FACTOID # 2: Puerto Rico has roughly the same gross state product as Montana, Wyoming and North Dakota combined.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > The Lord's Supper
Part of the series on the
Eucharist
Instituted by
Jesus Christ

Other terms
Communion
The Lord's Supper The Eucharist is either the celebration of the Christian sacrament commemorating Christ’s Last Supper, or the consecrated bread and wine of this sacrament. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1211x1096, 178 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... This article presents a description of Jesus life, as based on the four gospels. ... The word communion can refer to the Eucharist, or the act of receiving the Eucharist; or a group of churches in full communion with each other, or the relationship of full communion between Christian religious denominations; or the Communion of Saints; or a 1976 film; see Communion (1976 movie); or...

Theology
Consecration
Consubstantiation
Memorialism
Real Presence
Transubstantiation
To consecrate an inanimate object is to dedicate it in a ritual to a special purpose, usually religious. ... Consubstantiation is a theory which (like the competing theory of transubstantiation, with which it is often contrasted) attempts to describe the nature of the Christian Eucharist in terms of philosophical metaphysics. ... Memorialism is the belief held by many Christian denominations that the elements of bread and wine (or juice) in the Eucharist (more often referred to as The Lords Supper by memorialists) are symbolic of the body and blood of Jesus, the feast being primarily a memorial meal. ... Real Presence is the belief that Jesus is truly present, body, blood, soul, and divinity, in the Eucharist. ... Transubstantiation is the belief held by many Christian denominations that the Eucharistic elements of bread and wine are changed into the body and blood of Jesus during Consecration. ...

Theologies contrasted
Ecclesial communities contrasted in relation to Eucharistic theology: Orthodox Christianity primary theological development from early Church Fathers, esp. ...

Important theologians
Paul ·Aquinas
Augustine · Calvin
Chrysostom · Cranmer
Luther · Zwingli A 19th-century picture of Paul of Tarsus Paul of Tarsus (originally Saul of Tarsus) or Saint Paul the Apostle (c. ... St Thomas Aquinas Saint Thomas Aquinas (1225 – March 7, 1274) was an Italian Catholic philosopher and theologian in the scholastic tradition. ... St. ... John Calvin John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was a prominent Christian theologian during the Protestant Reformation and is the namesake of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism. ... John Chrysostom (347 - 407) was a notable Christian bishop and preacher from the 4th and 5th centuries in Syria and Constantinople. ... Thomas Cranmer (July 2, 1489 - March 21, 1556) was the Archbishop of Canterbury during the reigns of the English kings Henry VIII and Edward VI. Born in 1489 at Nottingham, Cranmer was educated at Jesus College, Cambridge and became a priest following the death of his first wife. ... Martin Luther (originally Martin Luder or Martinus Luther) (November 10, 1483–February 18, 1546) was a German theologian and an Augustinian monk whose teachings inspired the Protestant Reformation and deeply influenced the doctrines of Lutheran, Protestant and other Christian traditions (a broad movement composed of many congregations and church bodies). ... Huldrych (or Ulrich) Zwingli (January 1, 1484 – October 10, 1531) was the leader of the Swiss Reformation and founder of the Swiss Reformed Churches. ...

Related Articles
Christianity
Catholic Historic Roots
Closed and Open Table
Divine Liturgy
Eucharistic adoration
First Communion
Mass · Sacrament
Sanctification Christianity is a monotheistic religion based on the life, teachings, death by crucifixion, and resurrection of Jesus of Nazareth as portrayed in the New Testament writings of his early followers. ... The historical roots of Catholic Eucharistic theology are the basis upon which a number of ecclesial communities, or churches, express their faith in the bread of life as given by Jesus, and are to be found in the Church Fathers, Scripture, the writings of Thomas Aquinas, and other early church... Closed Communion is the practice of restricting the serving of the elements of communion (also called Eucharist, The Lords Supper) to those who are members of a particular church, denomination, or sect. ... In Christian churches, Open Communion is the practice of serving of the elements of communion (also called Eucharist, The Lords Supper) to any who can affirm that they are a Christian. ... The Divine Liturgy is the Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox and Eastern-Rite Catholic eucharistic service. ... Eucharistic adoration is a practice of the Roman Catholic Church in which the Blessed Sacrament is exposed to and adored by the faithful. ... The First Communion (First Holy Communion) is a Roman Catholic ceremony. ... Mass is the term used of the celebration of the Eucharist in the Latin rites of the Roman Catholic Church. ... A sacrament is a Christian rite that mediates divine grace. ... Sanctification means literally to make holy or sacred (compare Latin sanctus holy). The concept of sanctification is widespread among religions, but is perhaps especially common among the various branches of the Christian religion. ...

The Lord's Supper is a variation of the name and the service of The Last Supper or Eucharist. This name tends to be used by the churches of minimalist traditions, such as those strongly influenced by Huldrych (or Ulrich) Zwingli and the Disciples of Christ-Churches of Christ. Nevertheless, churches holding other views, such as Lutherans and Reformed churches, as well as non-denominational churches utilize the term. It is also used by the Holy See. [1] The Last Supper, represented by polychrome sculptures in the Pilgrimage Church of Madonna dell Sasso (Locarno) In the Christian faith, the Last Supper was the last meal between Jesus and his apostles before his death. ... The Eucharist is either the celebration of the Christian sacrament commemorating Christ’s Last Supper, or the consecrated bread and wine of this sacrament. ... Huldrych (or Ulrich) Zwingli (January 1, 1484 – October 10, 1531) was the leader of the Swiss Reformation and founder of the Swiss Reformed Churches. ... The Stone-Campbell Restoration Movement (or simply, Restoration Movement) is a religious reform movement born in the early 1800s in the United States. ... The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ... The Reformed churches are a group of Protestant denominations historically related by a similar Zwinglian or Calvinist system of doctrine but organizationally independent. ...

Contents


Theology

The supporters of the minimalist viewpoint usually hold that the Lord's supper is a church ordinance, and shy away from the term sacrament1. Proponents view the ordinance as a remembrance of the suffering and death of Jesus, instituted by Jesus as a perpetual memorial until His return. Transubstantiation, consubstantiation, and "means of grace" views are rejected. The institution of Lord's supper from the four gospels is emphasized, as well as the Apostle Paul's account in 1 Corinthians 11:23-27: A sacrament is a Christian rite that mediates divine grace. ... This 11th-century portrait is one of many images of Jesus in which a halo with a cross is used. ... The prophecies of a Second Coming are various and span across many religions and cultures. ... Transubstantiation is the belief held by many Christian denominations that the Eucharistic elements of bread and wine are changed into the body and blood of Jesus during Consecration. ... Consubstantiation is a theory which (like the competing theory of transubstantiation, with which it is often contrasted) attempts to describe the nature of the Christian Eucharist in terms of philosophical metaphysics. ... A 19th century picture of Paul of Tarsus Paul of Tarsus (originally Saul of Tarsus) or Saint Paul the Apostle (fl. ...

For I have received of the Lord that which also I delivered unto you, That the Lord Jesus the same night in which he was betrayed took bread: And when he had given thanks, he brake it, and said, Take, eat: this is my body, which is broken for you: this do in remembrance of me. After the same manner also he took the cup, when he had supped, saying, This cup is the new testament in my blood: this do ye, as oft as ye drink it, in remembrance of me. For as often as ye eat this bread, and drink this cup, ye do shew the Lord's death till he come. Wherefore whosoever shall eat this bread, and drink this cup of the Lord, unworthily, shall be guilty of the body and blood of the Lord. But let a man examine himself, and so let him eat of that bread, and drink of that cup.

History

This viewpoint is most often historically associated with the Anabaptists of the Radical Reformation (i.e., Conrad Grebel, Felix Manz), Huldrych Zwingli, and the English Baptists. Nevertheless, supporters of the doctrine of the Lord's supper as a memorial believe their position to be historically connected to the institution of Jesus and His apostles, and the practice of the apostolic church. Anabaptists (re-baptizers, from Greek ana and baptizo; in German: Wiedertäufer) are Christians of the so-called radical wing of the Protestant Reformation. ... Conrad Grebel (ca. ... Felix Manz (ca. ... Baptist churches are part of a Christian movement often regarded as an Evangelical, Protestant denomination. ...


Practice

Consecration or presidency

Some churches, such as the Disciples of Christ-Churches of Christ allow lay consecration of the elements. The Stone-Campbell Restoration Movement (or simply, Restoration Movement) is a religious reform movement born in the early 1800s in the United States. ... In religious organizations , the laity comprises all lay persons, i. ...


Elements

The elements of the Lord's supper are most commonly unleavened bread and wine2. In traditions in which temperance movements have had strong influence, grape juice is substituted for the wine. The term "grape juice" will frequently not be used in services; instead terms such as "unfermented wine," "wine," or simply "the cup" will be used. Teachers from such movements often assert that oinon, the Greek word used in the original New Testament to mean wine, may mean either fermented or unfermented wine. In a few Holiness bodies, water is substituted for the wine. The Temperance Movement (see definition of temperance) was a movement in support of total abstinence from alcohol during the 19th and early 20th centuries. ... The holiness movement is composed of people who believe and propagate the belief that the carnal nature of man can be cleansed through faith and by the power of the Holy Spirit if one has had his sins forgiven through faith in Jesus. ...


Participants

There is wide variation of practice on who may partake of the bread and wine. The traditional Baptist position favors restricted communion, in which the participants are limited to believers who are immersed church members. A variation on this is closed communion, in which only members of the church observing the ordinance participate in the Lord's supper3. General Baptists and non-denominational groups favor open communion, in which all professed believers are invited to participate. Baptist churches are part of a Christian movement often regarded as an Evangelical, Protestant denomination. ... Closed Communion is the practice of restricting the serving of the elements of communion (also called Eucharist, The Lords Supper) to those who are members of a particular church, denomination, or sect. ... Baptists were first identified by the name General Baptists in 17th century England. ...


Frequency

The frequency with which the Lord's supper is observed is often a matter of tradition rather than doctrine for most groups. It may be observed annually, bi-annually, quarterly, monthly, or weekly. The Churches of Christ hold the position that the Lord's supper must be observed on the first day of each week. Jehovah's Witnesses celebrate it annually, because they consider it the "Lord's Memory" and consider the Lord to be their passover, beliefs they base on 1 Cor. 5:7; 11:23-25. The earliest tradition seems to be that communion was frequent. E.g., "[H]ear the Savior: '...I supply daily the Drink of immortality'" St. Clement of Alexandria [2] (d. 217) (Jurgens §436a). The churches of Christ are a body of autonomous Christian congregations. ... See also: Second Epistle to the Corinthians and Third Epistle to the Corinthians The First Epistle to the Corinthians is a book of the Bible in the New Testament. ... In general, the term Saint refers to someone who is exceptionally virtuous and holy. ... Clement of Alexandria (Titus Flavius Clemens), was the first member of the Church of Alexandria to be more than a name, and one of its most distinguished teachers. ... Events Macrinus becomes Roman Emperor on the death of Caracalla. ...


References

  • Close Communion and Baptists, by J. H. Grime
  • The First Communion, by S. E. Anderson
  • The Lord's Supper: Believers Church Perspectives, by Dale R. Stoffer
  • The Meal Jesus Gave Us, by N. T. Wright

Footnotes

  • Note 1: as Anabaptist leader Pilgram Marpeck put it, "The true meaning of communion is mystified and obscured by the word sacrament." Nevertheless as far as his theology goes Marpeck was decidedly more incarnational than many of his Anabaptist peers, and thus closer to the Roman Catholic position than even Zwingli.
  • Note 2: e.g., see What is It to Eat and Drink Unworthily, by J. R. Graves
  • Note 3: ibid.

Pilgram Marpeck (unk-1556) was an important South German Anabaptist leader in the 16th century. ...

See also

Ecclesial communities contrasted in relation to Eucharistic theology: Orthodox Christianity primary theological development from early Church Fathers, esp. ...

External links

  • a Baptist viewpoint
  • a Church of Christ viewpoint
  • a Mennonite viewpoint
  • a Reformed (Presbyterian) viewpoint
  • The Lord's Supper: Four Views by Joe Slowiaczek
  • Four Views of the Lord's Supper - discusses transubstantiation, consubstantiation, spiritual presence, and symbolism (from spiritual presence point of view)
  • Pilgram Marpeck's defense of continuing to practice Lord's Supper

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m