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Encyclopedia > The Holocaust
"Selection" of Hungarian Jews at the Auschwitz-Birkenau camp in May/June 1944. To be sent to the right meant slave labor; to the left, the gas chambers. [4]
"Selection" of Hungarian Jews at the Auschwitz-Birkenau camp in May/June 1944. To be sent to the right meant slave labor; to the left, the gas chambers. [4]

The Holocaust, also known as Ha-Shoah (השואה) in Hebrew, (see etymology), is the term generally used to describe the killing of approximately six million European Jews during World War II, as part of a program of deliberate extermination planned and executed by the National Socialist (Nazi) regime in Germany led by Adolf Hitler.[1] Shoah may refer to a number of things: Shoah or Ha Shoah (literally denoting a catastrophic upheaval) is the Hebrew term for the Holocaust. ... Selection of Jews at the Birkenau Ramp, 1944 Image was downloaded from The Auschwitz Album. ... Selection of Jews at the Birkenau Ramp, 1944 Image was downloaded from The Auschwitz Album. ... Auschwitz (Konzentrationslager Auschwitz) was the largest of the Nazi German concentration camps. ... // For other uses, see Gas chamber (disambiguation). ... Six million is a number. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Nazi Party (German: , or NSDAP, English: Workers Party), was a political party in Germany between 1920 and 1945. ... Hitler redirects here. ...


Other groups were also persecuted and killed by the regime, including some 220,000 Sinti and Roma (see Porajmos), as well as the disabled (see Action T4), homosexuals, Communists and other political prisoners, Jehovah's Witnesses, Polish citizens, and Soviet POWs (Ukrainians, Russians and Byelorussians).[2][3] Many scholars[attribution needed] include these groups in the scope of the Holocaust. Others[attribution needed] define it as the genocide of European Jewry, or what the Nazis called the "Final Solution of the Jewish Question" ("Die Endlösung der Judenfrage"). Taking into account all of the victims of Nazi persecution, the death toll rises considerably: estimates generally place the total number of victims at 9 to 11 million.[4] Sinti or Sinte (Singular masc. ... Languages Romani, languages of native region Religions Christianity, Islam Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) The Roma (singular Rom; sometimes Rroma, Rrom) or Romanies are an ethnic group living in many communities all over the world. ... Roma arrivals in the Belzec extermination camp await instructions The Porajmos (also Porrajmos) literally Devouring, or Samudaripen (Mass killing) is a term coined by the Roma (Gypsy) people to describe attempts by the Nazi regime to exterminate most of the Roma peoples of Europe during The Holocaust. ... This poster reads: 60,000 Reichsmarks is what this person suffering from hereditary defects costs the community during his lifetime. ... Autobiography of Pierre Seel, a gay man sent to a concentration camp by the Nazis Before the beginning of World War II, the homosexual people in Germany, especially in Berlin, enjoyed more freedom and acceptance than anywhere else in the world. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... A political prisoner is someone held in prison or otherwise detained, perhaps under house arrest, because their ideas or image are deemed by a government to either challenge or threaten the authority of the state. ... Poles (Polish: ) are a western Slavic people inhabiting the country of Poland (in Eastern Europe) and a number of other states in the world, where they form a significant Polish diaspora. ... Soviet redirects here. ... Belarusians or Belarusans (Belarusian: , previously also spelled Belarussians, Byelorussians and Belorussians) are an East Slavic ethnic group who populate the majority of the Republic of Belarus and form minorities in neighboring Poland (especially former Bialystok province), Russia, Lithuania and Ukraine. ... In a February 26, 1942, letter to German diplomat Martin Luther, Reinhard Heydrich follows up on the Wannsee Conference by asking Luther for administrative assistance in the implementation of the Endlösung der Judenfrage (Final Solution of the Jewish Question). ...


The persecution and genocide of the Nazi regime's victims was accomplished in stages. Legislation to remove the Jews from civil society was enacted years before the outbreak of World War II. Where the Third Reich conquered new territory in eastern Europe and Russia, ghettos were established to contain and marginalize the victims. Specialized units, the Einsatzgruppen, murdered large numbers of Jews and political opponents in mass shootings, and in mobile gassing units. In western European countries occupied by the Nazis, Jews were interned before being deported to the death camps, often being transported hundreds of miles by rail, crammed into freight cars. Finally, the machinery of the state was used to kill massive numbers of Jews and others in extermination camps. The Nuremberg Laws of 1935 were denaturalization laws passed by the government of Nazi Germany. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Map of Eastern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ... Ghettos established by the Nazis in which Jews were confined, and later shipped to concentration camps. ... A member of Einsatzgruppe D is just about to shoot a Jewish man kneeling before a filled mass grave in Vinnitsa, Ukraine, in 1942. ... A common post-WWII understanding of Western Europe Western Europe in its most common understanding is a socio-political concept coined and used during the Cold War. ... For other uses, see Internment (disambiguation). ... Extermination camps were one type of facility that the Nazis built before and during World War II for the systematic murder of millions of people in what has become known as The Holocaust. ...

The Holocaust
Early elements
Racial policy · Nazi eugenics · Nuremberg Laws · Euthanasia · Concentration camps (list)
Jews
Jews in Nazi Germany, 1933 to 1939

Pogroms: Kristallnacht · Bucharest · Dorohoi · Iaşi · Jedwabne · Lwów The Racial Policy of Nazi Germany refers to the policies and laws implemented by Nazi Germany, asserting the superiority of the Aryan race, and including measures aimed primarily against Jews. ... Nazi eugenics pertains to Nazi Germanys nazism and race social policies that placed the improvement of the race through eugenics at the centre of their concerns and targeted those humans they identified as Life Unworthy of Life, including but not limited to: criminal, degenerate, dissident, feeble-minded, homosexual, idle... The Nuremberg Laws of 1935 were denaturalization laws passed by the government of Nazi Germany. ... This poster reads: 60,000 Reichsmark is what this person suffering from hereditary defects costs the community during his lifetime. ... Prior to and during World War II Nazi Germany maintained concentration camps (Konzentrationslager or KZ) throughout the territory it controlled. ... The following is a list of Nazi German concentration camps. ... German Jews have lived in Germany for over 1700 years, through both periods of tolerance and spasms of anti-Semitic violence, culminating in the Holocaust and the near-destruction of the Jewish community in Germany and much of Europe. ... Pogrom (from Russian: ; from громить IPA: - to wreak havoc, to demolish violently) is a form of riot directed against a particular group, whether ethnic, religious or other, and characterized by destruction of their homes, businesses and religious centers. ... Kristallnacht, also known as Reichskristallnacht, Pogromnacht, Crystal Night and the Night of Broken Glass, was a pogrom[1] against Jews throughout Germany and parts of Austria on November 9–10, 1938. ... The Legionnaires Rebellion and the Bucharest Pogrom occurred in Bucharest, Romania, between the 21st and the 23rd of January, 1941. ... On 1 July 1940, in the town of Dorohoi in Romania, Romanian military units performed a pogrom against the local Jews, during which, according to an official Romanian report, 53 Jews were murdered, and dozens injured. ... ... The Jedwabne Pogrom (or Jedwabne Massacre) was a massacre of Jewish people living in and near the town of Jedwabne in Poland that occurred during World War II, in July 1941. ... The old town of Lviv Lviv (Ukrainian: Львів, L’viv ; German: ; Yiddish: ; Polish: ; Russian: , see also other names) is an administrative center in western Ukraine with more than a millennium of history as a settlement, and over seven centuries as a city. ...

Ghettos: Warsaw · Łódź · Lwów · Kraków · Theresienstadt · Kovno During World War II ghettos were established by the Nazis to confine Jews and sometimes Gypsies into tightly packed areas of the cities of Eastern Europe. ... The Ghetto Heroes Memorial The Warsaw Ghetto was the largest of the Jewish ghettos established by Nazi Germany in General Government during the Holocaust in World War II. In the three years of its existence, starvation, disease and deportations to concentration camps and extermination camps dropped the population of the... The Łódź Ghetto (historically the Litzmannstadt Ghetto) was the second-largest ghetto (after the Warsaw Ghetto) established for Jews and Roma in Nazi-occupied Poland. ... The Lwów Ghetto (also called the Lemberg Ghetto, Lviv Ghetto, and Lvov Ghetto), was in the city of Lviv, the largest city in todays western Ukraine, was one of the larger Ghettos established for Jews in that times Poland by Nazi authorities. ... Deportation of Jews from the Kraków Ghetto, March 1943 The Jewish ghetto in Kraków (Cracow) was one of the five main ghettos created by the Nazis during their occupation of Poland during World War II. It was a staging point to begin dividing able workers from those who... Location of the concentration camp in the Czech Republic Gate Work Brings Freedom in the Small Fortress Concentration camp Theresienstadt (often referred to as Terezín) was a Nazi concentration camp during World War II. It was established by the Gestapo in the fortress and garrison city Terezín (German... The Kovno Ghetto (also called the Kaunas Ghetto) was a ghetto established by Nazi Germany to hold the Jews of the Lithuanian town of Kovno during the Holocaust. ...

Einsatzgruppen: Babi Yar · Rumbula · Ponary · Odessa A member of Einsatzgruppe D is just about to shoot a Jewish man kneeling before a filled mass grave in Vinnitsa, Ukraine, in 1942. ... Babi Yar (Ukrainian: Бабин яр, Babyn yar; Russian: Бабий яр, Babiy yar) is a ravine in Kiev, the capital of Ukraine, located between Frunze and Melnyk Streets between the Kyryliv church and Olena Teliha Street. ... Rumbula Forest is a pine forest enclave in Riga, Latvia. ... The Ponary massacre (or Panerai massacre) was the sequence of events that took place between July 1941 and August 1944 in the town of Paneriai (Polish: ), now a suburb of Vilnius (Wilno), which became the mass murder site of approximately 100,000 victims, the vast majority of them Jews and... The Odessa Massacre was the extermination of Jews and Communists in Odessa during the autumn of 1941. ...

Final Solution: Wannsee · Aktion Reinhard In a February 26, 1942, letter to German diplomat Martin Luther, Reinhard Heydrich follows up on the Wannsee Conference by asking Luther for administrative assistance in the implementation of the Endlösung der Judenfrage (Final Solution of the Jewish Question). ... The Wannsee Conference was a meeting of senior officials of the Nazi German regime, held in the Berlin suburb of Wannsee on January 20, 1942. ... Operation Reinhard (Aktion Reinhard, Einsatz Reinhard, Aktion Reinhardt or Einsatz Reinhardt in German) was the code name given to the Nazi plan to murder Polish Jews in the former General Government and rob their possessions. ...

Death camps: Auschwitz · Belzec · Chełmno · Majdanek · Treblinka · Sobibór · Warsaw · Jasenovac Extermination camps were one type of facility that the Nazis built before and during World War II for the systematic murder of millions of people in what has become known as The Holocaust. ... Auschwitz (Konzentrationslager Auschwitz) was the largest of the Nazi German concentration camps. ... Bełżec was the first of the Nazi German extermination camps created for implementing Operation Reinhard during the Holocaust. ... The CheÅ‚mno extermination camp was a Nazi extermination camp that was situated 70 km from Łódź near a small village called CheÅ‚mno nad Nerem (Kulmhof an der Nehr, in German), in Greater Poland (which was, in 1939, annexed and incorporated into Germany under the name of Reichsgau Wartheland). ... Majdanek in the winter, 2005 Majdanek is the site of a German Nazi concentration and extermination camp, roughly 2. ... Treblinka was a Nazi extermination camp in German-occupied Poland during World War II. Extermination camps like the one at Treblinka were used in the Holocaust for the systematic genocide of people categorized as sub-humans by the Nazis. ... Sobibór was a Nazi German extermination camp that was part of Operation Reinhard, the official German name was SS-Sonderkommando Sobibor. ... Warsaw concentration camp (German: , short KL Warschau) was the German concentration and extermination camp in Warsaw, in the ruins of the Warsaw Ghetto and in other parts of the city. ... Jasenovac concentration camp (in Croatian: Logor Jasenovac in Serbian: Логор Јасеновац) was the largest concentration and extermination camp in Croatia during World War II. It was established by the UstaÅ¡a (Ustasha) regime of the Independent State of Croatia in August 1941. ...

Resistance: Jewish partisans
Ghetto uprisings (Warsaw) The Jewish resistance during the Holocaust was the resistance of the Jewish people against Nazi Germany leading up to and through World War II. Due to the careful organization and overwhelming military might of the Nazi German State and its supporters, many Jews were unable to resist the killings. ... Jewish partisans were groups of irregulars participating in the Jewish resistance movement during World War II against the Nazis and their collaborators. ... Ghetto uprisings were armed revolts by Jews and other groups incarcerated in Nazi ghettos during World War II against the plans to deport the inhabitants to concentration and death camps. ... Combatants Nazi Germany {SS, SD, Gestapo, Order Police, Wehrmacht} Collaborators {Blue Police, Jewish Ghetto Police} Jewish resistance (Å»OB, Å»ZW) Polish resistance (Armia Krajowa Gwardia Ludowa) Commanders Ferdinand von Sammern-Frankenegg Jürgen Stroop Mordechai Anielewicz†, Dawid Apfelbaum†, PaweÅ‚ Frenkiel†, Icchak Cukierman, Marek Edelman, Zivia Lubetkin, Henryk IwaÅ„ski Strength Official...

End of World War II: Death marches · Berihah · Displaced persons During the Battle for Berlin, the Red Flag was raised over the Reichstag, May 1945. ... Dachau concentration-camp inmates on a death march through a German village in April 1945. ... Berihah (literally escape in Hebrew) was the organized effort to help Jews escape post-Holocaust Europe for the British Mandate of Palestine. ... Sherit ha-Pletah is a biblical (First Chronicles 4:43) term used by Jewish survivors of the Nazi Holocaust to refer to themselves and the communities they formed following their liberation in the spring of 1945. ...

Other victims

East Slavs · Poles · Serbs · Roma · Homosexuals · Jehovah's Witnesses The victims of the Holocaust were Jews, Serbs, Poles, Russians, Communists, homosexuals, Roma (also known as gypsies), the mentally ill and the physically disabled, intelligentsia and political activists, Jehovahs Witnesses, Roman Catholics, and Protestant clergy, trade unionists, psychiatric patients, some Africans, Asians, enemy nationals especially Spanish refugees from occupied... Generalplan Ost (GPO) was a Nazi plan to realize Hitlers new order of ethnographical relations in the territories occupied in Eastern Europe during World War II. It was prepared in 1941 and confirmed in 1942. ... Serbs were heavily persecuted during the Second World War. ... Roma arrivals in the Belzec extermination camp await instructions The Porajmos (also Porrajmos) literally Devouring, or Samudaripen (Mass killing) is a term coined by the Roma (Gypsy) people to describe attempts by the Nazi regime to exterminate most of the Roma peoples of Europe during The Holocaust. ... Autobiography of Pierre Seel, a gay man sent to a concentration camp by the Nazis Before the beginning of World War II, the homosexual people in Germany, especially in Berlin, enjoyed more freedom and acceptance than anywhere else in the world. ... Throughout the history of Jehovahs Witnesses, their history, their beliefs, doctrines and practices have met controversy and opposition from the local governments, communities, or religious groups. ...

Responsible parties

Nazi Germany: Hitler · Eichmann · Heydrich · Himmler · SS · Gestapo · SA Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Hitler redirects here. ... Adolf Eichmann in Germany in 1940 Otto Adolf Eichmann (known as Adolf Eichmann; March 19, 1906 – June 1, 1962) was a high-ranking Nazi and SS Obersturmbannführer (Lieutenant Colonel). ... Reinhard Heydrich as SS-Gruppenführer. ... Heinrich Luitpold Himmler ( ; October 7, 1900 – May 23, 1945) was the commander of the German Schutzstaffel (SS) and one of the most powerful men in Nazi Germany. ... “SS” redirects here. ... This article or section includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... The seal of SA The   or SA (German for Storm division, usually translated as stormtroop(er)s ), functioned as a paramilitary organization of the NSDAP — the German Nazi party. ...


Collaborators The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ...


Aftermath: Nuremberg Trials · Denazification The Aftermath of World War II covers a period of history from roughly 1945-1950. ... The Süddeutsche Zeitung announces The Verdict in Nuremberg. ... Denazification (German: Entnazifizierung) was an Allied initiative to rid German and Austrian society, culture, press, economy, judiciary and politics of any remnants of the Nazi regime. ...

Lists
Survivors · Victims · Rescuers
Resources
The Destruction of the European Jews
Phases of the Holocaust
Functionalism vs. intentionalism
v  d  e

Contents

There are many famous Holocaust survivors who survived the Nazi genocides in Europe and went on to achievements of great fame and notability. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This is a list of people who helped Jewish people and others to escape from the Nazi Holocaust during World War II, often called rescuers. The list is not exhaustive, concentrating on famous cases, or people who saved the lives of many potential victims. ... Holocaust resources for main article The Holocaust. ... Book cover The Destruction of the European Jews is a three-volume work published in 1961 by historian Raul Hilberg. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Functionalism versus intentionalism is a historiographical debate about the origins of the Holocaust as well as most aspects of the Third Reich, such as foreign policy. ...

Etymology and usage of the term

Antisemitism

History · Timeline · Resources
Racial · Religious · New antisemitism
Antisemitism around the world
Arabs and antisemitism
Christianity and antisemitism
Islam and antisemitism
Nation of Islam and antisemitism
Universities and antisemitism
Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1518x1372, 1426 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Star of David Yellow badge Talk:List of Jewish American journalists User:RolandR Metadata This file contains additional... Manifestations Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching Hate speech · Hate crime · Hate groups Genocide · Holocaust · Pogrom Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing · Race war Religious persecution · Gay bashing Pedophobia · Ephebiphobia Movements Discriminatory Aryanism · Neo-Nazism · Supremacism Kahanism Anti-discriminatory Abolitionism · Civil rights Gays/Transsexes/Intersexes rights Womens/Universal suffrage · Feminism Mens/Fathers rights... This does not cite its references or sources. ... A timeline for antisemitism chronicles events from ancient times when hostile attitudes to the Jewish people can be found in among neighbouring civilisations, to the present day. ... This is a list of resources analyzing antisemitism in the alphabetical order of authors name. ... Racial antisemitism is hatred of Jews as a racial group, rather than hatred of Judaism as a religion. ... An example of state-sponsored atheist anti-Judaism. ... New antisemitism is the concept of an international resurgence of attacks on Jewish symbols, as well as the acceptance of antisemitic beliefs and their expression in public discourse, coming from three political directions: the political left, far-right, and Islamism. ... This is a list of countries where prevelent antisemitic sentiment has been experienced. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The relationship between Christianity and antisemitism has a long history. ... This article covers: The prevalence of antisemitism amongst Muslims - and whether it is more or less common than amongst people of other religions. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Nation of Islam. ... Poster at SFSU resurrects the blood libel: Palestinian Children Meat, Made in Israel and slaughtered according to Jewish Rites under American license. ...

Allegations
Deicide · Blood libel
Well poisoning · Host desecration
Jewish lobby · Jewish Bolshevism
On the Jews and their Lies
The Protocols of the Elders of Zion
Ritual murder · Usury · Dreyfus affair
This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Blood libels were the false accusations that Jews used human blood, especially the blood of Christian children, in religious rituals. ... Well-poisoning (the malicious manipulation of potable water resources to cause illness or death) is potentially the gravest of three accusations historically brought against Jewish people as a whole (the other two being host desecration and blood libel. ... Host desecration is a form of sacrilege in Christianity, involving the mistreatment or malicious use of a consecrated Host, or communion wafer. ... Jewish lobby is a term referring to allegations that Jews exercise undue influence in a number of areas, including politics, government, the media, academia, popular culture, public policy, international relations, and international finance. ... White Army propaganda poster depicting Leon Trotsky. ... Title page of Martin Luther’s On the Jews and Their Lies. ... 1992 Russian language imprint, adapting Eliphas Levis portrayal of Baphomet image The Protocols of the Elders of Zion (Russian: , see also other titles) is a pamphlet that purports to describe a Jewish plot to achieve world domination. ... Ritual murder is murder performed in a ritualistic fashion or on a basis of rituals. ... Of Usury, from Brants Stultifera Navis (the Ship of Fools); woodcut attributed to Albrecht Dürer Usury (//, from the Medieval Latin usuria, interest or excessive interest, from Latin usura interest) was defined originally as charging a fee for the use of money. ... The Dreyfus affair was a political scandal which divided France during the 1890s and early 1900s. ...

Persecutions
Expulsion · Ghetto · Holocaust
Holocaust denial · Inquisition
Judenhut · Judensau · Neo-Nazism
Segregation · Yellow badge
This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... In the course of history, Jewish populations have been expelled or ostracised by various local authorities and have sought asylum from Anti-Semitism numerous times. ... A ghetto is an area where people from a specific racial or ethnic background and united in a given culture or religion live as a group, voluntarily or involuntarily, in milder or stricter seclusion. ... Richard Harwoods Did Six Million Really Die? Holocaust denial is the claim that the mainstream historical version of the Holocaust is either highly exaggerated or completely falsified. ... The Spanish Inquisition was an organization which conducted religious trials, primarily between 1480 to 1530, set up by the Spanish Monarchy with the forced consent of Pope Sixtus IV and serving the purpose to consolidate power in Spain. ... The Jewish poet Süßkind von Trimberg wearing a Judenhut (Codex Manesse, 14. ... Judensau (German for Jewish swine) is a derogatory and dehumanizing imagery of the Jews that appeared around the 13th century in Germany and some other European countries. ... The terms Neo-Nazism and Neo-Fascism refer to any social or political movement to revive Nazism or Fascism, respectively, and postdates the Second World War. ... The Pale of Settlement (Russian: Черта оседлости - cherta osedlosti) was a western border region of Imperial Russia in which permanent residence of Jews was allowed, extending from the pale or demarcation line, to near the border with eastern/central Europe. ... The yellow badge which Jews were forced to wear during the Nazi occupation of Europe: a black Star of David on a yellow field, with the word Jew written inside. ...

Organizations fighting antisemitism
Anti-Defamation League
Community Security Trust
EUMC · Stephen Roth Institute
Wiener Library · SPLC · SWC · UCSJ The Anti-Defamation League (or ADL) is an advocacy group founded by Bnai Brith in the United States whose stated aim is to stop, by appeals to reason and conscience and, if necessary, by appeals to law, the defamation of the Jewish people. ... A 2005 CST report into anti-Semitism in the UK The Community Security Trust (CST) is an organization established to ensure the safety and security of the Jewish community in Britain (UK). ... Location: Vienna, Austria Formation: - Signed - Established 1994/1998 Superseding pillar: European Communities Director: Dr Beate Winkle Website: eumc. ... The Stephen Roth Institute for the Study of Contemporary Antisemitism and Racism is a resource for information, provides a forum for academic discussion, and fosters research on issues concerning antisemitic and racist theories and manifestations. ... The Wiener Library is the worlds oldest institution devoted to the study of the Holocaust, its causes and legacies. ... The Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC) is an American non-profit legal organization, whose stated purpose is to combat racism and promote civil rights through research, education, and litigation. ... The Simon Wiesenthal Center The Simon Wiesenthal Center is an international Jewish organization that declares itself to be a human rights group dedicated to preserving the memory of the Holocaust by fostering tolerance and understanding through community involvement, educational outreach and social action. ... UCSJ, or the Union of Councils for Jews in the Former Soviet Union, is a collection of Jewish human rights organisations working in Eastern Europe and Central Asia. ...

Categories
Antisemitism · Jewish history

WikiProjects
WikiProject Jewish history

v  d  e

The term holocaust originally derived from the Greek word holókauston, meaning a "completely (holos) burnt (kaustos)" sacrificial offering to a god. It is also known as Ha-Shoah (Hebrew: השואה), Khurbn (Yiddish: חורבן or Halokaust, האלאקאוסט). Since the late 19th century, "holocaust" has primarily been used to refer to disasters or catastrophes. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the word was first used to describe Hitler's treatment of the Jews from as early as 1942, though it did not become a standard reference until the 1950s. By the late 1970s, however, the conventional meaning of the word became the Nazi genocide. The term is also used by many in a narrower sense, to refer specifically to the unprecedented destruction of European Jews in particular. Some historians credited Elie Wiesel with giving the term 'Holocaust' its present meaning. The biblical word Shoa (שואה) (also spelled Shoah and Sho'ah} meaning "calamity" in Hebrew, became the standard Hebrew term for the Holocaust as early as the early 1940s.[5] Shoa is preferred by many Jews and a growing number of others for a number of reasons, including the potentially theologically offensive nature of the original meaning of the word holocaust. // The Holocaust is the name commonly applied since the mid 1970s to the systematic state-sponsored persecution and genocide of various ethnic, religious and political groups during World War II by Nazi Germany, and especially to the destruction of European Jewry. ... A holocaust is a religious sacrifice that is completely consumed by fire. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... Yiddish (Yid. ... The Oxford English Dictionary print set The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a dictionary published by the Oxford University Press (OUP), and is generally regarded as the most comprehensive and scholarly dictionary of the English language. ... Hitler redirects here. ... Eliezer Wiesel (commonly known as Elie, born September 30, 1928)[1] is an American-Jewish novelist, political activist, and Holocaust survivor. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... Theology (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογια, logia, words, sayings, or discourse) is reasoned discourse concerning religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ...


The word "genocide" was coined during the Holocaust by Raphael Lemkin, a Polish lawyer who was an adviser to the U.S. Department of War during World War II.[6] In 1944, the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace published his most important work, entitled Axis Rule in Occupied Europe, in the United States. This included an extensive legal analysis of German rule in countries occupied by Nazi Germany during the course of the war, along with the definition of the term "genocide,"[7] from the Greek genos ("race," "tribe," or "nation") and the Latin cide ("killing").[6] Genocide is the mass killing of a group of people as defined by Article 2 of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (CPPCG) as any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnic, racial or... Rafael Lemkin (June 24, 1900—August 28, 1959) was a lawyer of Polish-Jewish descent. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Endowments headquarters at 1779 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. The Carnegie Endowment for International Peace is a private nonprofit organization promoting international cooperation and active international engagement by the United States of America. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ...


It is currently debated by scholars the use of the term to uniquely identify the Jewish genocide.[8]


Nazi antisemitism and the origins of the Holocaust

Even before the Nazis came to power in Germany in 1933, they had made no secret of their antisemitism. As early as 1919, Adolf Hitler had written, “Rational antisemitism, however, must lead to systematic legal opposition. Its final objective must unswervingly be the removal of the Jews altogether.” In Mein Kampf (“My Struggle”; 1925–27), Hitler further developed the idea of the Jews as an evil race struggling for world domination. Nazi antisemitism was rooted in religious antisemitism and enhanced by political antisemitism. To this the Nazis added a further dimension: racial antisemitism. Nazi racial ideology characterized the Jews as Untermenschen (German: “subhumans”). The Nazis portrayed Jews as a race and not a religious group. Religious antisemitism could be resolved by conversion, political antisemitism by expulsion. Ultimately, the logic of Nazi racial antisemitism led to annihilation. Manifestations Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching Hate speech · Hate crime · Hate groups Genocide · Holocaust · Pogrom Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing · Race war Religious persecution · Gay bashing Pedophobia · Ephebiphobia Movements Discriminatory Aryanism · Neo-Nazism · Supremacism Kahanism Anti-discriminatory Abolitionism · Civil rights Gays/Transsexes/Intersexes rights Womens/Universal suffrage · Feminism Mens/Fathers rights... Mein Kampf (English translation: My Struggle) is the signature work of Adolf Hitler, combining elements of autobiography with an exposition of Hitlers political ideology of Nazism. ... Nazis claimed to scientifically measure a strict hierarchy among races; at the top was the Aryan race (minus the Slavs, who were seen as below Aryan), then lesser races. ... Untermensch (German for under man, sub-man, sub-human; plural: Untermenschen) is a term from Nazi racial ideology used to describe inferior people, especially the masses from the East, that is Jews, Slavs, Gypsies, Soviet Bolshevists, and anyone else who was not a Nordic or Germanic Gentile. ...


When Hitler came to power legally on January 30, 1933, as the head of a coalition government, his first objective was to consolidate power and to eliminate political opposition. The assault against the Jews began on April 1 with a boycott of Jewish businesses. A week later the Nazis dismissed Jews from the civil service, and by the end of the month, the participation of Jews in German schools was restricted by a quota. On May 10, thousands of Nazi students, together with many professors, stormed university libraries and bookstores in 30 cities throughout Germany to remove tens of thousands of books written by non-Aryans and those opposed to Nazi ideology. The books were tossed into bonfires in an effort to cleanse German culture of “un-Germanic” writings. A century earlier, Heinrich Heine—a German poet of Jewish origin—had said, “Where one burns books, one will, in the end, burn people.” In Nazi Germany, the time between the burning of Jewish books and the burning of Jews was eight years.


As discrimination against Jews increased, German law required a legal definition of a Jew and an Aryan. Promulgated at the annual Nazi Party rally in Nürnberg on September 15, 1935, the Nürnberg Laws—the Law for the Protection of German Blood and German Honour and the Law of the Reich Citizen—became the centerpiece of anti-Jewish legislation and a precedent for defining and categorizing Jews in all German-controlled lands. Marriage and sexual relations between Jews and citizens of “German or kindred blood” were prohibited. Only “racial” Germans were entitled to civil and political rights. Jews were reduced to subjects of the state. The Nürnberg Laws formally divided Germans and Jews, yet neither the word German nor the word Jew was defined. That task was left to the bureaucracy. Two basic categories were established in November: Jews—those with at least three Jewish grandparents—and Mischlinge (“mongrels,” or “mixed breeds”)—people with one or two Jewish grandparents. Thus, the definition of a Jew was primarily based not on the identity an individual affirmed or the religion he practiced but on his ancestry. Categorization was the first stage of destruction. The Aryan race is a concept in European culture that was influential in the period of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. ... Nuremberg coat of arms Location of Nuremberg Nuremberg (German: Nürnberg) is a city in the German state of Bavaria, in the administrative region of Middle Franconia. ... Nuremberg Laws of 1935 were denaturalization laws passed in Nazi Germany. ... Mischling is a term coined during the Third Reich era in Germany to denote persons deemed to have partial Jewish ancestry. ...


Responding with alarm to Hitler's rise, the Jewish community sought to defend their rights as Germans. For those Jews who felt themselves fully German and who had patriotically fought in World War I, the Nazification of German society was especially painful. Zionist activity intensified. “Wear it with pride,” journalist Robert Wildest wrote in 1933 of the Jewish identity the Nazis had so stigmatized. Martin Buber led an effort at Jewish adult education, preparing the community for the long journey ahead. Rabbi Leo Baeck circulated a prayer for Yom Kippur (the Day of Atonement) in 1935 that instructed Jews how to behave: “We bow down before God; we stand erect before man.” Yet while few, if any, could foresee its eventual outcome, the Jewish condition was increasingly perilous and expected to get worse. Martin Buber (8 February 1878 – 13 June 1965) was an Austrian-Jewish philosopher, translator, and educator, whose work centered on theistic ideals of religious consciousness, interpersonal relations, and community. ... Yom Kippur (IPA: ; Hebrew:יוֹם כִּפּוּר, IPA: ) is the Jewish holiday of the Day of Atonement. ...


By the late 1930s there was a desperate search for countries of refuge. Those who could get visas and qualify under stringent quotas emigrated to the United States. Many went to Palestine, where the small Jewish community was willing to receive refugees. Still others sought refuge in neighbouring European countries. Most countries, however, were unwilling to receive large numbers of refugees. Responding to domestic pressures to act on behalf of Jewish refugees, U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt convened, but did not attend, the Évian Conference on resettlement, in Évian-les-Bains, France, in July 1938. In his invitation to government leaders, Roosevelt specified that they would not have to change laws or spend government funds; only philanthropic funds would be used for resettlement. The result was that little was attempted, and less accomplished. The Holy Land or Palestine Showing not only the Old Kingdoms of Judea and Israel but also the 12 Tribes Distinctly, and Confirming Even the Diversity of the Locations of their Ancient Positions and Doing So as the Holy Scriptures Indicate, a geographic map from the studio of Tobiae Conradi... FDR redirects here. ... The Évian Conference was convened at the initiative of US President Franklin D. Roosevelt in July, 1938 to discuss the problem of Jewish refugees. ... A street in Évian. ...


Features of the Holocaust

The Holocaust had several characteristics that, taken together, distinguish it from other genocides in history. Genocide is defined by the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (CPPCG) article 2 as any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnic, racial or religious group, as such: Killing members of the group; Causing...


Efficiency

Ghettos established in Europe in which Jews were confined, in ghettos and later in temporary concentration locations and later shipped to extermination camps.

The Holocaust was characterized by the efficient and systematic attempt on an industrial scale to assemble and kill as many people as possible, using all of the resources and technology available to the Nazi state.[9] Germany was, at the time, one of the world's leading nations in terms of technology, industry, infrastructure, research, education, bureaucratic efficiency, and many other fields.[10] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1551x1126, 72 KB) This a665red on the Wikipedia’s Holocaust page. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1551x1126, 72 KB) This a665red on the Wikipedia’s Holocaust page. ... The name ghetto refers to an area where people from a given ethnic background or united in a given culture or religion live as a group, voluntarily or involuntarily, in milder or stricter seclusion. ...


For example, detailed lists of potential victims were made and maintained using Dehomag statistical machinery, and meticulous records of the killings were produced. As prisoners entered the death camps, they were made to surrender all personal property to the Nazis, which was then precisely catalogued and tagged, and for which receipts were issued. Dehomag was a German business, effectively a franchisee and subcompany of International Business Machines. ...


Method used for killing

In his book, Russia's War, British historian Richard Overy describes how the Nazis sought more efficient ways to kill people. In 1941, after occupying Belarus, they used mental patients from Minsk asylums as guinea pigs. Initially, they tried shooting them by having them stand one behind the other, so that several people could be killed with one bullet, but it was too slow. Then they tried dynamite, but few were killed and many were left wounded with hands and legs missing. In October 1941, in Mogilev the Germans incorporated gassing as a technique for mass murder for the first time. Gas was poured into a Gaswagen or "gas car". It took more than 30 minutes for people inside the Gaswagen to die. Later, the Germans used a larger truck exhaust, which only took only eight minutes to kill all the people inside.[11] Richard Overy has published extensively on the history of World War II and the Third Reich. ... Location Location of Minsk, shown within the Minsk Voblast Government Country Subdivision Belarus Minsk Founded 1067 Mayor Mikhail Pavlov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 305. ... A psychiatric hospital (also called at various places and times, mental hospital, mental ward, sanitarium or asylum) is a hospital specializing in the treatment of persons with mental illness. ... Dynamite is an explosive based on the explosive potential of nitroglycerin, initially using diatomaceous earth (Kieselguhr) as an adsorbent. ... Mogilev, or Mahilyow (Belarusian: ; Russian: , translit. ...

The Nazis methodically tracked the progress of the Holocaust in thousands of reports and documents. Pictured is the Höfle Telegram sent to Adolf Eichmann in January, 1943, that reported that 1,274,166 Jews had been killed in the four Aktion Reinhard camps during 1942.

In the spring of 1942, the Aktion Reinhard camps began operating. Carbon monoxide was used in the gas chambers at Belzec, Sobibór, and Treblinka, whereas Zyklon B,a cyanide-based insecticide, was employed at Majdanek and Auschwitz.[12] Image File history File links Hoefletelegram. ... Image File history File links Hoefletelegram. ... The Hofle Telegram. ... Adolf Eichmann in Germany in 1940 Otto Adolf Eichmann (known as Adolf Eichmann; March 19, 1906 – June 1, 1962) was a high-ranking Nazi and SS Obersturmbannführer (Lieutenant Colonel). ... Operation Reinhard (Aktion Reinhard or Einsatz Reinhard) was the code name given to the Nazi plan to murder Polish Jews in the former General Gouvernement and the Bialystok area. ... Operation Reinhard (Aktion Reinhard or Einsatz Reinhard) was the code name given to the Nazi plan to murder Polish Jews in the former General Gouvernement and the Bialystok area. ... Carbon monoxide, with the chemical formula CO, is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas. ... Bełżec was the first of the Nazi German extermination camps created for implementing Operation Reinhard during the Holocaust. ... Sobibór was a Nazi German extermination camp that was part of Operation Reinhard, the official German name was SS-Sonderkommando Sobibor. ... Treblinka was a Nazi extermination camp in German-occupied Poland during World War II. Extermination camps like the one at Treblinka were used in the Holocaust for the systematic genocide of people categorized as sub-humans by the Nazis. ... Zyklon B label — Note that “Gift” translates as “poison” Zyklon B was the tradename of a pesticide ultimately used by Nazi Germany in some Holocaust gas chambers. ... Majdanek in the winter, 2005 Majdanek is the site of a German Nazi concentration and extermination camp, roughly 2. ... Auschwitz (Konzentrationslager Auschwitz) was the largest of the Nazi German concentration camps. ...


The disposal of large numbers of bodies presented a logistical problem as well. The Nazis were constantly studying ways to improve fuel efficiency, using a combination of different fuels, such as coke, wood and body fat. According to surviving Sonderkommandos, multiple bodies were added to the furnaces to obtain optimal fuel efficiency and speed, particularly when the demand was higher.[5] Sonderkommandos were groups of Nazi death camp prisoners forced to aid the killing process. ... A furnace is a device for heating air or any other fluid. ...


Corporate involvement in the Holocaust has created significant controversy in recent years. Rudolf Höß, Auschwitz camp commandant, said that far from having to advertise their slave labour services, the concentration camps were actually approached by various large German businesses, some of which are still in existence.[6] Technology developed by IBM also played a role in the categorization of prisoners, through the use of punched card machines.[9][13] Rudolf Hoess Rudolf Franz Ferdinand Höß (in English commonly Hoess or Höss; November 25, 1900 – April 16, 1947) was a senior Nazi official, member of the SS and Waffen-SS (with the rank of SS-Obersturmbannführer) and commandant of the Auschwitz concentration camp where he was responsible for... International Business Machines Corporation (known as IBM or Big Blue; NYSE: IBM) is a multinational computer technology corporation headquartered in Armonk, New York, USA. The company is one of the few information technology companies with a continuous history dating back to the 19th century. ...


Scale

The Holocaust was geographically widespread and systematically conducted in virtually all areas of Nazi-occupied territory, where victims were targeted in what are now 35 separate European countries, and sent to labor camps in some countries or extermination camps in others.[14] The mass killing was at its worst in Central and Eastern Europe, which had more than 7 million Jews in 1939; about 5 million Jews were killed there, including 3 million in occupied Poland and over 1 million in the Soviet Union. Hundreds of thousands also died in the Netherlands, France, Belgium, Yugoslavia, and Greece. Majdanek - crematorium Extermination camp (German Vernichtungslager) was the term applied to a group of camps set up by Nazi Germany during World War II for the express purpose of killing the Jews of Europe, although members of some other groups whom the Nazis wished to exterminate, such as Roma (Gypsies...


Documented evidence suggests that the Nazis planned to carry out their "final solution" in other regions if they were conquered, such as the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland.[15] The extermination continued in different parts of Nazi-controlled territory until the end of World War II, only completely ending when the Allies entered Germany itself and forced the Nazis to surrender in May 1945.
Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Cruelty

The Holocaust was carried out without any reprieve even for children or babies, and victims were often tortured before being killed. Nazis carried out deadly medical experiments on prisoners, including children. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

The guards in the concentration camps carried out beatings and acts of torture on a daily basis. Some women (usually convicted prostitutes) worked in brothels for the guards and privileged prisoners. It has been argued that some were forced to do so.[16]. Homosexual men suffered unusually cruel treatment in the concentration camps.[17] They faced persecution not only from German soldiers but also from other prisoners, and many homosexual men were beaten to death.[18] Additionally, homosexuals in forced labor camps routinely received more grueling and dangerous work assignments than other non-Jewish inmates, under the policy of "Extermination Through Work".[19] German soldiers also were known to use homosexuals for target practice, aiming their weapons at the pink triangles their human targets were forced to wear.[20] Image File history File links Nordhausen_camp. ... Image File history File links Nordhausen_camp. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... It has been suggested that Internment be merged into this article or section. ... Roland statue in Nordhausen Twinning The city is twinned with Bet Shemesh in Israel Charleville-Mézières in France Bochum Ostrów Wielkopolski in Poland Nordhausen is a city of about 45,000 people at the southern border of the Harz mountains, in the state of Thuringia, Germany. ... Autobiography of Pierre Seel, a gay man sent to a concentration camp by the Nazis Before the beginning of World War II, the homosexual people in Germany, especially in Berlin, enjoyed more freedom and acceptance than anywhere else in the world. ...


Children

During the selection process, children were divided into two groups: those who were fit for work, and those who were not. Those who were deemed healthy enough to work had their prisoner ID tattooed on them, and were given a uniform. The children who were sent to work, most often in munitions factories,[21] were not anticipated to survive for much longer than a few weeks. This was due to the workload placed on them by the Nazis and due to the lack of food and unhygienic conditions within the camp. National Socialism redirects here. ...


Those children deemed unfit for work were immediately taken to the gas chambers.[22] These children were often very dependent on their mothers. However, some children, particularly twins, were kept by the camp "doctor" for medical experimentation.[23]


Experiments

At the Auschwitz concentration camp, Dr. Josef Mengele was infamous for carrying out medical experiments on human subjects. These included placing subjects in pressure chambers, testing various drugs on them, freezing them to death, and various other usually fatal traumas. Of particular interest to Mengele were twins, Gypsies, dwarves and infants.[24] Beginning in 1943, twins were selected and placed in special barracks.[25] This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Josef Mengele Dr. Josef Mengele (March 16, 1911 – February 7, 1979), was a German SS officer and a physician in the Nazi concentration camp Auschwitz-Birkenau. ...


Almost all of Mengele's experiments were of little scientific value, including attempts to change eye color by injecting chemicals into children's eyes, various amputations and other brutal surgeries, and in at least one case attempting to surgically transform normal twins into Siamese twins.[26]


The full extent of Mengele's work will never be known because the two truckloads of records he sent to Dr. Otmar von Verschuer at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute were destroyed by the latter. Subjects who survived Mengele's experiments were almost always killed after the experiments for dissection. Kaiser Wilhelm Institute (in German Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft) was the name of a number of scientific institutes in Germany before World War II. After 1945 they were re-organised and renamed as Max Planck Institutes. ...


While Mengele's experiments were the most notorious, his behavior was not an isolated aberration. Other Nazi physicians also engaged in human experimentation at several concentration camps, including Dachau,[27] Buchenwald,[28] Ravensbrück,[29] Sachsenhausen,[30] and Natzweiler concentration camps.[31]


Victims

A pile of corpses of Jewish prisoners from the Auschwitz concentration camp
A pile of corpses of Jewish prisoners from the Auschwitz concentration camp
Main article: Holocaust victims

While the victims of the Holocaust were primarily Jews, the Nazis also persecuted and slaughtered the members of other groups they considered inferior, undesirable or dangerous, including Poles and other Slavic peoples such as Russians, Belarusians and Serbs, Bosniaks,[32] [33] Roma & Sinti (also known as Gypsies), and some Africans, Asians and others who did not belong to the "Aryan race"; the mentally ill and the physically disabled; homosexuals; and political opponents and religious dissidents such as communists, trade unionists, Freemasons and Jehovah's Witnesses.[34] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Auschwitz, in English, commonly refers to the Auschwitz concentration camp complex built near the town of Oświęcim, by Nazi Germany during World War II. Rarely, it may refer to the Polish town of Oświęcim (called by the Germans Auschwitz) itself. ... The victims of the Holocaust were Jews, Serbs, Poles, Russians, Communists, homosexuals, Roma (also known as gypsies), the mentally ill and the physically disabled, intelligentsia and political activists, Jehovahs Witnesses, Roman Catholics, and Protestant clergy, trade unionists, psychiatric patients, some Africans, Asians, enemy nationals especially Spanish refugees from occupied... ... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) or christian turks are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in Croatia. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The Roma people (pronounced rahma, singular Rom, sometimes Rroma, and Rrom) along with the closely related Sinti people are commonly known as Gypsies in English, and as Tsigany in most of Europe. ... Sinti or Sinte (Singular masc. ... World map showing location of Africa A satellite composite image of Africa Africa is the worlds second_largest continent in both area and population, after Asia. ... This article deals primarily or exclusively with the definition of Asian in English-speaking countries, mainly referring to immigrants or descendants of immigrants living therein. ... The Aryan race is a concept in European culture that was influential in the period of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. ... The Scream, the famous painting commonly thought of as depicting the experience of mental illness. ... The term disability, as it is applied to humans, refers to any condition that impedes the completion of daily tasks using traditional methods. ... Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... A trade union or labor union is a continuous association of wage-earners for the purpose of maintaining or improving the conditions of their employment. ...


The victims of the Holocaust were generally described by the Nazis as "undesirables," "enemies of the state", "asocial elements," and "moral degenerates," labels that went hand-in-hand with their term Untermensch ("sub-human"). National Socialism redirects here. ... Untermensch (German for under man, sub-man, sub-human; plural: Untermenschen) is a term from Nazi racial ideology used to describe inferior people, especially the masses from the East, that is Jews, Slavs, Gypsies, Soviet Bolshevists, and anyone else who was not a Nordic or Germanic Gentile. ...


Death toll

General (later US President) Dwight Eisenhower inspecting prisoners' corpses at a liberated concentration camp, 1945

The exact number of people killed by the Nazi regime may never be known, but scholars, using a variety of methods, including documentation from the Nazis of determining the death toll, have generally agreed upon common range of the number of victims. Recently declassified British and Soviet documents have indicated the total may be somewhat higher than previously believed.[35] The following estimates provide a range of the number of victims: Supreme Allied Commander General Dwight Eisenhower inspects bodies at concentration camp 1945. ... Supreme Allied Commander General Dwight Eisenhower inspects bodies at concentration camp 1945. ... Dwight David Ike Eisenhower (October 14, 1890–March 28, 1969), American soldier and politician, was the 34th President of the United States (1953–1961) and supreme commander of the Allied forces in Europe during World War II, with the rank of General of the Army. ... Soviet redirects here. ...

  • An estimated 5 to 6 million Jews,[36] including 3 million Polish Jews
  • Estimates place total number of Polish deaths around 5.4mln [37]. 1.8 – 1.9 million Christian Poles and other (non-Jewish) Poles (estimate includes civilians killed as a result of Nazi aggression and occupation but does not include the military casualties of Nazi aggression or the victims of the Soviet occupation of eastern Poland and of deportations to Central Asia and Siberia)[38]
  • 200,000 – 800,000 Roma & Sinti (Gypsies)
  • 200,000 – 300,000 people with disabilities
  • 80,000-200,000 European Freemasons[39]
  • 100,000 communists
  • 10,000 – 25,000 homosexual men
  • 2,500 – 5,000 Jehovah's Witnesses[40]

Raul Hilberg, in the third edition of his ground-breaking three-volume work, The Destruction of the European Jews, estimates that 5.1 million Jews died during the Holocaust. This figure includes "over 800,000" who died from "Ghettoization and general privation"; 1,400,000 who were killed in "Open-air shootings"; and "up to 2,900,000" who perished in camps. Hilberg estimates the death toll in Poland at "up to 3,000,000".[41] Hilberg's numbers are generally considered to be a conservative estimate, as they generally include only those deaths for which some records are available, avoiding statistical adjustment.[42] British historian Martin Gilbert used a similar approach in his Atlas of the Holocaust, but arrived at a number of 5.75 million Jewish victims, since he estimated higher numbers of Jews killed in Russia and other locations.[43] Languages Romani, languages of native region Religions Christianity, Islam Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) The Roma (singular Rom; sometimes Rroma, Rrom) or Romanies are an ethnic group living in many communities all over the world. ... Sinti or Sinte (Singular masc. ... Memorial of the KZ Esterwegen close-up Liberté chérie was the only known Masonic Lodge to be founded in a Nazi concentration camp during the Second World War. ... The Masonic Square and Compasses. ... This article is about communism as a form of society, as an ideology advocating that form of society, and as a popular movement. ... Since its coinage, the word homosexuality has acquired multiple meanings. ... Dr. Raul Hilberg Raul Hilberg (born June 2, 1926) is one of the best-known and most distinguished of the Holocaust historians. ... Book cover The Destruction of the European Jews is a three-volume work published in 1961 by historian Raul Hilberg. ... Sir Martin John Gilbert, CBE (born October 25, 1936 in London) is a British historian and the author of over seventy books, including works on the Holocaust and Jewish history. ...

Map titled "Jewish Executions Carried Out by Einsatzgruppe A" from the December 1941 Jäger Report by the commander of a Nazi death squad. Marked "Secret Reich Matter," the map shows the number of Jews shot in the Baltic region, and reads at the bottom: "the estimated number of Jews still on hand is 128,000". Estonia is marked as judenfrei ("free of Jews").
Map titled "Jewish Executions Carried Out by Einsatzgruppe A" from the December 1941 Jäger Report by the commander of a Nazi death squad. Marked "Secret Reich Matter," the map shows the number of Jews shot in the Baltic region, and reads at the bottom: "the estimated number of Jews still on hand is 128,000". Estonia is marked as judenfrei ("free of Jews").

Lucy S. Dawidowicz used pre-war census figures to estimate that 5.934 million Jews died. Using official census counts may cause an underestimate since many births and deaths were not recorded in small towns and villages. Another reason some[attribution needed] consider her estimate too low is that many records were destroyed during the war. Her listing of deaths by country of origin is available in the article about her book, The War Against the Jews.[44] Image File history File links Coffinmap. ... Image File history File links Coffinmap. ... A member of Einsatzgruppe D executes a Jew kneeling before a filled mass grave in Vinnitsa, Ukraine, in 1942. ... A member of Einsatzgruppe D is just about to shoot a Jewish man kneeling before a filled mass grave in Vinnitsa, Ukraine, in 1942. ... A member of Einsatzgruppe D is just about to shoot a Jewish man kneeling before a filled mass grave in Vinnitsa, Ukraine, in 1942. ... The three Baltic states: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania The terms Baltic countries, Baltic Sea countries, Baltic states, and Balticum refer to slightly different combinations of countries in the general area surrounding the Baltic Sea. ... German map showing Estonia as Judenfrei. Judenrein (also Judenfrei) was a term used by Nazis during the Holocaust to designate an area free of Jewish presence. ... Lucy S. Davidowicz (June 16, 1915 – December 5, 1990), was a American historian, and an author of books in modern Jewish history in particular the Holocaust. ... Lucy Dawidowicz wrote the book, The War Against the Jews. ...


One of the most authoritative German scholars of the Holocaust, Prof. Wolfgang Benz of the Technical University of Berlin, cites between 5.3 and 6.2 million Jews killed in Dimension des Volksmords (1991), while Yisrael Gutman and Robert Rozett estimate between 5.59 and 5.86 million Jewish victims in the Encyclopaedia of the Holocaust (1990).[45] The Encyclopaedia of the Holocaust was published in 1990, in tandem Hebrew and English editions, by Yad Vashem, the Israeli Holocaust Memorial Authority. ...


The following groups of people were also killed by the Nazi regime, but there is little evidence[citation needed] that the Nazis planned to systematically target them for genocide as was the case for the groups above.

  • 3.5 – 6 million other Slavic civilians
  • 2.5 – 4 million Soviet POWs
  • 1 – 1.5 million political dissidents

In addition, the Ustaše regime — the Nazis' ally in Croatia — conducted its own campaign of mass extermination against the Serbs in the areas which it controlled resulting in deaths between 330,000 and 390,000 Serbs. [46] Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... The UstaÅ¡e (often spelled Ustashe in English; singular UstaÅ¡a or Ustasha) was a Croatian organization placed in control of the Independent State of Croatia by the Axis Powers in 1941, which pursued Nazi policies. ... The UstaÅ¡e (often spelled Ustashe in English; singular UstaÅ¡a or Ustasha) was a Croatian organization placed in control of the Independent State of Croatia by the Axis Powers in 1941, which pursued Nazi policies. ...


The summary of various sources' estimates on the number of Nazi regime victims is given in Matthew White's online.[47]


Searching for records of victims

Initially after World War II, there were millions of members of families broken up by the war or the Holocaust searching for some record of the fate and/or whereabouts of their missing friends and relatives. These efforts became much less intense as the years went by. More recently, however, there has a been a resurgence of interest by descendants of Holocaust survivors in researching the fates of their lost relatives. Yad Vashem provides a searchable database of three million names, about half of the known direct Jewish victims. Yad Vashem's Central Database of Shoah Victims Names is searchable over the Internet at yadvashem.org or in person at the Yad Vashem complex in Israel. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... An exterior view of the Yad Vashem Holocaust memorial museum in Jerusalem. ...


Other databases and lists of victims' names, some searchable over the Web, are listed in Holocaust (resources). Holocaust resources for main article The Holocaust. ...


Execution of the Holocaust

Concentration and labor camps (1933 – 1945)

After the 1932 elections it became clear to the Nazi leaders that they would never be able to secure a majority of the votes and that they would have to rely on other means to gain power. Leading up to the 1933 elections, the Nazis began intensifying acts of violence to wreak havoc among the opposition. At the same time, with cooperation from local authorities, they set up camps as concentration centers within Germany. One of the first was Dachau, which opened in March 1933. These early camps were meant to hold, torture, or kill only political prisoners, such as Communists and Social Democrats. Eventually, the Nazis imprisoned Jews, Gypsies, Jehovah's Witnesses, homosexuals, critical journalists, and other undesirables.[48] Prior to and during World War II Nazi Germany maintained concentration camps (Konzentrationslager or KZ) throughout the territory it controlled. ... Nazi concentration camp badges, made primarily of inverted triangles, were used in the concentration camps in the Nazi-occupied countries to identify the reason the prisoners had been placed there. ... The main entrance just after the liberation Memorial at the camp, 1997. ...


These early prisons — usually basements and storehouses — were eventually consolidated into full-blown, centrally run camps outside of the cities and somewhat removed from the public eye. By 1942, six large extermination camps, located in Nazi-occupied Poland, had been established.[48]After 1939, with the beginning of the Second World War, the concentration camps increasingly became places where the non-political enemies of the Nazis, including Jews and POWs, were either killed or forced to act as slave laborers, and kept undernourished and tortured.[49]


During the War, concentration camps for Jews and other "undesirables" were spread throughout Europe, with new camps being created near centers of dense "undesirable" populations, often focusing on areas with large Jewish, Polish intelligentsia, communist, or Roma and Sinti (Gypsy) populations. Concentration camps also existed in Germany itself. Most of the camps were located in the area of General Government in occupied Poland, but there were camps in every country occupied by the Nazis. The transportation of prisoners was often carried out under horrifying conditions using rail freight cars, in which many died before they reached their destination. The General Government (in full General government for the occupied Polish areas, in German Generalgouvernement für die besetzten polnischen Gebiete) was the name given by Germany to the governing authority in Poland after its occupation by the Wehrmacht in September and October 1939. ...


While not specifically designed as a method for systematic extermination, many concentration camp prisoners died because of harsh conditions or were eventually executed.


Upon admission, some camps tattooed prisoners with a prisoner ID.[50] Those fit for work were dispatched for 12 to 14 hour shifts. Before and after, there were roll calls that could sometimes last for hours; sometimes, prisoners would die of exposure.[51]


Between the time of registration into the camp and death, prisoners were subjected to a number of demeaning and torturous ordeals. Prisoners were often beaten, whipped, or hung from beams with their hands behind them. This ordeal was done with their feet just inches from the ground. Prisoners were also shot arbitrarily.


These dreadful ordeals combined to create a miserable experience within the camps. As a result, many inmates embraced or welcomed death.[52]


Increasing persecution (1938 – 1941)

In Mein Kampf, Hitler wrote that Freemasonry had "succumbed" to the Jews and has become an "excellent instrument" to fight for their aims and to use their "strings" to pull the upper strata of society into their alleged designs. He continues, “The general pacifistic paralysis of the national instinct of self-preservation begun by Freemasonry is then transmitted to the masses of society by the Jewish press”.[53] Mein Kampf (English translation: My Struggle) is the signature work of Adolf Hitler, combining elements of autobiography with an exposition of Hitlers political ideology of Nazism. ...


Many scholars date the beginning of the Holocaust itself to the anti-Jewish riots of the Night of Broken Glass ("Kristallnacht") of November 9, 1938, in which Jews were attacked and Jewish property was vandalized across Germany. Approximately 100 Jews were killed, and another 30,000 sent to concentration camps, while over 7,000 Jewish shops and 1,574 synagogues (almost every synagogue in Germany) were damaged or destroyed. Similar events took place in Vienna at the same time. Kristallnacht, also known as Reichskristallnacht, Pogromnacht, Crystal Night and the Night of Broken Glass, was a pogrom[1] against Jews throughout Germany and parts of Austria on November 9–10, 1938. ... November 9 is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 52 days remaining. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... A synagogue (from Greek synagoge place of assembly literally meeting, assembly,) is a Jewish house of prayer and study. ...


A number of deadly pogroms by local populations occurred during the Second World War, some with Nazi encouragement, and some spontaneously. This included the Iaşi pogrom in Romania on June 30, 1941, in which as many 14,000 Jews were allegedly killed by Romanian residents and police, and the Jedwabne pogrom in which between 380 and 1,600 Jews were allegedly killed by local Poles. Pogrom (from Russian: ; from громить IPA: - to wreak havoc, to demolish violently) is a form of riot directed against a particular group, whether ethnic, religious or other, and characterized by destruction of their homes, businesses and religious centers. ... ... June 30 is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 184 days remaining. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... After the German attack on the Soviet Union in June 1941, special Einsatzgruppen were organized to kill as many Jews as it was possible on the Polish areas annexed by Soviet Union. ...


The preserved records of the Reichssicherheitshauptamt (Reich Security Main Office) show the persecution of the Freemasons.[54] RSHA Amt VII, Written Records — overseen by Professor Franz Six — was responsible for "ideological" tasks, by which was meant the creation of anti-semitic and anti-masonic propaganda. While the number is not accurately known, it is estimated that between 80,000 and 200,000 Freemasons were exterminated under the Nazi regime.[39] Freemasonic Concentration Camp inmates were graded as “political” prisoners, and wore an inverted (point down) red triangle.[55] Reinhard Heydrich - the first director of RSHA The RSHA, or Reichssicherheitshauptamt (Reich Security Main Office), was a subordinate organization of the SS created by Heinrich Himmler on September 22, 1939, through the merger of the Sicherheitsdienst (SD, or Security Agency), the Gestapo (Secret State Police) and the Kriminalpolizei (Criminal Police). ... Virtualy all totalitarian regimes have treated Freemasonry as a potential source of opposition due to its secret nature and international connections. ... SS-Brigadeführer Franz Six Dr. Franz Alfred Six (August 12, 1909 in Mannheim - July 9, 1975 in Bozen-Bolzano) first rose to prominence as dean of the faculty of Economics of the University of Berlin. ... Memorial of the KZ Esterwegen close-up Liberté chérie was the only known Masonic Lodge to be founded in a Nazi concentration camp during the Second World War. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Nazi concentration camp badges, made primarily of inverted triangles, were used in the concentration camps in the Nazi-occupied countries to identify the reason the prisoners had been placed there. ...


In 1938, a forget-me-not badge — made by the same factory as the Masonic badge, and first used by the Grand Lodge Zur Sonne, in 1926 — was chosen for the annual Nazi Party Winterhilfswerk. Winterhilfswerk was a supposed charitable organization, which actually collected money used for rearmament. This coincidence enabled Freemasons to wear forget-me-not badge as a secret sign of membership.[56][57][58] Species about 50 The Forget-me-nots are the genus Myosotis of flowering plants in the family Boraginaceae. ... The Masonic Square and Compasses. ...


Euthanasia (1939 – 1941)

Main article: T-4 Euthanasia Program

The T-4 Euthanasia Program was established to "maintain the genetic purity" of the German population by systematically killing German citizens who were physically deformed, disabled, handicapped, or suffering from mental illness. Between 1939 and 1941, over 200,000 people were killed. This poster reads: 60,000 Reichsmark is what this person suffering from hereditary defects costs the community during his lifetime. ... This poster reads: 60,000 Reichsmark is what this person suffering from hereditary defects costs the community during his lifetime. ... Eugenics is the self-direction of human evolution: Logo from the Second International Congress of Eugenics, 1921, depicting it as a tree which unites a variety of different fields. ... The word citizen may refer to: A person with a citizenship Citizen Watch Co. ... A deformity, dysmorphism, or dysmorphic feature is a major difference in the shape of the body a body part, or a body organ (internal or external) compared to the average shape for the part in question. ... The term disability, as it is applied to humans, refers to any condition that impedes the completion of daily tasks using traditional methods. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


Ghettos (1940 – 1945)

Main articles: Ghetto, Warsaw Ghetto, and Wilna Ghetto
A child dying in the streets of the crowded Warsaw Ghetto, where hunger and disease were extremely prevalent.
A child dying in the streets of the crowded Warsaw Ghetto, where hunger and disease were extremely prevalent.

After the invasion of Poland, the Nazis created ghettos to which Jews (and some Roma and Sinti) were confined, until they were eventually shipped to death camps and killed. The Warsaw Ghetto was the largest, with 380,000 people and the Łódź Ghetto, the second largest, holding about 160,000, but ghettos were instituted in many cities. The ghettos were established throughout 1940 and 1941, and were immediately turned into immensely crowded prisons; though the Warsaw Ghetto contained 30% of the population of Warsaw, it occupied only about 2.4% of city's area, averaging 9.2 people per room. From 1940 through 1942, disease (especially typhoid fever) and starvation killed hundreds of thousands of Jews confined in the ghettos. A ghetto is an area where people from a specific racial or ethnic background and united in a given culture or religion live as a group, voluntarily or involuntarily, in milder or stricter seclusion. ... The Ghetto Heroes Memorial The Warsaw Ghetto was the largest of the Jewish ghettos established by Nazi Germany in General Government during the Holocaust in World War II. In the three years of its existence, starvation, disease and deportations to concentration camps and extermination camps dropped the population of the... The Wilna Ghetto was a Jewish ghetto in Vilnius, Lithuania. ... Image File history File links Child dying in the streets of the Warsaw Ghetto. ... Image File history File links Child dying in the streets of the Warsaw Ghetto. ... The Ghetto Heroes Memorial The Warsaw Ghetto was the largest of the Jewish ghettos established by Nazi Germany in General Government during the Holocaust in World War II. In the three years of its existence, starvation, disease and deportations to concentration camps and extermination camps dropped the population of the... A ghetto is an area where people from a specific racial or ethnic background and united in a given culture or religion live as a group, voluntarily or involuntarily, in milder or stricter seclusion. ... The Ghetto Heroes Memorial The Warsaw Ghetto was the largest of the Jewish ghettos established by Nazi Germany in General Government during the Holocaust in World War II. In the three years of its existence, starvation, disease and deportations to concentration camps and extermination camps dropped the population of the... The Łódź Ghetto (historically the Litzmannstadt Ghetto) was the second-largest ghetto (after the Warsaw Ghetto) established for Jews and Roma in Nazi-occupied Poland. ... Motto: Contemnit procellas (It defies the storms) Semper invicta (Always invincible) Coordinates: Country Poland Voivodeship Masovia Powiat city county Gmina Warszawa Districts 18 boroughs City Rights turn of the 13th century Government  - Mayor Hanna Gronkiewicz-Waltz (PO) Area  - City 516. ... For a related disease which is caused by a different bacterium, see Paratyphoid fever. ...


On July 19, 1942, Heinrich Himmler ordered the start of the deportations of Jews from the ghettos to the death camps. On July 22, 1942, the deportations from the Warsaw Ghetto inhabitants began; in the next 52 days (until September 12, 1942) about 300,000 people were transported by train to the Treblinka extermination camp from Warsaw alone. Many other ghettos were completely depopulated. The first ghetto uprising occurred in September 1942 in the small town of Łachwa in southeast Poland. Though there were armed resistance attempts in the larger ghettos in 1943, such as the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising and the Białystok Ghetto Uprising, in every case they failed against the Nazi military, and the remaining Jews were either slaughtered or sent to the extermination camps. July 19 is the 200th day (201st in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 165 days remaining. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... Heinrich Luitpold Himmler ( ; October 7, 1900 – May 23, 1945) was the commander of the German Schutzstaffel (SS) and one of the most powerful men in Nazi Germany. ... July 22 is the 203rd day (204th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 162 days remaining. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... September 12 is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years). ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... Treblinka was a Nazi extermination camp in German-occupied Poland during World War II. Extermination camps like the one at Treblinka were used in the Holocaust for the systematic genocide of people categorized as sub-humans by the Nazis. ... Ghetto uprisings were armed revolts by Jews and other groups incarcerated in Nazi ghettos during World War II against the plans to deport the inhabitants to concentration and death camps. ... Map of the ghettos in occupied Europe, 1939-45, showing the location of Lakhva (south of Minsk, east of Pinsk) Einsatzgruppen massacres in the Soviet Union Lakhva (or Lachva, Lachwa) (Belarusian: Лахва) (Polish:Łachwa) (Russian:Лахва) (Hebrew:לחווא) (Yiddish:לאַכװע) is a small town in southern Belarus, in Brest voblast, approximately 80 kilometres to... BiaÅ‚ystok Ghetto Uprising was an insurrection in Polands BiaÅ‚ystok Ghetto against Germany during World War II. It was organised and led by Antyfaszystowska Organizacja Bojowa (Polish for Anti-fascist Military Organisation). ...


Death squads (1941-1943)

Main article: Einsatzgruppen

As many as 1.6 million Jews were murdered in open-air shootings by Nazis and their collaborators, especially in 1941 before the establishment of the concentration camps. During the invasion of the Soviet Union, over 3,000 special killing units (organized into the four Einsatzgruppen) followed the Wehrmacht, conducting mass murders of Poles, Communist officials, and the Jewish population that lived in Soviet territory. A member of Einsatzgruppe D is just about to shoot a Jewish man kneeling before a filled mass grave in Vinnitsa, Ukraine, in 1942. ... A member of Einsatzgruppe D is just about to shoot a Jewish man kneeling before a filled mass grave in Vinnitsa, Ukraine, in 1942. ... Wehrmacht   (armed forces, literally defence force(s)) was the name of the armed forces of Nazi Germany from 1935 to 1945. ...


Poles were an early target in the AB Action, in which 30,000 Polish intellectual and political figures were rounded up, and 7,000 eventually murdered. By the summer of 1941, the Einsatzgruppen turned to targeting Jews, starting with the extermination of 2,200 Jews in Bialystok on June 27, 1941, and quickly increased in scale. 1,500 Jews were murdered in Kaunas on June 26 by the German SS forces. 4,000 Jews murdered in Lviv on June 30July 3, 1941 by Ukrainian collaborators. From September to the end of 1941, a series of mass murders took place throughout Poland, Lithuania, Ukraine, and Latvia: over 33,000 Jews were killed at Babi Yar, 25,000 at Rumbula by Latvian Nazis (Arajs Commando), over 36,000 at Odessa by Romanian forces, 19,000 at the Ninth Fort of Kaunas, and 40,000 (up to 100,000 by 1944) at Paneriai by the German SS forces.[59] These, and similar slaughters throughout Europe, murdered around 100,000 Jews per month for five months.[citation needed] By the end of 1943, another 900,000 Jews would be murdered in this manner, but the pace was not fast enough for the Nazi leadership, who, at the end of 1941 and the beginning of 1942, began the implementation of the Final Solution, the complete extermination of the Jews of Europe. The Außerordentliche Befriedungsaktion (AB-Aktion in short, German for Extraordinary Peace-Bringing Action) was a German campaign during the World War II aimed at the Polish leaders and intelligentsia. ... Białystok (pronounce: [bȋa:wistɔk]) (Belarusian: Беласток, Lithuanian: Balstogė) is the largest city (pop. ... June 27 is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 187 days remaining. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... Location Ethnographic region AukÅ¡taitija County Kaunas County Municipality Kaunas city municipality Coordinates Number of elderates 11 General Information Capital of Kaunas County Kaunas city municipality Kaunas district municipality Population 361,274 in 2005 (2nd) First mentioned 1361 Granted city rights 1408 Kaunas ( (help· info), approximate English transcription [ˈkəʊ.n... June 26 is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 188 days remaining. ... Motto: Semper fidelis Location Map of Ukraine with Lviv. ... June 30 is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 184 days remaining. ... July 3 is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 181 days remaining. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... Babi Yar (Ukrainian: Бабин яр, Babyn yar; Russian: Бабий яр, Babiy yar) is a ravine in Kiev, the capital of Ukraine, located between Frunze and Melnyk Streets between the Kyryliv church and Olena Teliha Street. ... Rumbula Forest is a pine forest enclave in Riga, Latvia. ... The Odessa Massacre was the extermination of Jews and Communists in Odessa during the autumn of 1941. ... Located outside of the Lithuanian city of Kaunas, the Ninth Fort was used as a Nazi prison camp, and site of the killing of thousands of Jews. ... Paneriai (Polish: , German: ) is a suburb of Vilnius, situated about 10 kilometres away from the city centre. ... In a February 26, 1942, letter to German diplomat Martin Luther, Reinhard Heydrich follows up on the Wannsee Conference by asking Luther for administrative assistance in the implementation of the Endlösung der Judenfrage (Final Solution of the Jewish Question). ...


Since 2004, the Ukraine Project led by Father Patrick Desbois has uncovered over 500 mass graves in the Ukrainian countryside with the remains of Jews shot by the Einsatzgruppen. More 1,700 mass graves are believed to exist only in Ukraine.[60]


Extermination camps (1942 – 1945)

Empty poison gas canisters used to kill inmates with and piles of hair shaven from their heads in the memorial museum of Auschwitz-Birkenau.

In December 1941, the Nazis opened Chelmno, the first of what would soon be seven extermination camps, dedicated entirely to mass extermination on an industrial scale, as opposed to the labor or concentration camps. Over three million Jews would die in these extermination camps. The method of killing at these camps was by poison gas (Zyklon B or carbon monoxide), usually in "gas chambers", although many prisoners were killed in mass shootings and by other means. The bodies of those killed were destroyed in crematoria (except at Sobibór where they were cremated on outdoor pyres), and the ashes buried or scattered. The extermination camps were the facilities established by Nazi Germany in World War II initially for the killing of the Jews of Europe as part of what was later deemed The Holocaust. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (900x600, 98 KB) Summary Photos of empty poison gas canisters and jewish hair, taken inside the memorial museum in the Auschwitz-Birkenau camp. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (900x600, 98 KB) Summary Photos of empty poison gas canisters and jewish hair, taken inside the memorial museum in the Auschwitz-Birkenau camp. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... Majdanek - crematorium Extermination camp (German Vernichtungslager) was the term applied to a group of camps set up by Nazi Germany during World War II for the express purpose of killing the Jews of Europe, although members of some other groups whom the Nazis wished to exterminate, such as Roma (Gypsies... Zyklon B label — Note that “Gift” translates as “poison” Zyklon B was the tradename of a pesticide ultimately used by Nazi Germany in some Holocaust gas chambers. ... Carbon monoxide, with the chemical formula CO, is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas. ... // For other uses, see Gas chamber (disambiguation). ... The crematorium at Haycombe Cemetery, Bath, England. ... Sobibór was a Nazi German extermination camp that was part of Operation Reinhard, the official German name was SS-Sonderkommando Sobibor. ...


In 1942, the Nazis began this most destructive phase of the Holocaust, with Aktion Reinhard, opening the extermination camps of Belzec, Sobibór, and Treblinka. More than 1.7 million Jews were killed at the three Aktion Reinhard camps by October 1943. The largest death camp built was Auschwitz-Birkenau, which had both a labor camp (Auschwitz) and an extermination camp (Birkenau); the latter possessing four gas chambers and crematoria. This camp was responsible for the deaths of an estimated 1.6 million Jews (including about 438,000 Jews from Hungary in the course of a few months), 75,000 Poles and homosexual men, and some 19,000 Roma. At the peak of operations, Birkenau's gas chambers killed approximately 8,000 a day. Operation Reinhard (Aktion Reinhard or Einsatz Reinhard) was the code name given to the Nazi plan to murder Polish Jews in the former General Gouvernement and the Bialystok area. ... Belzec was the first of the Nazi German extermination camps created for implementing Operation Reinhard during the Holocaust. ... Sobibór was a Nazi extermination camp that was part of Operation Reinhard. ... Treblinka is a small village in the Mazowieckie voivodship (province) of Poland. ... Auschwitz (Konzentrationslager Auschwitz) was the largest of the Nazi German concentration camps. ...


Upon arrival in these camps, all valuables were taken from the prisoners, and the women had to have their hair cut off.[61] According to a Nazi document, the hair was to be used for the manufacture of stockings.[62] Prisoners were divided into two groups: those too weak for work were immediately executed in gas chambers (which were sometimes disguised as showers) and their bodies burned, while others were first used for slave labor in factories or industrial enterprises located in the camp or nearby. Shoes, stockings, and anything else of value was recycled for use in products to support the war effort, regardless of whether or not a prisoner was sent to death. Some prisoners were forced to work in the collection and disposal of corpses, and to extract gold teeth from the dead.


Death marches and liberation (1944 – 1945)

Dachau concentration-camp inmates on a death march through a German village in April 1945. Courtesy of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.

As the armies of the Allies closed in on the Reich at the end of 1944, the Nazis decided to abandon the extermination camps, moving or destroying evidence of the atrocities they had committed there. The Nazis marched prisoners, already sick after months or years of violence and starvation, for tens of miles in the snow to train stations; then transported for days at a time without food or shelter in freight trains with open carriages; and forced to march again at the other end to the new camp. Prisoners who lagged behind or fell were shot. The largest and most well known of the death marches took place in January 1945, when the Soviet army advanced on Poland. Nine days before the Soviets arrived at the death camp at Auschwitz, the SS guards marched 60,000 prisoners out of the camp toward Wodzislaw, 56 km (35 mi) away, where they were put on freight trains to other camps. Around 15,000 died on the way. In total, around 100,000 Jews died during these death marches.[63] Dachau concentration-camp inmates on a death march through a German village in April 1945. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The main entrance just after the liberation Memorial at the camp, 1997. ... Exterior of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum is a national institution located adjacent to The National Mall in Washington, DC, dedicated to documenting, studying, and interpreting the history of the Holocaust. ... The Allies of World War II were the countries officially opposed to the Axis powers during the Second World War. ...


In July 1944, the first major Nazi camp, Majdanek, was discovered by the advancing Soviets, who eventually liberated Auschwitz in January 1945. In most of the camps discovered by the Soviets, the prisoners had already been transported away by death marches, leaving only a few thousand prisoners alive. Concentration camps were also liberated by American and British forces, including Bergen-Belsen concentration camp on April 15, 1945. Some 60,000 prisoners were discovered at the camp, but 10,000 died from disease or malnutrition within a few weeks of liberation. For other uses, see Bergen-Belsen. ... April 15 is the 105th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (106th in leap years). ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday. ...


Resistance and rescuers

Jewish Resistance

  Part of a series of articles on
Jews and Judaism This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

         

Who is a Jew? · Etymology · Culture Image File history File links Star_of_David. ... Image File history File links Menora. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Look up Jew in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Secular Jewish culture embraces several related phenomena; above all, it is the culture of secular communities of Jewish people, but it can also include the cultural contributions of individuals who identify as secular Jews, or even those of religious Jews working in cultural areas not generally considered to be connected...

Judaism · Core principles
God · Tanakh (Torah, Nevi'im, Ketuvim)
Talmud · Halakha · Holidays
Passover · Prayer · Tzedakah
Ethics · Mitzvot (613) · Customs · Midrash This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... There are a number of basic Jewish principles of faith that were formulated by medieval rabbinic authorities. ... At the bottom of the hands, the two letters on each hand combine to form יהוה (YHVH), the name of God. ... Tanakh (Hebrew: ‎) (also Tanach, IPA: or , or Tenak, is an acronym that identifies the Hebrew Bible. ... Tora redirects here. ... Neviim [נביאים] (Heb: Prophets) is the second of the three major sections in the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible), following the Torah and preceding Ketuvim (writings). ... Ketuvim is the third and final section of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible). ... The first page of the Vilna Edition of the Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Berachot, folio 2a The Talmud (Hebrew: תלמוד) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history. ... Halakha (Hebrew: הלכה; also transliterated as Halakhah, Halacha, Halakhot and Halachah with pronunciation emphasis on the third syllable, kha), is the collective corpus of Jewish religious law, including biblical law (the 613 mitzvot) and later talmudic and rabbinic law as well as customs and traditions. ... A Jewish holiday or Jewish Festival is a day or series of days observed by Jews as holy or secular commemorations of important events in Jewish history. ... This article is about the Jewish holiday. ... Jewish services (Hebrew: tefillah/תפלה, plural tefilloth/תפלות) are the communal prayer recitations which form part of the observance of Judaism. ... Tzedakah (Hebrew: צדקה) in Judaism, is the Hebrew term most commonly translated as charity, though it is based on a root meaning justice .(צדק). In Arabic, charity is sadakah (صدقه) and an obligatory type of it, the Arabic term zakat, is considered to be one of the five pillars of Islam. ... // Jewish ethics stands at the intersection of Judaism and the Western philosophical tradition of ethics. ... Mitzvah (Hebrew: מצווה, IPA: , commandment; plural, mitzvot; from צוה, tzavah, command) is a word used in Judaism to refer to (a) the commandments, of which there are 613, given in the Torah (the first five books of the Hebrew Bible) or (b) any Jewish law at all. ... Main article: Mitzvah 613 Mitzvot or 613 Commandments (Hebrew: ‎ transliterated as Taryag mitzvot; TaRYaG is the acronym for the numeric value of 613) are a list of commandments from God in the Torah. ... Minhag (Hebrew: מנהג Custom, pl. ... Midrash (Hebrew: מדרש; plural midrashim) is a Hebrew word referring to a method of exegesis of a Biblical text. ...

Jewish ethnic divisions
Ashkenazi · Sephardi · Mizrahi Jewish ethnic divisions refers to a number of distinct Jewish communities within the worlds ethnically Jewish population. ... Languages Yiddish, Hebrew, Russian, English Religions Judaism, Satanism, Nazism Related ethnic groups Sephardi Jews, Mizrahi Jews, and other Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim (Standard Hebrew: sing. ... Languages Ladino also Judæo-Portuguese, Catalanic, and Shuadit Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Ashkenazi Jews, Mizrahi Jews, and other Jewish ethnic divisions Sephardi Jews (Hebrew: ספרדי, Standard Tiberian ; plural ספרדים, Standard Tiberian ) are a subgroup of Jews originating in the Iberian Peninsula, usually defined in contrast to Ashkenazi Jews; frequently used... Languages Hebrew, Dzhidi, Judæo-Arabic, Gruzinic, Bukhori, Judeo-Berber, Juhuri and Judæo-Aramaic Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Ashkenazi Jews, Sephardi Jews, other Jewish ethnic divisions and Arabs. ...

Population (historical) · By country
Israel · Iran · Australia · USA · Russia/USSR · Poland · Canada · Germany · France · England · Scotland · India · Spain · Portugal · Latin America
Under Muslim rule · Turkey · Iraq · Syria
Lists of Jews · Crypto-Judaism Jewish population centers have shifted tremendously over time, due to the constant streams of Jewish refugees created by expulsions, persecution, and officially sanctioned killing of Jews in various places at various times. ... Jews by country Who is a Jew? Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi Jews Sephardi Jews Black Jews Black Hebrew Israelites Y-chromosomal Aaron Jewish population Historical Jewish population comparisons List of religious populations Lists of Jews Crypto-Judaism Etymology of the word Jew Categories: | ... The vast territories of the Russian Empire at one time hosted the largest Jewish population in the world. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The earliest date at which Jews arrived in Scotland is not known. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... Excluding the region of Palestine, and omitting the accounts of Joseph and Moses as unverifiable, Jews have lived in what are now Arab and non-Arab Muslim (i. ... This page is a list of Jews. ... Crypto-Judaism is the secret adherence to Judaism while publicly professing to be of another faith; people who practice crypto-Judaism are referred to as crypto-Jews. The term crypto-Jew is also used to describe descendants of Jews who still (generally secretly) maintain some Jewish traditions, often while adhering...

Jewish denominations · Rabbis
Orthodox · Conservative · Reform
Reconstructionist · Liberal · Karaite
Alternative · Renewal Many Jewish denominations exist within the religion of Judaism; the Jewish community is divided into a number of religious denominations as well as branches or movements. ... Rabbi, in Judaism, means ‘teacher’, or more literally ‘great one’. The word Rabbi is derived from the Hebrew root word , rav, which in biblical Hebrew means ‘great’ or ‘distinguished (in knowledge)’. Sephardic and Yemenite Jews pronounce this word ribbÄ«; the modern Israeli pronunciation rabbÄ« is derived from a recent (18th... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Conservative Judaism, (also known as Masorti Judaism in Israel predominantly), is a modern stream of Judaism that arose out of intellectual currents in Germany in the mid-19th century and took institutional form in the United States in the early 1900s. ... Reform Judaism can refer to (1) the largest denomination of American Jews and its sibling movements in other countries, (2) a branch of Judaism in the United Kingdom, and (3) the historical predecessor of the American movement that originated in 19th-century Germany. ... Reconstructionist Judaism is a modern Jewish movement marked by views and practices including: Personal autonomy should generally override traditional Jewish law and custom, yet also take into account communal consensus Modern culture is accepted The view that Judaism is an evolving religious civilization Traditional rabbinic modes of study, as well... Liberal Judaism is a term used by some communities worldwide for what is otherwise also known as Reform Judaism or Progressive Judaism. ... Karaite Judaism or Karaism is a Jewish denomination characterized by the sole reliance on the Tanakh as scripture, and the rejection of the Oral Law (the Mishnah and the Talmud) as halakha (Legally Binding, i. ... Alternative Judaism refers to several varieties of modern Judaism which fall outside the common Orthodox/Non-Orthodox (Reform/Conservative/Reconstructionist) classification of the four major streams of todays Judaism. ... The term Jewish Renewal refers to a set of practices within Judaism that attempt to reinvigorate Judaism with mystical, Hasidic, musical and meditative practices. ...

Jewish languages
Hebrew · Yiddish · Judeo-Persian
Ladino · Judeo-Aramaic · Judeo-Arabic
Juhuri · Krymchak · Karaim · Knaanic
Yevanic · Zarphatic · Dzhidi · Bukhori The Jewish languages are a set of languages that developed in various Jewish communities, in Europe, southern and south-western Asia, and northern Africa. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... Yiddish (Yid. ... The Judæo-Persian languages include a number of related languages spoken throughout the formerly extensive realm of the Persian Empire, sometimes including all the Jewish Indo-Iranian languages: Dzhidi (Judæo-Persian) Bukhori (Judæo-Bukharic) Judæo-Golpaygani Judæo-Yazdi Judæo-Kermani Judæo-Shirazi Jud... Ladino is a Romance language, derived mainly from Old Castilian (Spanish) and Hebrew. ... Judæo-Aramaic is a collective term used to describe several Hebrew-influenced Aramaic and Neo-Aramaic languages. ... The Judeo-Arabic languages are a collection of Arabic dialects spoken by Jews living or formerly living in Arabic-speaking countries; the term also refers to more or less classical Arabic written in the Hebrew script, particularly in the Middle Ages. ... Juhuri, Juwri or Judæo-Tat is the traditional language of the Juhurim or Mountain Jews of the eastern Caucasus Mountains, especially Dagestan. ... Krymchak is the Crimean Tatar language dialect spoken by the Krymchaks - Rabbanite Jews of the Crimea. ... The Karaim language is a Turkic language with Hebrew influences, in a similar manner to Yiddish or Ladino. ... Knaanic (also called Canaanic, Leshon Knaan or Judeo-Slavic) was a West Slavic language, formerly spoken in the Czech lands, now the Czech Republic. ... Yevanic, otherwise known as Yevanika, Romaniote and Judeo-Greek, was the language of the Romaniotes, the group of Greek Jews whose existence in Greece is documented since the 4th century BCE. Its linguistic lineage stems from Attic Greek and the Hellenistic Koine (Κοινή Ελ&#955... Zarphatic or Judæo-French (Zarphatic: Tsarfatit) is an extinct Jewish language, formerly spoken among the Jewish communities of northern France and in parts of what is now west-central Germany, in such cities as Mainz, Frankfurt-am-Main, and Aachen. ... Dzhidi, or Judæo-Persian, is the Jewish language spoken by the Jews living in Iran. ... Bukhori, also known as Bukharic or Bukharan, is an Indo-Iranian language. ...

Political movements · Zionism
Labor Zionism · Revisionist Zionism
Religious Zionism · General Zionism
The Bund · World Agudath Israel
Jewish feminism · Israeli politics Jewish political movements refer to the organized efforts of Jews to build their own political parties or otherwise represent their interest in politics outside of the Jewish community. ... Zionism is a political movement that supports a homeland for the Jewish people in the Land of Israel, where Jewish nationhood is thought to have evolved somewhere between 1200 BCE and late Second Temple times,[1][2] and where Jewish kingdoms existed up to the 2nd century CE. Zionism is... Labor Zionism (or Socialist Zionism, Labour Zionism) is the traditional left wing of the Zionist ideology and was historically oriented towards the Jewish workers movement. ... Palestine (comprising todays Israel, the West Bank and the Gaza strip) and Transjordan (todays Kingdom of Jordan) were all part of the British Mandate of Palestine. ... Religious Zionism, or the Religious Zionist Movement, a branch of which is also called Mizrachi, is an ideology that claims to combine Zionism and Judaism, to base Zionism on the principles of Jewish religion and heritage. ... General Zionists were centrists within the Zionist movement. ... A Bundist demonstration, 1917 The General Jewish Labour Union of Lithuania, Poland and Russia, in Yiddish the Algemeyner Yidisher Arbeter Bund in Lite, Poyln un Rusland (אַלגמײַנער ײדישער אַרבײטערסבונד אין ליטאַ, פוילין און רוסלאַנד), generally called The Bund (בונד) or the Jewish Labor Bund, was a Jewish political party operating in several European countries between the 1890s and the... World Agudath Israel (The World Israeli Union) was established in the early twentieth century as the political arm of Ashkenazi Torah Judaism. ... Jewish feminism is a movement that seeks to improve the religious, legal, and social status of women within Judaism and to open up new opportunities for religious experience and leadership for Jewish women. ... Politics of Israel takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister of Israel is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ...

History · Timeline · Leaders
Ancient · Temple · Babylonian exile
Jerusalem (in Judaism · Timeline)
Hasmoneans · Sanhedrin · Schisms
Pharisees · Jewish-Roman wars
Relationship with Christianity; with Islam
Diaspora · Middle Ages · Kabbalah
Hasidism · Haskalah · Emancipation
Holocaust · Aliyah · Israel (History)
Arab conflict · Land of Israel Jewish history is the history of the Jewish people, faith, and culture. ... This is a timeline of the development of Judaism and the Jewish people. ... Jewish leadership: Since 70 AD and the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem there has been no single body that has a leadership position over the entire Jewish community. ... The History of Ancient Israel and Judah provides an overview of the ancient history of the Land of Israel based on classical sources including the Judaisms Tanakh or Hebrew Bible (known to Christianity as the Old Testament), the Talmud, the Ethiopian Kebra Nagast, the writings of Nicolaus of Damascus... A drawing of Ezekiels Visionary Temple from the Book of Ezekiel 40-47 The Temple in Jerusalem or Holy Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Bet HaMikdash) was located on the Temple Mount (Har HaBayit) in the old city of Jerusalem. ... Babylonian captivity also refers to the permanence of the Avignon Papacy. ... Hebrew יְרוּשָׁלַיִם (Yerushalayim) (Standard) Yerushalayim or Yerushalaim Arabic commonly القـُدْس (Al-Quds); officially in Israel أورشليم القدس (Urshalim-Al-Quds) Name Meaning Hebrew: (see below), Arabic: The Holiness Government City District Jerusalem Population 724,000 (2006) Jurisdiction 123,000 dunams (123 km²) Jerusalem (Hebrew:  , Yerushaláyim or Yerushalaim; Arabic:  , al-Quds, the Holiness)[2... Main article: Religious significance of Jerusalem Jerusalem has been the holiest city in Judaism and the spiritual homeland of the Jewish people since the 10th century BCE.[1] Jerusalem has long been embedded into Jewish religious consciousness. ... 1800 BCE - The Jebusites build the wall Jebus (Jerusalem). ... The Hasmonean Kingdom (Hebrew: Hashmonai) in ancient Judea and its ruling dynasty from 140 BCE to 37 BCE was established under the leadership of Simon Maccabaeus, two decades after Judah the Maccabee defeated the Seleucid army in 165 BCE. // The origin of the Hasmonean dynasty is recorded in the books... For the tractate in the Mishnah, see Sanhedrin (tractate). ... Schisms among the Jews: // First Temple era Based on the historical narrative in the Bible and archeology, Levantine civilization at the time of Solomons Temple was prone to idol worship, astrology, worship of reigning kings, and paganism. ... The word Pharisees comes from the Hebrew פרושים prushim from פרוש parush, meaning a detached one, that is, one who is separated for a life of purity. ... Combatants Roman Empire Jews of Iudaea Province Commanders Vespasian, Titus Simon Bar-Giora, Yohanan mi-Gush Halav (John of Gischala), Eleazar ben Simon Strength 70,000? 1,100,000? Casualties Unknown 1,100,000? (majority Jewish civilian casualties) The first Jewish-Roman War (years 66–73 CE), sometimes called The... Judaism and Christianity are two closely related Abrahamic religions that in some ways parallel each other and in other ways fundamentally diverge in theology and practice. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Jewish diaspora (Hebrew: Tefutzah, scattered, or Galut גלות, exile, Yiddish: tfutses) is the dispersion of the Jewish people throughout Babylonia and the Roman Empire. ... Jews in the Middle Ages : The history of Jews in the Middle Ages (approximately 500 CE to 1750 CE) can be divided into two categories. ... Kabbalah (Hebrew: ‎, Tiberian: , Qabbālāh, Israeli: Kabala) literally means receiving, in the sense of a received tradition, and is sometimes transliterated as Cabala, Kabbala, Qabalah, or other permutations. ... Hasidic Judaism (also Chasidic, etc. ... Haskalah (Hebrew: השכלה; enlightenment, intellect, from sekhel, common sense), the Jewish Enlightenment, was a movement among European Jews in the late 18th century that advocated adopting enlightenment values, pressing for better integration into European society, and increasing education in secular studies, Hebrew, and Jewish history. ... Dates of Jewish emancipation. ... Aliyah (Hebrew: עלייה, ascent or going up) is a term widely used to mean Jewish immigration to the Land of Israel (and since its establishment in 1948, the State of Israel). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Combatants Arab nations Israel Arab-Israeli conflict series History of the Arab-Israeli conflict Views of the Arab-Israeli conflict International law and the Arab-Israeli conflict Arab-Israeli conflict facts, figures, and statistics Participants Israeli-Palestinian conflict · Israel-Lebanon conflict · Arab League · Soviet Union / Russia · Israel and the United... Kingdom of Israel: Early ancient historical Israel — land in pink is the approximate area under direct central royal administration during the United Monarchy. ...

Persecution · Antisemitism
History of antisemitism
New antisemitism This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Manifestations Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching Hate speech · Hate crime · Hate groups Genocide · Holocaust · Pogrom Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing · Race war Religious persecution · Gay bashing Pedophobia · Ephebiphobia Movements Discriminatory Aryanism · Neo-Nazism · Supremacism Kahanism Anti-discriminatory Abolitionism · Civil rights Gays/Transsexes/Intersexes rights Womens/Universal suffrage · Feminism Mens/Fathers rights... This does not cite its references or sources. ... New antisemitism is the concept of an international resurgence of attacks on Jewish symbols, as well as the acceptance of antisemitic beliefs and their expression in public discourse, coming from three political directions: the political left, far-right, and Islamism. ...

v  d  e

Due to the organization and overwhelming military might of the Nazi German state and its supporters, few Jews and other Holocaust victims were able to resist the killings. There are, however, many cases of attempts at resistance in one form or another, and over a hundred armed Jewish uprisings. The Jewish resistance during the Holocaust was the resistance of the Jewish people against Nazi Germany leading up to and through World War II. Due to the careful organization and overwhelming military might of the Nazi German State and its supporters, many Jews were unable to resist the killings. ...


The largest instance of organized Jewish resistance was the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, from April to May of 1943, as the final deportation from the Ghetto to the death camps was about to commence, the ZOB and ZZW fighters rose up against the Nazis. Most of the resistors were killed, but the few who did survive the war are currently residing in Israel. There were also other Ghetto Uprisings, though none were successful against the German military. The Żydowska Organizacja Bojowa (ŻOB, Polish for the Jewish Fighting Organization) - a World War II resistance movement, which supposedly was instrumental in engineering the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising (ZZW fighters from second Jewish resistance organisation claim otherwise). ... Å»ydowski ZwiÄ…zek Walki (Å»ZW, Polish for Jewish Fighting Union) was an underground organisation operating during World War II in the area of Warsaw Ghetto and fighting during Warsaw Ghetto Uprising. ... Ghetto uprisings were armed revolts by Jews and other groups incarcerated in Nazi ghettos during World War II against the plans to deport the inhabitants to concentration and death camps. ...


There were also major resistance efforts in three of the extermination camps. In August 1943, an uprising also took place at the Treblinka extermination camp. Many buildings were burnt to the ground, and seventy inmates escaped to freedom, but 1,500 were killed. Gassing operations were interrupted for a month. In October 1943, another uprising took place at Sobibór extermination camp. This uprising was more successful; 11 SS men and a number of Ukrainian guards were killed, and roughly 300 of the 600 inmates in the camp escaped, with about 50 surviving the war. The escape forced the Nazis to close the camp. On October 7, 1944, the Jewish Sonderkommandos (those prisoners kept separate from the main camp and involved in the operation of the gas chambers and crematoria) at Auschwitz staged an uprising. Female prisoners had smuggled in explosives from a weapons factory, and Crematorium IV was partly destroyed by an explosion. The prisoners then attempted a mass escape, but all 250 were killed soon after. Treblinka was a Nazi extermination camp in German-occupied Poland during World War II. Extermination camps like the one at Treblinka were used in the Holocaust for the systematic genocide of people categorized as sub-humans by the Nazis. ... Sobibór was a Nazi German extermination camp that was part of Operation Reinhard, the official German name was SS-Sonderkommando Sobibor. ... October 7 is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Sonderkommandos were work units of Nazi death camp prisoners forced to aid the killing process. ...


Jewish partisans, such as Yitzhak Arad, Bielski partisans, Masha Bruskina, Eugenio Calò, Abba Kovner, Dov Lopatyn, Moše Pijade, Haviva Reik, Hannah Szenes, Simcha Zorin, actively fought the Nazis and their collaborators in many countries. Jewish partisans were groups of irregulars participating in the Jewish resistance movement during World War II against the Nazis and their collaborators. ... Yitzhak Arad is a renowned Israeli historian. ... The Bielski partisans was a group of Jews initially organized by members of the Bielski family to fight against the Nazi German occupiers in Belorussia during World War II. The Bielski family were farmers in Stankiewicze near Novogrudok, an area that at the beginning of WWII was under Soviet control. ... Masha Bruskina was a 17yo Jewish partisan that was captured by the Germans along with 2 others for killing a German soldier in Minsk in October 1941. ... Eugenio Calò is an official hero of Italy. ... Abba Kovner Abba Kovner (1918-1987) was a Lithuanian Jewish Hebrew poet, writer, and partisan leader. ... Dov Lopatyn was the head of the Judenrat in Łachwa, Poland (now Lakhva, Belarus) in 1941-1942. ... Pijade bust MoÅ¡e Pijade (1890-1957) was a prominent Yugoslav Communist of Serbian Jewish origin, and a close collaborator of Josip Broz Tito, former President of Yugoslavia. ... Haviva Reik (Chaviva Reich or Havivah Reich) ((1914-1944), Haviva Reik was one of 32 or 33 Palestinian Jewish parachutists from Palestine sent by the Jewish Agency and the British army Special Operations Executive on military and missions in Nazi-occupied Europe. ... Hannah Szenes Hannah Szenes (or Chana Senesh) (July 17, 1921 — November 7, 1944) was a Hungarian Jew, one of 17 Jews living in what was then the British Mandate of Palestine, now Israel, who were trained by the British army to parachute into Yugoslavia during the Second World War in... Shalom (Simcha) Zorin (1902-1974) was a Jewish Soviet partisan commander in Minsk. ...


The Jewish Brigade, a unit of 5,000 volunteers from the British Mandate of Palestine fought in the British Army. German-speaking volunteers from the Special Interrogation Group performed commando and sabotage operations against the Nazis behind front lines in the Western Desert Campaign. Jewish Brigade recruitment poster: For Salvation and Vengeance! A recruitment drive poster for the Jewish Brigade: Soldiers of 1915-1918: to the flag! {Figure in background represents the Jewish Legion of World War I} The Jewish Brigade was a fighting unit in the British Army composed of volunteers from the... Map of the territory under the British Mandate of Palestine. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... The Special Interrogation Group (SIG) (some sources interpret this acronym as Special Identification Group or Special Intelligence Group) was a British Army unit organized from German-speaking Jewish volunteers from the British Mandate of Palestine. ... For other uses, see Commando (disambiguation). ... German supply train blown up by the Armia Krajowa during World War II Sabotage is a deliberate action aimed at weakening an enemy, oppressor or employer through subversion, obstruction, disruption, and/or destruction. ... The Western Desert Campaign was the primary early theatre of the North African Campaign of World War II. It is sometimes referred to as the Egypt-Libya Campaign. ...


Resistance of Jehovah's Witnesses

Jehovah's Witnesses in Germany were persecuted between 1933 and 1945. They were scorned by the name Ernste Bibelforscher (Earnest Bible Students) at that time, because Jehovah's Witnesses would not give allegiance to the Nazi party, and refused to serve in the military, they were detained, put in concentration camps, or imprisoned during the Holocaust. Unlike Jews, homosexuals and Gypsies, who were persecuted for racial, political and social reasons, Jehovah's Witnesses were persecuted on religious ideological grounds. The Nazi government gave detained Jehovah's Witnesses the option: if they were to renounce their faith, submit to the state authority, and support the German military, they would be free to leave prison or the camps. Approximately 12,000 Jehovah's Witnesses were sent to concentration camps where they were forced to wear a purple triangle that specifically identified them as Jehovah's Witnesses. In the end, about 2,000 of their members who were incarcerated perished under the Nazi system. All lost their employment. Dr. Detlef Garbe Historian and director at the Neuengamme (Hamburg) Memorial stated: “Taking everything into consideration, it has been established that no other religious movement resisted the pressure to conform to National Socialism with comparable unanimity and steadfastness.”[64] Throughout the history of Jehovahs Witnesses, their history, their beliefs, doctrines and practices have met controversy and opposition from the local governments, communities, or religious groups. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... The purple triangle was a Nazi concentration camp badge used by the Nazis to identify religious prisoners, the Jehovahs Witnesses (Bibelforscher). ...


Rescuers

See also: Righteous Among the Nations and List of people who assisted Jews during the Holocaust
Swedish diplomat Raoul Wallenberg and his colleagues saved as many as 100,000 Hungarian Jews by providing them with diplomatic passes.
Swedish diplomat Raoul Wallenberg and his colleagues saved as many as 100,000 Hungarian Jews by providing them with diplomatic passes.

In three cases, entire countries resisted the deportation of their Jewish population. Righteous Among the Nations (Hebrew: חסידי אומות העולם, Hasidei Umot HaOlam), in contemporary usage, is a term often used to describe non-Jews who risked their lives during the Holocaust in order to save Jews from extermination by the Nazis. ... This is a list of people who helped Jewish people and others to escape from the Nazi Holocaust during World War II, often called rescuers. The list is not exhaustive, concentrating on famous cases, or people who saved the lives of many potential victims. ... File links The following pages link to this file: Raoul Wallenberg Categories: NowCommons ... File links The following pages link to this file: Raoul Wallenberg Categories: NowCommons ... Raoul Gustav Wallenberg (August 4, 1912 – July 16, 1947?)[1][2][3] was a Swedish humanitarian sent to Hungary under diplomatic cover to save Hungarian Jews from the Holocaust. ...


King Christian X of Denmark and his subjects saved the lives of most of the 7,500 Danish Jews by spiriting them to safety in Sweden via fishing boats in October 1943. See Rescue of the Danish Jews. Moreover, the Danish government continued to work to protect the few Danish Jews captured by the Nazis. When the Jews returned home at war's end, they found their houses and possessions waiting for them, exactly as they left them. Christian X of Denmark (Christian Carl Frederik Albert Alexander Vilhelm) (September 26, 1870 – April 20, 1947) was King of Denmark from 1912 to 1947 and of Iceland between 1918 and 1944. ... The rescue of the Danish Jews occurred during Denmarks occupation by Nazi Germany during World War II. When German authorities in Denmark ordered that Danish Jews be arrested and deported to Germany in October 1943, many Danes and Swedes took part in a collective effort to evacuate the roughly... The rescue of the Danish Jews occurred during Denmarks occupation by Nazi Germany during World War II. When German authorities in Denmark ordered that Danish Jews be arrested and deported to Germany in October 1943, many Danes and Swedes took part in a collective effort to evacuate the roughly...


In the second case, the Nazi-allied government of Bulgaria, led by Bogdan Filov, did not deport its 50,000 Jewish citizens, after yielding to pressure from the parliament deputy speaker Dimitar Peshev and the Bulgarian Orthodox Church, saving them as well, though Bulgaria did not prevent Germany from deporting Jews to concentration camps from areas in occupied Greece and Macedonia. Bogdan Filov (1883 - 1945) was a powerful politician in Bulgaria during Germany and became a university professor and historian in Bulgaria. ... Dimitar Peshev (Bulgarian: ) (25 June 1894 - 25 February 1973) was the Bulgarian Parliament Deputy Speaker and Minister of Justice during World War II. He rebelled against the pro-Nazi cabinet and prevented the deportation of Bulgarias 48,000 Jews. ... The Bulgarian Orthodox Church (Bulgarian: , Bylgarska pravoslavna cyrkva) is an autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Church with some 6. ...


The government of Finland refused repeated requests from Germany to deport its Finnish Jews to Germany. German requirements for the deportation of Jewish refugees from Norway was largely refused. In Rome, some 4,000 Italian Jews and prisoners of war avoided deportation. Many of these were hidden in safe houses and evacuated from Italy by a resistance group that was organised by an Irish priest, Monsignor Hugh O'Flaherty of the Holy Office. Once a Vatican ambassador to Egypt, O' Flaherty used his political connections to great effect in helping to secure sanctuary for dispossessed Jews. Msgr. ...


Another example of someone who assisted Jews during the Holocaust is Portuguese diplomat Aristides de Sousa Mendes. It was in clear disrespect of the Portuguese state hierarchy that Sousa Mendes issued about 30,000 visas to Jews and other persecuted minorities from Europe. He saved an enormous number of lives, but risked his career for it. In 1941, Portuguese dictator Salazar lost political trust in Sousa Mendes and forced the diplomat to quit his career. He died in poverty in 1954. Sousa Mendes on a rehabilitated stamp, 1995 Aristides de Sousa Mendes (1885–1954) was a Portuguese diplomat, who fought against his own government for the safety of European Jews in the years before World War II. Aristides de Sousa Mendes do Amaral e Abranches was born in Cabanas de Viriato... World map showing the location of Europe. ...


The Brazilian diplomat Luiz Martins de Souza Dantas illegally granted Brazilian diplomatic visas to hundreds of Jews in France during the Vichy Government, saving them from certain death. Luis Martins de Souza Dantas was a Brazilian Diplomat who was awarded The Righteous Among The Nations by the Israeli Supreme Court for his participation during the Holocaust in helping Jews in France escape. ... Vichy France (French: now called Régime de Vichy or Vichy; called itself at the time État Français, or French State) was the French state of 1940-1944 which was a puppet government under Nazi influence, as opposed to the Free French Forces, based first in London and later...


In April, 1943, a few members of the Belgian resistance stopped the Twentieth convoy train to Auschwitz, and freed 231 people (115 of whom escaped the Holocaust). The 2nd statue created to remember the resistance action against the 20th Jew transport in Belgium. ... Auschwitz, in English, commonly refers to the Auschwitz concentration camp complex built near the town of Oświęcim, by Nazi Germany during World War II. Rarely, it may refer to the Polish town of Oświęcim (called by the Germans Auschwitz) itself. ...

Jewish refugees in Shanghai, China during World War II. Shanghai provided asylum for tens of thousands of Jewish refugees escaping Europe. Shanghai was the only port in the world that allowed entry for Jews with neither an entry visa nor a passport.
Jewish refugees in Shanghai, China during World War II. Shanghai provided asylum for tens of thousands of Jewish refugees escaping Europe. Shanghai was the only port in the world that allowed entry for Jews with neither an entry visa nor a passport.

Some towns and churches also helped hide Jews and protect others from the Holocaust, such as the French town of Le Chambon-sur-Lignon which sheltered several thousand Jews. Similar individual and family acts of rescue were repeated throughout Europe, as illustrated in the famous cases of Anne Frank, often at great risk to the rescuers. In a few cases, individual diplomats and people of influence, such as Oskar Schindler or Nicholas Winton, protected large numbers of Jews. Swedish diplomat Raoul Wallenberg, the Italian Giorgio Perlasca, Chinese consul-general to Austria Ho Feng Shan, and others saved tens of thousands of Jews with fake diplomatic passes. Between 1933 and 1941, the Chinese city of Shanghai accepted unconditionally over 30,000 Jewish refugees escaping the Holocaust in Europe, a number greater than those taken in by Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and India combined during World War II. After 1941, the occupying Nazi-aligned Japanese ghettoised the Jewish refugees in Shanghai into an area known as the Shanghai ghetto. Some of the Jewish refugees there aided the Chinese resistance against the Japanese. Many of the Jewish refugees in Shanghai migrated to the United States and Israel after 1948 due to the Chinese Civil War (1946 – 1950). Image File history File linksMetadata Jewish_Refugees_in_Shanghai. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Jewish_Refugees_in_Shanghai. ... This article or section includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Le Chambon-sur-Lignon is a town and commune in the Haute-Loire département in the Auvergne région of southern France. ... Annelies Marie Anne Frank ( ) (June 12, 1929 – early March, 1945) was a European Jewish girl (born in Germany, stateless since 1941, but she claimed to be Dutch as she grew up in the Netherlands) who wrote a diary while in hiding with her family and four friends in Amsterdam during... Oskar Schindler (28 April 1908 – 9 October 1974) was a Sudeten German industrialist credited with saving almost 1,100 Jews during the Holocaust, by having them work in his enamelware and ammunitions factories located in Poland and what is now the Czech Republic. ... Sir Nicholas Winton MBE (born May 19, 1909) is a Briton who organized the rescue of 669 Jewish Czech children from their doomed fate in the Nazi death camps prior to the outbreak of World War II in an operation known as the Czech Kindertransport. ... Raoul Gustav Wallenberg (August 4, 1912 – July 16, 1947?)[1][2][3] was a Swedish humanitarian sent to Hungary under diplomatic cover to save Hungarian Jews from the Holocaust. ... (January 31, 1910–August 15, 1992) was an Italian who posed as the Spanish consul to Hungary in the winter of 1944, and saved thousands of Jews from the Nazis. ... Ho Feng Shan (Traditional Chinese: 何鳳山; Simplified Chinese: 何凤山; Pinyin: Hé Fèngshān), born in Yiyang, Hunan September 10, 1901 (some sources give 1904), died in San Francisco, September 28, 1997, was a Chinese diplomat who saved hundreds, probably thousands of Jews during the early years of WWII. Known as “China... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Shanghai ghetto was an area of approximately one square mile in the Hongkou District of Japanese-occupied Shanghai, where about 20,000 Jewish refugees[1] lived during World War II, having fled from Nazi Germany, Austria, Poland and Lithuania. ... Combatants Nationalist Party of China Communist Party of China Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Mao Zedong Strength 4,300,000 (July 1946) 3,650,000 (June 1948) 1,490,000 (June 1949) 1,200,000 (July 1946) 2,800,000 (June 1948) 4,000,000 (June 1949) The Chinese Civil War...


There were also groups, like members of the Polish Żegota organization, that took drastic and dangerous steps to rescue Jews and other potential victims from the Nazis. Witold Pilecki, member of Armia Krajowa (the Polish Home Army), organized a resistance movement in the Auschwitz concentration camp from 1940, and Jan Karski tried to spread word of the Holocaust. Å»egota (pronounced [ʒε:gÉ”ta], also spelled Zhegota, Zegota) was the codename for the Council to Aid the Jews (Rada Pomocy Å»ydom), an underground organisation in German-occupied Poland from 1942 to 1945. ... Witold Pilecki (May 13, 1901 – May 25, 1948; pronounced [vitɔld pileʦki]; codenames Roman Jezierski, Tomasz Serafiński, Druh, Witold) was a soldier of the Second Polish Republic, founder of the resistance movement Secret Polish Army (Tajna Armia Polska) and member of the Home... Armia Krajowa (the Home Army), abbreviated AK, was the dominant Polish resistance movement in World War II German-occupied Poland. ... Auschwitz (Konzentrationslager Auschwitz) was the largest of the Nazi German concentration camps. ... Before a wall map of the Warsaw Ghetto at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Jan Karski recalls his secret 1942 missions into the Nazi prison-city-within-a-city. ...


Since 1963, a commission headed by an Israeli Supreme Court justice has been charged with the duty of awarding such people the honorary title Righteous Among the Nations. Righteous Among the Nations (Hebrew: חסידי אומות העולם, Hasidei Umot HaOlam), in contemporary usage, is a term often used to describe non-Jews who risked their lives during the Holocaust in order to save Jews from extermination by the Nazis. ...


Perpetrators and collaborators

Who was directly involved in the mass murder?

A wide range of German soldiers, officials, and civilians were in some way involved in the Holocaust, from clerks and officials in the government to units of the army, the police, and the SS. Many ministries, including those of armaments, interior, justice, railroads, and foreign affairs, had substantial roles in orchestrating the Holocaust; similarly, German physicians participated in medical experiments and the T-4 euthanasia program. And, though there was no single military unit in charge of the Holocaust, the SS under Himmler was the closest. From the SS came the Totenkopfverbände concentration camp guards, the Einsatzgruppen killing squads, and many of the administrative offices behind the Holocaust. The Wehrmacht, or regular German army, participated directly far less than the SS in the Holocaust (though it did directly take part in the massacre of some Jews in Russia, Serbia, Poland, and Greece), but it supported the Einsatzgruppen, helped form the ghettos, ran prison camps, occasionally provided concentration camp guards, transported prisoners to camps, had experiments performed on prisoners, and substantially used slave labor. “SS” redirects here. ... The SS-Totenkopfverbände (SS-TV) — the Skull Formations — were made up of Nazi Germanys concentration camp guards. ... A member of Einsatzgruppe D is just about to shoot a Jewish man kneeling before a filled mass grave in Vinnitsa, Ukraine, in 1942. ... Wehrmacht   (armed forces, literally defence force(s)) was the name of the armed forces of Nazi Germany from 1935 to 1945. ...


German police units, all under the control of the Nazis during the war, also directly participated in the Holocaust; for example, Reserve Police Battalion 101, in just over a year, shot 38,000 Jews and deported 45,000 more to the extermination camps.[65] Even private firms helped in the machinery of the Holocaust. Nazi bankers at the Paris branch of Barclays Bank volunteered the names of their Jewish employees to Nazi authorities, and many of them ended up in the death camps.[66] Barclays Bank headquarters One Churchill Place, Canary Wharf Barclays plc (LSE: BARC, NYSE: BCS, TYO: 8642 ) is the fourth largest bank in the United Kingdom. ...


Axis members

Bulgaria

Bulgaria, mainly through the influence of the Bulgarian East Orthodox Church, saved all of its own Jewish population from deportation and certain death. However, although civil and military administration for parts of Northern Greece and Macedonia had been turned over to Bulgaria by Germany, Bulgaria did not prevent the deportation by German authorities of the Jews from those territories to the concentration camps, after the personal intervention of Haj Iman Al-Husseni Mufti of Jerusalem.[67]


Fascist Italy

In Fascist Italy, a law from 1938 restricted civil liberties of Jews. This effectively reduced the country's Jews to second-class status, though Mussolini never made it official policy to deport Jews to concentration camps. After the fall of Mussolini and his creation, the Italian Social Republic, Jews started being deported to German camps. The deported numbered about 8,369, and only about a thousand survived. Several small camps were built in Italy and the so-called Risiera di San Sabba hosted a crematorium; from 2,000 to 5,000 people were killed in San Sabba, only a few of whom were Jews. Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, refers to the right-wing authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... Benito Mussolini created a fascist state through the use of propaganda, total control of the media and disassembly of the working democratic government. ... War flag of the Italian Social Republic. ...


Antonescu's Romania

The Romanian Antonescu regime was responsible for the deaths of between 280,000 and 380,000 Jews. An official report released by the Romanian government concluded: Office Prime Minister, Conducător of Romania Term of office from September 4, 1940 until August 23, 1944 Profession Soldier, politician Political party none, formally allied with the Iron Guard Spouse Rasela Mendel Date of birth June 15, 1882 Place of birth Piteşti, Romania Date of death June 1...

Of all the allies of Nazi Germany, Romania bears responsibility for the deaths of more Jews than any country other than Germany itself. The exterminations committed in Iasi, Odessa, Bogdanovka, Domanovka, and Peciora, for example, were among the most hideous acts committed against Jews anywhere during the Holocaust.[68] This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Odessa Massacre was the extermination of Jews and Communists in Odessa during the autumn of 1941. ... Bogdanovka was an extermination camp for Jews that was established by the Romanians during World War II as part of the Holocaust. ...

In cooperation with German Einsatzgruppen and Ukrainian auxiliaries, Romanians killed hundreds of thousands of Jews in Bessarabia, northern Bukovina, and Transnistria. Some of the larger massacres included 54,000 Jews killed in Bogdanovka, a Romanian concentration camp along the Bug River in Transnistria, between 21 and 31 December 1941. Nearly 100,000 Jews were killed in occupied Odessa and over 10,000 were killed in the Iasi pogrom. The Romanians also massacred Jews in the Domanevka and Akhmetchetka concentration camps. A member of Einsatzgruppe D is just about to shoot a Jewish man kneeling before a filled mass grave in Vinnitsa, Ukraine, in 1942. ... 1927 map of Bessarabia from Charles Upson Clarks book Bessarabia or Bessarabiya (Basarabia in Romanian, Besarabya in Turkish, Бесарабія in Ukrainian) is a historical term for the geographic entity in Eastern Europe bounded by the Dniester River on the East and the Prut River on the West. ... Bukovina (Ukrainian: , Bukovyna; Romanian: Bucovina; German and Polish: Bukowina; see also other languages) is a historical region on the northern slopes of the northeastern Carpathian Mountains and the adjoining plains. ... For the region during the Second World War, see Transnistria (World War II). ... Bogdanovka was an extermination camp for Jews that was established by the Romanians during World War II as part of the Holocaust. ... Bug at Wlodawa One of the two rivers called Bug (pronounced Boog), the Western Bug, or Buh (Belarusian: Захо́дні Буг; Russian: За́падный Буг; Ukrainian: Західн&#1080... The Odessa Massacre was the extermination of Jews and Communists in Odessa during the autumn of 1941. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


Hungary

The Hungarian Horthy regime deported 20,000 Jews from annexed Transcarpathian Ukraine in 1941 to Kamianets-Podilskyi in the German-occupied Ukraine, where they were shot by the German Einsatzgruppen detachments. Hungarian army and police units killed several thousand Jews and Serbs in Novi Sad in January 1942. However Horthy resisted German demands for mass deportation of Hungarian Jews (pop. 725,000[citation needed]), and most survived until March 1944 when Nazis occupied Hungary. By the end of June 1944, half of the Jews in Hungary (381,661[citation needed]) arrived at Auschwitz. In October 1944, Nazis seized control of the Hungarian puppet government, then resumed deporting Jews, which had temporarily ceased due to international political pressure to stop Jewish persecutions. The Horthy regime was replaced by the Arrow Cross Party led by Ferenc Szálasi. At this late date in the war, with German defeat appearing very likely, Hungarian police nevertheless participated fully with SS in the roundup of 437,000 Jews for deportation to the extermination camps. Moreover, 20,000 Budapest Jews were shot by the banks of the Danube by Hungarian forces under the direct orders of The Arrow Cross, the Hungarian version of the German Nazi Party. 70,000 Jews were forced on a death march to Austria — thousands were shot and thousands more died of starvation and exposure.[69] “Horthy” redirects here. ... Carpathian Ruthenia (Ukrainian Карпатська Русь, Karpatska Rus) or Carpatho-Ukraine or Carpathian Ukraine is a name for a small part of Central Europe that was part of the Kingdom of Hungary (since 1526 under Habsburg rule). ... General view of the fortress. ... A member of Einsatzgruppe D is just about to shoot a Jewish man kneeling before a filled mass grave in Vinnitsa, Ukraine, in 1942. ... Serbs (in the Serbian language Срби, Srbi) are a south Slavic people living chiefly in Serbia and Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Nickname: Serbian Athens Motto: Град по мери грађана City of the citizens (in English) Location of Novi Sad within Serbia Coordinates: Country  Serbia Province Vojvodina District South Bačka Established 1694 City status February 1, 1748 Politics    - Mayor Maja Gojković (SRS)  - City assembly SRS, DSS and SPS  - Municipalities 2 (Novi Sad and Petrovaradin) Area... Flag of the Arrow Cross Party Senior members of the Arrow Cross Party. ... Ferenc Szálasi Ferenc Szálasi (January 6, 1897-March 12, 1946) was a Fascist and the Prime Minister of Hungary during the final days of Hungarys participation in World War II. Born the son of a soldier in Kassa, Szálasi followed in his fathers footsteps and... “SS” redirects here. ... Majdanek - crematorium Extermination camp (German Vernichtungslager) was the term applied to a group of camps set up by Nazi Germany during World War II for the express purpose of killing the Jews of Europe, although members of some other groups whom the Nazis wished to exterminate, such as Roma (Gypsies... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Danube (ancient Danuvius, ancient Greek Istros) is the longest river of the European Union and Europes second-longest[3] (after the Volga). ...

Killing of 5,000 Jews in Kaunas by Lithuanian nationalists in June 1941. The SS urged anti-communist partisan leader Klimajtis to attack the Jews to show that "the liberated population had resorted to the most severe measures against the ... Jewish enemy."

Image File history File links Killing of Jews in Kovno by Lithuanian nationalists under the eyes of the SS in June 1941. ... Image File history File links Killing of Jews in Kovno by Lithuanian nationalists under the eyes of the SS in June 1941. ... Location Ethnographic region Aukštaitija County Kaunas County Municipality Kaunas city municipality Coordinates Number of elderates 11 General Information Capital of Kaunas County Kaunas city municipality Kaunas district municipality Population 361,274 in 2005 (2nd) First mentioned 1361 Granted city rights 1408 Kaunas ( (help· info), approximate English transcription [ˈkəʊ.n...

Slovakia

Between March and October 1942, the World War II Slovak Republic's Tiso regime deported approximately 57,000 Jews to the German-occupied part of Poland, where almost all of them were killed. The deportation of the remaining 24,000 was stopped after the Papal Nuncio informed the Slovak president that the German authorities were killing the Jews deported from Slovakia. However, 12,600 more Jews were deported by the German forces occupying Slovakia after the Slovak National Uprising in 1944. Around a half of them were killed in concentration camps.[70] Some 10,000 Slovak Jews survived hidden by local people and 6-7,000 got official protection from the Slovak authorities. The Slovak Republic (Slovak: Slovenská republika) was an independent national Slovak state and ally of National Socialist (Nazi) Germany during World War II on the territory of present-day Slovakia (with the exception of the southern and eastern parts of present-day Slovakia. ... Adolf Hitler and Tiso meet in 1942 Monsignor Jozef Tiso (October 13, 1887–April 18, 1947) was a Roman Catholic priest who became a deputy of the Czechoslovak parliament, a member of the Czechoslovak government, and finally the President of the Nazi-controlled puppet government of Slovakia. ... Combatants Nazi Germany Slovakia Commanders Heinrich Himmler Ferdinand ÄŒatloÅ¡ Ján Golian† Rudolf Viest† Strength 40,000, later increased to 83,000 18,000 initially, later increased to 78,000 Casualties ≈10,000 ≈10,000 + 5,304 captured and executed Memorial of the Slovak National Uprising in Banska Bystrica The...


European occupied countries

In addition to the direct involvement of Nazi forces, the collaborationist governments of occupied European countries helped the Nazis in the Holocaust. Collaboration took the form of either rounding up of the local Jews for deportation to the German extermination camps or a direct participation in the killings. Collaborationism, as a pejorative term, can describe the treason of cooperating with enemy forces occupying ones country. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... Majdanek - crematorium Extermination camp (German Vernichtungslager) was the term applied to a group of camps set up by Nazi Germany during World War II for the express purpose of killing the Jews of Europe, although members of some other groups whom the Nazis wished to exterminate, such as Roma (Gypsies...


Vichy France

In France, Philippe Pétain, who became premier after Paris had fallen to the German Army, arranged the surrender to Germany. He then became the head of the Vichy government, which collaborated with Nazism, claiming that it would soften the hardships of occupation. Opposition to the German occupation of northern France and the collaborationist Vichy government was left to the French Resistance within France and the Free French Forces led by Charles de Gaulle outside of France. The police, the Milice ("militia", which worked as the Gestapo's aid), as well as members of Jacques Doriot's Parti Populaire Français (PPF) rounded up 75,000 Jews for deportation to concentration camps. The Vichy regime attracted all of the far-right counterrevolutionary sectors of French society, monarchists and other pseudo-fascist movements.[71] La Cagoule, a terrorist group and Eugène Schueller, the founder of L'Oréal, are examples of such groups. Antisemitism, as the Dreyfus Affair had shown at the end of the 19th century, was widespread in France, especially among anti-republican sympathizers. The Vichy government eagerly participated in the Holocaust, for example with the July 16, 1942 rafle du Vel'd'Hiv, in which 12,884 Jews were arrested, including 4,051 children which the German authorities had not asked for. They were all sent to Drancy transit camp anyway.[71] Philippe Petain Henri Philippe Benoni Omer Joseph Pétain (24 April 1856 – 23 July 1951), generally known as Philippe Pétain or Marshal Pétain, was a French general, later Head of State of Vichy France, from 1940 to 1944. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Paris Eiffel tower as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... Motto: Travail, famille, patrie (Work, family, country) unoccupied zone of Vichy France (until November 1942) Capital Vichy Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholicism Government Republic President of the Council  - 1940 - 1944 Philippe Pétain Legislature National Assembly Historical era World War II  - Battle of France June 16, 1940  - Battle of... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Free French Forces under review during the Battle of Normandy. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A recruitment poster for the Milice. ... Jacques Doriot Jacques Doriot (September 26, 1898, Bresles, Oise—February 22, 1945, near Mengen, Württemberg) was a French politician prior to and during World War II. He began as a Communist but then turned Fascist. ... Parti Populaire Français (French Popular Party) was a far right political party led by Jacques Doriot before and during World War Two. ... A counterrevolutionary is anyone who opposes a revolution, particularly those who act after a revolution to try to overturn or reverse it, in full or in part. ... Legitimists are those Royalists in France who believe that the King of France and Navarre must be chosen according to the simple application of the Salic Law. ... This sie is so crap it dont even give u the definition Signed by STAINLESS ... Eugène Schueller (1881 - 1954) was the founder of LOréal, the worlds leading company in cosmetics and beauty. ... The LOréal Group Euronext: FR0000120321, headquartered in Clichy, France, is the worlds leading cosmetics and beauty company. ... The Dreyfus affair was a political scandal which divided France during the 1890s and early 1900s. ... The French Third Republic, (in French, La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) (1870/75-10 July 1940) was the governing body of France between the Second French Empire and the Vichy Regime. ... July 16 is the 197th day (198th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 168 days remaining. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... The Rafle du VeldHiv (short in French for the Vélodrome dhivers raid) is the name for the July 16, 1942 raid during which Vichy French police forces arrested 12 884 Jews — including 4, 051 children which the Gestapo had not asked for — 5 802 women... Drancy is a commune in the northeastern suburbs of Paris, France. ...


Klaus Barbie, "the Butcher of Lyon", captured and deported 44 Jewish children hidden in the village of Izieu, killed Resistance leader Jean Moulin, and was in total responsible for the deportation of 7,500 people, 4,342 murders, and the arrest and torture of 14,311 resistance fighters were in some way attributed to his actions or commands. Klaus Barbie in Army NCO Uniform. ... Lyons), see Lyons (disambiguation). ... Izieu is a village and commune in the Ain département in central-eastern France on the Rhône River, located between the cities of Lyon and Chambery. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... An artists rendition of Jean Moulins most famous depiction, with a scarf (see below) Jean Moulin (June 20, 1899–July 8, 1943) was a high-profile member of the French Resistance during World War II. He is remembered today as an emblem of the Resistance because of his...


Maurice Papon was the number two official in the Bordeaux region and supervisor of its "Service for Jewish Questions". In 1997, following revelations from Le Canard Enchaîné newspaper, he was finally charged with complicity of crimes against humanity. Papon was accused of ordering the arrest and deportation of 1,560 Jews, including children and the elderly, between 1942 and 1944; most of his victims were sent to Auschwitz. As during Adolf Eichmann's trial, one of the main issue was to determine to what extent an individual should be held responsible in a chain of responsibility. In 1998, he was given a ten-year prison term. However, he was released on grounds of poor health in 2002. Many people thought both the relatively light sentence and his release were scandalous, especially when it was known to all that following the war, Papon went on to enjoy a civil service career, which led him to be the chief of the Paris police, held by historian Luc Einaudi as being directly responsible for the 1961 Paris massacre during the Algerian War (1954 – 62); Papon even became budget minister of president Valéry Giscard d'Estaing in the 1970s. He was finally arrested because of the Canard Enchaîné 's revelations, which themselves followed a fiscal control ordered by Papon with the aim of intimidating the satirical newspaper. Maurice Papon (September 3, 1910 – February 17, 2007) was a former official of the French Vichy government who collaborated with Nazi Germany in World War II and was in charge of the Paris police during the Paris massacre of 1961. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Article of the Canard Enchaîné mocking Nicolas Sarkozy and citing Wikipedia as source. ... Adolf Eichmann in Germany in 1940 Otto Adolf Eichmann (known as Adolf Eichmann; March 19, 1906 – June 1, 1962) was a high-ranking Nazi and SS Obersturmbannführer (Lieutenant Colonel). ... Almanac · Categories · Glossaries · Lists · Overviews · Portals · Questions · Site news · Index Art | Culture | Geography | Health | History | Mathematics | People | Philosophy | Science | Society | Technology Wikipedia is an encyclopedia written by its users in over 200 languages worldwide. ... The Paris massacre of 1961 was an incident in Paris, France, in which on October 17 the French police attacked an unarmed demonstration of Algerians, who demanded independence for their homeland from French colonial rule. ... Combatants FLN (1954-62) MNA (1954-62) France (1954-62) FAF (1960-61) OAS (1961-62) Commanders Mostefa Benboulaïd Ferhat Abbas Hocine Aït Ahmed Ahmed Ben Bella Krim Belkacem Larbi Ben MHidi Rabah Bitat Mohamed Boudiaf Messali Hadj General Jacques Massu General Maurice Challe Bachaga Said Boualam... Valéry Marie René Giscard dEstaing [IPA: vÉ‘leÊ€i mÉ‘Ê€i ʀəne Ê’iskÉ‘Ê€ dÉ›stɛ̃] (born 2 February 1926 in Koblenz, Germany) is a French center-right politician who was President of the French Republic from 1974 until 1981. ...


Belgium

The Belgian state actively collaborated with Nazi Germany in persecuting Jews. 16,000 Jews were arrested in Belgium and sent to camps, mainly in France. Almost all of the 6,000 who were deported to Auschwitz were killed. An official report commissioned by the country's senate concluded that:

The Belgian authorities “anticipated and went beyond” the demands of occupying German forces in segregating, rounding up and dispossessing Jews. Belgium “adopted a docile attitude providing collaboration unworthy of a democracy in its treatment of Jews”.[72][73]

Ustaše's Croatia

The Croatian Ustaše regime killed hundreds of thousands of Serbs (estimates vary widely, but by all sources more than 330,000 – 390,000, and possibly well over a million), over 20,000 Jews and 26,000 Roma, primarily in the Ustase's Jasenovac concentration camp near Zagreb. The Ustase also deported 7,000 more Jews to Nazi extermination camps.[74] Croats were also victims of the Nazi regime and those who opposed it ended in concentration camps. Many Croats risked their lives during the Holocaust in order to save Jews from extermination by the Nazis (Croatian Righteous Among the Nations). The UstaÅ¡e (often spelled Ustashe in English; singular UstaÅ¡a or Ustasha) was a Croatian organization placed in control of the Independent State of Croatia by the Axis Powers in 1941, which pursued Nazi policies. ... Jasenovac concentration camp (in Croatian: Logor Jasenovac in Serbian: Логор Јасеновац) was the largest concentration and extermination camp in Croatia during World War II. It was established by the UstaÅ¡a (Ustasha) regime of the Independent State of Croatia in August 1941. ... Zagreb (pronounced ) is the capital and the largest city of Croatia. ... Majdanek - crematorium Extermination camp (German Vernichtungslager) was the term applied to a group of camps set up by Nazi Germany during World War II for the express purpose of killing the Jews of Europe, although members of some other groups whom the Nazis wished to exterminate, such as Roma (Gypsies... This is the list of Croatian Righteous Among the Nations. ...


Serbia

Serbia was set up as a Nazi puppet state under Serbian army general Milan Nedić, which was known as Nedić's Serbia. The internal affairs of the Serbian puppet state were moderated by German racial laws, that were introduced in all occupied territories with immediate effects on Jews, Roma people, as well as imprisonment of left oriented persons. The two major concentration camps in Serbia were: Sajmište and Banjica. Of 40,000 Serbian Jews around one half lost their lives in Nazi concentration camps both in Serbia and German Reich, where most of the captured Serbian Jews were transferred. Under Nedić, Belgrade was declared to be Judenfrei in 1942. Serbs were also victims of the Nazi regime, and most of the victims in Banjica were Serbian. Nazis had a policy of killing 100 Serbs for each killed German soldier and 50 killed Serbs for each wounded, resulting in widespread taking of hostages and executions such as Kragujevac massacre. Despite these represive measures, Serbs rebelled, and most Serbs saw Jews as their fellow victims in World War II, dying together in Nazi represion and genocide in Sajmište, Banjica and Jasenovac. Legends about Serbs saving the Jews in WWII are widespread in Serbia, and 152 Serbs have been honored as righteous Gentiles. Milan Nedić Serbian Cyrillic Милан Недић (September 2, 1878 – 1946) was a Serbian soldier and politician who was a major collaborator during World War II. Nedić was born in Grocka, Serbia. ... Nedićs Serbia (Nedićeva Srbija) is the popular name for the Serbian nazi puppet state that existed between 1941 and 1944, on the teritory of parts of todays Serbia. ... The SajmiÅ¡te concentration camp was one of the complexes of German concentration camps in Serbia that were almost exclusive for Serbian Jews. ... Museum of Banjica concentration camp One of the concentration camps in Serbia. ... German map showing Estonia as Judenfrei. Judenrein (also Judenfrei) was a term used by Nazis during the Holocaust to designate an area free of Jewish presence. ... The massacre The Kragujevac massacre was the massacre of over 6,000 civilians, mostly Serbs, Jews, communist and Gypsys — men, women and schoolchildren — in Kragujevac, Serbia, then Yugoslavia, by the soldiers of Nazi Germany, on 20 October 1941. ... The SajmiÅ¡te concentration camp was one of the complexes of German concentration camps in Serbia that were almost exclusive for Serbian Jews. ... Museum of Banjica concentration camp One of the concentration camps in Serbia. ... Jasenovac is a municipality in Central Croatia, in the southern part of the Sisak-Moslavina county at the confluence of the river Una into Sava. ... After the World War II, the term Righteous Among the Nations (Transliterated חסידי עומות עולם Hebrew language: Khasiday Umot Olam) has been used to describe non-Jews who behaved heroically during the Holocaust (ha-Shoah) in order to save...


Greece

The Jews of Greece mainly lived in the area around Thessaloniki, where there had been occasional conflicts between Jews and Greeks. In Thessaloniki, from 1927 until 1935, there was a minor anti-Semitic nationalist party called National Union of Greece (Ethniki Enosis Ellados, EEE), which was revived by Nazi authorities in the city. Members of the EEE assisted occupying forces to identify Jews and collaborated on the deportation of local Jews with remarkable efficiency, either for ethnic hatred or for more prosaic reasons such as obtaining profits. By the time of the German withdrawal from Greece in 1944, nearly 90% of the Jewish community in Thessaloniki had been annihilated. Thessaloniki, (Greek: Θεσσαλονίκη), is Greeces second-largest city and the capital of the Greek region of Macedonia and the periphery of Central Macedonia. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ... The National Union of Greece (Greek: Εθνική Ενωσις Ελλάς, Ethniki Enosis Ellas EEE) was an anti-Semitic nationalist party established in the Thessaloniki, Greece, in 1927. ... Ethnic hatred, inter-ethnic hatred, racial hatred, or ethnic tension refers to sentiments and acts of prejudice and hostility towards an ethnic group in various degrees. ...


Athenian Jews, on the other hand, went through a different experience. They were a minor part of the city's population and in the city there had not been an anti-Semitic atmosphere, and most Jews eluded deportation by either being helped by Greeks into hiding or joining the Greek Resistance in the mountains. This, however, did not exempt Athenian Jews from organized crime against them. Just like the Nazi authorities had restored the EEE in Thessaloniki, in Athens the German occupation authorities created the ESPO (Ethniko-Socialistike Patriotike Organosis), whose members attacked or assisted Germans to locate local Jews. The ESPO's most notorious action was the ransacking the synagogue on Melidoni Street, Athens. Other ESPO members were recruited as guards in the Haïdari internment camp, just outside Athens. Athens (Greek: Αθήνα - Athína) is the largest city and capital of Greece, located in the Attica periphery of central Greece. ... An ELAS soldier The Greek Resistance is the blanket term for a number of armed and unarmed groups from across the political spectrum that resisted the Axis Occupation of Greece during World War II. // The rise of resistance movements in Greece was precipitated by the invasion and occupation of Greece... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ...


In any case, the three quisling governments headed by Georgios Tsolakoglou, Konstantinos Logothetopoulos and Ioannis Rallis to different extents were unable to stop (or participated) in the deportation or prosecution of Greek Jews. Rallis, for instance, was known to hold the point of view that the houses left by deported Jews in Thessaloniki would be very welcome for the Greek Pontian refugees who came to Greece after the 1922 Asia Minor catastrophe. Quisling, after Norwegian fascist politician Vidkun Quisling, is a term used to describe traitors and collaborationists. ... Georgios Tsolakoglou (Greek: , Agrafa, April 1886 - Athens, May 1948) was a Greek military officer who became the countrys first quisling Prime Minister during the Axis Occupation in 1941-1942. ... Konstantinos Logothetopoulos was a distinguished Greek medical doctor who became Prime Minister of a quisling government during the Axis occupation of Greece. ... Ioannis Rallis (1878-1946) was the third Nazi collaborator prime minister of Greece, from 7 April 1943 to 12 October 1944, succeeding Konstantinos Logothetopoulos in the Nazi-held puppet government in Athens. ... Pontian also refers to a group of Greek people that formerly inhabited the north part of present day Turkey. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to...


German-occupied Soviet territories

In the German-occupied Soviet territories, local Nazi collaborationist units represented over 80% of the available German forces providing a total of nearly 450,000 personnel organised in so-called "Schutzmannschaften" formations. Practically all of these units participated in the round-ups and mass-shootings. The overwhelming majority were recruited in the western Ukraine and the Baltic region, areas recently occupied by the Soviets for which the Jews were typically scapegoated, which exacerbated pre-Nazi anti-Semitic attitudes. Thus, for instance, Ukrainian nationalists killed 4,000 Lviv Jews in July 1941, and an additional 2,000 in late July 1941 during the so-called Petliura Days pogrom. Nazi Einsatzgruppen, together with Ukrainian auxiliary units, killed 33,000 Kievan Jews in Babi Yar in September 1941. Ukrainian auxiliaries participated in a number of killings of Jews, among them in Romanian concentration camps in Bogdanovka and in Latvia. Motto: Semper fidelis Location Map of Ukraine with Lviv. ... Symon Petlyura (Симон Петлюра; also spelled Simon, Semen, Semyen Petliura or Petlura, May 10, 1879 â€“ May 25, 1926) was a Ukrainian politician. ... Pogrom (from Russian: ; from громить IPA: - to wreak havoc, to demolish violently) is a form of riot directed against a particular group, whether ethnic, religious or other, and characterized by destruction of their homes, businesses and religious centers. ... Location Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted. ... Bogdanovka was an extermination camp for Jews that was established by the Romanians during World War II as part of the Holocaust. ...


Norway

After Norway was invaded, the Nazis took control of the government and the true government went into exile. Power was given to the German Reichskommissar Josef Terboven and the Norwegian Fascist Party leader Vidkun Quisling. Quisling had attempted to establish himself as the leader of occupied Norway, but the Nazis only used him as leader of a puppet government. The Nazis, as well as some Norwegian police units, managed to round up over 750 Jews, of a total of about 1,800. However, the Nazis and their collaborators were very unpopular in Norway, causing a strong resistance movement, so the German government's aims for Norway were never fulfilled. Many Jews and other people were saved by the actions of Norwegians, including Norwegian police. Still, detailed lists of Jews (and assumingly most other persons as well) existed at the time of the occupation. This caused the rounding-up of Jews in Norway to be much more efficient than in Denmark. Quisling and other Norwegians, who collaborated with the Nazis, were executed as traitors after the war, at least partly due to their involvement in the Holocaust.[citation needed] Reichskommissar (Commissionary of the Empire) was an official title of authorized representative of the Deutsches Reich (after 1871) who was appointed to a special task, e. ... Josef Terboven Josef Antonius Heinrich Terboven (May 23, 1898 - May 8, 1945) was a Nazi leader most known for his brutal leadership during the Nazi occupation of Norway. ... Symbol of the Hirden, the stormtroopers or paramilitary organization of the Nasjonal Samling. ... Vidkun Abraham Lauritz Jonssøn Quisling, (July 18, 1887 – October 24, 1945) was a Norwegian army officer and fascist politician. ... A puppet state is a state whose government, though notionally of the same culture as the governed people - owes its existence (or other major debt) to being installed, supported or controlled by a more powerful entity, typically a foreign power. ... Norwegian resistance to the Occupation of Norway by Nazi Germany from 1940 to 1945 took several forms: Asserting the legitimacy of the exiled Norwegian government, and by implication the lack of legitimacy of the Quisling regime and Terboven administration The initial defense in Southern Norway, which was largely disorganized, but... Starting with the invasion of April 9, 1940, Norway was under military occupation of German forces and civil rule of a German commissioner in collaboration with a Pro-German puppet government. ... Following the general capitulation of Germany in Europe and in Norway on May 10, 1945, the legitimate Norwegian government moved quickly to prosecute individuals who were suspected of treason or war crimes during the German occupation. ...


Also, 245 Sinti and Roma were deported to the Nazi extermination camps, of whom 190 were murdered.
See also: History of the Jews in Norway Sanctuary of the synagogue in Trondheim. ...


Baltic collaborators

Some Lithuanian and Latvian auxiliary military units (Schutzmannschaft) with Nazi Einsatzgruppen detachments participated in the extermination of the Jewish population in their countries, as well as assisting the Nazis elsewhere, such as deportations from the Warsaw Ghetto. The Arajs Commando, a Latvian volunteer police unit, for example, shot 26,000 Latvian Jews, at various locations after they had been brutally rounded-up for this purpose by the regular police and auxiliaries, and was responsible for assisting in the killing of 60,000 more Jews.[75] Latvia Having occupied Latvia in summer 1941, German command has created the local voluntary troops (Schutzmannschaft or Schuma), to struggle against the Soviet partisans and to carry out convoy service in concentration camps for Jews and Soviet POWs. ... The Arajs Commando was a Latvian police unit that participated actively in the killing of Jews during the Holocaust. ...


About 75% of Estonia's Jewish community, aware of the fate that otherwise awaited them, managed to escape to the Soviet Union; virtually all the remainder (between 950 and 1,000 people) were killed by Einsatzgruppe A and local collaborators before the end of 1941.[76]


The Netherlands

Of the 140,000 Dutch Jews, the German occupiers deported about 107,000, of which 101,800 were murdered. This death toll of 73% is the highest in Western Europe. Reasons that have been suggested to explain this phenomenon are: the occupation regime in the Netherlands was formed by fanatic Austrian Nazis;[citation needed] the degree of efficiency and the high level of administrative organization of the pre-war Dutch civilian administration; the typical Dutch landscape without mountains or woods made it practically impossible to find shelter; the majority of the Dutch Jews lived in the larger cities and thus they formed relatively easy targets for persecution and segregation; the Jewish leaders chose, "in order to prevent worse", a policy of collaboration with the Nazis; the Dutch pre-war society can be characterized as a conglomerate of different groups, which lived separately from another and this fact made it easy for the Germans to segregate and persecute the Jewish section of society; because the Jews were cut off from public life, they lost almost all of the support that could have been provided by other groups in society; active assistance by Dutch collaborators, such as the Henneicke Column group that hunted and "delivered" 8,000 to 9,000 Jews for deportation.[77] All of these circumstances made it relatively easy for the SS, regularly aided by Dutch police officers, to round up the Jewish population. The Henneicke Column was a group of 54 Dutch bounty hunters of Jews during the German occupation of the Netherlands in World War II. The group, led by Wim Henneicke en Willem Briedé, hunted, illegally arrested and delivered the Nazi authorities 8,000-9,000 thousands Jews for deportation. ...


Who authorized the killings?

Hitler authorized the mass killing of those labelled by the Nazis as "undesirables" in the T-4 Euthanasia Program. Hitler encouraged the killings of the Jews of Eastern Europe by the Einsatzgruppen death squads in a speech in July, 1941, though he almost certainly approved the mass shootings earlier. A mass of evidence suggests that sometime in the fall of 1941, Himmler and Hitler agreed in principle on the complete mass extermination of the Jews of Europe by gassing, with Hitler explicitly ordering the "annihilation of the Jews" in a speech on December 12, 1941 (see Final Solution). To make for smoother intra-governmental cooperation in the implementation of this "Final Solution" to the "Jewish Question", the Wannsee conference was held near Berlin on January 20, 1942, with the participation of fifteen senior officials, led by Reinhard Heydrich and Adolf Eichmann, the records of which provide the best evidence of the central planning of the Holocaust. Just five weeks later on February 22, Hitler was recorded saying "We shall regain our health only by eliminating the Jew" to his closest associates. However despite many years of investigating the documentation the third reich were so thorough in producing, there has never been any written proof that any order was given by Hitler at this or any other meeting or conference. A member of Einsatzgruppe D is just about to shoot a Jewish man kneeling before a filled mass grave in Vinnitsa, Ukraine, in 1942. ... In a February 26, 1942, letter to German diplomat Martin Luther, Reinhard Heydrich follows up on the Wannsee Conference by asking Luther for administrative assistance in the implementation of the Endlösung der Judenfrage (Final Solution of the Jewish Question). ... The Wannsee Conference was a meeting of senior officials of the Nazi German regime, held in the Berlin suburb of Wannsee on January 20, 1942. ... January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... Reinhard Heydrich as SS-Gruppenführer. ... Adolf Eichmann in Germany in 1940 Otto Adolf Eichmann (known as Adolf Eichmann; March 19, 1906 – June 1, 1962) was a high-ranking Nazi and SS Obersturmbannführer (Lieutenant Colonel). ... February 22 is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Arguments that no documentation links Hitler to "the Holocaust" ignore the records of his speeches kept by Nazi leaders such as Joseph Goebbels and rely on artificially limiting the Holocaust to exclude what we do have documentation on, such as the T-4 Euthanasia Program and the Kristallnacht pogrom. Paul Joseph Goebbels (29 October 1897 – 1 May 1945) was a German politician and Minister for Public Enlightenment and Propaganda during the National Socialist regime from 1933 to 1945. ...


Who knew about the killings?

Some claim that the full extent of what was happening in German-controlled areas was not known until after the war. However, even though Hitler did not talk about the camps in public, numerous rumors and eyewitness accounts from escapees and others gave some indication that Jews were being killed in large numbers. Since the early years of the war, the Polish government-in-exile published documents and organised meetings to spread word of the fate of the Jews. By early 1941, the British had received information via an intercepted Chilean memo that Jews were being targeted, and by late 1941 they had intercepted information about a number of large massacres of Jews conducted by German police.[citation needed] In an entry in the Friedrich Kellner Diary dated October 28, 1941, the German justice inspector Friedrich Kellner recorded a conversation he had in Laubach with a German soldier who had witnessed a massacre in Poland. Churchill, who was privy to intelligence reports derived from decoded German transmissions, first began mentioning "mass killings" in public at the same time. In the summer of 1942, a Jewish labor organization (the Bund) got word to London that 700,000 Polish Jews had already died, and the BBC took the story seriously, though the United States State Department did not.[78] In the United States, in November of 1942, a telegram from Europe which contained word about Hitler's plans was released by Stephen Wise of the World Jewish Congress, after a long wait for permission from the government.[79] This led to attempts by Jewish organizations to put Roosevelt under pressure to act on behalf of the European Jews, many of whom had tried in vain to enter either Britain or the U.S. The Government of the Polish Republic in exile maintained a continuous existence in exile from the time of the German occupation of Poland in September 1939 until the end of the Communist rule in Poland in 1990. ... August Friedrich Kellner (1885 - 1970) was a justice inspector in the courthouse in Mainz and a political activist for the Social Democratic Party of Germany between 1918 and 1933. ... October 28 is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 64 days remaining. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... Friedrich Kellner in Kaisers army 1914 During the First World War Friedrich Kellner was a soldier in a Hessian infantry regiment fighting in the trenches in France, getting wounded for Kaiser and Fatherland. ... Laubach is a town known as a “Luftkurort,” a climatic health resort. ... A Bundist demonstration, 1917 The General Jewish Labour Union of Lithuania, Poland and Russia, in Yiddish the Algemeyner Yidisher Arbeter Bund in Lite, Poyln un Rusland (אַלגמײַנער ײדישער אַרבײטערסבונד אין ליטאַ, פוילין און רוסלאַנד), generally called The Bund (בונד) or the Jewish Labor Bund, was a Jewish political party operating in several European countries between the 1890s and the... Stephen Samuel Wise (1874 - 1949) was a U.S. rabbi and Zionist leader. ... The World Jewish Congress (WJC) is an international federation of Jewish communities and organizations. ... FDR redirects here. ...


On December 17, 1942, however, after receiving a detailed eyewitness account from Jan Karski, the Allies issued a formal declaration confirming and condemning Nazi extermination policy toward the Jews.[80][81] The US State Department was aware of the use and the location of the gas chambers of extermination camps, but refused pleas to bomb them out of operation. On May 12, 1943, Polish government-in-exile and Bund leader Szmul Zygielbojm committed suicide in London to protest the inaction of the world with regard to the Holocaust, stating in part in his suicide letter: December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... Before a wall map of the Warsaw Ghetto at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Jan Karski recalls his secret 1942 missions into the Nazi prison-city-within-a-city. ... May 12 is the 132nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (133rd in leap years). ... 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ... Szmul Zygielbojm (Zygelbojm) (1895 – May 12, 1943) was a Jewish-Polish socialist politician, leader of Bund and a member of the Warsaw and Łódź city councils in interwar Poland. ... It has been suggested that Suicide method be merged into this article or section. ...

I cannot continue to live and to be silent while the remnants of Polish Jewry, whose representative I am, are being killed. My comrades in the Warsaw ghetto fell with arms in their hands in the last heroic battle. I was not permitted to fall like them, together with them, but I belong with them, to their mass grave.
By my death, I wish to give expression to my most profound protest against the inaction in which the world watches and permits the destruction of the Jewish people.

The death camps were discussed between American and British leaders at the Bermuda Conference in April of 1943. The large camps near Auschwitz were finally surveyed by plane in April of 1944, many months after the German air force ceased to be a serious danger. While all important German cities and production centers were bombed by Allied forces until the end of the war, no attempt was made to collapse the system of mass annihilation by destroying pertinent structures or train tracks, even though Churchill was a proponent of bombing parts of the Auschwitz complex. Throughout the war, Britain also pressed European leaders to prevent "illegal" Jewish immigration and sent ships to block the sea-route to Palestine (from which Britain withdrew in 1948), turning back many refugees.[82] The Ghetto Heroes Memorial The Warsaw Ghetto was the largest of the Jewish ghettos established by Nazi Germany in General Government during the Holocaust in World War II. In the three years of its existence, starvation, disease and deportations to concentration camps and extermination camps dropped the population of the... The Bermuda Conference was held on April 19, 1943 at Hamilton, Bermuda. ... Auschwitz, in English, commonly refers to the Auschwitz concentration camp complex built near the town of Oświęcim, by Nazi Germany during World War II. Rarely, it may refer to the Polish town of Oświęcim (called by the Germans Auschwitz) itself. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Aerial area bombardment is the policy of indiscriminate bombing of an enemys cities, for the purpose of destroying the enemys means of producing military materiel, communications, government centres and civilian morale. ... The Holy Land or Palestine Showing not only the Old Kingdoms of Judea and Israel but also the 12 Tribes Distinctly, and Confirming Even the Diversity of the Locations of their Ancient Positions and Doing So as the Holy Scriptures Indicate, a geographic map from the studio of Tobiae Conradi...


Debate also continues on how much average Germans knew about the Holocaust. Recent historical work suggests that the majority of Germans knew that Jews were being indiscriminately killed and persecuted but they did not know about the Final Solution and the specifics of the death camps. Robert Gellately, a historian at Oxford University, conducted a widely-respected survey of the German media before and during the war, concluding that there was "substantial consent and active participation of large numbers of ordinary Germans" in aspects of the Holocaust, and documenting that the sight of columns of slave laborers were common, and that the basics of the concentration camps, if not the extermination camps, were widely known.[83] Other scholars, like Peter Longerich, have argued that most Germans did not know about the mass-murders as they were occurring.[84]. There was an order to keep the Final Solution a secret (under death penalty) among the estimated 300,000 persons involved in implementing the plan. Helmuth James Graf von Moltke gives an estimation of less than a tenth of the population in 1943[85]. There was rumour about gas chambers but most Germans did not want to know even that it would have been easy to get to the details. Robert Gellately is an American academic who is one of the leading historians of modern Europe, particularly during World War II and the Cold War era. ... The University of Oxford, located in the city of Oxford in England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... Professor Peter Longerich (born 1955, in Krefeld, Germany) is a German historian. ... Helmuth James Graf von Moltke Helmuth James Graf von Moltke (born 11 March 1907 in Kreisau bei Gräditz, Lower Silesia [now Krzyżowa in Poland]; died 23 January 1945 in Berlin) was a German jurist, a member of the opposition against Hitler in Nazi Germany, and a founding member...


Historical and philosophical interpretations

The Holocaust and the historical phenomenon of Nazism, which has since become the dark symbol of the 20th century's crimes, is the subject of numerous historical, psychological, sociological, literary, and philosophical studies. All types of scholars have tried to explain what appears as the most irrational act of the Western World, which, until at least World War I, had been so sure of its eminent superiority to other civilizations. Frankfurt school philosopher Theodor Adorno and Max Horkheimer thus began the Dialectic of Enlightenment: A compass rose with west highlighted This article refers to the cardinal direction; for other uses see West (disambiguation). ... This article is becoming very long. ... For other uses, see Civilization (disambiguation). ... Max Horkheimer (front left), Theodor Adorno (front right), and Jürgen Habermas in the background, right, in 1965 at Heidelberg The Frankfurt School is a school of neo-Marxist social theory (which is more akin to anarchism than communism), social research, and philosophy. ... Max Horkheimer (front left), Theodor Adorno (front right), and Jürgen Habermas in the background, right, in 1965 at Heidelberg. ... Max Horkheimer (front left), Theodor Adorno (front right), and Jürgen Habermas in the background, right, in 1965 at Heidelberg Max Horkheimer (February 14, 1895 – July 7, 1973) was a Jewish-German philosopher and sociologist, known especially as the founder and guiding thinker of the Frankfurt School of critical theory. ... Dialectic of Enlightenment, written by Max Horkheimer and Theodor W. Adorno made its first appearance in 1944 under the title Dialektik der Aufklärung by Social Studies Association, Inc. ...

"Enlightenment, understood in the widest sense as the advance of thought, has always aimed at liberating human beings from fear and installing them as masters. Yet the wholly enlightened earth is radiant with triumphant calamity.[86] The Age of Enlightenment (French: Siècle des Lumières, German: Aufklärung) refers to the eighteenth century in European and American philosophy, or the longer period including the Age of Reason. ...

Theodor Adorno went as far as ceasing to work as a composer, declaring: "writing any more poetry after Auschwitz is barbaric". Thus, Auschwitz became the metonymic name for the Holocaust and the Nazi barbarity. Although Adorno later retracted this statement, declaring that "Perennial suffering has as much right to expression as the tortured have to scream...", the concepts of civilization and of progress themselves were called into question more profoundly than had happened after the slaughter of World War I. Germany, considered to be one of the most enlightened European countries, radiant with art, literature and philosophy, had made itself guilty of one of the most enormous crimes against humanity ever committed. It was left to literature, such as Primo Levi's If This Is a Man (1947) or Robert Antelme's The Human Race (1947) to describe what poetry, according to Adorno, could not describe. In rhetoric, metonymy is the substitution of one word for another word with which it is associated. ... Historical progress has been a main object of philosophy of history. ... German art describes the history of the visual arts in Germany The Bamberg Horseman is a stone equestrian statue by an anonymous medieval sculptor from the cathedral of Bamberg. ... German literature comprises those literary texts originating within Germany proper and written in the German language. ... German philosophy, here taken to mean philosophy in German language, has been extremely diverse, and central to both the analytic and continental traditions in philosophy for centuries, from Leibniz through Kant and Hegel to contemporary philosophers such as Jürgen Habermas. ... This article is in need of attention. ... Primo Levi (July 31, 1919 – April 11, 1987) was a Jewish Italian chemist, Holocaust survivor and author of memoirs, short stories, poems, and novels. ... If This is a Man is a book by the Italian author Primo Levi. ... Robert Antelme (1917 Sartène, Corsica - 1990) was a French writer. ...


The enormity of the Holocaust has prompted much analysis. Hannah Arendt, in her 1963 report on Adolf Eichmann, presented him as a symbol of dull obedience to authority in what was at first seen as a scandalous book, Eichmann in Jerusalem: A Report on the Banality of Evil (1963), which has since become a classic of political philosophy. Thus, Arendt opposed herself to the first, immediate, explanation, which accused the Nazis of "cruelty" and of "sadism". Many people who participated in the Holocaust were normal people, according to Arendt, and that is the real scandal. This led Stanley Milgram's to conduct psychological experiences on obedience, opening up the way to understanding the psychological experiences of "authority" and charisma. The question of charisma was renewed by Gustave Le Bon's 19th century studies about crowd psychology. Thus, his work acquired new force, although Hitler himself had been inspired by Le Bon's description of propaganda techniques to write Mein Kampf. Furthermore, Hannah Arendt and some authors such as Sven Lindqvist and Olivier LeCour Grandmaison tried to point toward a relative continuity between the crimes committed against "primitive" people during colonialism and the Holocaust. They most notably argued that many techniques that the Nazis industrialized had been experimented on in other continents, starting with the concentration camps invented during the Second Boer War if not before. This thesis was met with fierce opposition by some groups who argued that nothing could be compared to the Holocaust, not even other genocides: although the Herero genocide (1904-07) and the Armenian genocide (1915-17) are commonly considered as the first genocides in history, many argued that the Holocaust had taken proportions that even these crimes against humanity had not achieved. Hannah Arendt (October 14, 1906 – December 4, 1975) was a Jewish-German (later American) political theorist. ... Adolf Eichmann in Germany in 1940 Otto Adolf Eichmann (known as Adolf Eichmann; March 19, 1906 – June 1, 1962) was a high-ranking Nazi and SS Obersturmbannführer (Lieutenant Colonel). ... Authority- is a very talented rocknroll band out of Columbia, S.C. This power rock trio has its roots in rock, funk, hardcore, and a dash of hip hop. ... Eichmann in Jerusalem: A Report on the Banality of Evil is a book written by political theorist Hannah Arendt, originally published in 1963. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political philosophy is the study of fundamental questions about the state, government, politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law and the enforcement of a legal code by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what makes a government legitimate, what... Look up cruelty in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Sadistic personality disorder was never formally admitted into the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM); nevertheless, some researchers and theorists continue to use its criteria. ... Stanley Milgram Stanley Milgram (August 15, 1933 – December 20, 1984) was a psychologist at Yale University, Harvard University and the City University of New York. ... Psychology is an academic or applied discipline involving the scientific study of mental processes such as perception, cognition, emotion, personality, behavior, and interpersonal relationships. ... Authority- is a very talented rocknroll band out of Columbia, S.C. This power rock trio has its roots in rock, funk, hardcore, and a dash of hip hop. ... Jesus is considered by historians such as Weber to be an example of a charismatic religious leader; The sociologist Max Weber defined charismatic authority as resting on devotion to the exceptional sanctity, heroism or exemplary character of an individual person, and of the normative patterns or order revealed or ordained... Gustave Le Bon (May 7, 1841 – December 13, 1931) was a French social psychologist, sociologist, and amateur physicist. ... Ordinary people typically can gain direct power by acting collectively. ... Sven Lindqvist (born April 28, 1932) is a Swedish author and professor. ... Olivier LeCour Grandmaison (September 19, 1960, Paris) is a French historian. ... Primitive - A band from St. ... It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ... A concentration camp is a large detention centre created for political opponents, aliens, specific ethnic or religious groups, civilians of a critical war-zone, or other groups of people, often during a war. ... Combatants United Kingdom Australia New Zealand Canada Cape Colony Orange Free State South African Republic Royal Dutch Navy (Evacuation of Paul Kruger only) Commanders Redvers Buller Herbert Kitchener Frederick Roberts Martinus Steyn Christiaan de Wet Paul Kruger Louis Botha Koos de la Rey Casualties 5000 - 6000 Battlefield casualties, 15,000... Genocide is defined by the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (CPPCG) article 2 as any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnic, racial or religious group, as such: Killing members of the group; Causing... Surviving Herero after the escape through the arid desert of Omaheke. ... Armenian Genocide photo. ...


The Holocaust was indeed characterized by an industrial project of extermination; compared to it, other genocides seemed to lack "professionalism". This led authors such as Enzo Traverso to argue in The Origins of Nazi Violence that Auschwitz was "an authentic product of Western civilization".[87] Beginning his book with a description of the guillotine, which according to him marks the entry of the Industrial Revolution into capital punishment, and writes: "Through an irony of history, the theories of Frederick Taylor" (taylorism) were applied by a totalitarian system to serve "not production, but extermination." (see also Heidegger's comments). In the wake of Hannah Arendt, Traverso describes the colonial domination during the New Imperialism period through "rational organization", which lead in a number of cases to extermination. However, this argument, which insists on the industrialization and technical rationality through which the Holocaust itself was carried out (the organization of trains, technical details, etc. — see Adolf Eichmann's bureaucratic work), was in turn opposed by other people. These point out that the 1994 Rwandan genocide only used machetes. Enzo Traverso is an historian whom worked on the Holocaust. ... The Maiden, an older Scottish design. ... A Watt steam engine. ... Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ... Frederick Winslow Taylor (March 20, 1856 - March 21, 1915) was an American engineer who sought to improve industrial efficiency. ... Taylorism or Scientific management is the name of the approach to management and Industrial/Organizational Psychology initiated by Frederick Winslow Taylor in his 1911 monograph The Principles of Scientific Management. ... Totalitarianism is a term employed by political scientists, especially those in the field of comparative politics, to describe modern regimes in which the state regulates nearly every aspect of public and private behavior. ... Martin Heidegger (September 26, 1889 – May 26, 1976) (pronounced ) was an influential German philosopher, best known as the author of Being and Time (1927). ... Adolf Eichmann in Germany in 1940 Otto Adolf Eichmann (known as Adolf Eichmann; March 19, 1906 – June 1, 1962) was a high-ranking Nazi and SS Obersturmbannführer (Lieutenant Colonel). ... The Rwandan Genocide was the 1994 mass extermination of hundreds of thousands of ethnic Tutsis and moderate Hutu sympathizers in Rwanda and was the largest atrocity during the Rwandan Civil War. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ...


Others have presented the Holocaust as a product of German history, analyzing its deep roots in German society: "German authoritarianism, feeble liberalism, brash nationalism or virulent anti-Semitism. From A. J. P. Taylor's The Course of German History fifty-five years ago to Daniel Goldhagen's recent Hitler's Willing Executioners, Nazism is understood as the outcome of a long history of uniquely German traits", writes Russell Jacoby.[88] Furthermore, while many pointed out that the specificity of the Holocaust was also rooted in the constant antisemitism from which Jews had been the target since the foundation of Christianity (and the myth of the "deicide people"), others underlined that in the 19th century, pseudo-scientific racist theories had been elaborated in order to justify, in a general way, white supremacy. In his works on "biopolitics", philosopher Michel Foucault also traced the origins of "state racism" to the eugenicist policies invented during the 19th century. (One of the few compliments that Foucault accorded to Freud's psychoanalysis was that Freud adamantly opposed such a project of "racial hygiene".) Bold text:This article applies to political ideologies. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... Alan John Percivale Taylor (March 25, 1906–September 7, 1990) was a renowned British historian of the 20th century. ... Daniel Jonah Goldhagen (born 1959) is an American political scientist. ... Manifestations Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching Hate speech · Hate crime · Hate groups Genocide · Holocaust · Pogrom Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing · Race war Religious persecution · Gay bashing Pedophobia · Ephebiphobia Movements Discriminatory Aryanism · Neo-Nazism · Supremacism Kahanism Anti-discriminatory Abolitionism · Civil rights Gays/Transsexes/Intersexes rights Womens/Universal suffrage · Feminism Mens/Fathers rights... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Scientific racism is racist propaganda disguised as science. ... White supremacy is a racist ideology which holds the belief that white people are superior to other races. ... A neologism invented by Michel Foucault, the term Biopolitics or Biopolitical can refer to several different yet not incompatible concepts: In the work of Michel Foucault, the style of government that regulates populations through biopower. ... Michel Foucault (IPA pronunciation: ) (October 15, 1926 – June 25, 1984) was a French philosopher and historian. ... State racism is a concept used by French philosopher Michel Foucault to designate the reappropriation of the historical and political discourse of race struggle, In the late seventeenth century. ... The word eugenics (from the Greek εὐγενής, for well-born) was coined in 1883 by Sir Francis Galton, a cousin of Charles Darwin, to refer to the study and use of selective breeding (of animals or humans) to improve a species over generations, specifically... Sigmund Freud (born Sigismund Freud) May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939; (IPA: ) was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who co-founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ... Psychoanalysis is a family of psychological theories and methods based on the work of Sigmund Freud. ...


Why did people participate in, authorize, or tacitly accept the killing?

Obedience

Stanley Milgram was one of a number of post-war psychologists and sociologists who tried to address why people obeyed immoral orders in the Holocaust. Milgram's findings demonstrated that reasonable people, when instructed by a person in a position of authority, obeyed commands entailing what they believed to be the death or suffering of others. These results were confirmed in other experiments as well, such as the Stanford prison experiment. In his book Mass Psychology of Fascism (1933), Wilhelm Reich also tried to explain this obedience. The work became known as the foundation of Freudo-Marxism. Nobel prize winner Elias Canetti also addressed the problem of mass obedience in Masse und Macht (1960 - "Crowds and Power"), developing an original theory of the consequences of commands both in the obedient person and in the commander, who may well become a "despotic paranoiac". Two recent "experiments", one called The Third Wave and one conducted by Jane Elliott, tried answer the question of: "How can a people be a part of something terrible and then claim at the demise that they were not really involved?" Stanley Milgram Stanley Milgram (August 15, 1933 – December 20, 1984) was a psychologist at Yale University, Harvard University and the City University of New York. ... The experimenter (E) orders the subject (S) to give what the subject believes are painful electric shocks to another subject (A), who is actually an actor. ... The reasonable man or reasonable person standard is a legal fiction that originated in the development of the common law. ... Look up Obedience in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Stanford prison experiment was a psychological study of the human response to captivity, in particular to the real world circumstances of prison life and the effects of imposed social roles on behaviour. ... Wilhelm Reich (March 24, 1897 – November 3, 1957) was an Austrian psychiatrist and psychoanalyst. ... Freudo-Marxism is a loose designation of several twentieth-century critical theory schools of thought that sought to synthesize the philosophy and political economy of Karl Marx with the psychoanalytic theory of Sigmund Freud. ... The Nobel Prize in Literature is awarded annually to an author from any country who has, in the words of Alfred Nobel, produced the most outstanding work of an idealistic tendency. The work in this case generally refers to an authors work as a whole, not to any individual... Elias Canetti, Nobel Laureate in Literature Elias Canetti (25 July 1905, Ruse, Bulgaria – 13 August 1994, Zurich) was a Bulgaria-born British-Austrian novelist, who wrote in German and won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1981. ... Unsolved problems in physics: What causes anything to have mass? The U.S. National Prototype Kilogram, which currently serves as the primary standard for measuring mass in the U.S. Mass is the property of a physical object that quantifies the amount of matter and energy it is equivalent to. ... Despotism is government by a singular authority, either a single person or tightly knit group, which rules with absolute power. ... For other senses of this word, see paranoia (disambiguation). ... The Third Wave was the name given by history teacher Ron Jones to an experimental recreation of Nazi Germany which he claims to have conducted with high school students. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Psychological mechanisms

The Holocaust is a clear example of two factors at work. One is described by the "boiling frog" theory, which says that an enormous change will not be noticed if it occurs in gradual steps. The other factor is the primal and powerful mechanism of herding, which has its home in the limbic system and ensures that individuals conform to the group. This mechanism has evolved through natural selection to ensure that human groups survive. Together, these factors make conforming to the group a stronger impulse than breaking out, even if the individual does not agree with what the group is doing. So long as the gradual changes in group behaviour are small, herding can eventually take the group towards a state that is far removed from past behavior and is more and more extreme. Thus, participants in the Holocaust may have privately felt horror or disgust at what they were ordered to do but stayed in line with the group. These effects have been exploited many times in history by demagogues and revolutionaries; they are also seen in bullying.[89] The boiling frog story states that a frog can be boiled alive if the water is heated slowly enough—it is said that if a frog is placed in boiling water, it will jump out, but if it is placed in cold water that is slowly heated, it will never... A man herding goats in Tunisia Herding is the act of bringing individual animals together into a group, maintaining the group and moving the group from place to place—or any combination of those. ... The limbic system within the brain. ... Darwins illustrations of beak variation in the finches of the Galápagos Islands, which hold 13 closely related species that differ most markedly in the shape of their beaks. ... A demagogue (sometimes spelled demagog) is a leader who obtains power by appealing to the gut feelings of the public, usually by powerful use of rhetoric and propaganda. ... The storming of the Bastille, 14 July 1789 during the French Revolution. ... Bullying is the tormenting of others through verbal harassment, physical assault, or other more subtle methods of coercion such as manipulation. ...


Studies of mass psychology, kick-started by Carl Jung but currently being developed under various labels, suggest that the causal mechanism for crowd behaviour is the reverse of what is commonly believed. The socionomic perspective says that, rather than persecution making people fearful and downtrodden, fearful and downtrodden people look for someone to persecute.[90] Carl Jungs partially autobiographical work Memories , Dreams, Reflections, Fontana edition “Karl Jung” redirects here. ...


The Jungian-socionomic analysis says that after the humiliation of World War I, the economic ruin of the Weimar Republic, being forced to pay war reparations and the Great Depression, it was natural for the German people to become angry and look for someone on whom to vent their anger; herding behaviour amplifed this anger and the Holocaust was the result.[90] Anthem Das Lied der Deutschen Germany during the Weimar Republic, with the Free State of Prussia (Freistaat Preußen) as the largest Capital Berlin Language(s) German Government Republic President  - 1919-1925 Friedrich Ebert  - 1925-1933 Paul von Hindenburg Chancellor  - 1919 Philipp Scheidemann Historical era Interwar period  - Established August 11... War reparations refer to the monetary compensation provided to a triumphant nation or coalition from a defeated nation or coalition. ... The Great Depression was a global economic slump that began in 1929 and bottomed in 1933. ... A man herding goats in Tunisia Herding is the act of bringing individual animals together into a group, maintaining the group and moving the group from place to place—or any combination of those. ...


Functionalism versus intentionalism

A major issue in contemporary Holocaust studies is the question of functionalism versus intentionalism. The terms were coined in a 1981 article by the British Marxist historian Timothy Mason to describe two schools of thought about the origins of the Holocaust. Intentionalists hold that the Holocaust was the result of a long-term masterplan on the part of Hitler's and that Hitler was the driving force behind the Holocaust. Functionalists hold that Hitler was anti-Semitic, but that he did not have a masterplan for genocide. Functionalists see the Holocaust as coming from below in the ranks of the German bureaucracy with little or no involvement on the part of Hitler. Functionalists stress that the Nazi anti-Semitic policy was constantly evolving in ever more radical directions and the end product was the Holocaust. Functionalism versus intentionalism is a historiographical debate about the origins of the Holocaust as well as most aspects of the Third Reich, such as foreign policy. ... Marxism is the political practice and social theory based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary, along with Friedrich Engels. ... Timothy Wright Mason (March 2, 1940–March 5, 1990) was a British Marxist historian of Nazi Germany. ...


Intentionalists like Lucy Dawidowicz argue that the Holocaust was planned by Hitler from the very beginning of his political career, at very least from 1919 on, if not earlier. Later, Dawidowicz was to date the decision for genocide back to November 11, 1918. Other Intentionalists like Andreas Hillgruber, Karl Dietrich Bracher, Gerhard Weinberg and Klaus Hildebrand suggested that Hitler had decided upon the Holocaust sometime in the early 1920s. More recent intentionalist historians like Eberhard Jäckel continue to emphasize the relative earliness of the decision to kill the Jews, although they are not willing to claim that Hitler planned the Holocaust from the beginning. Saul Friedländer has argued that Hitler was an extreme anti-Semite from 1919 on, but he did not decide upon genocide until the middle of 1941. Yet another group of intentionalist historians such as the American Arno J. Mayer claimed Hitler only ordered the Holocaust in December 1941. Lucy S. Davidowicz (June 16, 1915 – December 5, 1990), was a American historian, and an author of books in modern Jewish history in particular the Holocaust. ... November 11 is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 50 days remaining. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Andreas Fritz Hillgruber (January 18, 1925-May 8, 1989) was a conservative West German historian. ... Karl Dietrich Bracher (March 13, 1922-) is a German historian of the Weimar Republic and Nazi Germany. ... Gerhard L. Weinberg, January 2003 Gerhard Ludwig Weinberg (born January 1, 1928) is a German-born American diplomatic and military historian noted for his studies in the history of World War Two. ... Klaus Hildebrand (1941-) is a German conservative historian whose area of expertise is 19th-20th German political and military history. ... Eberhard Jäckel (June 29, 1929-) is a Social Democratic German historian, noted for his studies of Adolf Hitlers role in German history. ... Saul Friedländer (born 1932) is a French-Israeli historian. ... Arno Joseph Mayer (June 19, 1926 -) is Luxembourg-born American historian of modern Europe, diplomatic history, and the Holocaust. ...


Functionalists like Hans Mommsen, Martin Broszat, Götz Aly, Raul Hilberg and Christopher Browning hold that the Holocaust was started in 1941-1942 as a result of the failure of the Nazi deportation policy and the impending military losses in Russia. They claim that what some see as extermination fantasies outlined in Hitler's Mein Kampf and other Nazi literature were mere propaganda and did not constitute concrete plans. In Mein Kampf Hitler repeatedly states his inexorable hatred of the Jewish people, but nowhere does he proclaim his intention to exterminate the Jewish people. Hans Mommsen (November 5, 1930-) is a left-wing German historian and twin brother of Wolfgang Mommsen. ... Martin Broszat (August 14, 1926 – October 14, 1989) was a left-wing West German historian. ... Götz Aly (born May 3, 1947 in Heidelberg, Germany) is a German journalist, historian and social scientist. ... Dr. Raul Hilberg Raul Hilberg (born June 2, 1926) is one of the best-known and most distinguished of the Holocaust historians. ... Christopher R. Browning (born May 22, 1944) is an American historian of the Holocaust. ... Mein Kampf (English translation: My Struggle) is the signature work of Adolf Hitler, combining elements of autobiography with an exposition of Hitlers political ideology of Nazism. ... An Australian anti-conscription propaganda poster from World War One U.S. propaganda poster, which warns against civilians sharing information on troop movements (National Archives) The much-imitated 1914 Lord Kitchener Wants You! poster Swedish Anti-Euro propaganda for the referendum of 2003. ...


Furthermore, Functionalists point to the fact that in the 1930s, Nazi policy aimed at trying to make life so unpleasant for German Jews that they would leave Germany. Adolf Eichmann was in charge of facilitating Jewish emigration by whatever means possible from 1937 until October 3, 1941, when German Jews were forbidden to leave, Reinhard Heydrich issuing an order to that effect. Functionalists point to the SS's support for a time in the late 1930s for Zionist groups as the preferred solution to the "Jewish Question" as another sign that there was no masterplan for genocide. The SS only ceased their support for German Zionist groups in May 1939 when Joachim von Ribbentrop informed Hitler of this, and Hitler ordered Himmler to cease and desist as the creation of Israel was not a goal Hitler thought worthy of German foreign policy. Adolf Eichmann in Germany in 1940 Otto Adolf Eichmann (known as Adolf Eichmann; March 19, 1906 – June 1, 1962) was a high-ranking Nazi and SS Obersturmbannführer (Lieutenant Colonel). ... October 3 is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... Reinhard Heydrich as SS-Gruppenführer. ... Zionism is a political movement that supports a homeland for the Jewish people in the Land of Israel, where Jewish nationhood is thought to have evolved somewhere between 1200 BCE and late Second Temple times,[1][2] and where Jewish kingdoms existed up to the 2nd century CE. Zionism is... Joachim von Ribbentrop with his son. ...


In particular, Functionalists have noted that in German documents from 1939 to 1941, the term "Final Solution to the Jewish Question" was clearly meant to be a "territorial solution", that is the entire Jewish population was to be expelled somewhere far from Germany and not allowed to come back. At first, the SS planned to create a gigantic "Jewish Reservation" in the Lublin, Poland area, but the so-called "Lublin Plan" was vetoed by Hans Frank, the Governor-General of occupied Poland who refused to allow the SS to ship any more Jews to the Lublin area after November, 1939. The reason why Frank vetoed the "Lublin Plan" was not due to any humane motives, but rather because he was opposed to the SS "dumping" Jews into the Government-General. In 1940, the SS and the German Foreign Office had the so-called "Madagascar Plan" to deport the entire Jewish population of Europe to a "reservation" on Madagascar. The "Madagascar Plan" was cancelled because Germany could not defeat the United Kingdom and until the British blockade was broken, the "Madagascar Plan" could not be put into effect. Finally, Functionalist historians have made much of a memorandum written by Himmler in May, 1940 explicitly rejecting extermination of the entire Jewish people as "un-German" and going on to recommend to Hitler the "Madagascar Plan" as the preferred "territorial solution" to the "Jewish Question". Not until July 1941 did the term "Final Solution to the Jewish Question" come to mean extermination. For other uses, see Lublin (disambiguation). ... Hans Frank (May 23, 1900 – October 16, 1946) was a lawyer for the Nazi party during the 1920s and a senior official in Nazi Germany. ... The Madagascar Plan was a policy of the Third Reich government of Nazi Germany to forcibly relocate the entire Jewish population of Europe to the French island colony of Madagascar, off the coast of Africa. ... A blockade is any effort to prevent supplies, troops, information or aid from reaching an opposing force. ...


Recently, a synthesis of the two schools has emerged that has been championed by diverse historians such as the Canadian historian Michael Marrus, the Israeli historian Yehuda Bauer and the British historian Ian Kershaw that contends that Hitler was the driving force behind the Holocaust, but that he did not have a long-term plan and that much of the initiative for the Holocaust came from below in an effort to meet Hitler's perceived wishes. Michael Robert Marrus (born February 3, 1941) is a Canadian historian of France, the Holocaust and Jewish history. ... Yehuda Bauer Yehuda Bauer (born 1926) is an historian and scholar of the Holocaust. ... Professor Sir Ian Kershaw (born April 29, 1943 in Oldham, Lancashire, England) is a British historian, noted for his biographies of Adolf Hitler. ...


Another controversy was started by the historian Daniel Goldhagen, who argues that ordinary Germans were knowing and willing participants in the Holocaust, which he claims had its roots in a deep eliminationist German anti-Semitism. Most historians have disagreed with Goldhagen's thesis, arguing that while anti-Semitism undeniably existed in Germany, Goldhagen's idea of a uniquely German "eliminationist" anti-Semitism is untenable, and that the extermination was unknown to many and had to be enforced by the dictatorial Nazi apparatus. Daniel Jonah Goldhagen (born 1959) is an American political scientist. ... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ...


Religious hatred and racism

The German Nazis considered it their duty to overcome natural compassion and execute orders for what they believed to be higher ideals. Much research has been done to explain how ordinary people could have participated in such heinous crimes, notably psychologist Stanley Milgram's famous experimental studies of obedience to authority. But there is no doubt that, like in some religious conflicts in the past, some people poisoned with racial and religious ideology of hatred committed the crimes with sadistic pleasure. Crowd psychology has attempted to explain such heinous acts, although Gustave Le Bon's The Crowd: A Study of the Popular Mind (1895) was also a major influence of Mein Kampf, in particular relating to the propaganda techniques described in it. Sadistic acts were perhaps most notable in the case of the genocide committed by members of the Ustashe, whose enthusiasm and sadism in their killings of Serbs appalled Germans, Italians, and even German SS officers, who even acted to restrain the Ustashe. However, concentration camp literature, such as the writings of Primo Levi and Robert Antelme, describe numerous individual sadistic acts, including some committed by Kapos. It has been suggested that Idiot compassion be merged into this article or section. ... A psychologist is a scientist and/or clinician who studies psychology, the systematic investigation of the human mind, including behavior and cognition. ... Stanley Milgram Stanley Milgram (August 15, 1933 – December 20, 1984) was a psychologist at Yale University, Harvard University and the City University of New York. ... The experimenter (E) orders the subject (S) to give what the subject believes are painful electric shocks to another subject (A), who is actually an actor. ... now. ... Religious intolerance is either intolerance motivated by ones own religious beliefs or intolerance against anothers religious beliefs or practices. ... An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ... Flogging demonstration at Folsom Street Fair 2004. ... Ordinary people typically can gain direct power by acting collectively. ... Gustave Le Bon (May 7, 1841 – December 13, 1931) was a French social psychologist, sociologist, and amateur physicist. ... The Ustaše (often spelled Ustashe in English; singular Ustaša or Ustasha) was a Croatian organization placed in control of the Independent State of Croatia by the Axis Powers in 1941, which pursued Nazi policies. ... Primo Levi (July 31, 1919 – April 11, 1987) was a Jewish Italian chemist, Holocaust survivor and author of memoirs, short stories, poems, and novels. ... Robert Antelme (1917 Sartène, Corsica - 1990) was a French writer. ... Kapo was a term used for certain prisoners who worked inside the Nazi concentration camps during World War II. The name stood for Kameradenpolizei, comrade police, and referred to prisoners who have been recruited by their captors to police their fellow prisoners. ...


Martin Luther (a German leader of the Protestant Reformation) made a specific written call for harsh persecution of the Jewish people, including that their synagogues and schools be set on fire, prayerbooks destroyed, rabbis forbidden to preach, homes razed, and property and money confiscated. Luther argued that Jews should be shown no mercy or kindness, should have no legal protection, and that these "poisonous envenomed worms" should be drafted into forced labor or expelled for all time. "Martin Luther's On the Jews and Their Lies" American historian Lucy Dawidowicz, concluded that the line of "anti-Semitic descent" from Luther to Hitler is "easy to draw," in her book "The War Against the Jews, 1933-1945". Adolf Hitler wrote of his admiration of Martin Luther in Mein Kampf "Mein Kampf". Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... Title page of Martin Luther’s On the Jews and Their Lies. ...


Some authors, such as liberal philosopher Hannah Arendt in The Origins of Totalitarianism (1951), Swedish writer Sven Lindqvist or French historian Olivier LeCour Grandmaison have also linked the Holocaust to colonialism. They argue that techniques put in place during the New Imperialism period (first of all, concentration camps during the Boer War), as well as the pseudo-scientific theories elaborated during this period (e.g. Arthur de Gobineau's 1853 Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races) had been fundamental in preparing the conditions of possibility of the Holocaust. Others authors have adamantly opposed these views, on behalf of the "unicity" of the Holocaust, compared to any other type of genocide.[citation needed] Philosopher Michel Foucault also traced the origins of the Holocaust and of "racial policies" to what he called "state racism", which is a part of "biopolitics". Hannah Arendt (October 14, 1906 – December 4, 1975) was a Jewish-German (later American) political theorist. ... The Origins of Totalitarianism is a book by Hannah Arendt, dedicated to her husband Heinrich Blücher. ... Sven Lindqvist (born April 28, 1932) is a Swedish author and professor. ... Olivier LeCour Grandmaison (September 19, 1960, Paris) is a French historian. ... It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ... The term New Imperialism refers to the colonial expansion adopted by Europes powers and, later, Japan and the United States, during the late 19th and early 20th centuries; approximately from the Franco-Prussian War to World War I (c. ... A concentration camp is a large detention centre created for political opponents, aliens, specific ethnic or religious groups, civilians of a critical war-zone, or other groups of people, often during a war. ... Combatants United Kingdom Australia New Zealand Canada Cape Colony Orange Free State South African Republic Royal Dutch Navy (Evacuation of Paul Kruger only) Commanders Redvers Buller Herbert Kitchener Frederick Roberts Martinus Steyn Christiaan de Wet Paul Kruger Louis Botha Koos de la Rey Casualties 5000 - 6000 Battlefield casualties, 15,000... Scientific racism is racist propaganda disguised as science. ... Joseph Arthur Comte de Gobineau (July 14, 1816 - October 13, 1882) was a French aristocrat who became famous for advocating White Supremacy and developing the racialist theory of the Aryan master race in his book An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races (1853-1855). ... An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races (1853-1855) by Joseph Arthur Comte de Gobineau is a milestone of Scientific racism (aka racialism) and White supremacy. ... Genocide is defined by the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (CPPCG) article 2 as any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnic, racial or religious group, as such: Killing members of the group; Causing... Michel Foucault (IPA pronunciation: ) (October 15, 1926 – June 25, 1984) was a French philosopher and historian. ... State racism is a concept used by French philosopher Michel Foucault to designate the reappropriation of the historical and political discourse of race struggle, In the late seventeenth century. ... A neologism invented by Michel Foucault, the term Biopolitics or Biopolitical can refer to several different yet not incompatible concepts: In the work of Michel Foucault, the style of government that regulates populations through biopower. ...


Finally, many have pointed the ancient roots of antisemitism, which has been present in the Western world since the foundation of Christianity. These sentiments were not different in pre-war Germany than elsewhere, but the Nazis were the first political party to organize, promote, and officialize antisemitism, while withdrawing legal protection from Jews. Modern efforts at ecumenism, in particular by the Roman Catholic Church which has asked the Jews for a pardon, are being made in order to avoid a repetition of such acts. Manifestations Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching Hate speech · Hate crime · Hate groups Genocide · Holocaust · Pogrom Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing · Race war Religious persecution · Gay bashing Pedophobia · Ephebiphobia Movements Discriminatory Aryanism · Neo-Nazism · Supremacism Kahanism Anti-discriminatory Abolitionism · Civil rights Gays/Transsexes/Intersexes rights Womens/Universal suffrage · Feminism Mens/Fathers rights... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... The word ecumenism (also oecumenism, œcumenism) is derived from Greek (oikoumene), which means the inhabited world, and was historically used with specific reference to the Roman Empire. ... The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic Church (see terminology below) is the Christian Church in full communion with the Bishop of Rome, currently Pope Benedict XVI. It traces its origins to the original Christian community founded by Jesus Christ and led by the Twelve Apostles, in particular Saint Peter. ...


Aftermath

Until recently, Germany refused to allow access to massive Holocaust-related archives located in Bad Arolsen due to, among other factors, privacy concerns. However, in May 2006, a 20-year effort by the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum led to the announcement that 30-50 million pages would be made accessible to historians and survivors.[91] Bad Arolsen (until 1997: Arolsen) is a city in the District of Waldeck-Frankenberg, northern Hesse, with a population of 17,000 (2003). ... Exterior of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum viewed from 14th St. ...


Displaced Persons and the State of Israel

Main article: Sh'erit ha-Pletah

The Holocaust and its aftermath left millions of refugees, including many Jews who had lost most or all of their family members and possessions, and often faced persistent anti-Semitism in their home countries. The original plan of the Allies was to repatriate these "Displaced Persons" to their country of origin, but many refused to return, or were unable to as their homes or communities had been destroyed. As a result, more than 250,000 languished in DP camps for years after the war ended. A displaced persons camp is in principle any temporary facility for displaced persons but in common usage refers to camps for individuals displaced as a result of World War II, particularly refugees from Eastern Europe. ...


While Zionism had been prominent before the Holocaust, afterwards it became almost universally accepted among Jews. Many Zionists, pointing to the fact that Jewish refugees from Germany and Nazi-occupied lands had been turned away by other countries, argued that if a Jewish state had existed at the time, the Holocaust could not have occurred on the scale it did. With the rise of Zionism, Palestine became the destination of choice for Jewish refugees, but local Arabs opposed the immigration, the United Kingdom refused to allow Jewish refugees into the Mandate, and many countries in the Soviet Bloc made any emigration illegal. Former Jewish partisans in Europe, along with the Haganah in Palestine, organized a massive effort to smuggle Jews into Palestine, called Berihah, which eventually transported 250,000 Jews (both DPs and those who hid during the war) to the Mandate. By 1952, the Displaced Persons camps were closed, with over 80,000 Jewish DPs in the United States, about 136,000 in Israel, and another 20,000 in other nations, including Canada and South Africa. Zionism is a political movement that supports a homeland for the Jewish people in the Land of Israel, where Jewish nationhood is thought to have evolved somewhere between 1200 BCE and late Second Temple times,[1][2] and where Jewish kingdoms existed up to the 2nd century CE. Zionism is... Map of the territory under the British Mandate of Palestine. ... Haganah Poster (1940s) The Haganah (Hebrew: The Defense, ×”×”×’× ×”) was a Jewish paramilitary organization in what was then the British Mandate for Palestine from 1920 to 1948. ... Berihah (literally escape in Hebrew) was the organized effort to help Jews escape post-Holocaust Europe for the British Mandate of Palestine. ...


Legal proceedings against Nazis

Defendants at the Nuremberg Trials - Front row: Göring, Heß, Ribbentrop, and Keitel. Second row: Dönitz, Raeder, Schirach, Sauckel.
Defendants at the Nuremberg Trials - Front row: Göring, Heß, Ribbentrop, and Keitel. Second row: Dönitz, Raeder, Schirach, Sauckel.

The juridical notion of crimes against humanity was developed following the Holocaust. The sheer number of people murdered and the transnational nature of the slaughter shattered any notion of national sovereignty taking precedence over international law when prosecuting these crimes. There were a number of legal efforts established to bring Nazis and their collaborators to justice. Some of the higher ranking Nazi officials were tried as part of the Nuremberg Trials, presided over by an Allied court; the first international tribunal of its kind. In total, 5,025 Nazi criminals were convicted between 1945-1949 in the American, British and French zones of Germany[citation needed]. Other trials were conducted in the countries in which the defendants were citizens — in West Germany and Austria, many Nazis were let off with light sentences, with the claim of "following orders" ruled a mitigating circumstance, and many returned to society soon afterwards. Download high resolution version (1187x928, 239 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (1187x928, 239 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The Süddeutsche Zeitung announces The Verdict in Nuremberg. ... This article is in need of attention. ... The Süddeutsche Zeitung announces The Verdict in Nuremberg. ... The Nuremberg Defense is a legal defense that essentially states that the defendant was only following orders (befehl ist befehl) and is therefore not responsible for his crimes. ...


An ongoing effort to pursue Nazis and collaborators resulted, famously, in the capture of Holocaust organizer Adolf Eichmann in Argentina (an operation led by Rafi Eitan) and to his subsequent trial in Israel in 1961.[92]. Simon Wiesenthal became one of the most famous Nazi hunters. Some former Nazis, however, escaped any charges. Thus, Reinhard Gehlen a former intelligence officer of the Wehrmacht, managed to turn around and work for the CIA, and created in 1956 the Bundesnachrichtendienst (BND), the German intelligence agency, which he directed until 1968. The pursuit of Nazi collaborators refers to the post-WWII pursuit and apprehension of individuals who were not citizens of the Third Reich at the outbreak of World War II and collaborated with the Nazi regime during the war. ... Adolf Eichmann in Germany in 1940 Otto Adolf Eichmann (known as Adolf Eichmann; March 19, 1906 – June 1, 1962) was a high-ranking Nazi and SS Obersturmbannführer (Lieutenant Colonel). ... Rafael (Rafi) Eitan Rafael (Rafi) Eitan (Hebrew: רפי איתן) (born November 23, 1926) is the leader of Gil - Gimlaey Yisrael LaKneset (pensioners of Israel to the Knesset) party which has won an unexpected large number of seats in the Israeli legislative election of 2006. ... Simon Wiesenthal Simon Wiesenthal, KBE, (Buczacz, December 31, 1908 – Vienna, September 20, 2005) was an Austrian-Jewish architectural engineer who became a Nazi hunter after surviving the Holocaust. ... This article is about former Nazis; for active groups, see: Neo-Nazism. ... Reinhard Gehlen (April 3, 1902 – June 8, 1979) was a Major General in the Nazi Wehrmacht during World War II, with the position of chief of intelligence-gathering on the Eastern Front. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... The Bundesnachrichtendienst (Federal Intelligence Service, BND) is the foreign intelligence agency of the German government, under the control of the Bundeskanzleramt (Federal Chancellery). ...


Klaus Barbie, known as "the Butcher of Lyon" for his role at the head of the Gestapo, was protected from 1945 to 1955 by the MI5 and the CIA, before fleeing to South America where he had a hand in Luis García Meza Tejada's 1980 Cocaine Coup in Bolivia.[citation needed] Barbie was finally arrested in 1983 and sentenced to life imprisonment for crimes against humanity in 1987. Klaus Barbie in Army NCO Uniform. ... Lyons), see Lyons (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Luis García Meza Tejada (b. ... This article is in need of attention. ...


In October 2005, Aribert Heim (aka "Doctor Death") was found to be living for twenty years in Spain, protected by ODESSA.[citation needed] Aribert Heim Aribert Heim (born June 28, 1914) is an Austrian doctor and one of the worlds most wanted Nazi war criminals. ...


Legal action against genocide

The Holocaust also galvanized the international community to take action against future genocide, including the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide in 1948. While international human rights law moved forward quickly in the wake of the Holocaust, international criminal law has been slower to advance; after the Nuremberg trials and the Japanese war crime trials it was over forty years until the next such international criminal procedures, in 1993 in Yugoslavia. In 2002, the International Criminal Court was set up. The Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide was adopted by the UN General Assembly in December 1948 and came into effect in January 1951. ... The Tribunal building in The Hague. ... Official logo of the ICC. The International Criminal Court (ICC) was established in 2002 as a permanent tribunal to prosecute individuals for genocide, crimes against humanity, crime of aggression, and war crimes, as defined by several international agreements, most prominently the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. ...


Although the Holocaust is often cited as the canonical example of genocide, none of its perpetrators were tried for that crime, as the crime of genocide had not been established at that stage. The first-ever convictions for genocide under the 1948 Convention were handed down on September 2, 1998, when the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda found Jean-Paul Akayesu, the former mayor of a small town in Rwanda, guilty of nine counts of genocide committed during the Rwandan Genocide in 1994. No state has as yet been convicted of genocide. Only one inter-state case has so far been brought before the International Court of Justice, that of Bosnia and Herzegovina v. Serbia and Montenegro, which has yet to be resolved. September 2 is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean [1]. // Coated in ice, power and telephone lines sag and often break, resulting in power outages. ... Wanted poster for the ICTR The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) is a court under the auspices of the United Nations for the prosecution of offenses committed in Rwanda during the genocide which occurred there during April, 1994, commencing on April 6. ... Jean-Paul Akayesu is the former mayor of Taba, a small town in Rwanda, who was found guilty of nine counts of genocide by the United Nations International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda on September 2, 1998. ... The Rwandan Genocide was the 1994 mass extermination of hundreds of thousands of ethnic Tutsis and moderate Hutu sympathizers in Rwanda and was the largest atrocity during the Rwandan Civil War. ... The International Court of Justice (known colloquially as the World Court or ICJ; French: ) is the primary judicial organ of the United Nations. ... Peace Palace at the Hague The Bosnian genocide case at the International Court of Justice (also known as Bosnia and Herzegovina v. ...


Survivors' welfare

As of 2005, of the nearly 400,000 Holocaust survivors residing in Israel, 40% live below the poverty line, increasing significantly since 1999 and resulting in heated and dramatic protests on the part of survivors against the Israeli government and related agencies. The average rate of cancer among survivors is nearly two and a half times that of the national average. The average cases of colon cancer among survivors are nine times higher than the national average, which is attributed to the conditions of starvation experienced by survivors as well as extreme stress.[93][94] 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Map of countries showing percentage of population who have an income below the national poverty line The poverty line is the level of income below which one cannot afford to purchase all the resources one requires to live. ... Israels governmental system is based on several basic laws enacted by its unicameral parliament, the Knesset. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... Diagram of the stomach, colon, and rectum Colorectal cancer includes cancerous growths in the colon, rectum and appendix. ...


Impact on culture

Holocaust theology

Main article: Holocaust theology

On account of the magnitude of the Holocaust, many theologians have re-examined the classical theological views on God's goodness and actions in the world.[95] Some believers and former believers question whether people can still have any faith in God after the Holocaust, and some of the theological responses to these questions are explored in Holocaust theology. In it orthodox Jews state their reasons for why they believe the Holocaust happened and, to a more extreme degree, why they felt the Jews of Europe deserved to die.[96] This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Apostasy (from Greek αποστασία, meaning a defection or revolt , from απο, apo, away, apart, στασις, stasis, standing) is a term generally employed to describe the formal renunciation of ones religion, especially if the motive is deemed unworthy. ...


Art and literature

German philosopher Theodor Adorno famously commented that "writing poetry after Auschwitz is barbaric,"[97] and the Holocaust has indeed had a profound impact on art and literature, for both Jews and non-Jews. Some of the more famous works are by Holocaust survivors or victims, such as Elie Wiesel, Primo Levi, Viktor Frankl and Anne Frank, but there is a substantial body of literature and art in many languages. Indeed, Paul Celan wrote his poem Todesfuge[98] as a direct response to Adorno's dictum. This article is in need of attention. ... Max Horkheimer (front left), Theodor Adorno (front right), and Jürgen Habermas in the background, right, in 1965 at Heidelberg. ... Auschwitz (Konzentrationslager Auschwitz) was the largest of the Nazi German concentration camps. ... Eliezer Wiesel (commonly known as Elie, born September 30, 1928)[1] is an American-Jewish novelist, political activist, and Holocaust survivor. ... Primo Levi (July 31, 1919 – April 11, 1987) was a Jewish Italian chemist, Holocaust survivor and author of memoirs, short stories, poems, and novels. ... Viktor Emil Frankl, M.D., Ph. ... Annelies Marie Anne Frank ( ) (June 12, 1929 – early March, 1945) was a European Jewish girl (born in Germany, stateless since 1941, but she claimed to be Dutch as she grew up in the Netherlands) who wrote a diary while in hiding with her family and four friends in Amsterdam during... Paul Celan Paul Celan (November 23, 1920 – approximately April 20, 1970) was the most frequently used pseudonym of Paul Antschel, one of the major poets of the post-World War II era. ...


The Holocaust has also been the subject of many films, including Oscar winners Schindler's List and Life Is Beautiful. With the aging population of Holocaust survivors, there has been increasing attention in recent years to preserving the memory of the Holocaust. The result has included extensive efforts to document their stories, including the Survivors of the Shoah project and Four Seasons Documentary,[99] as well as institutions devoted to memorializing and studying the Holocaust, including Yad Vashem in Israel and the US Holocaust Museum. The historic tale of the Danish Jews fleeing to Sweden by fishing boat is recounted in an award-winning American children's novel.[100] Schindlers List is an Academy Award, Golden Globe, BAFTA and Grammy winning 1993 movie based on the book Schindlers Ark by Thomas Keneally. ... Life Is Beautiful (Italian: La vita è bella) is a 1997 Italian language film which tells the story of an Italian Jew, Guido Orefice (played by Roberto Benigni, who also directed and co-wrote the film), who lives in his own romantic fairy tale world, but must learn how to use... Holocaust Memorial for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania by David Ascalon (1994). ... An exterior view of the Yad Vashem Holocaust memorial museum in Jerusalem. ... Exterior of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum viewed from 14th St. ...


Freemasonry

After World War II, the blue forget-me-not[101] flower was used again as a masonic emblem at the 1948, first Annual Convention of the United Grand Lodges of Germany, Ancient Free & Accepted Masons. The badge is now worn in the coat lapel by freemasons around the world to remember all those that have suffered in the name of Freemasonry, and specifically those during the Nazi era.[102][103] Memorial of the KZ Esterwegen close-up Liberté chérie was the only known Masonic Lodge to be founded in a Nazi concentration camp during the Second World War. ...


Holocaust Memorial Days

Main article: Yom HaShoah

In a unanimous vote, the United Nations General Assembly voted on November 1, 2005, to designate January 27 as the "International Day of Commemoration in Memory of the Victims of the Holocaust." January 27, 1945 is the day that the former Nazi concentration and extermination camp of Auschwitz-Birkenau was liberated. Even before the UN vote, January 27 was already observed as Holocaust Memorial Day in the United Kingdom since 2001, as well as other countries, including Sweden, Italy, Germany, Finland, Denmark and Estonia.[104] Israel observes Yom HaShoah vea hagvora, the "Day of Remembrance of the Holocaust and the courage of the Jewish people ," on the 27th day of the Hebrew month of Nisan, which generally falls in April.[105] This memorial day is also commonly observed by Jews outside of Israel.[106] Yom haShoah VeHagvura or Yom HaShoah (יום השואה yom ha-sho’āh, יום הזיכרון לשואה ולגבורה-Yom ha-zikaron la-Shoah vla-Gvura), or The Remembrance day of The Holocaust and the Heroism, takes place on the 27th day of Nisan, in the Hebrew calendar. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 60 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 27 is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Holocaust Memorial Day (27 January) is a national event in the United Kingdom dedicated to the remembrance of the victims of the Holocaust. ... Yom haShoah VeHagvura or Yom HaShoah (יום השואה yom ha-sho’āh, יום הזיכרון לשואה ולגבורה-Yom ha-zikaron la-Shoah vla-Gvura), or The Remembrance day of The Holocaust and the Heroism, takes place on the 27th day of Nisan, in the Hebrew calendar. ... Nisan (Hebrew: נִיסָן, Standard Nisan Tiberian Nîsān ; from Akkadian , from Sumerian nisag First fruits) is the first month of the civil year and the seventh month (eighth, in leap year) of the ecclesiastical year on the Hebrew calendar. ... The Jewish diaspora (Hebrew: Tefutzah, scattered, or Galut גלות, exile, Yiddish: tfutses) is the dispersion of the Jewish people throughout Babylonia and the Roman Empire. ...


Holocaust denial

Main article: Holocaust denial

Holocaust denial is the assertion that the Holocaust did not occur, or that far fewer than six million Jews were killed by the Nazis; that there never was a centrally planned attempt to exterminate the Jews; or that there were no mass killings at the extermination camps. Those who hold this position often claim that Jews or Zionists know that the Holocaust did not occur and are engaged in a conspiracy to further their political agenda. As the Holocaust is considered by historians to be one of the most well-documented events in recent history,[citation needed] these views are not accepted as credible, with organizations such as the American Historical Association stating that Holocaust denial is "at best, a form of academic fraud."[107] Public espousal of Holocaust denial is a crime in several countries, including Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Israel, Italy, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia and Switzerland. See Laws against Holocaust denial for details. Richard Harwoods Did Six Million Really Die? Holocaust denial is the claim that the mainstream historical version of the Holocaust is either highly exaggerated or completely falsified. ... Zionism is a political movement that supports a homeland for the Jewish people in the Land of Israel, where Jewish nationhood is thought to have evolved somewhere between 1200 BCE and late Second Temple times,[1][2] and where Jewish kingdoms existed up to the 2nd century CE. Zionism is... The American Historical Association (AHA) is a society of historians and teachers of history founded in 1884 and incorporated by the United States Congress in 1889. ... Richard Harwoods Did Six Million Really Die? Holocaust denial is the claim that the mainstream historical version of the Holocaust is either highly exaggerated or completely falsified. ...


Holocaust deniers often prefer to be called Holocaust "revisionists." Most scholars contend that the term is misleading. Historical revisionism is a mainstream part of the study of history; it is the reexamination of accepted history, with an eye towards updating it. In contrast, negationists may willfully misuse historical records; as Gordon McFee writes: "Revisionists depart from the conclusion that the Holocaust did not occur and work backwards through the facts to adapt them to that preordained conclusion. Put another way, they reverse the proper methodology ... thus turning the proper historical method of investigation and analysis on its head."[108] Public Opinion Quarterly summarized that: "No reputable historian questions the reality of the Holocaust, and those promoting Holocaust denial are overwhelmingly anti-Semites and/or neo-Nazis." In Parson Weems Fable (1939) Grant Wood takes a sly poke at a traditional hagiographical account of George Washington Historical revisionism has both a legitimate academic use and a pejorative meaning. ... History studies the past in human terms. ... Historical revisionism is the attempt to change commonly held ideas about the past. ... Public Opinion Quarterly is an influential scholarly journal published by The American Association for Public Opinion Research. ...


Holocaust denial has become popular among Muslim opponents of Israel. The doctoral dissertation of Mahmoud Abbas, President of the Palestinian National Authority since 2005, raised doubts that gas chambers were used for the extermination of Jews and suggested that the number of Jews killed in the Holocaust was less than a million.[109][110] Abbas has not espoused this position since his appointment as Palestinian Prime Minister in 2003, and has denied being a Holocaust denier. In late 2005 Iranian president Mahmoud Ahmadinejad described the Holocaust as "the myth of the Jews' massacre."[111][112] Mainstream Iranian television, such as the Islamic Republic of Iran News Network, broadcasts cartoons and other programs suggesting that the Holocaust is a Jewish conspiracy created primarily as a justification for the existence of the State of Israel.[113] Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... Mahmoud Abbas (Arabic: محمود عباس) (born March 26, 1935), commonly known by the kunya or nom de guerre Abu Mazen (ابو مازن), was elected President of the Palestinian National Authority (PNA) on January 9, 2005, and took office on January 15, 2005. ... Anthem: Biladi Capital Ramallah and Gaza de facto, as the current location of government institutions. ...   (Persian: ‎ ​, IPA: ), transcribed into English as Mahmud or Mahmood, Ahmadinezhad, Ahmadi-Nejad, Ahmadi Nejad, Ahmady Nejad) (born October 28, 1956) is the current president of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ... IRINN stands for Islamic Republic of Iran News Network. ...


See also

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Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... This article details the war crimes and crimes against humanity committed against ethnic Poles during World War II. 3 million non-Jewish Polish citizens perished during the course of the war, most of them civilians, killed by the actions of Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union. ... The rescue of the Danish Jews occurred during Denmarks occupation by Nazi Germany during World War II. When German authorities in Denmark ordered that Danish Jews be arrested and deported to Germany in October 1943, many Danes and Swedes took part in a collective effort to evacuate the roughly... Cartoons by Iranian cartoonist Maziyar Bizhani, submitted to the controversial cartoons of the Holocaust in Iran. ... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... Aryianization (German Arisierung) is a euphemistic term used for the expropriation of Jews in Nazi Germany, Austria and the territories it controlled. ... Bereavement in Judaism (אבלות aveilut; mourning) is a combination of minhag (traditional custom) and mitzvot (commandments) derived from Judaisms classical Torah and rabbinic texts. ... Peace Palace in The Hague Command responsibility, sometimes referred to as the Yamashita standard, or the Medina standard is the doctrine of hierarchical accountability in cases of war crimes. ... Genocide is the mass killing of a group of people as defined by Article 2 of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (CPPCG) as any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnic, racial or... Richard Harwoods Did Six Million Really Die? Holocaust denial is the claim that the mainstream historical version of the Holocaust is either highly exaggerated or completely falsified. ... Antiziganism is racism directed at the Roma people. ... Though it is debatable if a planet as complex and diverse as Earth could ever be successfully dominated by a single central authority, the concept of world domination has long been a popular theme in both history and fiction. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Dachau concentration-camp inmates on a death march through a German village in April 1945. ... There are many accusations towards the Allied Powers and international bodies that they were negligent in saving European Jews during the Holocaust. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... // North Africa The Final solution plan aspire to destroy also the Jews of North Africa. ... Autobiography of Pierre Seel, a gay man sent to a concentration camp by the Nazis Before the beginning of World War II, the homosexual people in Germany, especially in Berlin, enjoyed more freedom and acceptance than anywhere else in the world. ... Roma arrivals in the Belzec extermination camp await instructions The Porajmos (also Porrajmos) literally Devouring, or Samudaripen (Mass killing) is a term coined by the Roma (Gypsy) people to describe attempts by the Nazi regime to exterminate most of the Roma peoples of Europe during The Holocaust. ... Holocaust Memorial for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania by David Ascalon (1994). ... This is a list of composers who have written music about the Holocaust, or who were directly influenced by the holocaust. ... The Ustaše (often spelled Ustashe in English; singular Ustaša or Ustasha) was a Croatian organization placed in control of the Independent State of Croatia by the Axis Powers in 1941, which pursued Nazi policies. ... During World War II a number of Croatian Catholic priests, and some of the then bishops in the territory, cooperated with the Ustaša regime, who ran a Nazi puppet state that pursued a genocidal policy against the Serbs (who were Eastern Orthodox Christians), Jews and Roma. ... Josef Mengele Dr. Josef Mengele (March 16, 1911 – February 7, 1979), was a German SS officer and a physician in the Nazi concentration camp Auschwitz-Birkenau. ... Irma Grese (October 7, 1923 Wrechen near Pasewalk (Mecklenburg) – December 13, 1945 Hameln) was a supervisor at the Nazi concentration camps at Auschwitz and Bergen-Belsen. ... Friedrich Kellner in Kaisers army 1914 During the First World War Friedrich Kellner was a soldier in a Hessian infantry regiment fighting in the trenches in France, getting wounded for Kaiser and Fatherland. ... Collection of prisoners tattoos Ph Jules Rouard -Buchenwald 1945 Ilse Koch, née Ilse Kohler Schnitzel (September 22, 1906 – September 1, 1967), was the wife of Karl Koch, the commandant of the concentration camp Buchenwald. ... Sherit ha-Pletah is a biblical (First Chronicles 4:43) term used by Jewish survivors of the Nazi Holocaust to refer to themselves and the communities they formed following their liberation in the spring of 1945. ... The German word Wiedergutmachung after World War II refers to the reparations that the German government agreed to pay to the direct survivors of the Holocaust, and to those who were made to work as forced labour or who otherwise became victims of the National Socialists. ... War crimes of the Wehrmacht are those crimes carried out by traditional German armed forces during World War II. While the principal perpetrators of the Holocaust amongst German armed forces were the Nazi German political armies (the Waffen-SS and particularly the Einsatzgruppen), the traditional armed forces represented by the... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Germany committed war crimes in both World War I and World War II. The most notable of these is the Holocaust, where millions of people, about half of which were Jews, were murdered. ... Japanese war crimes occurred during the period of Japanese imperialism. ...

Eugenics

Rhineland Bastard was a derogatory term used in Nazi Germany to describe children of mixed German and African or Melanesian parentage. ...

Individuals and the Holocaust

There are many famous Holocaust survivors who survived the Nazi genocides in Europe only to go on to achievements of great fame and notability. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This is a list of people who helped victims to escape from the Nazi Holocaust during World War II, often called rescuers. The list is not exhaustive, concentrating on famous cases, or people who saved the lives of many potential victims. ... Righteous Among the Nations (Hebrew: חסידי אומות העולם, Hasidei Umot HaOlam), in contemporary usage, is a term often used to describe non-Jews who risked their lives during the Holocaust in order to save Jews from extermination by the Nazis. ... Dr. Rudolf Vrba in 1997. ...

Nazi concentration camps

See List of Nazi concentration camps, Nazi extermination camp See also the related List of German concentration camps Concentration camp in Nazi Germany. ... The extermination camps were the facilities established by Nazi Germany in World War II initially for the killing of the Jews of Europe as part of what was later deemed The Holocaust. ...

Auschwitz, in English, commonly refers to the Auschwitz concentration camp complex built near the town of Oświęcim, by Nazi Germany during World War II. Rarely, it may refer to the Polish town of Oświęcim (called by the Germans Auschwitz) itself. ... Belzec was the first of the Nazi German extermination camps created for implementing Operation Reinhard during the Holocaust. ... For other uses, see Bergen-Belsen. ... The CheÅ‚mno extermination camp was a Nazi extermination camp that was situated 70 km from Łódź near a small village called CheÅ‚mno nad Nerem (Kulmhof an der Nehr, in German), in Greater Poland (which was, in 1939, annexed and incorporated into Germany under the name of Reichsgau Wartheland). ... The main entrance just after the liberation Memorial at the camp, 1997. ... Flossenbürg concentration camp was a German prison built in 1938 at Flossenbürg, in the Oberpfalz region of Bavaria. ... Grini fangeleir is the name of a Nazi concentration camp located outside of Oslo, Norway in the municipality of Bærum. ... Jasenovac is a municipality in Central Croatia, in the southern part of the Sisak-Moslavina county at the confluence of the river Una into Sava. ... This article deals with the Klooga concentration camp. ... Majdanek in the winter, 2005 Majdanek is the site of a German Nazi concentration and extermination camp, roughly 2. ... Image:Mutilation skarskarrskano. ... View of the barracks at Ravensbrück Ravensbrück was a German concentration camp located 90 km north of Berlin at a site near the village of Ravensbrück in northern Germany. ... Treblinka is a small village in the Mazowieckie voivodship (province) of Poland. ...

Ghettos

The Ghetto Heroes Memorial The Warsaw Ghetto was the largest of the Jewish ghettos established by Nazi Germany in General Government during the Holocaust in World War II. In the three years of its existence, starvation, disease and deportations to concentration camps and extermination camps dropped the population of the... Judenrats, German for Jewish council, were administrative bodies that the Germans required Jews to form in each ghetto in General Government (the Nazi-occupied teritory of Poland) and later in the occupied territories of the Soviet Union. ...

Massacres and pogroms

Białystok (pronounced: , Belarusian: , Lithuanian: , Yiddish ביאַליסטאָק) is the largest city (pop. ... Babi Yar (Ukrainian: Бабин яр, Babyn yar; Russian: Бабий яр, Babiy yar) is a ravine in Kiev, the capital of Ukraine, located between Frunze and Melnyk Streets between the Kyryliv church and Olena Teliha Street. ... On 1 July 1940, in the town of Dorohoi in Romania, Romanian military units performed a pogrom against the local Jews, during which, according to an official Romanian report, 53 Jews were murdered, and dozens injured. ... ... After the German attack on the Soviet Union in June 1941, special Einsatzgruppen were organized to kill as many Jews as it was possible on the Polish areas annexed by Soviet Union. ... Location Ethnographic region Aukštaitija County Kaunas County Municipality Kaunas city municipality Coordinates Number of elderates 11 General Information Capital of Kaunas County Kaunas city municipality Kaunas district municipality Population 361,274 in 2005 (2nd) First mentioned 1361 Granted city rights 1408 Kaunas ( (help· info), approximate English transcription [ˈkəʊ.n... Kristallnacht, also known as Reichskristallnacht, Pogromnacht, Crystal Night and the Night of Broken Glass, was a pogrom[1] against Jews throughout Germany and parts of Austria on November 9–10, 1938. ... The Legionnaires Rebellion and the Bucharest Pogrom occurred in Bucharest, Romania, between the 21st and the 23rd of January, 1941. ... Motto: Semper fidelis Location Map of Ukraine with Lviv. ... Paneriai (Polish: , German: ) is a suburb of Vilnius, situated about 10 kilometres away from the city centre. ... The Odessa Massacre was the extermination of Jews and Communists in Odessa during the autumn of 1941. ...

Jewish resistance

Poland

Å»ydowski ZwiÄ…zek Walki (Å»ZW, Polish for Jewish Fighting Union) was an underground organisation operating during World War II in the area of Warsaw Ghetto and fighting during Warsaw Ghetto Uprising. ... Other languages FAQs | Table free Welcome to Wikipedia, the free-content encyclopedia that anyone can edit. ... Combatants Nazi Germany {SS, SD, Gestapo, Order Police, Wehrmacht} Collaborators {Blue Police, Jewish Ghetto Police} Jewish resistance (Å»OB, Å»ZW) Polish resistance (Armia Krajowa Gwardia Ludowa) Commanders Ferdinand von Sammern-Frankenegg Jürgen Stroop Mordechai Anielewicz†, Dawid Apfelbaum†, PaweÅ‚ Frenkiel†, Icchak Cukierman, Marek Edelman, Zivia Lubetkin, Henryk IwaÅ„ski Strength Official... BiaÅ‚ystok Ghetto Uprising was an insurrection in Polands BiaÅ‚ystok Ghetto against Germany during World War II. It was organised and led by Antyfaszystowska Organizacja Bojowa (Polish for Anti-fascist Military Organisation). ... Marcinkance Ghetto Uprising was an insurrection in Polands Marcinkance, now Lithuanias Marcinkonys Ghetto against Germany during World War II. It was organized and led by the leadership of the Jewish community in the small town. ... Sobibór was a Nazi German extermination camp that was part of Operation Reinhard, the official German name was SS-Sonderkommando Sobibor. ...

External links, references, resources

External links, references, books and other resources are listed here. Holocaust resources for main article The Holocaust. ...

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Notes

  1. ^ Niewyk, Donald L. The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust, Columbia University Press, 2000, p.45: "The Holocaust is commonly defined as the murder of more than 5,000,000 Jews by the Germans in World War II." Also see "The Holocaust," Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2007: "the systematic state-sponsored killing of six million Jewish men, women, and children and millions of others by Nazi Germany and its collaborators during World War II. The Germans called this "the final solution to the Jewish question."
  2. ^ Berenbaum, Michael. The World Must Know, The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.
  3. ^ "Holcoaust:Non-Jewish victims of Nazism"], Encyclopaedia Britannica.
  4. ^ Holocaust Forgotten lists five million non-Jewish victims of the Holocaust. Donald Niewyk suggests that the broadest definition would produce a death toll of 17 million. A figure of 26 million is given in Service d'Information des Crimes de Guerre: Crimes contre la Personne Humain, Camps de Concentration (Paris, 1946), 197.
  5. ^ "The Holocaust: Definition and Preliminary Discussion," Yad Vashem (accessed June 8, 2005) And www.berkeleyinternet.com/holocaust/
  6. ^ a b "Genocide," Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2007.
  7. ^ Lemkin, Raphael. [Axis Rule in Occupied Europe: Laws of Occupation - Analysis of Government - Proposals for Redress Chapter IX: Genocide a new term and new conception for destruction of nations, (Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 1944), pages 79 - 95
  8. ^ *Rosenfeld, Gavriel D. The Politics of Uniqueness: Reflections on the Recent Polemical Turn in Holocaust and Genocide Scholarship Holocaust and Genocide Studies 1999 13(1):28-61; doi:10.1093/hgs/13.1.28
  9. ^ a b Counted for Persecution; IBM's Role in the Holocaust.
  10. ^ Information and Technology in the Holocaust.
  11. ^ Richard Overy, Russia's War. Penguin Books; 1998.
  12. ^ The extermination camps. Encyclop&ae;dia Britannica Online.
  13. ^ Black, Edwin (2001). IBM and the Holocaust: The Strategic Alliance Between Nazi Germany and America's Most Powerful Corporation. Three Rivers Press, 560. ISBN 0-609-80899-0. 
  14. ^ Holocaust Map of Concentration and Death Camps.
  15. ^ Martin Gilbert, The Oxford Companion to World War II Oxford: Oxford UP, 1995
  16. ^ [1]
  17. ^ Harran, Marilyn (2000). The Holocaust Chronicles, A History in Words and Pictures. Louis Weber, Pg.108. ISBN 0-7853-2963-3. 
  18. ^ Harran, Marilyn (2000). The Holocaust Chronicles, A History in Words and Pictures. Louis Weber, Pg.108. ISBN 0-7853-2963-3. 
  19. ^ Harran, Marilyn (2000). The Holocaust Chronicles, A History in Words and Pictures. Louis Weber, Pg.108. ISBN 0-7853-2963-3. 
  20. ^ Harran, Marilyn (2000). The Holocaust Chronicles, A History in Words and Pictures. Louis Weber, Pg.108. ISBN 0-7853-2963-3. 
  21. ^ CONCENTRATION CAMPS, 1942-1945. Holocaust Encyclopedia.
  22. ^ Children. Holocaust Encyclopedia. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Retrieved on 2007-01-06.
  23. ^ Holocaust - Medical Experiments.
  24. ^ Harran, Marilyn (2000). The Holocaust Chronicles, A History in Words and Pictures. Louis Weber, Pg.384. ISBN 0-7853-2963-3. 
  25. ^ Harran, Marilyn (2000). The Holocaust Chronicles, A History in Words and Pictures. Louis Weber, Pg.384. ISBN 0-7853-2963-3. 
  26. ^ Harran, Marilyn (2000). The Holocaust Chronicles, A History in Words and Pictures. Louis Weber, Pg.384. ISBN 0-7853-2963-3. 
  27. ^ Harran, Marilyn (2000). The Holocaust Chronicles, A History in Words and Pictures. Louis Weber, Pg.728. ISBN 0-7853-2963-3. 
  28. ^ Harran, Marilyn (2000). The Holocaust Chronicles, A History in Words and Pictures. Louis Weber, Pg.726. ISBN 0-7853-2963-3. 
  29. ^ Harran, Marilyn (2000). The Holocaust Chronicles, A History in Words and Pictures. Louis Weber, Pg.752. ISBN 0-7853-2963-3. 
  30. ^ Harran, Marilyn (2000). The Holocaust Chronicles, A History in Words and Pictures. Louis Weber, Pg.755. ISBN 0-7853-2963-3. 
  31. ^ Harran, Marilyn (2000). The Holocaust Chronicles, A History in Words and Pictures. Louis Weber, Pg.747. ISBN 0-7853-2963-3. 
  32. ^ *Bosniaks in Jasenovac Concentration Camp — Congress of Bosniak Intellectuals, Sarajevo. ISBN 9789958471025. October 2006. (Holocaust Studies)
  33. ^ Commemoration of Bosniak victims of Jasenovac Meliha Pihura, Bosnjaci.net Magazine, April 13, 2007.
  34. ^ Gilbert, Martin (1990). The Holocaust: The Jewish Tragedy. Fontana, Pp 30, 239, 250, 797, 807.. ISBN 0-00-637194-9. 
  35. ^ Douglas Davis, "7 million died in Holocaust," Jerusalem Post, May 20, 1997 (accessed June 8, 2005).
  36. ^ "How many Jews were murdered in the Holocaust? How do we know? Do we have their names?," Yad Vashem (accessed June 8, 2005). A detailed breakdown of various estimates of the victims is available from the Online Library of the United States Holocaust Museum (accessed August 10, 2005)
  37. ^ [http://holocaust-history.org/~rjg/deaths.shtml
  38. ^ Poles: Victims of the Nazi Era at the US Holocaust Museum
  39. ^ a b Freemasons for Dummies, Christopher Hodapp, ISBN 0-7645-9796-5, Hungry Minds Inc, U.S., 2005.
  40. ^ According to the United States Holocaust Museum [2].
  41. ^ Hilberg, Raul. The destruction of the European Jews (Yale Univ. Press, 2003, c1961).
  42. ^ Yisrael Gutman, Michael Berenbaum, Raul Hilberg, Franciszek Piper, Yehuda Bauer, Anatomy of the Auschwitz Death Camp, Indiana University Press, 1998, p.71.
  43. ^ Gilbert, Martin, Atlas of the Holocaust, New York: William Morrow and Company, Inc, 1993.
  44. ^ Lucy Dawidowicz, The War Against The Jews, 1933 – 1945, New York : Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1975 ISBN 0-03-013661-X
  45. ^ Wolfgang Benz in Dimension des Volksmords: Die Zahl der Jüdischen Opfer des Nationalsozialismus (Munich: Deutscher Taschebuch Verlag, 1991). Israel Gutman, Encyclopedia of the Holocaust, Macmillan Reference Books; Reference edition (October 1, 1995)
  46. ^ The US Holocaust Memorial Museum Data: "The most reliable figures place the number of Serbs killed by the Ustaša between 330,000 and 390,000, with 45,000 to 52,000 Serbs murdered in Jasenovac."
  47. ^ atlas of 20th century history
  48. ^ a b Holocaust Timeline: The Camps. A Teacher's Guide to the Holocaust. University of South Florida. Retrieved on 2007-01-06.
  49. ^ Harran, Marilyn (2000). The Holocaust Chronicles, A History in Words and Pictures. Louis Weber, Pg.321. ISBN 0-7853-2963-3. 
  50. ^ Harran, Marilyn (2000). The Holocaust Chronicles, A History in Words and Pictures. Louis Weber, Pg.461. ISBN 0-7853-2963-3. 
  51. ^ Just a Normal Day in the Camps. JewishGen. Retrieved on 2007-01-06.
  52. ^ Harran, Marilyn (2000). The Holocaust Chronicles, A History in Words and Pictures. Louis Weber, Pg.321. ISBN 0-7853-2963-3. 
  53. ^ A. Hitler, Mein Kampf, pages 315 and 320.
  54. ^ Documented evidence from the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum pertaining to the persecution of the Freemasons accessed 21 May 2006
  55. ^ The Encyclopedia of the Holocaust, volume 2, page 531, citing Katz, Jews and Freemasons in Europe.
  56. ^ (German) Das Vergißmeinnicht-Abzeichen und die Freimaurerei, Die wahre Geschichte Accessed July 8, 2006.
  57. ^ "THE BLUE FORGET-ME-NOT" - ANOTHER SIDE OF THE STORY Accessed July 8, 2006.
  58. ^ Die Freimaurer-Logen Deutschlands und deren Grosslogen 1737-1972 (Quatuor Coronati Bayreuth, Hamburg 1974). Second revised edition, Karl Heinz Francke and Dr. Ernst-Günther Geppert, Die Freimaurer-Logen Deutschlands und deren Grosslogen 1737-1985 (Hamburg 1988).
  59. ^ LITHUANIA. The Holocaust Revealed.
  60. ^ Backstory: A priest's crusade on Holocaust. Christian Science Monitor.
  61. ^ Kimel, Alexander. THE BELZEC DEATH CAMP. Retrieved on 2007-01-23.
  62. ^ Trials of German Major War Criminals: Volume 20. The Nizkor Project. Retrieved on 2007-01-23.
  63. ^ Gilbert, The Oxford Companion to World War II.
  64. ^ Persecution and Resistance of Jehovah's Witnesses During the Nazi-Regime 1933-1945 Social Disinterest, Governmental Disinformation, Renewed Persecution, and Now Manipulation of History? p.251
  65. ^ Donald L Niewyk, The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust, Columbia University Press, 200, p 83-87. For Reserve Police 101 see Browning, Christopher R., Ordinary Men: Reserve Police Battalion 101 and the Final Solution in Poland, New York, Harper Collins, 1992
  66. ^ Davis, Douglas. "British bank implicated in Nazi dealings", Jewish News of Greater Phoenix, 1999-04-02. Retrieved on 2007-01-23. 
  67. ^ Boyadjieff, Christo. Saving the Bulgarian Jews in World War II. excerpted at Salvation of Bulgarian Jews during WW II Collection of Materials - URL retrieved September 20, 2006.
  68. ^ Executive Summary: Historical Findings (PDF). Final Report of the International Commission on the Holocaust in Romania. Yad Vashem (The Holocaust Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance Authority). Retrieved on 2007-01-23.
  69. ^ "The Holocaust in Hungary" Prof. Jonathan Petropoulos, Claremont McKenna College. See also the Hungarian Holocaust Museum, also
  70. ^ "Holocaust Encyclopedia," (accessed April 25, 2007).
  71. ^ a b See René Rémond's classic study on "The Right [wings] in France" (Les Droites en France), and also Zeev Sternhell's arguments according to which fascism was invented in France at the early 20th century, before being adopted and transformed into a popular movement in Italy. French historians, such as Pierre Milza and Serge Bernstein, have argued that there was no "French fascism", because although some groups, such as the PPF and others, adopted fascist and even Nazi postures, fascism never became really popular. Against Sternhell, they argue that fascism cannot be reduced to an intellectual movement, and must necessarily be considered in its mass dimension.
  72. ^ Van Doorslaer, Rudi (February 2007), "Docile Belgium", Center for Historical Research and Documentation on War and Contemporary Society, Brussels 
  73. ^ Extent of Belgian collaboration with Nazis revealed. Daily Mail (February 14 2007).
  74. ^ "Jasenovac" at the Jewish Virtual Library
  75. ^ "The Holocaust in Latvia: An introduction" by Andrew Ezergailis, book excerpt, The Historical Institute of Latvia, 1996.
  76. ^ Max Jakobson Commission Investigation of Crimes Against Humanity, "[3] Report"
  77. ^ Ad van Liempt, A Price on Their Heads, Kopgeld, Dutch bounty hunters in search of Jews, 1943, NLPVF (accessed June 8, 2005).
  78. ^ Richard Breitman, "What Diplomats Learned about the Holocaust," US National Archives (accessed August 30, 2005).
  79. ^ Robert S. Wistrich: Hitler and the Holocaust. Chapter 7. London 2001.
  80. ^ When did the American press first report on the "Final Solution"? (USHMM Research Library). Accessed 2006-08-17
  81. ^ "11 Allies Condemn Nazi War on Jews: United Nations Issue Joint Declaration of Protest on 'Cold-Blooded Extermination'". New York Times, 18 December 1942, pp.1, 10.
  82. ^ Robert S. Wistrich: Hitler and the Holocaust. Chapter 7. London 2001.
  83. ^ Robert Gellately: Backing Hitler. Consent and Coercion in Nazi Germany, Oxford University Press, 2001 ISBN 0192802917 - Review by Simon Miller
  84. ^ Longerich, Peter: Davon haben wir nichts gewusst! Die Deutschen und die Judenverfolgung 1933-1945. Siedler Verlag, München 2006. ISBN 3886808432
  85. ^ "mindestens neun Zehntel der Bevölkerung weiß nicht, daß wir Hunderttausende von Juden umgebracht haben. Man glaubt weiterhin, sie seien lediglich abgesondert worden und führten etwa dasselbe Leben wie zuvor, nur weiter im Osten, woher sie stammten, vielleicht etwas armseliger, aber ohne Luftangriffe.", Moltke's letter to Lionel Curtis, 23. March 1943
  86. ^ Theodor Adorno and Max Horkheimer, Dialectic of Enlightenment, 2002 translation)
  87. ^ See also Enzo Traverso, "Nazism’s roots in European culture - Production line of murder" in Le Monde diplomatique, February 2005
  88. ^ "Savage Modernism", Russell Jacoby, The Nation, October 13, 2003 issue
  89. ^ Bullying in Schools - URL retrieved September 2, 2006
  90. ^ a b Prechter, Robert R., Jr. 2000. The Wave Principle of Human Social Behavior and the New Science of Socionomics. New Classics Library. ISBN 0-932750-49-4.
  91. ^ Germany to open Holocaust archives Al-Jazeera 19 April, 2006
  92. ^ The capture of Adolf Eichmann. Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved on 2007-01-21.
  93. ^ "40% of Holocaust survivors in Israel live below poverty line", Haaretz, December 29, 2005.
  94. ^ "Social Safety Nets" (PDF), In Re Holocaust Victim Assets Litigation (Swiss Banks), September 11, 2000.
  95. ^ in Cohn-Sherbok, Dan: Holocaust Theology: A Reader. New York University Press. ISBN 0-8147-1619-9. 
  96. ^ An example of such can be found in Lamm, Rabbi Dr. Norman. Is God a mass murderer? Rejecting the Haredi theodicy. Retrieved on 2007-01-23.
  97. ^ Poetry After Auschwitz: Is John Barth Relevant Anymore?.
  98. ^ Celan, Paul. Fugue of Death. Retrieved on 2007-01-23.
  99. ^ Four Seasons.
  100. ^ Number the Stars.
  101. ^ Das Vergissmeinnicht The Forget-Me-Not Accessed February 6, 2006.
  102. ^ Flower Badge as told by Galen Lodge No 2394 (UGLE) Accessed March 4, 2006.
  103. ^ Flower Badge Accessed March 4, 2006.
  104. ^ Harran, Marilyn (2000). The Holocaust Chronicles, A History in Words and Pictures. Louis Weber, Pg.697. ISBN 0-7853-2963-3. 
  105. ^ Harran, Marilyn (2000). The Holocaust Chronicles, A History in Words and Pictures. Louis Weber, Pg.697. ISBN 0-7853-2963-3. 
  106. ^ Harran, Marilyn (2000). The Holocaust Chronicles, A History in Words and Pictures. Louis Weber, Pg.697. ISBN 0-7853-2963-3. 
  107. ^ Donald L. Niewyk, ed. The Holocaust: Problems and Perspectives of Interpretation, D.C. Heath and Company, 1992.
  108. ^ Gord McFee, "why 'Revisionism' isn't," The Holocaust History Project (accessed June 8, 2005).
  109. ^ Was Abu Mazen a Holocaust Denier? By Brynn Malone (History News Network)
  110. ^ Abu Mazen: A Political Profile. Zionism and Holocaust Denial by Yael Yehoshua (MEMRI) April 29, 2003
  111. ^ Iranian Leader Denies Holocaust BBC News 14 December, 2005
  112. ^ Tom Smith, "The Polls--A Review: The Holocaust Denial Controversy." Public Opinion Quarterly 59 (Summer 1995): 269-295.
  113. ^ #1359 - Antisemitic Animated Film on Iranian TV MEMRI 12 January 2007

This page is a candidate for speedy deletion, because: If you disagree with its speedy deletion, please explain why on its talk page or at Wikipedia:Speedy deletions. ... Michael Berenbaum is an American scholar, professor, writer, and film-maker, who specializes in the study of the memorialization of the Holocaust. ... The Endowments headquarters at 1779 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. The Carnegie Endowment for International Peace is a private nonprofit organization promoting international cooperation and active international engagement by the United States of America. ... Edwin Black is an American author and journalist. ... Exterior of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum viewed from 14th St. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... 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  Results from FactBites:
 
The Holocaust (906 words)
The Holocaust was the systematic, bureaucratic, state-sponsored persecution and murder of approximately six million Jews by the Nazi regime and its collaborators.
"Holocaust" is a word of Greek origin meaning "sacrifice by fire." The Nazis, who came to power in Germany in January 1933, believed that Germans were "racially superior" and that the Jews, deemed "inferior," were an alien threat to the so-called German racial community.
During the era of the Holocaust, German authorities also targeted other groups because of their perceived "racial inferiority": Roma (Gypsies), the disabled, and some of the Slavic peoples (Poles, Russians, and others).
The Holocaust History Project Homepage (1527 words)
The Holocaust History Project is a free archive of documents, photographs, recordings, and essays regarding the Holocaust, including direct refutation of Holocaust-denial.
General Semantics and Holocaust Denial (4800 words), by Andrew E. Mathis, Ph.D. The IHR at the Crossroads (4,000 words), by Yale Edeiken.
Holocaust Denier Fred Leuchter admits he is not an engineer and nevertheless represented himself as such.
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