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Encyclopedia > The Iron Heel
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The Iron Heel

Book Cover
Author Jack London
Country United States
Language English
Genre(s) Dystopian novel[1]
Publisher Macmillan
Publication date 1908
Media type Print (Hardcover)
Pages 354 pp
ISBN NA

The Iron Heel is a novel by American writer Jack London, first published in 1908. Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Image File history File links TIH.jpg‎ Source: [1] This image is of a book cover, and the copyright for it is most likely owned either by the artist who created the cover or the publisher of the book. ... Jack London (January 12, 1876 – November 22, 1916),[1][2][3] was an American author who wrote The Call of the Wild and other books. ... In political geography and international politics a country is a geographical entity, a territory, most commonly associated with the notions of state or nation. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Utopian fiction is the creation of an ideal world as the setting for a novel. ... A publisher is a person or entity which engages in the act of publishing. ... Macmillan Publishers Ltd, also known as The Macmillan Group, is a privately-held international publishing company owned by Georg von Holtzbrinck Publishing Group. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... ISBN-13 represented as EAN-13 bar code (in this case ISBN 978-3-16-148410-0) The International Standard Book Number, ISBN, is a unique[1] commercial book identifier barcode. ... A novel (from French nouvelle Italian novella, new) is an extended, generally fictional narrative, typically in prose. ... Jack London (January 12, 1876 – November 22, 1916),[1][2][3] was an American author who wrote The Call of the Wild and other books. ...


It is a dystopian[1] work about the rise of a oligarchic tyranny in the United States. It is perhaps the novel in which Jack London's socialist views are most explicitly on display. A dystopia (or alternatively cacotopia) is a fictional society, usually portrayed as existing in a future time, when the conditions of life are extremely bad due to deprivation, oppression, or terror. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ...

Contents

Influences and effects

The Iron Heel reminds many readers of George Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-Four, and is cited by Orwell's biographer Michael Shelden as having influenced that work.[2] Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903[1][2] – 21 January 1950), better known by the pen name George Orwell, was an English author and journalist. ... This article is about the Orwell novel. ...


Harry Bridges, influential labor leader in the mid-1900s, was "set afire" by Jack London's The Sea-Wolf and The Iron Heel.[3]} Harry Bridges (July 28, 1901 – March 30, 1990) was an influential American labor leader in the International Longshore and Warehouse Union (ILWU), a union of longshore and warehouse workers on the West Coast and in Hawaii and Alaska which he helped form and led for over forty years. ... The Sea-Wolf book cover, 1st Edition For the 1941 movie, see The Sea Wolf (1941 film). ...


Granville Hicks, reviewing Kurt Vonnegut's Player Piano, was reminded of The Iron Heel: "we are taken into the future and shown an America ruled by a tiny oligarchy, and here too there is a revolt that fails." Granville Hicks (September 9, 1901 - June 18, 1982) was an American Marxist novelist, literary critic, educator, and editor. ... Kurt Vonnegut, Jr. ... The player piano is a type of piano that plays music without the need for a human pianist to depress the normal keys or pedals. ...


Chapter 7 of The Iron Heel is an almost verbatim copy of an ironic essay by Frank Harris; see Jack London: Accusations of plagiarism Frank Harris by Alvin Langdon Coburn. ... Jack London (January 12, 1876 – November 22, 1916),[1][2][3] was an American author who wrote The Call of the Wild and other books. ...


Serious fans of science fiction also consider this novel to be a masterpiece. Fans of soft science fiction in particular see it as a forerunner of science fiction novels and stories of the 1960s and 1970s which stressed future changes in society and politics while paying much less attention to technological changes. Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... Soft science fiction or soft SF is science fiction whose plots and themes tend to focus on human characters and their relations and feelings, while de-emphasizing the details of technological hardware and physical laws. ...


London's novella The Scarlet Plague, and some of his short stories, are placed in a dystopian future setting that closely resembles that of The Iron Heel, although there is no actual continuity of situations or characters.


Frederic Tuten's debut novel The Adventures of Mao on the Long March uses extensive quotes from The Iron Heel, placing them alongside details of Chinese history from 1912 to Mao's rise to power. Frederic Tuten, from the back cover of Tintin in the New World Frederic Tuten is an American novelist whose works are characterized by a highly ingenious and lyrical prose style, which at times is reminiscent of a bygone era. ... The Adventures of Mao on the Long March is Frederic Tutens first published novel. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... “Mao” redirects here. ...


Plot summary

The novel is based on the (fictional) "Everhard Manuscript" written by Avis Everhard which she hid and which was subsequently found centuries later. In addition, this novel has an introduction and series of (often lengthy) footnotes written from the perspective of scholar Anthony Meredith. Meredith writes from around 2600 AD or 419 B.O.M. (the Brotherhood of Man). Jack London thus writes at two levels, often having Meredith condescendingly correcting the errors of Everhard yet, at the same time, exposing the often incomplete understanding of this distant future perspective. Dionysius Exiguus invented Anno Domini years to date Easter. ...


The Manuscript itself covers the years 1912 through 1932 in which the Oligarchy (or "Iron Heel") arose in the United States. In Asia, Japan conquered East Asia and created its own empire, India gained independence, and Europe became socialist. Canada, Mexico, and Cuba formed their own Oligarchies and were aligned with the US. (The fates of South America, Africa, and the mid-East aren't given.) Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Oligarchy (Greek , Oligarkhía) is a form of government where political power effectively rests with a small, elite segment of society (whether distinguished by wealth, family or military prowess). ...


In North America, the Oligarchy maintains power for three centuries until the Revolution succeeds and ushers in the Brotherhood of Man. During the years of the novel, the First Revolt is described and preparations for the Second Revolt are discussed. From the perspective of Everhard, the imminent Second Revolt is sure to succeed but, from the distant future perspective of Meredith, we readers realize that Everhard's hopes were to be crushed for centuries to come.


The Oligarchy are the largest monopoly trusts (or robber barons) who manage to squeeze out the middle class by bankrupting most small to mid-sized business as well as reducing all farmers to effective serfdom. This Oligarchy maintains power through a "labor caste" and the Mercenaries. Labor in essential industries like steel and rail are elevated and given decent wages, housing, and education. Indeed, the tragic turn in the novel (and Jack London's core warning to his contemporaries) is the treachery of these favored unions which break with the other unions and side with the Oligarchy. Further, a second, military caste is formed: the Mercenaries. The Mercenaries are officially the army of the US but are in fact in the employ of the Oligarchs. A monopoly (from the Greek language monos, one + polein, to sell) is defined as a persistent market situation where there is only one provider of a product or service, in other words a firm that has no competitors in its industry. ... A trust or business trust was a form of business entity used in the late 19th century with intent to create a monopoly. ... The term robber baron dates back to the twelfth and thirteenth centuries and originally referred to feudal lords of land through which the Rhine River in Europe passed who abused their position to stop passing merchant ships and demand tolls without being authorized to do so. ... The middle class (or middle classes) comprises a social group once defined by exception as an intermediate social class between the nobility and the peasantry. ... Notice of closure stuck on the door of a computer store the day after its parent company, Granville Technology Group Ltd, declared bankruptcy (strictly, put into administration - see text) in the UK. Bankruptcy is a legally declared inability or impairment of ability of an individual or organizations to pay their... Costumes of slaves or serfs, from the sixth to the twelfth centuries, collected by H. de Vielcastel from original documents in European libraries. ... Caste systems are traditional, hereditary systems of social restriction and social stratification, enforced by law or common practice, based on endogamy, occupation, economic status, race, ethnicity, etc. ... Mercenary (disambiguation). ...


Asgard is the name of a fictional wonder-city, a city constructed by the Oligarchy to be admired and appreciated as well as lived in. Thousands of Proletariat live in poverty there, and are used whenever a public work needs to be completed, such as the building of levie or a canal. Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Oligarchy (Greek , Oligarkhía) is a form of government where political power effectively rests with a small, elite segment of society (whether distinguished by wealth, family or military prowess). ... The proletariat (from Latin proles, offspring) is a term used to identify a lower social class; a member of such a class is proletarian. ...


The Manuscript is, really, Everhard's autobiography as she tells of: her privileged childhood as the daughter of an accomplished scientist; her marriage to the socialist revolutionary Ernest Everhard; the fall of the US republic; and her years in the underground resistance from the First Revolt through the years leading to the Second Revolt. By telling the story of Avis Everhard, the novel is essentially an adventurous tale heavily strewn with social commentary of an alternate future (from a 1908 perspective). However, the future perspective of the scholar Meredith deepens the tragic plight of Everhard and her revolutionary comrades. Cover of the first English edition of 1793 of Benjamin Franklins autobiography. ... Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are owned and controlled collectively by the people. ... Revolutionary, when used as a noun, is a person who either advocates or actively engages in some kind of revolution. ... in particular, for the archaizing senses of republic, as a translation of politeia or res publica Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A republic is a form of government maintained by a state or country whose sovereignty is based on popular consent and whose... Underground Resistance (commonly abbreviated to UR) are a musical collective from Detroit, Michigan, in the United States of America. ... A resistance movement is a group or collection of individual groups, dedicated to fighting an invader in an occupied country through either the use of physical force, or nonviolence. ... The adventure novel is a literary genre of novels that has adventure, an exciting undertaking involving risk and physical danger, as its main theme. ... Social commentary is the act of expressing an opinion on the nature of society. ... In science fiction stories involving time travel, an alternate future or alternative future is a possible future which never comes to pass, typically because someone travels back into the past and alters it so that the events of the alternate future cannot occur. ...


Given that The Iron Heel is now a century old, this novel has a somewhat alternate history feel because, as with Orwell's 1984, the dating of these novels are now in our past. Jack London ambitiously predicted a breakdown of the US republic starting a few years past 1908 but various events have caused his predicted future to diverge from actual history. Most crucially, London predicted that labor solidarity would prevent a war that would include the US, Germany, and other nations in 1913; actual history records that nationalism overwhelmed the international solidarity of labor and socialists. Further, London predicted that the middle class would shrink as monopolistic trusts crushed labor and small to mid-sized businesses. Instead the US Progressive Era led to a breakup of the trusts, notably the application of the Sherman Antitrust Act to Standard Oil in 1911; at the same time, reforms such as labor unions rights passed during the Progressive Era with further reforms during the New Deal of the 1930s. Further, economic prosperity led to dramatic growth of the middle class in the 1920s and after World War II. Alternate history (fiction) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Internationalism is a political movement which advocates a greater economic and political cooperation between nations for the benefit of all. ... In the United States, the Progressive Era was a period of reform which lasted from the 1890s through the 1920s. ... The Sherman Antitrust Act, formally known as the Act of July 2, 1890, ch. ... Standard Oil (Esso) was a predominant integrated oil producing, transporting, refining, and marketing company. ... A trade union or labor union is a continuous association of wage-earners for the purpose of maintaining or improving the conditions of their employment. ... The New Deal was the title President Franklin D. Roosevelt gave to the series of programs he initiated between 1933 and 1938 with the goal of providing relief, recovery, and reform (3 Rs) to the people and economy of the United States during the Great Depression. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Through the writing of Everhard and, particularly, the distant future perspective of Meredith, London demonstrated his belief in the historical materialism of Marxism which predicts an inevitable succession from feudalism through capitalism and, finally, ending with socialism. Historical materialism is the methodological approach to the study of society, economics, and history which was first articulated by Karl Marx (1818-1883), although Marx himself never used the term (he referred it as philosophical materialism, a term he used to distinguish it from what he called popular materialism). Historical... Marxism takes its name from the praxis (the synthesis of philosophy and political action) of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste. ... Capitalism generally refers to an economic system in which the means of production are mostly privately[1] owned and operated for profit, and in which investments, distribution, income, production and pricing of goods and services are determined through the operation of a free market. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ...


Taken as prediction, the events in The Iron Heel do not foreshadow any real historical events with any striking degree of accuracy. As with George Orwell's Nineteen Eighty Four, it has been a constant temptation to partisans to point out fancied resemblances between Jack London's fiction world, and governments or trends that they deprecate. For example, in 1924, the Conference for Progressive Political Action—a group connected with Robert M. La Follette, Sr.—refers to: Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903[1][2] – 21 January 1950), better known by the pen name George Orwell, was an English author and journalist. ... Nineteen Eighty-Four (sometimes 1984) is a darkly satirical political novel by George Orwell. ... Robert Marion La Follette, Sr. ...

The success of the Conference for Progressive Political Action in attacking the grip of this big business oligarchy, whose rise to power was so clearly foreseen by Jack London nearly twenty years ago in The Iron Heel...[4]

The Conference for Progressive Political Action was officially established by the convention call of the 16 major railway labor unions in the United States, represented by a committee of six: William H. Johnston of the Machinists Union, Martin F. Ryan of the Railway Carmen, Warren S. Stone of the Locomotive...

Chronology of events mentioned 1900-1913

  • 1900 - Last U.S. census figures made public, the number of child labourers at 1752187, Lucien Sanial puts the U.S. class break down as: Plutocratic class, 250,251; Middle class, 8,429,845; and Proletariat class, 20,393,137.
  • 1902 - Socialist voting strength at 12,713
  • June 30, 1902 - The militia act or Dick's act introduced into Congress making it possible for the government to call up able bodied men to fight
  • 1902 - Evening post publishes article on the Rockefellers
  • 1902 - "Our Benevolent Feudalism," published by W.J Ghent was later used by the Oligarchy for many of their ideas, despite being satirical
  • 1902 - James Farley's strike breakers kill Sarah Jenkins husband
  • 1902 - President of the Coal trust George F Baer proclaims the 'Divine right of Capitalists',
  • 1902 - The board of trade report declares that the railroad trusts control the legislature completely
  • 1903 – The Militia Act passes through Congress
  • July 1903 - E. Untermann, a revolutionist, publishes a pamphlet at Girard, Kansas, on the "Militia Bill
  • 1904 - Socialist voting strength at 435040
  • 1905 - Theodore Roosevelt in the address at the Harvard Commencement tells of how Lawyers can help the rich evade the law,
  • 1905 - "Essays in Application," written by Henry van Dyke, is cited by Meredith as an example of Bourgeois thinking,
  • May 21, 1905 - Socialists in Italy, Austria and Hungary prevent war by threatening a general strike,
  • later in 1905 - Socialists in Germany and France prevent war by threatening a general strike over the Morocco affair
  • 1905 - Law on Child Labour in Pennsylvania overruled by the courts as being unconstitutional as discriminating on the grounds of age, Law in New York on limited opening hours for Bakeries overruled by courts on the grounds of interfering with liberty of business
  • April 18, 1906 – Great San Francisco earthquake
  • August 18, 1906 - OUTLOOK publishes an article of the case of a man similar to that of Johnson
  • 1906 - Robert Hunter publishes "Poverty" pointing out ten million people live in poverty in the United states
  • 1906 - James Farley leads an Army of strike breakers from New York to San Francisco to break a street-car men strike
  • 1906 - Lord Avebury gives a speech saying if the conditions of the working class are not rectified then a socialist revolution will occur,
  • Fall 1906 - Austin Lewis runs for Californian governor on a Socialist ticket
  • 1908 - Socialist voting strength at 1108427
  • 1910 - Socialist voting strength at 1688211
  • 1910 - Census figures for this year not made public
  • February 1912 - Ernest Everhard first meets Avis Cunningham, her father, John Cunningham, and Bishop Morehouse at dinner,
  • 1912 - Avis investigates the case of Jackson and becomes a committed socialist,
  • 1912 - Ernest and Avis decide to be married
  • Tuesday ? 1912 - Ernest addresses the Philomath club where he estimates the strength of the international Socialist movement to be 25 million, 15 million Americans in poverty, 3 million children in work, the future Oligarch Wickson claims that they will use any means necessary to stop the Socialists taking power,
  • 1912 - Mary McKenna is declared insane and put in Napa Asylum for claiming protection from eviction by being under the American flag,
  • 1912 - Bishop Morehouse delivers his sermon at the IPH and is considered 'over excited',
  • Spring 1912 - dinner of the 'Machine Breakers' at which Ernest Everhard first uses the term "Iron Heel",
  • 1912 - John Cunningham publishes "Economics and Education" at the same time as he is dismissed from his university post
  • 1912 - Socialist publishing houses acted against with a mob of 'Black Hundreds' burning down 'Appeal to Reason',
  • 1912 - In San Francisco harsh action taken against many unions increases support for the Socialists
  • summer 1912 - Crash on Wall Street, trusts use this as an opportunity to squeeze out the middle classes and make enormous profits at the same time
  • 1912 - Ernest Everhard, Avis Cunningham and John Cunningham are forced out of their property and jobs by the Oligarchs, they move into Slum accommodation on Pell Street
  • Late Summer 1912 - meeting again with Bishop Morehouse and the sewing woman
  • Fall 1912 - William Randolph Hearst is destroyed by the Oligarchs leading to the defection of many Democrats to the Socialists
  • Fall 1912 - Socialists win election victory electing Fifty Congressmen and ally with the Grange party who win around a dozen governorships
  • Winter 1912 Germany and U.S.A prepare for war
  • 4 December 1912 American and German Navies clash
  • 5 December 1912 U.S. and Germany declare war
  • 1912 Socialists in both countries launch a general strike leading to peace and an alliance between Germany and U.S.
  • 1912 German Socialists overthrow the Kaiser and create a Socialist state
  • December 1912 George Milford publishes "Ye Slaves" which is the earliest use of the term "Iron Heel" known before the discovery of the Everhard manuscript
  • 1912 John Carlson is custodian of the Glen Ellen Refuge (assumably established around this time)
  • throughout 1912 - Ernest writes his book Philosophy and revolution
  • January 1913 - Everhard predicts the victory of the Oligarchs and defection of the unions
  • 1913 O'Connor, leader of the Machinists union' refuses to give Everhard assurances that they will agree to another general strike, beginning of the defection of the 'Big Unions',
  • end of January 1913 - Beginning of the signs of the Oligarchy's favourable attitude to certain unions
  • 1913 - Big Unions break international groups and affiliations, members of these unions are treated as traitors and assaulted, beginning of the Caste system
  • 1913 - Rise of religious Adventists with Farmers going to the hills to await the apocalypse, most starve to death or are murdered by the Iron Heel
  • Spring 1913 - Many of the socialists and Grangers who attempt to take their seats are refused by the incumbents
  • 1913 - The Iron Heel begins confiscating Farm land
  • 1913 - Iron Heel send their secret agents to attack a Liquor factory in Sacramento, Soldiers are sent in who kill 11 million
  • 1913 - Militia law of 1903 put into affect, Mr Kowalt and Mr Asmunsen court-martialled and executed for refusing to serve
  • 22 April 1913 Agents of the Iron Heel murder the officers of the Kansas Militia resulting in open mutiny, all 6000 are quickly killed
  • 1913 - strike of 3/4 million coal miners is crushed
  • 1913 - Alfred Pocock I first experience of 'Slave Driving'
  • 1913 - Formation of the 'fighting groups' by Ernest Everhard to combat Iron Heel influence
  • 1913 - Destruction of Granger states and their power as a party, Socialists reduced to largest minority (winning 2 more congressmen?)
  • 1913 - Pervaise, in prison for murder, is given an acquittal by the Iron Heel for throwing a bomb in congress whilst Ernest Everhard is debating a bill on unemployment relief
  • 1913 - Socialists implicated in plot and most of the leaders are sent to or kept in prison,
  • Autumn 1913 - Avis Everhard is released from prison and attempts to disappear returning to San Francisco and joining the Glen Ellen Refuge

June 30 is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... May 21 is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... April 18 is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... August 18 is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Autumn colours at Westonbirt Arboretum, Gloucestershire, England. ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Summer is one of the four seasons of the year. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Autumn colours at Westonbirt Arboretum, Gloucestershire, England. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Autumn colours at Westonbirt Arboretum, Gloucestershire, England. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Winter is one of the four seasons of temperate zones. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... December 4th redirects here. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... December 5 is the 339th day (340th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ...

World Events of 1913

  • Germany, Italy, France, Australia and New Zealand form cooperative commonwealths
  • Japan brutally suppresses its Proletarian revolution and forms an Oligarchy
  • Japan dominates all Asia except India
  • England crushes its own Proletarian revolution but loses most of its empire
  • Canada becomes independent but crushes its Proletarian revolution with the help of the Iron Heel and establishes an Oligarchy
  • Mexico and Cuba crush their Proletarian revolutions and create Oligarchies with the help of the Iron Heel

Chronology of events mentioned 1914- 419 B.O.M

  • 1914 - Avis Everhard creates her new identity of Mary Holmes
  • 1914 - disappearance of John Cunningham
  • September 1914 - Pervaise struck with Heart Rheumatism and confesses to a priest on his death bed of the bomb plot
  • 1914 - arrival of Lora Peterson and Kate Beirce at the Glen Ellen Refuge
  • late summer 1915 - Wholesale jail delivery takes place in which 51 of the 52 imprisoned Congressmen and 300 other leaders were released by the revolutionaries (Arthur Simpson not released as died in hospital)
  • 1915 - Grace Holbrook joins the 'fighting groups'
  • 1916 - Grace Holbrook executed by the Iron Heel
  • 1916? - Phillip Wickson joins the Cause
  • January 1917 - Ernest and Avis Everhard begin to work covertly in the Iron-Heel as agents-provocateurs
  • October 27, 1917 - Actual date of first revolt in the Chicago commune instigated by the Iron Heel in order to crush early, results in the deaths of hundreds of thousands of mercenaries and revolters including Hartman and Bishop Morehouse, Garthwaite is injured and taken to hospital
  • 1917 - Knowlton is executed as a traitor in Milwaukee
  • Early Spring 1918 - Planned date for the first revolt
  • 1918 - Avis Everhard attends a meeting of the Frisco Reds meeting Peter Donnelly
  • 1920 - At the Benton Harbour refuge in Michigan Ernest and Avis Everhard see Joseph Hurd tried and executed,
  • 1920 - Garthwaite returns to the revolutionaries
  • 1922 - Disappearance of Lora Peterson
  • 1923 - Ernest Everhard calculates life expectancy after joining a fighting group to be just 5 years
  • 1925 - Disappearance of Bertha Stole
  • 1927 - Philip Wickson dies as a result of Pneumonia caught in 'The Great Storm' while attending a meeting of revolutionary leaders
  • 1928 - Execution of Rudolph Medenhall "The Flame"
  • 1931 - Nashville Massacre where Timothy Donnelly commanded the mercenaries to kill 800 weavers
  • 1931 - Anna Roylston captures and hands over Timothy Donnelly to the Frisco Reds, gaining her the nickname the Red Virgin
  • 1932 - Beginning of the construction of Asgard
  • Spring 1932 - the secret execution of Ernest Everhard
  • summer 1932 - Avis flees to Wake Robin lodge and writes the Everhard manuscript
  • 1932? - Avis arrested by the mercenaries
  • 1932 - Second revolt takes place in conjunction with labour leaders in Italy, France, Germany and Australia but ultimately fails, its failure leads to the renewal of the Red Friscos and the replacement of the Socialist with Oligarchical States
  • 1932 - Sarah Jenkins assassinates James Farley
  • 1942 - Completion of the wonder-city of Ardis
  • 1984 - Completion of the wonder-city of Asgard
  • 2002 - Total destruction of the Frisco Reds after an Iron Heel agent penetrates them
  • 2073 - Death of Pocock V in an explosion of a pump-house during a petty revolt in the Indian territory
  • 2138 - Trial and execution of General Lampton after three warnings to cease his actions, he is executed by Crucifixion, first time legitimately used, by Madeline Provence who is imprisoned and tortured before dying
  • 2200 - Approx start of Brotherhood of Man
  • 2368 - Great Earthquake
  • November 27 419 B.O.M. - Anthony Meredith of Ardis writes the introduction and notes to the Everhard manuscript

1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... Yasujiro Ozus 1956 film about a married office worker who has a fling with a typist, a fellow commuter. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Summer is one of the four seasons of the year. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1932 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 331st day of the year (332nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  1. ^ a b Stableford, Brian (1993). "Dystopias", in John Clute & Peter Nicholls (eds.): The Encyclopedia Of Science Fiction, 2nd edition, Orbit, London, pp. 360-362. ISBN 1-85723-124-4. 
  2. ^ "Orwell: the Authorized Biography," by Michael Shelden; Perennial Publishing ISBN-13 978-0060921613
  3. ^ "Harry Bridges," by Clancy Sigal; The New York Times, January 7, 1973, p. 388
  4. ^ "Progressives Laud Their Own Record," The New York Times, June 19, 1924, p. 3

Brian Stableford (born July 25, 1948) is a British science fiction writer who has published more than 50 novels. ... John [Frederick] Clute is a Canadian born author and critic who lives in Britain. ... Peter Nicholls may refer to: Peter Nicholls (writer) - critic and co-editor of The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction Peter Nicholls (musician) - lead singer with the bands IQ and Niadems Ghost, also an album cover artist Different spelling Peter Nichols - author of A Day in the Death of Joe Egg... The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction is a reference work on science-fiction. ... Clancy Sigal is a screenwriter. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City by Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. ... January 7 is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1973 (MCMLXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the 1973 Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City by Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1924 (MCMXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar). ...

External links

  • For the full text see http://sunsite.berkeley.edu/London/Writings/IronHeel
  • The Iron Heel, available at Project Gutenberg.
  • Review by Spike Magazine

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Iron - encyclopedia article about Iron. (4182 words)
Iron is a metal extracted from iron ore, and is hardly ever found in the free (elemental) state.
Inorganic iron involved in redox reactions is also found in the iron-sulfur clusters of many enzymes, such as nitrogenase (involved in the synthesis of ammonia from nitrogen and hydrogen) and hydrogenase.
A class of non-heme iron proteins is responsible for a wide range of functions within several life forms, such as enzymes methane monooxygenase (oxidizes methane to methanol), ribonucleotide reductase (reduces ribose to deoxyribose; DNA biosynthesis), hemerythrins (oxygen transport and fixation in marine invertebrates) and purple acid phosphatase (hydrolysis of phosphate esters).
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