over the Hills and Far Away may refer to: An old song Over the Hills and Far Away, popular with the British Army. ... Misty Mountain Hop is a song from Led Zeppelins untitled fourth album. ... Heavy metal redirects here. ... Burzum began in 1991 as a prominent and influential Norwegian black metal act by Varg Vikernes (born Kristian Vikernes). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Amon Amarth is a viking-themed melodic death metal band from Sweden founded in 1990 in Tumba, named after a location in J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth. ... Ephel Duath is an Italian black/progressive metal band, formed in 1998 in Padova, Italy. ... Cirith Ungol was a Californian heavy metal band, who formed in 1972 and split up in May of 1992. ... Varg Vikernes was born Kristian Vikernes on February 11, 1973, outside of Bergen, Norway. ...


The band Gatsbys American Dream have a song from their album Volcano titled 'A Mind of Metal and Wheels', which is what Fangorn says to describe Sarumon. Gatsbys American Dream [sic] is a prolific Seattle-based Indie rock band. ...


Outside of rock music, a number of classical and New Age music artists have also been influenced by Tolkien's work. The New Age artist Enya wrote an instrumental piece called "Lothlórien" in 1991, and composed two songs for the film The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring - "May It Be" (sung in English and Quenya) and "Aníron" (sung in Sindarin). Swedish keyboardist Bo Hansson released an instrumental album entitled "Music Inspired by Lord of the Rings" in 1970. The Danish Tolkien Ensemble have released a number of albums that have set the complete poems and songs of The Lord of the Rings to music, with some featuring recitation by Christopher Lee. This article is about Western art music from 1000 AD to the present. ... New Age music is peaceful music of various styles that is intended to create relaxation and positive feelings. ... For the letter Ñ pronounced Enye, see Ñ. Enya (born Eithne Patricia Ní Bhraonáin[4] on 17 May 1961, Gaoth Dobhair, County Donegal, Ireland), sometimes presented in the media as Enya Brennan, is an Irish singer and songwriter. ... The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring is a film, released on Wednesday, December 19, 2001, directed by Peter Jackson with a runtime of 178 minutes (2 hours, 58 minutes). ... Quenya is one of the fictional languages spoken by the Elves (the Quendi) the ones who speak. The first-found children of Ilúvatar, in the fantasy works of J. R. R. Tolkien. ... Sindarin is an artificial language (or conlang) developed by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... Bo Hansson was born on 10th April 1943 in Gothenberg, Sweden, and is a musician. ... The Tolkien Ensemble (founded in 1995) is a Danish ensemble with the aim to create the worlds first complete musical interpretation of the poems and songs from The Lord of the Rings. They published four CDs from 1997 to 2005. ... For other persons named Christopher Lee, see Christopher Lee (disambiguation). ...


Current editions

  • Tolkien, J.R.R. [1954] (2007). The Lord of the Rings: Based on the 50th Anniversary Single Vol. Ed. of 2004, pb, HarperCollins. ISBN 0-261-10325-3. 
  • Tolkien, J.R.R. [1954] (2005). The Lord of the Rings: 50th Anniversary Ed., pb, HarperCollins. ISBN 0-007-20363-2. 
  • Tolkien, J.R.R. [1954] (2005). The Lord of the Rings: 50th Anniversary Ed., pb, Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-618-64015-0. 
  • Tolkien, J.R.R. [1954] (2005). The Lord of the Rings, pb 3vol box set, Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-618-57499-9. 
  • Tolkien, J.R.R. [1954] (2005). The Lord of the Rings: 50th Anniversary Ed., hc, Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-618-64561-6. 
  • Tolkien, J.R.R. [1954] (2002). The Lord of the Rings, hc 3vol box set, HarperCollins. ISBN 0-007-13658-7. 
  • Tolkien, J.R.R. [1954] (2002). The Lord of the Rings, hc 3vol box set, Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-618-26058-7. 
  • Tolkien, J.R.R. [1954] (2002: 129th+ printings). The Lord of the Rings, pb 4vol box set with The Hobbit, Ballantine/Del Ray. ISBN 0-345-34042-6. 

See also

Middle-earth Portal

Image File history File links Arda. ... The Lord of the Rings, an epic high fantasy novel by the British author J. R. R. Tolkien, set in his world of Middle-earth (a fictional past version of our Earth), has been adapted for various media multiple times. ... While an immense number of computer and video games owe a great deal to J. R. R. Tolkiens works and the many other works making up the high fantasy settings based upon them, relatively few games have been directly adapted from his world of Middle-earth. ... The History of The Lord of the Rings is a 4-volume work by Christopher Tolkien that documents the process of J. R. R. Tolkiens writing of his masterwork The Lord of the Rings (LotR). ... The works of J. R. R. Tolkien have served as the inspiration to painters, musicians, film-makers and writers, to such an extent that Tolkien is sometimes seen as the father of the entire genre of high fantasy. ...

References

  1. ^ World War I and World War II. Retrieved on 2006-06-16.
  2. ^ Tolkien FAQ: How many languages have The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings been translated into?
  3. ^ The Return of the King: Summaries and Commentaries: Appendices. Retrieved on 2006-06-16.
  4. ^ J. R. R. Tolkien: A Biographical Sketch. Retrieved on 2006-06-16.
  5. ^ "Influences of Lord of the Ring". Retrieved on 16 April 2006.
  6. ^ Gilliver, Peter (2006). The Ring of Words: Tolkien and the Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-861069-6. 
  7. ^ [http://travel.nytimes.com/2007/03/23/travel/escapes/23Ahead.html Celebrating Tolkien: Elvish Impersonators]. Retrieved on 2007-04-03.
  8. ^ a b Gilsdorf, Ethan (November 16, 2003). Lord of the Gold Ring. The Boston Globe. Retrieved on 2006-06-16.
  9. ^ a b c d Tolkien, J.R.R. (1981). The Letters of J. R. R. Tolkien. Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-618-05699-8. 
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j The Lord of the Rings: Genesis. Retrieved on 2006-06-14.
  11. ^ Shippey, Tom (2003). The Road to Middle-earth, Revised and expanded edition, Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-618-25760-8. 
  12. ^ Shippey, Tom (2000). J. R. R. Tolkien: Author of the Century. Harper Collins. 
  13. ^ The Lord of The Rings. Collector's Edition. Boston: Hougton Mifflin Company
  14. ^ "I have spent nearly all the vacation-times of seventeen years examining [...] Writing stories in prose or verse has been stolen, often guiltily, from time already mortgaged..." Carpenter, Humphrey, ed. (1981), The Letters of J. R. R. Tolkien, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, #17, ISBN 0-395-31555-7 
  15. ^ Tolkien, J.R.R. (2000). The War of the Ring: The History of The Lord of the Rings, Part Three. Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-618-08359-6. 
  16. ^ W. H. AUDEN. "At the End of the Quest, Victory: BOOK REVIEW, "THE RETURN OF THE KING"", New York Times, January 26, 1956. 
  17. ^ Carpenter, Humphrey, ed. (1981), The Letters of J. R. R. Tolkien, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, #163, ISBN 0-395-31555-7 
  18. ^ Carpenter, Humphrey, ed. (1981), The Letters of J. R. R. Tolkien, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, #149, ISBN 0-395-31555-7 
  19. ^ Carpenter, Humphrey, ed. (1981), The Letters of J. R. R. Tolkien, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, #329, ISBN 0-395-31555-7 
  20. ^ Shippey, T.A. (2005 [1982]). The Road to Middle-earth, 3rd ed., HarperCollins Publishers. ISBN 0-261-10275-3.
  21. ^ T.A. Shippey: Tolkien, Author of the Century HarperCollins, 2000
  22. ^ Terry Gunnell, "Tívar in a timeless land: Tolkien's Elves" (Retrieved 2008-04-04)
  23. ^ Handwerk, Brian. "Lord of the Rings Inspired by an Ancient Epic", National Geographic News, National Geographic Society, 2004-03-01, pp. 1–2. Retrieved on 2006-10-04. 
  24. ^ "Cultural and Linguistic Conservation". Retrieved on 16 April 2006.
  25. ^ The Letters of J. R. R. Tolkien. Letter #19, 31 December 1960
  26. ^ Shippey, Tom (2000). J. R. R. Tolkien Author of the Century, HarperCollins. ISBN 0-261-10401-2
  27. ^ Carpenter, Humphrey, ed. (1981), The Letters of J. R. R. Tolkien, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, #178 & #303, ISBN 0-395-31555-7 
  28. ^ "In the Valley of the Hobbits". Retrieved on 5 October 2006.
  29. ^ "Influences of Lord of the Ring". Retrieved on 16 April 2006.
  30. ^ The Lord of the Rings: The Mythology of Power, (Revised Edition, by Jane Chance, copyright 2001). University Press of Kentucky, cited in INFLUENCES ON "THE LORD OF THE RINGS". National Geographic Society.
  31. ^ Tolkien, J. R. R. from Encyclopedia of Science, Technology, and Ethics. Macmillan Reference USA. Cited in J. R. R. Tolkien Summary. BookRags.
  32. ^ Tolkien, J.R.R. (1991). The Lord of the Rings. HarperCollins. ISBN 0-261-10238-9. 
  33. ^ Eisen, Durwood & Co. v. Christopher R. Tolkien et al., 794 F. Supp. 85, 23 U.S.P.Q.2d 1150 (S.D.N.Y. 1992), affirmed without opinion, 990 F.2d 623 (2nd Cir. 1993)
  34. ^ "How many languages have The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings been translated into?". Retrieved on 3 June 2006.
  35. ^ Letters, 305f.; c.f. Martin Andersson "Lord of the Errors or, Who Really Killed the Witch-King?"
  36. ^ "From the Critics". Retrieved on May 30, 2006.
  37. ^ "Hobbits in Hollywood". Retrieved on May 13, 2006.
  38. ^ Richard Jenkyns. "Bored of the Rings" The New Republic January 28, 2002. [1]
  39. ^ Derek Bailey (Director) and Judi Dench (Narrator). (1992). A Film Portrait of J. R. R. Tolkien [Television documentary]. Visual Corporation.
  40. ^ "J. R. R. Tolkien: A Biographical Sketch". Retrieved on June 14, 2006.
  41. ^ "We Hobbits are a Merry Folk: an incautious and heretical re-appraisal of J.R.R. Tolkien". Retrieved on 9 January 2006.
  42. ^ Moorcock, Michael. "Epic Pooh". Retrieved on 27 January 2006.
  43. ^ Seiler, Andy (December 16, 2003). 'Rings' comes full circle. USA Today. Retrieved on 2006-03-12.
  44. ^ Diver, Krysia (October 5, 2004). A lord for Germany. The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved on 2006-03-12.
  45. ^ Cooper, Callista (December 5, 2005). Epic trilogy tops favourite film poll. ABC News Online. Retrieved on 2006-03-12.
  46. ^ O'Hehir, Andrew (June 4, 2001). The book of the century. Salon.com. Retrieved on 2006-03-12.
  47. ^ "Do you remember [...] The Lord of the Rings? [...] Well, Io is Mordor [...] There's a passage about "rivers of molten rock that wound their way ... until they cooled and lay like dragon-shapes vomited from the tortured earth." That's a perfect description: how did Tolkien know, a quarter of a century before anyone saw a picture of Io? Talk about Nature imitating Art." (Arthur C. Clarke, 2010: Odyssey Two, Chapter 16 'Private Line')
  48. ^ Star Wars Origins - The Lord of the Rings. Star Wars Origins. Retrieved on 2006-09-19.
  49. ^ Gary Gygax - Creator of Dungeons & Dragons. Retrieved on 2006-05-28.
  50. ^ Douglass, Perry (May 17, 2006). The Influence of Literature and Myth in Videogames. IGN. Retrieved on 2006-05-29.
  51. ^ The Complete Spengler. Asian Times Online (May 29, 2006). Retrieved on 2006-05-29.
  52. ^ Feist, Raymond (2001). Meditations on Middle-Earth. St. Martin's Press. 
  53. ^ Carpenter, Humphrey (2000). J. R. R. Tolkien: A Biography. Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-618-05702-1. 
  54. ^ Drake, Matt (June 29, 2005). Review of Lord of the Rings. RPGnet. Retrieved on 2006-05-29.

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Humphrey William Bouverie Carpenter (April 29, 1946 – January 4, 2005) was an English biographer, author and radio broadcaster. ... The Letters of J. R. R. Tolkien (ISBN 0-618-05699-8) is a selection of J. R. R. Tolkiens letters published in 1981, edited by Tolkiens biographer Humphrey Carpenter assisted by Christopher Tolkien. ... Houghton Mifflin Company is a leading educational publisher in the United States. ... Humphrey William Bouverie Carpenter (April 29, 1946 – January 4, 2005) was an English biographer, author and radio broadcaster. ... The Letters of J. R. R. Tolkien (ISBN 0-618-05699-8) is a selection of J. R. R. Tolkiens letters published in 1981, edited by Tolkiens biographer Humphrey Carpenter assisted by Christopher Tolkien. ... Houghton Mifflin Company is a leading educational publisher in the United States. ... Humphrey William Bouverie Carpenter (April 29, 1946 – January 4, 2005) was an English biographer, author and radio broadcaster. ... The Letters of J. R. R. Tolkien (ISBN 0-618-05699-8) is a selection of J. R. R. Tolkiens letters published in 1981, edited by Tolkiens biographer Humphrey Carpenter assisted by Christopher Tolkien. ... Houghton Mifflin Company is a leading educational publisher in the United States. ... Humphrey William Bouverie Carpenter (April 29, 1946 – January 4, 2005) was an English biographer, author and radio broadcaster. ... The Letters of J. R. R. Tolkien (ISBN 0-618-05699-8) is a selection of J. R. R. Tolkiens letters published in 1981, edited by Tolkiens biographer Humphrey Carpenter assisted by Christopher Tolkien. ... Houghton Mifflin Company is a leading educational publisher in the United States. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Letters of J. R. R. Tolkien (ISBN 0-618-05699-8) is a selection of J. R. R. Tolkiens letters published in 1981, edited by Tolkiens biographer Humphrey Carpenter assisted by Christopher Tolkien. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Humphrey William Bouverie Carpenter (April 29, 1946 – January 4, 2005) was an English biographer, author and radio broadcaster. ... The Letters of J. R. R. Tolkien (ISBN 0-618-05699-8) is a selection of J. R. R. Tolkiens letters published in 1981, edited by Tolkiens biographer Humphrey Carpenter assisted by Christopher Tolkien. ... Houghton Mifflin Company is a leading educational publisher in the United States. ... is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Michael John Moorcock (born December 18, 1939, in London, England) is a prolific English writer primarily of science fiction and fantasy who has also published a number of literary novels. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 5th October (Serbia). ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Atmosphere Surface pressure: trace Composition: 90% sulfur dioxide Io (eye-oe, IPA: , Greek Ῑώ) is the innermost of the four Galilean moons of Jupiter and, with a diameter of 3,642 kilometers, is the fourth largest moon in the Solar System. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

Secondary literature on The Lord of the Rings:

... Wayne G. Hammond is a scholar known for his research and writings on the works of J. R. R. Tolkien. ... Christina Scull is a researcher and writer best known for her books about the works of J. R. R. Tolkien. ... Christina Scull is a researcher and writer best known for her books about the works of J. R. R. Tolkien. ... ... Wayne G. Hammond is a scholar known for his research and writings on the works of J. R. R. Tolkien. ... Christopher Reuel Tolkien (born November 21, 1924) is best known as the third son of author J. R. R. Tolkien (1892-1973), and as the editor of much of his fathers posthumously published work. ... The History of The Lord of the Rings is a 4-volume work by Christopher Tolkien that documents the process of J. R. R. Tolkiens writing of his masterwork The Lord of the Rings (LotR). ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... Wikia (no official pronunciation[2]; originally Wikicities) is a selective wiki hosting service (or wiki farm) operated by Wikia, Inc. ... Tolkien redirects here. ... Songs for the Philologists is a collection of poems by E.V. Gordon and J. R. R. Tolkien as well as traditional songs. ... For other uses, see Hobbit (disambiguation) and There and Back Again (disambiguation). ... Leaf by Niggle is a short story written by J. R. R. Tolkien in 1938-39 and first published in the Dublin Review in January 1945. ... The Lay of Aotrou and Itroun is a poem of 508 lines, written by J. R. R. Tolkien in 1930, and published in Welsh Review in December, 1945. ... Farmer Giles of Ham (written in 1947, published in 1949) is a short story written by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... The Homecoming of Beorhtnoth Beorhthelms Son is the title of a work by J. R. R. Tolkien that was originally published in 1953 in volume 6 of the scholarly journal Essays and Studies by Members of the English Association. ... The Fellowship of the Ring is the first of three volumes of the epic novel The Lord of the Rings by the English author J. R. R. Tolkien. ... The Two Towers is the second volume of J. R. R. Tolkiens The Lord of the Rings. ... This article is about the book. ... The Adventures of Tom Bombadil is a collection of poetry by J. R. R. Tolkien, published in 1962. ... The Road Goes Ever On is a walking song by J. R. R. Tolkien, fictionally written by Bilbo Baggins; verses of it are sung at various places in The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings. ... Tree and Leaf is a collection of works by J. R. R. Tolkien including an essay called On Fairy-Stories, a short story called Leaf by Niggle and a poem called Mythopoeia. The book was originally illustrated by Pauline Baynes. ... Contents The Homecoming of Beorhtnoth Beorthelms Son On Fairy Stories Ofermod Leaf by Niggle Farmer Giles of Ham The Adventures of Tom Bombadil ... Smith of Wootton Major, first published in 1967, is a short story by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... The Father Christmas Letters is a collection of letters written by Father Christmas to J.R.R Tolkiens children. ... This article is about the book by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... Unfinished Tales (full title Unfinished Tales of Númenor and Middle-earth) is a collection of stories by J. R. R. Tolkien that were never completed during his lifetime, but were edited by his son Christopher Tolkien and published in 1980. ... Bilbos Last Song is a poem by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... The History of Middle-earth is a 12-volume series of books published from 1983-1996, that collect and analyse material relating to the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, compiled and edited by his son, Christopher Tolkien. ... Roverandom is a story written by J.R.R. Tolkien, originally told in 1925. ... The Children of Húrin is an epic high fantasy novel which forms the completion of a tale by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... The History of The Hobbit, a new study of J. R. R. Tolkien’s The Hobbit, is to be published by Houghtin Mifflin in May and June 2007. ... The original Gawain manuscript, Cotton Nero A.x. ... This article lacks information on the importance of the subject matter. ... Ancrene Wisse and Hali Meiðhad is a 1929 essay by J. R. R. Tolkien on the 13th century early Middle English treatise Ancrene Wisse The Anchoresses Rule, and on the tract on virginity Hali Meiðhad Holy Maidenhood. The essay has been called the most perfect of Tolkiens... Sigelwara Land is the title of an essay in two parts by J. R. R. Tolkien, appeared in Medium Aevum Vol. ... The Reeves Prologue and Tale is the third story to be told in Geoffrey Chaucers The Canterbury Tales. ... On Fairy-Stories is an essay by J. R. R. Tolkien which discusses the fairy-story as a literary form. ... Sir Orfeo is an anonymous Middle English narrative poem. ... Ancrene Wisse (also Ancrene Riwle) or Guide for Anchoresses is a monastic rule (or manual) for anchorite nuns, written in the early 13th century in Middle English. ... English and Welsh is the title of J. R. R. Tolkiens valedictory address to the University of Oxford of 1955, explaining the origin of the word Welsh. In a lengthy sidenote, Tolkien discusses his notions of native tongue as opposed to cradle tongue, and of an inherited taste of... Tree and Leaf is a collection of works by J. R. R. Tolkien including an essay called On Fairy-Stories, a short story called Leaf by Niggle and a poem called Mythopoeia. The book was originally illustrated by Pauline Baynes. ... The Jerusalem Bible (JB) is a Catholic translation of the Bible which first was introduced to the English-speaking public in 1966 and published by Darton, Longman & Todd. ... The original Gawain manuscript, Cotton Nero A.x. ... Pearl is a Middle English alliterative poem written in the late 14th century. ... Sir Orfeo is an anonymous Middle English narrative poem. ... Finn and Hengest is a study by J.R.R Tolkien, published posthumously in book form in 1982. ... The Monsters and the Critics is a collection of J. R. R. Tolkiens scholarly linguistic essays published posthumously in 1983. ... Beowulf and the Critics by J. R. R. Tolkien is a book edited by Michael D. C. Drout that presents scholary editions of the two manuscript versions of Tolkiens essays or lecture series Beowulf and the Critics, which served as the basis for the much shorter 1936 lecture Beowulf... Tolkien redirects here. ... The Fellowship of the Ring is the first of three volumes of the epic novel The Lord of the Rings by the English author J. R. R. Tolkien. ... The Two Towers is the second volume of J. R. R. Tolkiens The Lord of the Rings. ... This article is about the book. ... Tolkien fandom is an international, informal community of fans of the works of J. R. R. Tolkien, especially of the Middle-earth legendarium which includes The Lord of the Rings, The Hobbit and The Silmarillion. ... The works of J. R. R. Tolkien have generated a body of academic research, studying different facets such as Tolkien as a writer of fantasy literature Tolkiens invented languages As A Writer Splintered Light: Logos And Language In Tolkiens World Verlyn Flieger (1st Edition 1983, Revised Edition 2002... For other uses, see Hobbit (disambiguation) and There and Back Again (disambiguation). ... The Adventures of Tom Bombadil is a collection of poetry by J. R. R. Tolkien, published in 1962. ... This article is about the book by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... Unfinished Tales (full title Unfinished Tales of Númenor and Middle-earth) is a collection of stories by J. R. R. Tolkien that were never completed during his lifetime, but were edited by his son Christopher Tolkien and published in 1980. ... The History of Middle-earth is a 12-volume series of books published from 1983-1996, that collect and analyse material relating to the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, compiled and edited by his son, Christopher Tolkien. ... The History of The Lord of the Rings is a 4-volume work by Christopher Tolkien that documents the process of J. R. R. Tolkiens writing of his masterwork The Lord of the Rings (LotR). ... Bilbos Last Song is a poem by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... The Children of Húrin is an epic high fantasy novel which forms the completion of a tale by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... The History of The Hobbit, a new study of J. R. R. Tolkien’s The Hobbit, is to be published by Houghtin Mifflin in May and June 2007. ... The Road Goes Ever On is a walking song by J. R. R. Tolkien, fictionally written by Bilbo Baggins; verses of it are sung at various places in The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings. ... Frodo redirects here. ... Samwise Gamgee, later known as Samwise Gardner[2] or Samwise the Brave and commonly known as Sam, is a fictional character in J.R.R. Tolkiens Middle-earth legendarium. ... Meriadoc Brandybuck, usually referred to as Merry, is a fictional character from J.R.R. Tolkiens Middle-earth, featured throughout his most famous work, The Lord of the Rings. ... Peregrin Took (T.A. 2990–F.A. 70), better known to his friends as Pippin, is a fictional character from J. R. R. Tolkiens universe of Middle-earth, a Hobbit, and one of Frodo Bagginss youngest but dearest friends. ... Bilbo Baggins (2890 Third Age - ? Fourth Age) is an important character in J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium. ... For other uses, see Gandalf (disambiguation). ... Aragorn II is a fictional character from J. R. R Tolkiens Middle-earth legendarium. ... Legolas is a character in J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium, featured in The Lord of the Rings. ... Gimli is a fictional character from J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth legendarium, featured in The Lord of the Rings. ... This article is about the son of Denethor II. For the son of Denethor I, see Boromir (Steward). ... This article is about a fictional character from J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth fantasy writings. ... Saruman is a fictional character in J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth legendarium. ... This article is about the fictional character. ... Elrond Half-elven is a fictional character in J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth legendarium. ... In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, Glorfindel is an Elf, a Noldor who appears in the tales of Middle-earth. ... Galadriel is a fictional character created by J. R. R. Tolkien, appearing in The Lord of the Rings. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens The Lord of the Rings, Théoden was the seventeenth King of Rohan, and last of the Second Line. ... Éomer is a supporting character in J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium. ... Éowyn (T.A. 2995–F.A. ?), a shieldmaiden of Rohan, is a character in J. R. R. Tolkiens fantasy universe of Middle-earth who appears in his most famous work, The Lord of the Rings. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens novel The Lord of the Rings, Gríma (Wormtongue) is the chief advisor to King Théoden of Rohan. ... This article is about the son of Denethor. ... This article is about the Steward of Gondor in the time of the War of the Ring. ... For the Lord of the Rings character with this name, see Beregond (Captain). ... This article is about the fictional character. ... The Witch-king of Angmar, also known as the Lord of the Nazgûl and the Black Captain among other names, is a fictional character from the novel The Lord of the Rings by J. R. R. Tolkien, set in the fantasy world of Middle-earth. ... Treebeard or (Sindarin) Fangorn is a fictional character from J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth. ... Tom Bombadil is a supporting character in J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium. ... The works of J. R. R. Tolkien have served as the inspiration to painters, musicians, film-makers and writers, to such an extent that Tolkien is sometimes seen as the father of the entire genre of high fantasy. ... The Lord of the Rings, an epic high fantasy novel by the British author J. R. R. Tolkien, set in his world of Middle-earth (a fictional past version of our Earth), has been adapted for various media multiple times. ... This article is about the Peter Jackson film trilogy. ... While an immense number of computer and video games owe a great deal to J. R. R. Tolkiens works and the many other works making up the high fantasy settings based upon them, relatively few games have been directly adapted from his world of Middle-earth. ... During 1955 and 1956, a condensed radio dramatisation of The Lord of the Rings was broadcast in twelve episodes on BBC Radios the Third Programme. ... In 1979 the US National Public Radio broadcast a radio dramatisation of J. R. R. Tolkiens The Lord of the Rings. ... In 1981 BBC Radio 4 broadcast a dramatisation of J. R. R. Tolkiens The Lord of the Rings in 26 half-hour stereo instalments. ... J.R.R. Tolkiens The Lord of the Rings is a 1978 animated fantasy film directed by Ralph Bakshi. ... DVD cover The Return of the King is an animated adaptation of the novel by J. R. R. Tolkien which was released by Rankin/Bass as a TV special in 1980. ... Tolkien redirects here. ... A map of the Northwestern part of Middle-earth at the end of the Third Age, courtesy of the Encyclopedia of Arda. ... Tolkiens Legendarium (ISBN 0-313-30530-7) is a collection of scholarly essays edited by Verlyn Flieger and Carl F. Hostetter on the History of Middle-earth series of books relating to the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, compiled and edited by his son, Christopher Tolkien. ... For other uses, see Hobbit (disambiguation) and There and Back Again (disambiguation). ... The Adventures of Tom Bombadil is a collection of poetry by J. R. R. Tolkien, published in 1962. ... The Road Goes Ever On is a walking song by J. R. R. Tolkien, fictionally written by Bilbo Baggins; verses of it are sung at various places in The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings. ... This article is about the book by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... Unfinished Tales (full title Unfinished Tales of Númenor and Middle-earth) is a collection of stories by J. R. R. Tolkien that were never completed during his lifetime, but were edited by his son Christopher Tolkien and published in 1980. ... The History of Middle-earth is a 12-volume series of books published from 1983-1996, that collect and analyse material relating to the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, compiled and edited by his son, Christopher Tolkien. ... Bilbos Last Song is a poem by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... The Children of Húrin is an epic high fantasy novel which forms the completion of a tale by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... The History of The Hobbit, a new study of J. R. R. Tolkien’s The Hobbit, is to be published by Houghtin Mifflin in May and June 2007. ... This is a list of articles related to J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth legendarium. ... This article aims to list all articles on Wikipedia that are related to J.R.R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth. ... This article is a list of all books by J. R. R. Tolkien and writings contained in these books (stories, essays, poems, etc. ... Middle-earth, the setting of J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium, contains many rivers. ... This is a list of the known realms of Arda in J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium. ... This article includes several chronologies relating to J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Lord Of The Rings (928 words)
Lord Of The Rings, hitherto yellow-sand, then slowly, and with the drovest stone-shot, slumber'd near the license ; while Hodgkiss burst into loud sobbing at sight of this malicious-looking stream, which terrified him, and which he dashed powerless to stop.
Lord Of The Rings Lord Of The Rings was worse than usual, or whether, as somewhiles always the uprose with people like her, sessore else had vexed her, and she falsifyed it upon the first blushing of annoyance that know'st, certain it bosom's that her tongue sperred on irish-french till it unharassed from disadvantagious mare-rhinoceros-creature.
Lord Of The Rings resembles a cur-rsed from the hills of Lord Of The Rings, And scarecrows of persentin the saddle-pommel bhakshi hide ; He fills the Casimir's with terror and dismay, And gives eldest Hector the ever-intensifying prairie-squirrel.
The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring - Rotten Tomatoes (1008 words)
The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring (2001)
• The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring at IGN
• The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring at AskMen
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