FACTOID # 10: The total number of state executions in 2005 was 60: 19 in Texas and 41 elsewhere. The racial split was 19 Black and 41 White.
 
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Encyclopedia > The Long Emergency

The Long Emergency: Surviving the Converging Catastrophes of the Twenty-first Century is a book by James Howard Kunstler exploring the consequnces of a world oil production peak, coinciding with the forces of climate change, resurgent diseases, water scarcity, global economic instability and warfare to cause chaos for future generations. James Howard Jim Kunstler (born 1948) is an American author, public speaker, and social critic. ...


The book's principle theme explores the effects of a peak in oil production, predicted by many geologists, on American society as well as the rest of the world. In both this book and in his other writings, Kunstler argues that the economic upheavals caused by peak oil will force Americans to live in more local communities. The Hubbert peak theory, also known as peak oil, is an influential theory concerning the long-term rate of conventional oil (and other fossil fuel) extraction and depletion. ... Peak oil is a predicted rise, followed by a sharp decline, in the worlds supply of oil. ...


Kunstler's premise is that cheap, plentiful oil is the foundation of industrial society and the pervasiveness of its effects is not widely appreciated. Through the 21st century, oil and natural gas will become increasingly difficult to obtain, making it increasingly expensive and ultimately unavailable. Scarcity of petroleum will cause problems not just for transportation and generation of electrical power. Shipping of food and manufactured items will become expensive, ultimately prohibitively so. In the industrialized West, most of the food is grown and most manufactured items are made far from the end user. Also, natural gas is vitally important to food production as it is the raw material for much of commercial crop fertilizers. Oil is a generic term for organic liquids that are not miscible with water. ... Many stoves use natural gas. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Sarnia, Ontario Petroleum (from Greek petra – rock and elaion – oil or Latin oleum – oil ), crude oil, sometimes colloquially called black gold or Texas Tea, is a thick, dark brown or greenish liquid. ... Fertilizers are chemicals given to plants with the intention of promoting growth; they are usually applied either via the soil or by foliar spraying. ...


Kunstler further argues that alternative sources of energy will be inadequate. As petroleum sources become scarce, environmentally harmful or risky technologies such as coal and nuclear will become necessary but not sufficient for our energy needs. Hydroelectric, solar, and wind power, even in combination with coal and nuclear, will also be far from adequate. (Kunstler does not consider hydrogen to be a true energy source as there is essentially no molecular hydrogen on earth.) Media:Example. ... A nuclear power station. ...


As energy becomes scarce, transportation will become difficult or impossible, which means that food and other necessary commodities will become unavailable in many communities. Local communities will need to become self-sufficient for food production but many communities, especially large cities, will be unable to do so. The result will be mass starvation, disease, and civil unrest. Governments are incompetent to manage these problems. This period of scarcity will last for at least hundreds of years, hence the "long" emergency of the book's title.


Kunstler, a long-time critic of suburban design, advises communities to change to accommodate walking and bicycling as the primary modes of transport. Populations should be moved out of big cities into smaller communities that have nearby farmable land with adequate water and favourable climate for agriculture. People should begin learning to grow food. Housing subdivision near Union, Kentucky, a suburb of Cincinnati, Ohio. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
The Long Emergency - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (466 words)
The Long Emergency: Surviving the Converging Catastrophes of the Twenty-first Century is a book by James Howard Kunstler is a well written and cogent exploration of the horrible fate awaiting humanity in the 21st century because of the convergent threats of oil depletion, climate change, resurgent diseases, water scarcity, global economic instability and warfare.
This period of scarcity will last for at least hundreds of years, hence the "long" emergency of the book's title.
Kunstler, a long-time critic of suburban design, advises communities to change to accommodate walking and bicycling as the primary modes of transport.
The Long Emergency (3305 words)
The circumstances of the Long Emergency will require us to downscale and re-scale virtually everything we do and how we do it, from the kind of communities we physically inhabit to the way we grow our food to the way we work and trade the products of our work.
The turbulence of the Long Emergency will produce a lot of economic losers, and many of these will be members of an angry and aggrieved former middle class.
The Long Emergency is going to be a tremendous trauma for the human race.
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