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Encyclopedia > The Legislative Assembly and the fall of the French monarchy
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The French Revolution was a period in the history of France covering the years 1789 to 1799, in which republicans overthrew the Bourbon monarchy and the Roman Catholic Church perforce underwent radical restructuring. This article covers the one-year period from October 1, 1791 to September 1792, during which France was governed by the Legislative Assembly, operating under the French Constitution of 1791, between the periods of the National Constituent Assembly and of the National Convention. The History of France has been divided into a series of separate historical articles navigable through the template to the right. ... Map of Gaul circa 58 BC Gaul (from Latin Gallia, c. ... Gaul in the Roman Empire Roman Gaul consisted an area of provincial rule in what would become modern day France, Belgium, Luxembourg, and western Germany. ... Hi my name is Bob what is yours dear lady. ... France in the Middle Ages is, for the purpose of this article, the history of the region roughly corresponding to modern day France from the death of Charlemagne in 814 to the middle of the 15th century. ... Early Modern France is the portion of French history that falls in the early modern period from the mid 15th century to the end of the 18th century (or from the French Renaissance to the eve of the French Revolution). ... The History of France from 1789 to 1914 (the long 19th century) extends from the French Revolution to World War I and includes the periods of the First French Empire, the Restoration under Louis XVIII and Charles X (1814-1830), the July Monarchy under Louis Philippe dOrléans (1830... During the French Revolution (1789-1799) democracy and republicanism replaced the absolute monarchy in France, and the French sector of the Roman Catholic Church was forced to undergo radical restructuring. ... The Estates-General of 1789 was the first meeting of the French Estates-General, a general assembly consisting of representatives from all but the poorest segment of the French citizenry, since 1614. ... During the French Revolution, the National Assembly (French: Assemblée nationale) was a transitional body between the Estates-General and the National Constituent Assembly which existed from June 17 to July 9 of 1789. ... The storming of the Bastille on July 14, 1789 was an important development in, and later a symbol of, the French Revolution. ... The National Constituent Assembly (French: Assemblée nationale constituante) was formed from the National Assembly on July 9, 1789, during the first stages of the French Revolution. ... The National Constituent Assembly (French: Assemblée nationale constituante) was formed from the National Assembly on July 9, 1789, during the first stages of the French Revolution. ... The French Revolution was a period in the history of France covering the years 1789 to 1799, in which republicans overthrew the Bourbon monarchy and the Roman Catholic Church perforce underwent radical restructuring. ... The French Revolution was a period in the history of France covering the years 1789 to 1799, in which republicans overthrew the Bourbon monarchy and the Roman Catholic Church perforce underwent radical restructuring. ... During the French Revolution, the Legislative Assembly was the legislature of France from 1 October 1791 to September 1792. ... This article is about a legislative body and constitutional convention during the French Revolution. ... The Reign of Terror (June 1793 – July 1794) was a period in the French Revolution characterized by brutal repression. ... Executive Directory (in French Directoire exécutif), commonly known as the Directory (or Directoire) held executive power in France from 2 November 1795 until 10 November 1799: from the end of the Convention to the beginning of the Consulate. ... The Consulate marks a period of French constitutional history between 1799 and 1804 - from the fall of the Directory and the First French Republic to the start of the Napoleonic Empire. ... This is a glossary of the French Revolution. ... Timeline of the French Revolution. ... The French Revolutionary Wars occurred between the outbreak of war between the French Revolutionary government and Austria in 1792 and the Treaty of Amiens in 1802. ... This is a partial list of people involved in the French Revolution. ... This is a partial list of historians of the French Revolution. ... The tone of this article is inappropriate for an encyclopedia. ... Following the ousting of Napoleon I of France in 1814, the Allies restored the Bourbon Dynasty to the French throne. ... The July Monarchy was established in France with the reign of Louis Philippe of France. ... The French Second Republic (often simply Second Republic) was the republican regime of France from February 25, 1848 to December 2, 1852. ... The Second French Empire or Second Empire was the imperial Bonapartist regime of Napoleon III from 1852 to 1870, between the Second Republic and the Third Republic, in France. ... A map of France under the Third Republic, featuring colonies. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... During the French Revolution (1789-1799) democracy and republicanism replaced the absolute monarchy in France, and the French sector of the Roman Catholic Church was forced to undergo radical restructuring. ... The History of France has been divided into a series of separate historical articles navigable through the template to the right. ... 1789 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1799 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Republicanism is the idea of a nation being goverened by an elected representative instead of a king. ... The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house. ... The Catholic Church, known also as the Roman Catholic Church, is the Christian Church whose visible head is the Pope, currently Pope Benedict XVI. It teaches that it is the one holy catholic and apostolic Church founded by Jesus Christ, and that the sole Church of Christ which in the... October 1 is the 274th day of the year (275th in Leap years). ... 1791 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... During the French Revolution, the Legislative Assembly was the legislature of France from 1 October 1791 to September 1792. ... The short-lived French Constitution of 1791, adopted by the National Constituent Assembly during the period now known as the French Revolution, went into effect in September 1791 but, due to a series of constitutional crises, had effectively ceased to function as a national constitution by August 1792. ... The National Constituent Assembly (French: Assemblée nationale constituante) was formed from the National Assembly on July 9, 1789, during the first stages of the French Revolution. ... This article is about a legislative body and constitutional convention during the French Revolution. ...

Contents


The composition of the Legislative Assembly

The National Constituent Assembly dissolved itself on 30 September 1791. Upon Robespierre's motion it had decreed that none of its members should be capable of sitting in the next legislature. Its legacy, the Constitution of 1791, attempted to institute a liberal constitutional monarchy. This had been envisioned as an arrangement not to be tampered with for a generation but, in the event, it did not last a year. September 30 is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 92 days remaining. ... Portrait of Maximilien Robespierre Maximilien François Marie Isidore de Robespierre (IPA //), (6 May 1758, Arras – 28 July 1794, Paris), known to his contemporaries also as the Incorruptible, is one of the best known of the leaders of the French Revolution. ... Look up liberal on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Liberal may refer to: Politics: Liberalism American liberalism, a political trend in the USA Political progressivism, a political ideology that is for change, often associated with liberal movements Liberty, the condition of being free from control or restrictions Liberal Party, members of... A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchical government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges a hereditary or elected monarch as head of state. ...


In the attempt to govern, the Assembly failed altogether. In the words of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, "It left behind an empty treasury, an undisciplined army and navy, and a people debauched by safe and successful riot." Supporters contend that the Eleventh Edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica (1910-1911) represents the sum of human knowledge at the beginning of the 20th century; indeed, it was advertised as such. ...


In the elections of 1791, despite a limited electoral franchise, the party which desired to carry the Revolution further had a success disproportionate to its numbers, a triumph for the Jacobin Club and by its affiliated societies throughout France. 1791 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


The Legislative Assembly first met on 1 October 1791. It consisted of 745 members. Few were nobles, very few were clergymen, and the great body came from the middle class. The members were generally young, and, since none had sat in the previous Assembly, they largely lacked national political experience. October 1 is the 274th day of the year (275th in Leap years). ... Noble is the guitarist of British Sea Power. ... Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given religion. ... The middle class (or middle classes) comprises a social group once defined by exception as an intermediate social class between the nobility and the peasantry. ...


The Right consisted of about 165 "Feuillants". Among them were some able men, such as Mathieu Dumas, Ramond, Vaublanc, Beugnot and Bigot de Préamenau, but they were guided chiefly by persons outside the House, because incapable of re-election: Barnave, Adrien Duport, and the brothers Alexander and Charles Lameth. The examples and perspective in this article do not represent a worldwide view. ... Feuillant, a French word derived from the Latin for leaf, has been used as a tag by two different groups. ... Guillaume Mathieu, comte Dumas (23 November 1753 - 16 October 1837), French general, born at Montpellier, of a noble family, joined the French army in 1773 and entered upon active service in 1780, as aide-de-camp to Rochambeau in the American Revolutionary War. ... Jacques Claude, comte de Beugnot (1761-June 24, 1835) was a French politician before, during, and after the French Revolution. ... Antoine Pierre Joseph Marie Barnave (October 22, 1761 - November 29, French politician, one of the greatest orators of the first French Revolution. ... Adrien Duport (1759 - 1798) was a French politician. ... Alexandre-Théodore-Victor, comte de Lameth (October 20, 1760 - March 18, French soldier and politician. ... Charles Malo François Lameth (1757-1832), was a French politician. ...


The Left consisted of about 330 Jacobins, a term which still included the now-emergent party afterwards known as the Girondins or Girondists - so termed because several of their leaders came from the region of the Gironde in southern France. Among the extreme Left -- those who would retain the name of Jacobins -- sat Cambon, Couthon, Antoine-Christophe Merlin ("Merlin de Thionville"), François Chabot, and Claude Bazire. In politics, left-wing, the political left or simply The Left are terms that refer to the segment of the political spectrum typically associated with any of several strains of socialism or social democracy/Social liberalism. ... In the context of the French Revolution, a Jacobin originally meant a member of the Jacobin Club (1789-1794). ... The Girondists (in French Girondins, and sometimes Brissotins), comprised a political faction in France within the Legislative Assembly and the National Convention during the French Revolution. ... Gironde is a département in the southwest of France named after the Gironde Estuary. ... Pierre Joseph Cambon (1756-1820) was a French statesman. ... Georges August Couthon (1755 - July 28, 1794) was a French revolutionary. ... Antoine Christophe Merlin (September 13, 1762 - September 14, 1833), was a member of several legislative bodies during the era of the French Revolution. ... Thionville (German: Diedenhofen), is a town and commune in the Moselle département, in the Lorraine région, France. ... François Chabot (1757 - 1794), French revolutionist, had been a Franciscan friar before the Revolution. ... Claude Bazire (1764 - April 5, 1794), French revolutionist, was deputy for the Côte dOr in the Legislative Assembly, and made himself prominent by denouncing the court and the Austrian committee of the Tuileries. ...


The Girondins could claim the most brilliant orators: Pierre Victurnien Vergniaud, Marguerite-Élie Guadet, Armand Gensonné, and Maximin Isnard (the last being from Provence). Jacques Pierre Brissot ("Brissot de Warville"), a restless pamphleteer and editor of the newspaper Patriote, was described by the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica as "inferior to these men in talent", but exerted such great influence over the party that it has sometimes gone by his name ("Brissotins"). Also aligned with the Girondins were Condorcet, secretary of the Assembly and Pétion, barred from the Legislative Assembly because he had been in the Constitutional Assembly, but who soon became mayor of Paris. Pierre Victurnien Vergniaud (May 31, 1753 - October 31, 1793) was a French orator and revolutionary. ... Marguerite-Élie Guadet (July 20, 1753 - June 17, 1794), French Revolutionist, was born at St Emilion near Bordeaux. ... Armand Gensonné (August 10, 1758 - October 31, 1793) was a French politician. ... Maximin Isnard (1758 - 1825), French revolutionist, was a dealer in perfumery at Draguignan when he was elected deputy for the départment of the Var to the Legislative Assembly, where he joined the Girondists. ... Provence is a former Roman province and is now a region of southeastern France, located on the Mediterranean Sea adjacent to Frances border with Italy. ... In French history, Jacques Pierre Brissot (January 15, 1754 - October 31, 1793), who assumed the name of de Warville, was a leading member of the Girondist movement during the French Revolution. ... Marie Jean Antoine Nicolas Caritat, marquis de Condorcet (September 17, 1743 - March 28, 1794) was a French philosopher, mathematician, and early political scientist who devised the concept of a Condorcet method. ... Jérôme Pétion de Villeneuve Jérôme Pétion de Villeneuve (1756 - 1794) was a French writer and politician. ...


This strong representation of the left in the Assembly was supplemented by the political clubs and the disorderly revolutionary elements in Paris and throughout France. The Eiffel Tower has become a symbol of Paris throughout the world. ...


The remainder of the House, about 250 deputies, did no belong to any definite party, but voted most often with the Left.



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The king's ministers

The king's ministers, named by him and excluded from the Assembly, were mostly persons of little mark. Montmorin gave up the portfolio of foreign affairs on 31 October 1791 and was succeeded by De Lessart, the previous minister of finance. Bon-Claude Cahier de Gerville was minister of the interior; Louis Hardouin Tarbé, minister of finance; and Bertrand de Molleville, minister of marine. But the only minister who influenced the course of affairs was the comte de Narbonne, minister of war. October 31 is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 61 days remaining, as the final day of October. ... 1791 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Comte Antoine François Bertrand de Molleville (1744-1818) was Minister of Marine from 1790 to 1792 under Louis XVI. He was considered a fiery partisan of royalty, and surnamed the enfant terrible of the monarchy. ... Louis Marie Jacques Amalric, comte de Narbonne-Lara (August 24, 1755 - November 17, 1813), French soldier and diplomatist, was born at Colorno, in the duchy of Parma. ...


Overtly, the king (despite his earlier attempt to escape Paris during the flight to Varennes) had embraced the new constitution. It seems unlikely that he could actually have liked losing his previous absolute power, but he may well have been sincerely trying to make the best of what, from his point of view, was a bad situation. Marie Antoinette surely wished to shake off the impotence and humiliation of the Crown, and for this end she still clung to the hope of foreign succour and corresponded with Vienna. The Flight to Varennes (June 20-21, 1791) forms a dramatic, romantic and symbolic event in the history of the French Revolution. ... Absolute monarchy is an idealized form of government, a monarchy where the ruler has the power to rule his or her country and citizens freely with no laws or legally-organized direct opposition telling him or her what to do, although some religious authority may be able to discourage the... The Crown is a term which is used to separate the government authority and property of the state in a kingdom from any personal influence and private assets held by the current Monarch. ... Vienna (German: Wien [viːn]; Hungarian: Bécs, Czech: Vídeň, Slovak: Viedeň, Romany Vidnya; Serbian: Beč) is the capital of Austria, and also one of Austrias nine states (Land Wien). ...


The politics of the Left

The Left had three objects of enmity. First among these was the royal couple, King Louis XVI, Queen Marie Antoinette and the royal family. The Left as a whole wished to replace the monarchy with a republic, although this was not initially the public position of most of them. Second came the émigrés -- now seen as a threat from abroad -- and, third, the non-juring clergy. Louis XVI (August 9, 1754 – January 21, 1793), was born in Versailles, King of France and Navarre from 1774 until 1791, and then King of the French in 1791-1793. ... Marie-Antoinette, Queen of France and Archduchess of Austria (born November 1755 – executed 16 October 1793) Daughter of Maria Theresa of Austria, wife of Louis XVI and mother of Louis XVII. She was guillotined at the height of the French Revolution. ... The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house. ... A monarchy, (from the Greek monos, one, and archein, to rule) is a form of government that has a monarch as Head of State. ... In a broad definition a republic is a state whose political organization rests on the principle that the citizens or electorate constitute the ultimate root of legitimacy and sovereignty. ... Émigré is a French term that shows how Martin B. loves stephanie. ... A non-juror is a person who refuses to swear a particular oath. ...


Those émigrés who had assembled in arms on the territories of the electors of Mainz and Treves (Trier) and in the Austrian Netherlands had put themselves in the position of public enemies. Their chiefs were the king's brothers, who affected to consider Louis as a captive and his acts as therefore invalid. The count of Provence gave himself the airs of a regent and surrounded himself with a ministry. The 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica writes that the only actual danger posed by the émigrés was symbolic: that they were only a few thousand strong; that they had no competent leader and no money; and that although they had earlier been of some diplomatic significance, they were increasingly unwelcome to the rulers whose hospitality they abused. However, Mignet claims that the threat was more substantive and their numbers growing and that "the ambassadors of the emigrants were received, while those of the French government were dismissed, ill received, or even thrown into prison, as in the case of M. Duveryer." Map of Germany showing Mainz Mainz (French: Mayence) is a city in Germany and the capital of the German federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate. ... Trier: The Porta Nigra, viewed from outside Location of Trier Trier (French: Trèves, Spanish: Treveris, Italian: Treviri) is Germanys oldest city. ... Originally the term Netherlands referred to a much larger entity than the current Kingdom of the Netherlands. ... Louis XVIII (November 17, 1755 - September 16, 1824) was King of France and Navarre from 1814 (although he declared that he considered his reign to have begun in 1795) until his death in 1824, with a brief break in 1815 due to Napoleons return in the Hundred Days. ... // High public office A regent, from the Latin regens who reigns is anyone who acts of head of state, especially if not the Monarch (who has higher titles). ... A ministry is a department of a government, led by a minister. ...


The non-juring clergy -- those who refused to take an oath under the Civil Constitution of the Clergy -- although harassed by the local authorities, kept the respect and confidence of most Catholics. The 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica reports that "No acts of disloyalty were proved against them, and commissioners of the National Assembly reported to its successor that their flocks only desired to be let alone. But the anti-clerical bias of the Legislative Assembly was too strong for such a policy." Mignet, however, quotes the marquis de Ferrières, "Priests, and especially bishops employed all the resources of fanaticism to excite the people, in town and country, against the civil constitution of the clergy," and points out that Bishops ordered the priests no longer to perform divine service in the same church with the constitutional priests. It was increasingly unlikely that two rival Churches could co-exist. Insurrection along religious lines broke out in Calvados, Gevaudan, and the Vendée (see Revolt in the Vendée). The law of the Civil Constitution of the Clergy (Fr. ... Anti-clericalism is a historical movement that opposes religious (generally Catholic) institutional power and influence in all aspects of public and political life, and the encroachment of religion in the everyday life of the citizen. ... For the apple brandy produced in the region, see Calvados (spirit). ... Gévaudan is an area of France, in Lozère département. ... Vendée is a département in west central France, on the Atlantics Bay of Biscay. ... Flag of the so-called Armée Royale et Catholique (Royal and Catholic Army) from Vendée Insigna of the royalist insurgents During the French Revolution, the 1793-1796 uprising in the Vendée, variously known as the Uprising, Insurrection, Revolt, or Wars in the Vendée, was the largest...


The king exercises his veto

From the first, relations between the king and the Legislative Assembly were less than friendly. The king refused to meet the Assembly's initial delegation in person; the Assembly voted to deprive the ceremony of the king's visit to their hall of almost all customary pomp (although the vote was rescinded the following day, and the king's address was generally well received).


On 9 November 1791 the Assembly decreed that the émigrés assembled on the frontiers should be liable to the penalties of death and confiscation if they remained so assembled on 1 January following. (The legislation was clearly directed against those who had taken up arms or engaged in diplomacy: it was reasonably indulgent towards those who simply felt safer abroad.) Louis did not love his brothers, and he detested their policy, which without rendering him any service made his liberty and even his life precarious; yet, loath to condemn them to death, he vetoed the decree. He did, however, sign a decree of 30 October, stating that his eldest brother Louis-Stanislaus-Xavier was required to return to France in two months, or at the expiration of that period he would be considered to have forfeited his rights as regent. November 9 is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 52 days remaining. ... 1791 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... January 1Insert non-formatted text here--64. ... October 30 is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 62 days remaining. ...


On 29 November 1791 the Assembly decreed that every non-juring clergyman must take within eight days the civic oath, substantially the same as the oath previously administered, on pain of losing his pension and, if any troubles broke out, of being deported. This decree Louis vetoed as a matter of conscience. In either case his resistance only served to give a weapon to his enemies in the Assembly. But foreign affairs were at this time the most critical. November 29 is the 333rd (in leap years the 334th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1791 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


A new administration in Paris

Following the same policy under which the members of the Constitutent Assembly had barred themselves from the Legislative Assembly, in October, Lafayette resigned the command of the National Guard, and Bailly retired from the mayoralty of Paris. Most of those who wished to continue a constitutional monarchy (against the increasingly republican legislature) wished Lafayette to succeed Bailly as mayor. However, afraid of Lafayette as a rival to the king, the court actually favored and assisted the Girondist Pétion in the election. In the election of 4 November, Pétion received 6708 votes in a total of 10,632 and became the new mayor. November 4 is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 57 days remaining. ...


War approaches

The armed bodies of émigrés on the territory of the Holy Roman Empire afforded matter of complaint to France. The persistence of the French in offering only money as compensation to the German princes who had claims in Alsace afforded matter of complaint to the Empire. Foreign statesmen noticed with alarm the effect of the French Revolution upon opinion in their own countries, and they resented the endeavours of French revolutionaries to make converts there. Coats of arms of the emperors of the Holy Roman Empire This page is about the Germanic empire. ... Capital Strasbourg Land area¹ 8,280 km² Regional President Adrien Zeller (UMP) (since 1996) Population  - Jan. ... The term statesman is a respectful term used to refer to diplomats, politicians, and other notable figures of state. ...


Of these statesmen, the emperor Leopold II was the most intelligent. He had skilfully extricated himself from the embarrassments at home and abroad left by his predecessor Joseph II. He had family ties to Louis XVI, and he was obliged, as chief of the Holy Roman Empire, to protect the border princes. On the other hand, he understood the weakness of the Habsburg monarchy. He knew that the Austrian Netherlands, where he had with difficulty restored his authority, were full of friends of the Revolution and that a French army would be welcomed by many Belgians. He despised the weakness and the folly of the émigrés and excluded them from his councils. He earnestly desired to avoid a war which might endanger his sister Marie Antoinette or her husband. Holy Roman Emperor Leopold II Leopold II (born Peter Leopold Joseph) (Vienna, May 5, 1747 – Vienna, March 1, 1792) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1790 to 1792 and Grand-duke of Tuscany. ... Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II Joseph II (March 13, 1741 – February 20, 1790) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1765 to 1790. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ...


In August 1791 Leopold had met Frederick William II of Prussia at Pillnitz near Dresden, and the two monarchs had joined in stating in the Declaration of Pillnitz that they considered the restoration of order and of monarchy in France an object of interest to all sovereigns. They further declared that they would be ready to act for this purpose in concert with the other powers. The 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica argues that this declaration appears to have been drawn from Leopold by pressure of circumstances. He well knew that concerted action of the powers was impossible, as Great Britain had firmly resolved not to meddle with French affairs. After Louis had accepted the constitution, Leopold virtually withdrew his declaration. Nevertheless it remained a grave error of judgment and contributed to the approaching war. Frederick William II (September 25, 1744 – November 16, 1797), king of Prussia, was known in German as Friedrich Wilhelm II. Frederick William was the son of Augustus William, Prince of Prussia (the second son of King Friedrich Wilhelm I of Prussia) and of Louise Amalie of Brunswick-Lüneburg, sister... Pillnitz Pillnitz is a city quarter of Dresden, Germany. ... Dresden is the capital city of the German federal state of Saxony, is situated in a valley on the river Elbe. ... The Declaration of Pillnitz on August 27, 1791, was a statement issued at the Castle of Pillnitz in Saxony by Emperor Leopold II and Frederick William II of Prussia. ... Sociologists usually define power as the ability to impose ones Will on others, even if those others resist in some way. ... The French Revolutionary Wars occurred between the outbreak of war between the French Revolutionary government and Austria in 1792 and the Treaty of Amiens in 1802. ...


In France many persons desired war for various reasons. Narbonne trusted to find in it the means of restoring a certain authority to the crown and of limiting the Revolution. He contemplated a war with Austria only. The Girondins desired war in the hope that it would enable them to abolish monarchy altogether. They desired a general war because they believed that it would carry the Revolution into other countries and make it secure in France by making it universal. The extreme Left had the same objects, but it held that a war for those objects could not safely be entrusted to the king and his ministers. Victory would revive the power of the crown; defeat would be the undoing of the Revolution.


Hence Robespierre and those who thought with him desired peace. The French nation generally had never approved of the Austrian alliance, and regarded the Habsburgs as traditional enemies. The king and queen, however, who looked for help from abroad and especially from Leopold II, dreaded a war with Austria and had no faith in the schemes of Narbonne. Nor was France in a condition to wage a serious war. The constitution was unworkable and the governing authorities were mutually hostile. The finances remained in disorder, with inflation rampant: assignats of the face value of 900,000,000 livres were issued by the Legislative Assembly in less than a year. The army had been thinned by desertion and was enervated by long ill-discipline. The fortresses were in bad condition and short of supplies. Finance studies and addresses the ways in which individuals, businesses and organizations raise, allocate and use monetary resources over time, taking into account the risks entailed in their projects. ... Assignats were banknotes issued by the National Constituent Assembly in France during the French Revolution. ...


In October Leopold ordered the dispersion of the émigrés who had mustered in arms in the Austrian Netherlands. His example was followed by the electors of Treves and Mainz. At the same time they implored the emperor's protection, and the Austrian chancellor Wenzel Anton von Kaunitz informed Noailles, the French ambassador that this protection would be given if necessary. Narbonne demanded a credit of 20,000,000 livres, which the Assembly granted. He made a tour of inspection in the north of France and reported untruly to the Assembly that all was in readiness for war. On 14 January 1792 the diplomatic committee reported to the Assembly that the emperor should be required to give satisfactory assurances before 10 February. The Assembly put off the term to 1 March. Wenzel Anton Graf (Count) von Kaunitz-Rietberg (February 2, 1711 - June 27, 1794), born into Germanized Moravian family, was an Austrian statesman. ... Louis-Marie, vicomte de Noailles (April 17, 1756–January 9, 1804) was the second son of Philippe, duc de Mouchy, and a member of Mouchy branch of the famous Noailles family of the French aristocracy. ... For other uses, see Ambassador (disambiguation). ... January 14 is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... February 10 is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... March 1 is the 60th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (61st in leap years). ...


In February Leopold concluded a defensive treaty with Frederick William II. But there was no mutual confidence between the sovereigns, who were at that very time pursuing opposite policies with regard to Poland. Leopold still hesitated and still hoped to avoid war. He died on 1 March 1792, and the imperial dignity became vacant. The hereditary dominions of Austria passed to his son Francis, afterwards the emperor Francis II, a youth of small abilities and no experience. The real conduct of affairs fell, therefore, to the aged Kaunitz. A treaty is a binding agreement under international law concluded by subjects of international law, namely states and international organizations. ... March 1 is the 60th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (61st in leap years). ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Francis II Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor, who is also referred to as Francis von Habsburg or Emperor Franz I of Austria (February 12, 1768 – March 2, 1835) was the last Holy Roman Emperor, ruling from 1792 until August 6, 1806, when the Empire was disbanded. ...


In France Narbonne failed to carry the king or his colleagues along with him. The king took courage to dismiss him on 9 March 1792, whereupon the Legislative Assembly testified its confidence in Narbonne. De Lessart having incurred its anger by the tameness of his replies to Austrian dictation, the Assembly voted his impeachment. March 9 is the 68th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (69th in Leap years). ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


The Girondin ministry

The king, seeing no other course open, formed a new ministry which was chiefly Girondin. Jean-Marie Roland became minister of the interior, Étienne Clavière of finance, Pierre Marie de Grave of war, and Jean de Lacoste of marine. Far abler and more resolute than any of these men was Charles François Dumouriez, the new minister for foreign affairs. A soldier by profession, he had been employed in the secret diplomacy of Louis XV and had thus gained a wide knowledge of international politics. He stood aloof from parties and had no rigid principles, but held views closely resembling those of Narbonne. He wished for a war with Austria which should restore some influence to the crown and make himself the arbiter of France. Jean-Marie Roland Viscount Jean-Marie Roland de la Platière (February 18, 1734 - November 10, 1793) was a French statesman. ... Étienne Clavière (1735 - December 8, 1793) was a French financier and politician. ... Charles François Dumouriez Général Dumouriez Charles François Dumouriez (January 25, 1739 - March 14, 1823) was a French general. ... Louis XV (February 15, 1710 – May 10, 1774), called the Well-Beloved (French: le Bien-Aimé), was King of France from 1715 to 1774. ...


It is difficult today to imagine how different these men were from the previous ministers. According to Mignet, the court named this ministry "le Ministère Sans-Culotte", and the first time Roland appeared at court -- with laces rather than buckles on his shoes -- the master of the ceremonies initially refused to admit him. A portrait of a typical sans-culotte by Louis-Léopold Boilly Observers used the term sans-culottes (French for without knee-breeches), originally during the early years of the French Revolution to refer to the ill-clad and ill-equipped volunteers of the Revolutionary army, and later generally to...


The king bent to necessity, and on 20 April 1792 came to the Assembly with the proposal that war should be declared against Austria. It was carried by acclamation. Dumouriez intended to begin with an invasion of the Austrian Netherlands. As this would awaken English jealousy, he sent Talleyrand to London with assurances that, if victorious, the French would annex no territory. April 20 is the 110th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (111th in leap years). ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Charles Maurice de Talleyrand Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord (February 2, 1754 - May 17, 1838) was a French diplomat. ... The Houses of Parliament and Big Ben London and the Regions of England London is the most populous city in the European Union, with an estimated population on 1 January 2005 of 7,421,328 and a metropolitan area population of approximately 13,945,000 [1]. Londons population includes...


The initial disasters of war

The French war plan envisaged invading the Netherlands at three points simultaneously. Lafayette would march against Namur, Biron against Mons, and Dillon against Tournay. But the first movement disclosed the miserable state of the army. Smitten with panic, Dillon's force fled at sight of the enemy, and Dillon, after receiving a wound from one of his own soldiers, was murdered by the mob of Lille. Biron was easily routed before Mons. On hearing of these disasters Lafayette found it necessary to retreat. Marie-Joseph-Paul-Roch-Yves-Gilbert du Motier, marquis de La Fayette (September 6, 1757–May 20, 1834), was a French aristocrat most famous for his participation in the American Revolutionary War and early French Revolution. ... Namur is the name of a city in Belgium, capital of Wallonia, as well as a province and a diocese named after it. ... Armand Louis de Gontaut, duc de Lauzun, later duc de Biron, and usually referred to by historians of the French Revolution simply as Biron (1747-1793), is known for the part he played in the American War of Independence and the French Revolutionary Wars. ... The central square and town hall of Mons This article is about the city in Belgium. ... Categories: Belgium-related stubs | Belgian towns | UN World Heritage Sites | Romanesque architecture ... City motto: – City proper (commune) Région Nord-Pas de Calais Département Nord (59) Mayor Martine Aubry (PS) (since 2001) Area 39. ... The central square and town hall of Mons This article is about the city in Belgium. ...


This shameful discomfiture quickened all the suspicion and jealousy fermenting in France. De Grave had to resign and was succeeded by Servan. The Austrian forces in the Netherlands were, however, so weak that they could not take the offensive. Austria demanded help from Prussia under the terms of their recent alliance, and the claim was admitted. Prussia declared war against France, and the Duke of Brunswick was chosen to command the allied forces, but various causes delayed action. Austrian and Prussian interests clashed in Poland. The Austrian government wished to preserve a harmless neighbour. The Prussian government desired another Polish partition and a large tract of Polish territory. Only after long discussion was it agreed that Prussia should be free to act in Poland, while Austria might find compensation in provinces conquered from France. The coat of arms of the Kingdom of Prussia, 1701-1918 The word Prussia (German: Preußen, Polish: Prusy, Lithuanian: PrÅ«sai, Latin: Borussia) has had various (often contradictory) meanings: The land of the Baltic Prussians (in what is now parts of southern Lithuania, the Kaliningrad exclave of Russia and... Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick (October 9, 1735 - November 10, German general, was born at Wolfenbüttel. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


The respite thus given allowed France to improve the army. Meantime the Legislative Assembly passed three decrees: one for the deportation of non-juring priests, another to suppress the king's Constitutional Guard, and a third for the establishment of a camp of fédérés near Paris. Louis consented to sacrifice his guard, but vetoed the other decrees. Roland having addressed to him an arrogant letter of remonstrance (mainly about the matter of the non-juring priests), the king with the support of Dumouriez dismissed Roland, Servan and Clavière. Dumouriez then took the ministry of war, and the other places were filled with such men as could be had, mainly members of the already collapsing Feuillant faction. Dumouriez, who cared only for the successful prosecution of the war, urged the king to accept the decrees. As Louis was obstinate, Dumouriez felt that he could do no more. Dumouriez resigned office on 15 June 1792 and went to join the army of the north. The term fédérés (sometimes translated to English as federates) most commonly refers to the troops who volunteered for the French National Guard in the summer of 1792 during the French Revolution. ... June 15 is the 166th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (167th in leap years), with 199 days remaining. ...


Lafayette, who remained faithful to the constitution of 1791, ventured on a letter of remonstrance to the Assembly. It paid no attention, for Lafayette could no longer sway the people. Furthermore, coming as it did from a young general at the head of his army, the letter suggested to many ambition on Lafayette's part. The left now suspected Lafayette of precisely the type of ambition of which he had already been suspected by the court.


The Jacobins tried to frighten the king into accepting the decrees and recalling his ministers. On 20 June 1792 the armed populace invaded the hall of the Assembly and the royal apartments in the Tuileries. For some hours the king and queen were in the utmost peril. With passive courage Louis refrained from making any promise to the insurgents. June 20 is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 194 days remaining. ... Up to 1871 the Tuileries Palace was a palace in Paris, France, on the right bank of the River Seine. ...


The failure of the insurrection encouraged a movement in favour of the king. Some twenty thousand Parisians signed a petition expressing sympathy with Louis. Addresses of like tenor poured in from the departments and the provincial cities. Lafayette himself came to Paris in the hope of rallying the constitutional party, but the king and queen eluded his offers of assistance. They had always disliked and distrusted Lafayette and the Feuillants, and now preferred to rest their hopes of deliverance on the foreigner. Lafayette returned to his troops without having effected anything.


The Girondins made a last advance to Louis, offering to save the monarchy if he would accept them as ministers. His refusal united all the Jacobins in the project of overturning the monarchy by force. A monarchy, (from the Greek monos, one, and archein, to rule) is a form of government that has a monarch as Head of State. ...


The 10th of August

See main article 10th of August (French Revolution) On August 10, 1792, during the French Revolution, a mob – with the backing of a new municipal government of Paris that came to be known as the insurrectionary Paris Commune – besieged the Tuileries palace. ...


The ruling spirit of this new revolution was Danton, a barrister only thirty-two years old, who had not sat in either Assembly, although he had been the leader of the Cordeliers, an advanced republican club, and had a strong hold on the common people of Paris. Danton and his friends were assisted in their work by the fear of invasion, for the allied army was at length mustering on the frontier. The Assembly declared the country in danger. All the regular troops in or near Paris were sent to the front. Volunteers and fédérés were constantly arriving in Paris, and, although most went on to join the army, the Jacobins enlisted those who were suitable for their purpose, especially some 500 whom Barbaroux, a Girondin, had summoned from Marseille. At the same time the National Guard -- up to now middle-class in character -- was opened to those from the lower classes. Brunswick's famous declaration of 25 July 1792, announcing that the allies would enter France to restore the royal authority and would visit the Assembly and the city of Paris with military execution if any further outrage were offered to the king, heated the republican spirit to fury. It was resolved to strike the decisive blow on 10 August. Georges Jacques Danton (October 26, 1759 - April 5, 1794) was a leading figure in the early stages of the French Revolution. ... The Cordeliers, also known as the Club of the Cordeliers and formally as the Society of the Friends of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen comprised a populist society during the French Revolution. ... Charles Jean Marie Barbaroux (1767 - 1794) was a French revolutionist Barbaroux was educated at first by the Oratorians of Marseille, then studied law, and became a successful advocate. ... City motto: Actibus immensis urbs fulget Massiliensis. ... Founded in Paris after the fall of the Bastille in July 1789, the National Guard passed from the historical stage in the wake of the destruction of the Paris Commune in May 1871. ... July 25 is the 206th day (207th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 159 days remaining. ...


On the night of 9 August a new revolutionary Paris Commune took possession of the Hôtel de Ville, and early on the morning of 10 August the insurgents assailed the Tuileries. As the preparations of the Jacobins had been notorious, some measures of defence had been taken. Beside a few gentlemen in arms and a number of National Guards the palace was garrisoned by the Swiss Guard, about 950 strong. The disparity of force was not so great as to make resistance altogether hopeless. But Louis let himself be persuaded into betraying his own cause and retiring with his family under the shelter of the Assembly. The National Guards either dispersed or fraternised with the assailants. The Swiss Guard stood firm, and, possibly by accident, a fusillade began. The enemy were gaining ground when the Swiss received an order from the king to cease firing and withdraw. They were mostly shot down as they were retiring, and of those who surrendered many were murdered in cold blood next day. August 9 is the 221st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (222nd in leap years), with 144 days remaining. ... The Paris Commune during the French Revolution was the government of Paris from 1789 until 1795, and especially from 1792 until 1795. ... The Hôtel de Ville houses the office of the Mayor of Paris. ... August 10 is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ...


Insurrection and constitutional crisis

The king and queen spent long hours in a reporter's box while the Legislative Assembly discussed their fate and the fate of the French monarchy. Little more than a third of the deputies were present, almost all of them Jacobins. They decreed that Louis should be suspended from his office and that a convention should be summoned to give France a new constitution. An executive council was formed by recalling Roland, Clavière and Servan to office and joining with them Danton as minister of justice, Lebrun as minister of foreign affairs, and Monge as minister of marine.


When Lafayette heard of the insurrection in Paris he tried to rally his troops in defence of the constitution, but they refused to follow him. He was driven to cross the frontier and surrender himself to the Austrians. Dumouriez was named his successor.


But the new government was still beset with danger. It had no root in law and little hold on public opinion. It could not lean on the Assembly, a mere shrunken remnant, whose days were numbered. It remained dependent on the power which had set it up, the revolutionary Commune of Paris. The Commune could therefore extort what concessions it pleased. It got the custody of the king and his family, who were imprisoned in the Temple. Having obtained an indefinite power of arrest, it soon filled the prisons of Paris. Public opinion is the aggregate of individual attitudes or beliefs held by the adult population. ...


As the elections to the Convention were close at hand, the Commune resolved to strike the public with terror by the slaughter of its prisoners. It found its opportunity in the progress of invasion. On 19 August 1792 Brunswick crossed the frontier. On 22 August Longwy surrendered. Verdun was invested and seemed likely to fall. On 1 September the Commune decreed that on the following day the tocsin should be rung, all able-bodied citizens convened in the Champs de Mars, and 60,000 volunteers enrolled for the defence of the country. August 19 is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... August 22 is the 234th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (235th in leap years), with 131 days remaining. ... Longwy is a town and commune located in the Meurthe-et-Moselle département in northeastern France. ... Verdun, (German: Wirten) sometimes also called Verdun-sur-Meuse, is a city and commune in northeast France, in the Meuse département, of which it is a sous-préfecture. ... September 1 is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years). ... A tocsin consists of a signal of alarm given by the ringing of a bell, and hence any warning or danger signal. ... View of Champ de Mars from the top of the Eiffel Tower The Champ_de_Mars is a vast public area in Paris, France, located in the 7th arrondissement, between the Eiffel Tower to the northwest and the École Militaire to the southeast. ...


While this assembly was in progress gangs of assassins were sent to the prisons and began a butchery which lasted four days and consumed 1400 victims. The Commune addressed a circular letter to the other cities of France inviting them to follow this example. A number of state prisoners awaiting trial at Orléans were ordered to Paris and on the way were murdered at Versailles. The Assembly offered a feeble resistance to these crimes. Danton can hardly be acquitted of connivance at them. Roland hinted disapproval, but did not venture more. He with many other Girondins had been marked for slaughter in the original project. Orléans cathedral, dedicated to the Holy Cross, built from 1278 to 1329; after being pillaged by Huguenots in the 1560s, the Bourbon kings restored it in the 17th century. ... Versailles in 1789. ...


The elections to the Convention were by almost universal suffrage, but indifference or intimidation reduced the voters to a small number. Many who had sat in the National Constituent Assembly and many more who had sat in the Legislative Assembly were returned. The Convention met on 20 September and became the new de facto government of France. September 20 is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years). ...


References


 
 

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