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Encyclopedia > The Hobbit
The Hobbit, or There and Back Again
Cover to the 1937 first edition
Cover to the 1937 first edition
Author J. R. R. Tolkien
Cover artist J. R. R. Tolkien
Country United Kingdom
Language English
Genre(s) Fantasy novel, Children's literature
Publisher George Allen & Unwin (UK) & Houghton Mifflin Co. (U.S.)
Publication date 1937
Media type Print (Hardback & Paperback) & Audio book
ISBN NA
Preceded by The Silmarillion
Followed by The Lord of the Rings
Middle-earth Portal

The Hobbit, or There and Back Again is a story for children[1][2][3] written by J. R. R. Tolkien in the tradition of the fairy tale. Tolkien wrote the story in the late 1920s initially to amuse his three sons. It was first published on September 21, 1937 to wide critical acclaim. The word Hobbit can refer to: A Hobbit – a small humanoid being belonging to the fictional Hobbit race invented by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... Image File history File links TheHobbit_FirstEdition. ... Tolkien redirects here. ... Tolkien redirects here. ... For other uses, see Country (disambiguation). ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Look up Fantasy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary For other definitions of fantasy, see fantasy (psychology). ... Childrens books redirects here. ... A publisher is a person or entity which engages in the act of publishing. ... ... Houghton Mifflin Company is a leading educational publisher in the United States. ... Hardcover books A hardcover (or hardback or hardbound) is a book bound with rigid protective covers (typically of cardboard covered with cloth, heavy paper, or sometimes leather). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... ISBN redirects here. ... This article is about the book by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... This article is about the novel. ... Image File history File links Arda. ... Tolkien redirects here. ... A fairy tale is a story, either told to children or as if told to children, concerning the adventures of mythical characters such as fairies, goblins, elves, trolls, giants, and others. ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Hobbit is set in a time "between the dawn of Faerie and the Dominion of Men,"[4] and follows the quest of home-loving Bilbo Baggins (the titular "Hobbit") to win his share of the treasure guarded by the dragon, Smaug. His journey takes him from light-hearted, rural surroundings and into darker, deeper territory,[5] meeting various denizens of the Wilderland along the way. By accepting the disreputable, romantic, fey and adventurous side of his nature (the "Tookish" side) and utilizing both his wits and common sense during the quest, Bilbo develops a new level of maturity, competence and wisdom.[6] Bilbo Baggins (2890 Third Age - ? Fourth Age) is an important character in J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium. ... Smaug in his lair: an illustration for the fantasy The Hobbit Smaug is a fictional character in The Hobbit by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth legendarium, the Took clan was the most famous Hobbit family. ...


While The Hobbit stands as a novel in its own right, it is also the precursor to Tolkien's second, longer saga The Lord of the Rings. The Hobbit has been reprinted and adapted many times since its first edition. This article is about the novel. ...

Contents

Characters

  • Bilbo Baggins, the titular protagonist, a respectable, comfort-loving, middle-aged hobbit
  • Gandalf, an itinerant wizard who introduces Bilbo to a company of thirteen dwarves, later disappearing and reappearing at key points in the story
  • Thorin Oakenshield, bombastic head of the company of dwarves and heir to a dwarven kingdom under the Lonely Mountain
  • Smaug, a dragon who long ago pillaged the dwarven kingdom of Thorin's grandfather

The plot involves a host of other characters of varying importance, such as the twelve other dwarves of the company; elves; men (humans); trolls; goblins; giant spiders; eagles; Wargs (evil wolves); Elrond the sage; Gollum, a mysterious creature inhabiting an underground lake; Beorn, a man who can assume bear-form; and Bard the Bowman, a heroic archer of Lake-town. Bilbo Baggins (2890 Third Age - ? Fourth Age) is an important character in J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium. ... For other uses, see Hobbit (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Gandalf (disambiguation). ... In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, the Wizards of Middle-earth are a small group of beings outwardly resembling Men but possessing much greater physical and mental power. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth, Dwarves (also known as the Naugrim) are beings of short stature who all possess beards and are often friendly with Hobbits, although long suspicious of Elves. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth legendarium, Thorin Oakenshield was a Dwarf, the son of Thráin II and the grandson of King Thrór. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth legendarium, the Lonely Mountain (Sindarin Erebor) is a mountain in the northeast of Rhovanion. ... Smaug in his lair: an illustration for the fantasy The Hobbit Smaug is a fictional character in The Hobbit by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium, an Elf is an individual member of one of the races that inhabit the lands of Arda. ... The race of Men in J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth books, such as The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings, refers to humanity and does not denote gender. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens world of Middle-earth, Trolls are very large (twelve feet tall or more) humanoids of great strength and poor intellect. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens fantasy writings, Orcs or Orks are a race of creatures who are used as soldiers and henchmen by both the greater and lesser villains of The Silmarillion and The Lord of the Rings — Morgoth, Sauron and Saruman. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth, the eagles were immense flying birds that were sentient, and could speak. ... Varg redirects here, for the Norwegian black metal musician see Varg Vikernes. ... Elrond Half-elven is a fictional character in J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth legendarium. ... This article is about the fictional character. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth legendarium, Beorn was a shape-shifter, a man who could assume the appearance of a great black bear. ... A fictional character in The Hobbit by J. R. R. Tolkien, Bard the Bowman of Esgaroth was one of the most skilled archers among Men, and the heir of Girion, the last king of old Dale. ... Esgaroth upon the Long Lake, also known as Lake-town, is a fictional community of Men in The Hobbit by J. R. R. Tolkien. ...


Synopsis

Gandalf tricks Bilbo into hosting a party for Thorin's band of dwarves, who sing of reclaiming the Lonely Mountain and its vast treasure from the Dragon Smaug. When the music ends, Gandalf unveils a map showing a secret door into the Mountain and proposes that the dumbfounded Bilbo serve as the expedition's "burglar." The dwarves ridicule the idea, but Bilbo, indignant, joins despite himself. J. R. R. Tolkiens universe of Middle-earth features dragons closely based on those of European legend. ... Secret passages are sometimes concealed using large items of furniture, such as this reconstruction of the bookcase that covered the entrance to Anne Franks secret room. ...


The group travel into the wild, where Gandalf saves the company from trolls and leads them to Rivendell. While there, Elrond reveals more secrets from the map. Passing over the Misty Mountains, they are caught by goblins and driven deep underground. Though Gandalf rescues them, Bilbo gets separated from the others as they flee the goblin tunnels. Lost and disoriented, he stumbles across a ring and then encounters Gollum, who engages him in a game of riddles with deadly stakes. With the help of the ring (which confers invisibility), Bilbo escapes and rejoins the dwarves, raising his reputation. The goblins and Wargs give chase and the company are saved by eagles before resting in the house of the shape-shifter Beorn. Location of Rivendell in Middle-earth marked in red Rivendell (Sindarin: Imladris) is an Elven outpost in Middle-earth, a fictional realm created by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... The Misty Mountains as seen in the prologue to The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring (2001). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A riddle is a puzzle, consisting of text with a question to answer. ... An example of how an object could appear to be invisible through the use of mirrors Invisibility is the state of an object which cannot be seen. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth legendarium, Beorn was a shape-shifter, a man who could assume the appearance of a great black bear. ...


The company enter the black forest of Mirkwood without Gandalf. In Mirkwood, Bilbo first saves the dwarves from Giant Spiders and then from the dungeons of the Wood-elves. Nearing the Lonely Mountain, the travelers are welcomed by the human inhabitants of Lake-town, who hope the dwarves will fulfil prophecies of Smaug's demise. The expedition travel to the Mountain and finds the secret door; Bilbo scouts the dragon's lair, stealing a great cup and learning of a weakness in Smaug's armour. The enraged dragon, deducing that Lake-town aided the intruder, sets out to destroy the town. A noble thrush who overheard Bilbo's report of Smaug's vulnerability reports it to Bard the Bowman, who slays the Dragon. For the game Mirkwood, see Mirkwood (mud). ... The giant spider is a monster which appears in a number of role-playing games and movies. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth, the best known Silvan Elves are the Elves of northern Mirkwood and Lothlórien. ... Genera Some 20, see text Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Turdidae The Thrushes, family Turdidae, are a group of passerine birds that occur mainly but not exclusively in the Old World. ...


When the dwarves take possession of the mountain, Bilbo finds the prized Arkenstone gem and steals it. The Wood-elves and Lake-men besiege the Mountain and request compensation for their aid, reparations for Lake-town's destruction, and settlement of old claims on the treasure. Thorin refuses and, having summoned his kin from the north, reinforces his position. Bilbo tries to ransom the Arkenstone to head off a war, but Thorin is intransigent. He banishes Bilbo, and battle seems inevitable. The Arkenstone (or Heart of the Mountain) of Thrain was a wondrous gem sought by Thorin Oakenshield in J. R. R. Tolkiens The Hobbit. ...


Gandalf reappears to warn all of an approaching army of goblins and Wargs. The dwarves, men, and elves band together, but only with the timely arrival of the eagles and Beorn do they win the Battle of Five Armies. Thorin, mortally wounded, lives long enough to part from Bilbo as a friend. The treasure is divided fairly, but, having no need or desire for it, Bilbo refuses most of his contracted share. Nevertheless, he returns home with enough to make himself a very wealthy hobbit. Combatants Dwarves of the Iron Hills and Erebor, Elves of the Woodland Realm of Mirkwood, Giant Eagles, Men of Lake-town Orcs, Wargs, Bats Commanders Gandalf, Thranduil, Bard the Bowman, Dain II Ironfoot, Thorin II Oakenshield†, Lord of the Eagles Bolg† Strength 500 Dwarves of the Iron Hills, 13 Dwarves...


Concept and creation

Writing

In a 1955 letter to W. H. Auden, Tolkien recollects that in the early 1930s, when he was Professor of Anglo-Saxon at Pembroke College, he began The Hobbit when he was marking School Certificate papers. He found one blank page. Suddenly inspired, he wrote the words, "In a hole in the ground there lived a hobbit." He did not go any further than that at the time, although in the following years he drew up Thrór's map, outlining the geography of the tale.[7] By late 1932 he had finished the story and gave it to C. S. Lewis to read.[8] It was eventually published when a family friend and student of Tolkien's named Elaine Griffiths was lent the typescript of the story.[9] In 1936, when Griffiths was visited in Oxford by Susan Dagnall, a staffmember of the publisher George Allen & Unwin, she is reported to have either lent Dagnall the book[9] or suggested she borrow it from Tolkien.[10] In any event, Miss Dagnall, impressed by it, showed the book to Stanley Unwin, who then asked his 10-year-old son Rayner to review it. Rayner wrote such an enthusiastic review of the book that it was published by Allen & Unwin.[10] Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ... Wystan Hugh Auden (21 February 1907 – 29 September 1973) IPA: ;[1], who signed his works W. H. Auden, was an Anglo-American poet, regarded by many as one of the greatest writers of the 20th century. ... College name Pembroke College Collegium Pembrochianum Named after The Earl of Pembroke Established 1624 Sister College Queens College Master Giles Henderson JCR President Dawn Rennie Undergraduates 408 MCR President Ross Nicolson Graduates 119 College Homepage Boat Club The lodge and the entrance to Pembroke College in Pembroke Square. ... This is a list of Dwarves from J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth. ... Clive Staples Jack Lewis (29 November 1898 – 22 November 1963), commonly referred to as C. S. Lewis, was an Irish author and scholar. ... Year 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Allen & Unwin, formerly a major British publishing house, is now an independent, Australia-based book publisher and distributor. ... Sir Stanley Unwin (1885-1968) was a British publisher, founder of the George Allen and Unwin house in 1914. ... Rayner S. Unwin, (1926 – November 23, 2000). ...


Publication

Dustcover of the first edition of The Hobbit. This cover was taken from a design by Tolkien, as was the binding illustrated at the top of this article.
Dustcover of the first edition of The Hobbit. This cover was taken from a design by Tolkien, as was the binding illustrated at the top of this article.

George Allen & Unwin, Ltd. of London published the first edition of The Hobbit on 21 September 1937. It was illustrated with many black-and-white drawings by Tolkien. The original printing numbered a mere 1,500 copies and sold out by December due to enthusiastic reviews.[11] Houghton Mifflin of Boston and New York prepared an American edition to be released early in 1938 in which four of the illustrations would be colour plates. Allen & Unwin decided to incorporate the colour illustrations into their second printing, released at the end of 1937.[11] Despite the book's popularity, paper rationing brought on by wartime conditions and not ending until 1949 meant that the book was often unavailable in this period.[12] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (741x1155, 145 KB) Summary A cover scan of the Hobbit by JRR Tolkien. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (741x1155, 145 KB) Summary A cover scan of the Hobbit by JRR Tolkien. ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Houghton Mifflin Company is a leading educational publisher in the United States. ... Boston redirects here. ... Midtown Manhattan, looking north from the Empire State Building, 2005 New York City (officially named the City of New York) is the most populous city in the state of New York and the entire United States. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Gas ration stamps being printed as a result of the 1973 oil crisis Rationing is the controlled distribution of resources and scarce goods or services: it restricts how much people are allowed to buy or consume. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


The first printing of the first English language edition can sell for between £6,000[13] and £20,000 at auction,[14] although the price has occasionally reached over £40,000.[15]


Following the original publication of The Hobbit in 1937, new editions in English were published in 1951, 1966, 1978 and 1995 and the novel has been reprinted frequently by various publishers.[16] In addition, The Hobbit has been translated into over forty languages. Some languages have seen multiple translations.[17] This list contains only complete, printed English-language editions of The Hobbit. ... J. R. R. Tolkiens The Hobbit has been translated into many languages. ...


Revisions

In December 1937, Tolkien's publisher Stanley Unwin asked for a sequel. The editors rejected Tolkien's drafts for the Silmarillion, believing that the public wanted "more about hobbits."[18] Tolkien subsequently began work on what would become The Lord of the Rings,[18] a course that would not only change the context of the original story, but also lead to substantial changes to the character Gollum. This article is about the novel. ...


In the first edition of The Hobbit, Gollum willingly bets his magic ring on the outcome of the riddle-game, and he and Bilbo part amicably.[19] In order to reflect the new concept of the ring and its powerful hold on Gollum, Tolkien rewrote the encounter with Gollum and sent a revised version to his publishers. He heard nothing further for years. When he was sent galley proofs of a new edition, he was surprised to learn the new chapter had been incorporated as the result of a misunderstanding.[18] In The Lord of the Rings, the original version of the riddle-game is explained as a "lie" made up by Bilbo, and the revised versions of The Hobbit contain this "true" version of events.[20] This became the second edition, published in 1951 in both the UK and America.[11] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Movable type on a composing stick In printing, galley proofs are preliminary versions of publications. ...


After an unauthorized paperback edition of The Lord of the Rings was published by Ace Books in 1965, Houghton Mifflin and Ballantine requested Tolkien provide a new authorized text of The Hobbit in order to re-assert US copyright control.[21] This text became the 1966 third edition. Tolkien took the opportunity to further adjust the narrative to conform with The Lord of the Rings and to developments in his still unpublished Quenta Silmarillion as it stood at that time.[22] These minor changes included, for example, that the phrase elves that are now called Gnomes, which appeared in the first[23] and second[24] editions on page 63, was changed to High Elves of the West, my kin in the third edition.[25]. Tolkien had used "gnome" in his earlier writing to refer to the second kindred of the High Elves—the Noldor (or "Deep Elves")—thinking "gnome," derived from the Greek gnosis (knowledge), was a good name for the wisest of the Elves. However, with its common denotation of a garden gnome, Tolkien ultimately decided to abandon the usage. Ace Books is the oldest continuing publisher of science fiction & fantasy novels, founded in 1953 by magazine publisher A. A. Wyn. ... Ballantine Books, founded in 1952 by Ian Ballantine, is a major book publisher and is currently owned by Random House. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... Quenta Silmarillion is a collection of fictional legends written by the fantasy writer J. R. R. Tolkien. ... This article is about the mythical creature. ... High elves are distinguished from other fantasy elves by their place of living, as they usually dwell in stone cities, instead of woods, like wood-elves. ... In the works of J. R. R. Tolkien, the Noldor (meaning those with knowledge) are of the second clan of the Elves who came to Aman, the Tatyar. ... This article is about the mythical creatures. ...


In order to make a better tonal fit with its sequel, Tolkien began a new version in 1966, removing the narrative asides. The revision was abandoned at chapter three after Tolkien received criticism that it "just wasn't The Hobbit."[26]


In May and June 2007, HarperCollins and Houghton Mifflin published The History of The Hobbit in the United Kingdom. The work examines, in two volumes, previously unpublished original drafts of The Hobbit with extensive commentary by John Rateliff. HarperCollins is a publishing company owned by News Corporation. ... The History of The Hobbit, a new study of J. R. R. Tolkien’s The Hobbit, is to be published by Houghtin Mifflin in May and June 2007. ...


Style

The basic form of the story is that of a quest,[27] told in episodes, a traditional narrative form far removed from the literary movements of the twentieth century.[28] The general tone is lighthearted, possibly following the model of "The Icelandic Journals" by Tolkien's literary idol William Morris,[29] and interspersed with songs. The dramatic or dangerous scenes are undercut with a sense of humour, such as the foolishness of the Trolls or the onomatopoeic singing of the Goblins.[30] It displays a close correlation with the narrative models of children's literature, including an omniscient narrator, characters that pre-adolescent children can identify with, an emphasis on the relationship between time and narrative progress, and a geography which separates notions of "safe" and "dangerous."[28] While Tolkien claimed later to dislike the aspect of the narrative voice addressing the reader directly,[31] the narrative voice contributes significantly to the success of the novel, and the story is, therefore, often read aloud.[32] This article is about the word, for other meanings see Quest (disambiguation) A quest is a journey towards a goal with great meaning and is used in mythology and literature as a plot device. ... An episode is a part of a dramatic work such as a serial television or radio program. ... This page is about William Morris, the writer, designer and socialist. ... Childrens books redirects here. ... In literature, an omniscient narrator is a narrator who appears to know everything about the story being told, including what all the characters are thinking. ...


The novel draws on Tolkien's knowledge of historical languages and early European texts (for example, the names of Gandalf and all but one of the thirteen dwarves were taken directly from the Old Norse poem "Voluspa" from the Elder Edda)[33] and several of the authors illustrations make use of Anglo-Saxon runes. Old Norse or Danish tongue is the Germanic language once spoken by the inhabitants of the Nordic countries (for instance during the Viking Age). ... The Poetic Edda or Elder Edda is a term applied to two things. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... A rune can mean a single character in the Runic alphabet as well as an inscription of several runic charcters or symbols. ...


Major themes

The central character, Bilbo, is a modern anachronism exploring an essentially antique world. Bilbo is able to negotiate and interact within this antique world because language and tradition make connections between the two worlds; for example, Gollum's riddles are taken from old historical sources, whilst those of Bilbo come from modern nursery books. It is the form of the riddle-game, familiar to both, which allows Gollum and Bilbo to understand each other, rather than the content of the riddles themselves. This idea of a superficial contrast between characters' individual linguistic style, tone and sphere of interest, leading to an understanding of the deeper unity between the ancient and modern is a constant recurring theme throughout The Hobbit.[34] Look up Anachronism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The Hobbit may be read as Tolkien's parable of the First World War, where the hero is plucked from his rural home, and thrown into a far off war where traditional types of heroism are shown to be futile[35] and as such explores the theme of heroism. The theme of war portrayed in literature as an anti-pastoral is also seen in The Hobbit; in "The Desolation of Smaug," both the area under the influence of Smaug before his demise and the setting for "The Battle of the Five Armies" later are described as barren, damaged landscapes.[36] “The Great War ” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Pastoral (disambiguation). ...


The Jungian concept of individuation is reflected through the theme of growing maturity and capability, with the author seen to be contrasting Bilbo's personal growth against the same stunted development in the dwarves.[6] The theme of a character entering into enclosed spaces (such as the various hills, caves, dungeons) has a Freudian dimension, with the additional analogue of the "underworld" and the hero returning with a boon (such as the ring, or Elvish blades) which benefits his society is seen to fit the mythic archetypes regarding initiation and male coming of age as described by Joseph Campbell.[30] Jung redirects here. ... Individuation comprises the processes whereby the undifferentiated becomes or develops individual characteristics, or the opposite process, by which components of an individual are integrated into a more indivisible whole. ... Sigmund Freud (IPA: ), born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939), was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ... For other uses, see Underworld (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Archetype (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Joseph Campbell (disambiguation). ...


Greed plays a central role in the novel, with many of the episodes stemming from one or more of the characters' simple desire for food (be it trolls eating dwarves or dwarves eating Wood-elf fare) or a desire for beautiful objects, such as gold and jewels.[37]


Reception and legacy

On first publication, The Hobbit was met with almost unanimously favourable reviews[38] and was nominated for the Carnegie Medal. The following year, the first edition was awarded a prize from the New York Herald Tribune for best juvenile fiction of the year. More recently, The Hobbit has been recognized as "Most Important 20th-Century Novel (for Older Readers)" in the Children's Books of the Century poll in Books for Keeps.[39] The Carnegie Medal in Literature was established in the UK in 1936 in honour of Scottish philanthropist Andrew Carnegie. ... The New York Herald Tribune was a newspaper created in 1924 when the New York Tribune acquired the New York Herald. ...


While The Hobbit has been adapted and elaborated upon in many ways, its sequel The Lord of the Rings is often claimed to be its greatest legacy. The plots share basic elements, but Tolkien wrote the later story in much less humorous tones and infused it with more complex moral and philosophical themes. The differences between the two stories can cause difficulties when readers, expecting them to be similar, find they are not.[40] Some differences are in details; for example, goblins are more often referred to as Orcs in The Lord of the Rings.[41] Many of the thematic differences arose because Tolkien wrote The Hobbit as a story for children, and The Lord of the Rings for the same audience who had subsequently grown up since its publication. Further, Tolkien's concept of Middle-earth was to continually change and slowly evolve throughout his life and writings.[42]


Adaptations

Dramatisations

March 1953 saw the first authorized adaptation, a stage production by St. Margaret's School, Edinburgh.[43] The Hobbit has since been adapted for other media many times. St. ... For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ...


The BBC Radio 4 broadcast The Hobbit radio drama was adapted by Michael Kilgarriff, in eight parts (four total hours) from September to November 1968, starring Anthony Jackson as narrator, Paul Daneman as Bilbo and Heron Carvic as Gandalf; it was released on audio cassette in 1988 and CD in 1997.[44] old Radio 4 logo BBC Radio 4 is a UK domestic radio station which broadcasts a wide variety of spoken-word programmes including news, drama, comedy, science and history. ... The Hobbit is a 1968 BBC Radio adaptation of J. R. R. Tolkiens 1937 childrens fantasy novel The Hobbit. ... Radio drama is a form of audio storytelling broadcast on radio. ... Michael Kilgarriff is a British actor, born 1937 in Brighton. ... Anthony Jackson (18 February 1944-27 November 2006) was an English-born Irish actor , who reached his widest audiences as founder of the eponymous ghost hiring agency in the long-running BBC childrens comedy series Rentaghost. ... Paul Daneman (born 29 October 1925 in London - died 28 April 2001) was an English actor with several film and television credits to his name. ... Heron Carvic is a British actor who performed as voice actor in the BBC Radio version of The Hobbit. ... The Compact Cassette, often referred to as audio cassette, cassette tape, cassette, or simply tape, is a magnetic tape sound recording format. ...


Nicol Williamson played over twenty different characters, each with a unique voice, in an adaptation directed by Harely Usill. This performance was released on four LP records in 1974 by Argo Records.[45] Nicol Williamson as Merlin in Excalibur Nicol Williamson (b. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Gramophone_record. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... For the American label, see Argo Records Argo Records was a record label founded in 1951 by Harley Usill (born c. ...


The Hobbit, an animated version of the story produced by Rankin/Bass, debuted as a television movie in the United States in 1977. In 1978, Romeo Muller won a Peabody Award for his teleplay for The Hobbit in 1978. The film was also nominated for the Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation, but lost to Star Wars. The adaptation has been called "excruciable"[46] and confusing for those not already familiar with the plot.[47] J. R. R. Tolkiens The Hobbit was adapted into an animated television movie by the team at Rankin-Bass Productions in 1977. ... Animation refers to the process in which each frame of a film or movie is produced individually, whether generated as a computer graphic, or by photographing a drawn image, or by repeatedly making small changes to a model (see claymation and stop motion), and then photographing the result. ... Rankin/Bass Productions, Inc. ... “Telefilm” redirects here. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... The George Foster Peabody Awards, more commonly referred to as the Peabody Awards, are annual international awards given for excellence in radio and television broadcasting. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... The Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation is one of the annual Hugo Award categories, presented by members of the World Science Fiction Convention. ... This movie poster for Star Wars depicts many of the films important elements, such as Luke Skywalker, Princess Leia, Han Solo, X-Wing and Y-Wing fighters Star Wars, retitled Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope in 1981 (see note at Title,) is the original (and in chronological...


The American radio theatre company The Mind's Eye produced an audio adaptation of The Hobbit which was released on six one-hour audio cassettes in 1979.[44] Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ...


The BBC children's television series Jackanory presented an adaptation of The Hobbit in 1979.[48] Unusually for the programme, the adaptation had multiple storytellers. According to David Wood, one of the narrators, the release of the production on video has been repeatedly stopped by the Tolkien Estate.[49] For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Jackanory is a long-running BBC childrens television series that was designed to stimulate an interest in reading. ... David Wood O.B.E. (born February 21, 1944) is an English-born author, playwright, magician and actor called the National Childrens Dramatist by The Times[1]. ^ http://www. ... The Tolkien Estate is the legal body which manages the copyrights of J. R. R. Tolkiens works. ...


Robert Inglis adapted and performed a one-man theatre play of The Hobbit.[50] This performance led to him being asked to record the unabridged audiobook for The Lord of the Rings in 1990 and, a year later, he read the unabridged version of The Hobbit.[51] Serge Sudeikins poster for the Bat Theatre (1922). ...


The Manitoba Theatre for Young People commissioned Kim Selody to adapt The Hobbit and his version premiered there in 1999. The play is only licensed to be performed in Canada.[52] Various productions have been reviewed as being "Whimsical, wild and not too scary"[53] and "not really that exciting."[54] Manitoba Theatre for Young People is a theatre for children and young adults in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. ...


A live-action film version was announced on 18 December 2007, to be co-produced by MGM and New Line Cinema, and produced by Lord of the Rings director Peter Jackson.[55] It will be released in 2011, and shot simultaneously with another prequel. Guillermo Del Toro will be directing the double-bill.[56] is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... For alternate meanings of MGM, see MGM (disambiguation). ... New Line redirects here. ... A film producer creates the conditions for making movies. ... This article is about the Peter Jackson films. ... Director Herbert Brenon with actress Alla Nazimova on the set of War Brides, 1916 A director is a person who directs the making of a film. ... For other persons named Peter Jackson, see Peter Jackson (disambiguation). ... Guillermo del Toro Gómez (born October 9, 1964 in Guadalajara, Jalisco) is an Academy Award-nominated Mexican film director. ...


Graphic Media

Gollum in the The Hobbit comic adaptation (1989). Art by David Wenzel.
Gollum in the The Hobbit comic adaptation (1989). Art by David Wenzel.

A three-part comic book adaptation with script by Chuck Dixon and Sean Deming and illustrated by David Wenzel was published by Eclipse Comics in 1989. In 1990 a one volume edition was released Unwin Paperbacks. The cover was artwork by the original illustrator David Wenzel. A reprint collected in one volume was released by Del Rey Books in 2001, and its cover, illustrated by Donato Giancola, was awarded the Association of Science Fiction Artists Award for Best Cover Illustration in 2002.[57] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article is about the fictional character. ... For other uses, see Hobbit (disambiguation) and There and Back Again (disambiguation). ... A comic book is a magazine or book containing the art form of comics. ... Chuck Dixon is an American comic book writer, perhaps best-known for long runs on Batman titles in the 1990s. ... Eclipse Comics was an American comic book publisher, one of several influential indendent publishers during the 1980s. ... Del Rey Books is a branch of Ballantine Books, which is owned by Random House. ...


A commemorative postage stamp, illustrated by Peter Malone, was issued in 1998 by the Royal Mail of Great Britain in a series entitled Magical Worlds: Fantasy Books for Children.[58] A selection of Hong Kong postage stamps A postage stamp is evidence of pre-paying a fee for postal services. ... Royal Mail is the national postal service of the United Kingdom. ...


Music

Leonard Nimoy sang a condensed version of the story of The Hobbit to a jaunty beat titled The Ballad of Bilbo Baggins. The recording originally appeared on the album The Two Sides of Leonard Nimoy released in 1968. A music video featuring sand-dunes and dancing girls was also produced.[59] Leonard Simon Nimoy (born March 26, 1931) is an American actor, film director, poet, musician and photographer. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


In 2001, Marjo Kuusela produced a ballet Hobitti (The Hobbit in Finnish) with music by Aulis Sallinen for the Finnish National Opera.[60] Aulis Sallinen (born April 9, 1935) is a Finnish contemporary classical music composer. ... The Finnish National Opera (Finnish: Kansallisooppera) in Helsinki is the leading opera company in Finland. ...


Dean Burry was commissioned by the Canadian Children's Opera Chorus to write an operatic version of the story for piano and choir to be performed in 2004.[61] The performance rights were subsequently locked up by Tolkien Enterprises before being released in 2006. The Sarasota Youth Opera requested full orchestration be prepared and their version will have its premiere in May 2008.[62] The Canadian Childrens Opera Chorus (CCOC) was founded in 1968 by Ruby Mercer and Lloyd Bradshaw. ... Sarasota Opera is professional opera company in Sarasota, Florida. ...


Board, War, and Roleplaying Games

The Hobbit has been the subject of several board games. A board game is any game played with a premarked surface, with counters or pieces that are moved across the board. ...


TSR, Inc. released two editions of a war-themed based on "The Battle of Five Armies," designed by Larry Smith in the 1970s using cardboard tokens and a map of the area around the Lonely Mountain as a game area. The game was criticized for a lack of clearness in the rules, and praised for evoking the onslaught of the Warg and goblin army.[63] TSR, Inc. ...


"The Lonely Mountain," produced in 1985 by Iron Crown Enterprises,[64] was designed by Coleman Charlton and features groups of adventurers entering Smaug's Lair to capture his treasure before he awakens. The same year, the same publisher also released their version of The Battle of Five Armies [64] developed by Richard H. Britton, Coleman Charlton, and John Crowell, again taking the theme of a wargame and using card counters and a paper map. Iron Crown Enterprises has produced role playing, board, miniature, and collectible card games for over 20 years. ...


"The Hobbit Adventure Boardgame" was the last game from Iron Crown based directly on The Hobbit. They continued to publish the Middle-earth Role Playing Game, a game licensed on both The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings properties, combining elements from both works.[65] Middle-earth Role Playing (MERP) was a subset of the Rolemaster role-playing game rules set in Tolkiens Middle-earth and published by Iron Crown Enterprises (I.C.E.). The system was somewhat like Dungeons & Dragons with character classes and levels. ...


The multi-Origin Award-winning Middle-earth Strategic Gaming (formerly Middle-earth Play-by-Mail) uses the Battle of Five Armies as an introductory scenario to the full game and includes characters and armies from the book.[66] The Origins Awards, presented by the Academy of Adventure Gaming Arts and Design, are presented at the Origins International Game Expo for outstanding work in the game industry. ...


In 2005, Games Workshop released a Battle of Five Armies tabletop wargame, designed by Rick Priestley using highly detailed 10 mm figures sculpted by Mark Harrison, based on Games Workshop's Warmaster rules and designed for the home player.[67][68] For the defunct company, see Game Designers Workshop. ... Wargaming can be one of number of ways of exploring the effects of warfare without actual combat. ... Rick Priestly is a game designer for Games Workshop. ... The Warmaster rulebook. ...


Video Games

Cover of the award winning computer game
Cover of the award winning computer game

Several computer and video games, both licensed and unlicensed, have been based on the story. One of the most successful was The Hobbit, an award-winning computer game developed in 1982 by Beam Software and published by Melbourne House with compatibility for most computers available at the time. By arrangement with publishers, a copy of the novel was included with each game sold with the promise that clues from the book had been programmed into the game, encouraging engagement with the text.[69] The game won the Golden Joystick Award for Strategy Game of the Year in 1983[70] and was responsible for popularising the phrase, "Thorin sits down and starts singing about gold."[71] Image File history File links Hobbit_adventure_packaging. ... Image File history File links Hobbit_adventure_packaging. ... Computer and video games redirects here. ... The Hobbit is a computer game released in 1982 and based on the book The Hobbit, by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... Melbourne House is a game development studio owned by Atari and based in Melbourne, Australia. ... Melbourne House is a game development studio owned by Atari and based in Melbourne, Australia. ... Official logo for the 25th annual Golden Joystick Awards The Golden Joystick Awards are a set of prestigious annual awards given to the best computer and video games of the year, currently in their 25th year of running. ...


Sierra Entertainment published a platform game with action-RPG elements titled The Hobbit in 2003 for Windows PCs, PlayStation 2, Xbox, and Nintendo GameCube.[72] A version, based on the same character design and story, but using a 2D isometric platform and using 3D characters which were pre-rendered using models from the console version, was also published for the Game Boy Advance.[73] Sierra Entertainment is an American computer game developer and publisher headquartered in Los Angeles, California. ... A simple platform sequence from the game Wonder Boy Platform game, or platformer, is a video game genre characterized by jumping to and from suspended platforms or over obstacles. ... Windows redirects here. ... A stylised illustration of a personal computer A personal computer (PC) is a computer whose original sales price, size, and capabilities make it useful for individuals, intended to be operated directly by an end user, with no intervening computer operator. ... PS2 redirects here. ... The Xbox is a sixth generation era video game console produced by Microsoft Corporation. ... The Nintendo GameCube (Japanese: ゲームキューブ; originally code-named Dolphin during development; abbreviated as GCN) is Nintendos fourth home video game console, belonging to the 128-bit era; the same generation as Segas Dreamcast, Sonys PlayStation 2, and Microsofts Xbox. ... 2-dimensional renderings (ie. ... “GBA” redirects here. ...


See also

This list contains only complete, printed English-language editions of The Hobbit. ... The early American editions of J.R.R. Tolkiens The Hobbit were published by the Houghton Mifflin Company of Boston and New York. ... J. R. R. Tolkiens The Hobbit has been translated into many languages. ... The Quest of Erebor is a work of fantasy fiction by J. R. R. Tolkien, posthumously published by his son Christopher Tolkien in Unfinished Tales. ... Retroactive continuity – commonly contracted to the portmanteau word retcon – refers to the act of changing previously established details of a fictional setting, often without providing an explanation for the changes within the context of that setting. ... Unfinished Tales (full title Unfinished Tales of Númenor and Middle-earth) is a collection of stories by J. R. R. Tolkien that were never completed during his lifetime, but were edited by his son Christopher Tolkien and published in 1980. ...

References

Middle-earth Portal
  1. ^ Houghton Mifflin - Children's Books. Houghton Mifflin. Retrieved on 2007-09-29.
  2. ^ Auden, W.H. "The Hero is a Hobbit", The New York Times, 1954-10-31. Retrieved on 2007-07-28. 
  3. ^ Mythopoeic Fantasy Award for Children’s Literature. Retrieved on 2007-09-29. “[...] honors books for younger readers (from “Young Adults” to picture books for beginning readers), in the tradition of The Hobbit or The Chronicles of Narnia.”
  4. ^ Eaton, Anne T.. "A Delightfully Imaginative Journey", The New York Times, 1938-03-13. 
  5. ^ Langford, David (2001). "Lord of the Royalties". SFX magazine. Retrieved on 2007-09-29. 
  6. ^ a b Matthews, Dorothy. "The Psychological Journey of Bilbo Baggins", A Tolkien Compass, 27-40. 
  7. ^ Carpenter, Humphrey, ed. (1981), The Letters of J. R. R. Tolkien, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, #163, ISBN 0-395-31555-7
  8. ^ Carpenter, Humphrey (1977), Tolkien: A Biography, New York: Ballantine Books, p. 181, ISBN 0-04-928037-6
  9. ^ a b Carpenter, Humphrey, ed. (1981), The Letters of J. R. R. Tolkien, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, #294, ISBN 0-395-31555-7
  10. ^ a b Carpenter, Humphrey (1977), Tolkien: A Biography, New York: Ballantine Books, p. 184, ISBN 0-04-928037-6
  11. ^ a b c Hammond, Wayne; Douglas A. Anderson (1993). J. R. R. Tolkien: A Descriptive Bibliography. New Castle, Delaware: Oak Knoll Press, 15,18,21,48,54. ISBN 0-938768-42-5. 
  12. ^ Anderson, Douglas A., ed.The Annotated Hobbit. Revised Edition. Harper Collins. London, 2003. ISBN 0-00-713726-3. pp. 22
  13. ^ The Hobbit sells for £6,000, bbc.co.uk, 26/11/04[1]
  14. ^ Walne, Toby. How to make a killing from first editions Daily Telegraph 21/11/2007[2]
  15. ^ The Hobbit breaks records at auction bbc.co.uk, 12/07/02[3]
  16. ^ Anderson, Douglas A., ed.The Annotated Hobbit. Revised Edition. Harper Collins. London, 2003. ISBN 0-00-713726-3. pp. 384-386
  17. ^ Anderson, The Annotated Hobbit p. 23
  18. ^ a b c Carpenter, Humphrey (1977). J. R. R. Tolkien: A Biography. London: George Allen & Unwin. OCLC 3046822. 
  19. ^ Anderson, The Annotated Hobbit (1988)
  20. ^ J. R. R. Tolkien (April 1, 1987), The Fellowship of the Ring, vol. 1, The Lord of the Rings, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, Prologue, ISBN 0-395-08254-4
  21. ^ Rateliff, John D The History of the Hobbit. Part 2: Return to Bag-End p765
  22. ^ Anderson, The Annotated Hobbit (1988), Flies and Spiders, note 23
  23. ^ Tolkien, J. R. R. (1937). The Hobbit. London: George Allen & Unwin, 63. 
  24. ^ Tolkien, J. R. R. (1951). The Hobbit. London: George Allen & Unwin, 63. 
  25. ^ Tolkien, J. R. R. (1966). The Hobbit. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 62. 
  26. ^ Rateliff, John D. The History of the Hobbit. Part 2: Return to Bag End. p781
  27. ^ W. H. Auden, "The Quest Hero," in Rose A. Zimbardo and Neil D. Isaaca, eds., Understanding the Lord of the Rings: The Best of Tolkien Criticism. Houghton Mifflin Company. Boston, 2004. 31-51. ISBN 0-618-42251-x.
  28. ^ a b Jaume Alberdo Poveda Narrative Models in Tolkien's Stories of Middle Earth,Journal of English Studies, vol. 4, 2003-2004
  29. ^ Amison, Anne An unexpected Guest. influence of William Morris on J. R. R. Tolkien's works, Mythlore2006
  30. ^ a b Helms, Randel McCraw: Myth, Magic and Meaning in Tolkien's World, Granada, 1976. pp.45-55
  31. ^ Carpenter, Humphrey (1977), Tolkien: A Biography, New York: Ballantine Books, ISBN 0-04-928037-6
  32. ^ The Hobbit Major Themes, Cliff Notes, retrieved (30/01/08)[[4]]
  33. ^ Tolkien's Middle-earth: Lesson Plans, Unit Two. Houghton Mifflin. Retrieved on 2007-09-29.
  34. ^ Shippey, Tom: Tolkien: Author of the Century, HarperCollins, 2000, p.41
  35. ^ Carpenter, Humphrey: Tolkien and the Great War, Review, The Times 2003 Tolkien and the Great War, Review, The Times 2003
  36. ^ Croft, Janet Brennan The Great War and Tolkien's Memory, an examination of World War I themes in The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings Mythlore, Fall-Winter, 2002
  37. ^ The Hobbit on Bookrags
  38. ^ Anderson, Douglas A., ed.The Annotated Hobbit. Revised Edition. Harper Collins. London, 2003. ISBN 0-00-713726-3.
  39. ^ Tolkien Society FAQ: Did Tolkien win any awards for his books?
  40. ^ Kocher, Paul Master of Middle-earth, the Achievement of J.R.R. Tolkien Penguin, 1974, Chapter 2: The Hobbit.
  41. ^ Anderson, The Annotated Hobbit (1988)
  42. ^ Tolkien, Christopher The History of Middle-earth, Vol 1 "The Book of Lost Tales", p.7
  43. ^ Anderson, Douglas, The Annotated Hobbit, p.23
  44. ^ a b Bramlett, Perry C. I Am in Fact a Hobbit: An Introduction to the Life and Works of J. R. R. Tolkien, Mercer University Press, 2003 p.239
  45. ^ Nicol Williamson on IMDB
  46. ^ Anderson. Donald A. The Annotated Hobbit
  47. ^ Kask, TJ, NBC's The Hobbit, Dragon Magazine, December 1977
  48. ^ "The Hobbit". Jackanory. Internet Movie Database: Jackanory, "The Hobbit" (1979)
  49. ^ [5]
  50. ^ Photos of a performance during book-week in a school(retrieved 19/01/08)
  51. ^ Audiofile Magazine interview with Rob Inglis (retrieved 19/01/08)
  52. ^ [The Hobbit on Globe Theater Live]
  53. ^ Wilson, Lisa [Hobbit (review) on Canoe.ca]
  54. ^ The Hobbit Media Coverage at [productions]
  55. ^ "Peter Jackson to produce The Hobbit", CNN. Retrieved on 2007-12-18. 
  56. ^ Del Toro to take charge of The Hobbit | News | guardian.co.uk Film
  57. ^ Cover photograph from Association of Science Fiction Artists retrieved (13/03/2008)
  58. ^ Anderson, Douglas The Annotated Hobbit p. 23
  59. ^ Angie Errigo, Paul Simpson The Rough Guide to the Lord of the Rings, Rough Guides, 2003 p 289-290
  60. ^ The Hobbit ('Hobitti'), Op.78, Aulis Sallinen. ChesterNovello. Retrieved on 2007-12-02.
  61. ^ Hobbits set for opera stage on cbc.ca
  62. ^ Dean Burry, The Hobbit in Sarasota, April 2007, retrieved 17/02/07
  63. ^ Easterbrook, Martin, Open Box Review White Dwarf (magazine) #3,Oct/Nov 1977 p 15
  64. ^ a b Newsboard, Fellowship Follows, White Dwarf (magazine) #57, September, 1984 p45
  65. ^ "What is MERP?" on Other Hands
  66. ^ More information can be found at: the Middle-earth Games page for the game (retrieved 25/02/08)
  67. ^ Jones, Rich, Battle of the Five Armies Rules and miniatures for recreating battles in Middle Earth, Wargames Journal 1, 2005 p.91
  68. ^ More information can be found at: Games Workshop's Specialist Games site
  69. ^ Moore, Phil Using Computers in English: A Practical Guide, 1986, Routledge, pp. 44
  70. ^ CRASH (magazine) #4, p. 43 [6]
  71. ^ Campbell, Stuart. Top 100 Speccy Games. Your Sinclair Magazine, #72 DEC 1991 pp.28
  72. ^ Casamassina, Matt. The Hobbit (review) on IGN (retrieved 18/03/2008)
  73. ^ Anon. The Hobbit (review) on IGN (retrieved 18/03/2008)

Image File history File links Arda. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Christopher Isherwood and W.H. Auden, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1939 Wystan Hugh Auden (February 21, 1907–September 29, 1973) was an English poet. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... David Langford David Rowland Langford (born April 10, 1953, in Newport, Monmouthshire) is a British author, editor and critic, largely active within the science fiction field. ... SFX is a British science fiction magazine, published every four weeks. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Humphrey William Bouverie Carpenter (April 29, 1946 – January 4, 2005) was an English biographer, author and radio broadcaster. ... The Letters of J. R. R. Tolkien (ISBN 0-618-05699-8) is a selection of J. R. R. Tolkiens letters published in 1981, edited by Tolkiens biographer Humphrey Carpenter assisted by Christopher Tolkien. ... Houghton Mifflin Company is a leading educational publisher in the United States. ... Humphrey William Bouverie Carpenter (April 29, 1946 – January 4, 2005) was an English biographer, author and radio broadcaster. ... Humphrey William Bouverie Carpenter (April 29, 1946 – January 4, 2005) was an English biographer, author and radio broadcaster. ... The Letters of J. R. R. Tolkien (ISBN 0-618-05699-8) is a selection of J. R. R. Tolkiens letters published in 1981, edited by Tolkiens biographer Humphrey Carpenter assisted by Christopher Tolkien. ... Houghton Mifflin Company is a leading educational publisher in the United States. ... Humphrey William Bouverie Carpenter (April 29, 1946 – January 4, 2005) was an English biographer, author and radio broadcaster. ... Humphrey William Bouverie Carpenter (April 29, 1946 – January 4, 2005) was an English biographer, author and radio broadcaster. ... ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Tolkien redirects here. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ... The Fellowship of the Ring is the first of three volumes of the epic novel The Lord of the Rings by the English author J. R. R. Tolkien. ... This article is about the novel. ... Houghton Mifflin Company is a leading educational publisher in the United States. ... Mythlore is the annual journal of the Mythopoeic Society that explores the genres of myth and fantasy, and in particular the writings of J. R. R. Tolkien, C. S. Lewis, and Charles Williams, all members of the Inklings group. ... Humphrey William Bouverie Carpenter (April 29, 1946 – January 4, 2005) was an English biographer, author and radio broadcaster. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The cover of the 300th issue Dragon is one of the two official magazines for source material for the Dungeons & Dragons role-playing game and associated products. ... Jackanory is a long-running BBC childrens television series that was designed to stimulate an interest in reading. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Cover of White Dwarf issue 90, June 1987. ... Cover of White Dwarf issue 90, June 1987. ... CRASH was a magazine dedicated to the ZX Spectrum home computer. ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... Tolkien redirects here. ... Songs for the Philologists is a collection of poems by E.V. Gordon and J. R. R. Tolkien as well as traditional songs. ... Leaf by Niggle is a short story written by J. R. R. Tolkien in 1938-39 and first published in the Dublin Review in January 1945. ... The Lay of Aotrou and Itroun is a poem of 508 lines, written by J. R. R. Tolkien in 1930, and published in Welsh Review in December, 1945. ... Farmer Giles of Ham (written in 1947, published in 1949) is a short story written by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... The Homecoming of Beorhtnoth Beorhthelms Son is the title of a work by J. R. R. Tolkien that was originally published in 1953 in volume 6 of the scholarly journal Essays and Studies by Members of the English Association. ... This article is about the novel. ... The Fellowship of the Ring is the first of three volumes of the epic novel The Lord of the Rings by the English author J. R. R. Tolkien. ... The Two Towers is the second volume of J. R. R. Tolkiens The Lord of the Rings. ... This article is about the book. ... The Adventures of Tom Bombadil is a collection of poetry by J. R. R. Tolkien, published in 1962. ... The Road Goes Ever On is a walking song by J. R. R. Tolkien, fictionally written by Bilbo Baggins; verses of it are sung at various places in The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings. ... Tree and Leaf is a collection of works by J. R. R. Tolkien including an essay called On Fairy-Stories, a short story called Leaf by Niggle and a poem called Mythopoeia. The book was originally illustrated by Pauline Baynes. ... Contents The Homecoming of Beorhtnoth Beorthelms Son On Fairy Stories Ofermod Leaf by Niggle Farmer Giles of Ham The Adventures of Tom Bombadil ... Smith of Wootton Major, first published in 1967, is a short story by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... The Father Christmas Letters is a collection of letters written by Father Christmas to J.R.R Tolkiens children. ... This article is about the book by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... Unfinished Tales (full title Unfinished Tales of Númenor and Middle-earth) is a collection of stories by J. R. R. Tolkien that were never completed during his lifetime, but were edited by his son Christopher Tolkien and published in 1980. ... Bilbos Last Song is a poem by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... The History of Middle-earth is a 12-volume series of books published from 1983-1996, that collect and analyse material relating to the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, compiled and edited by his son, Christopher Tolkien. ... Roverandom is a story written by J.R.R. Tolkien, originally told in 1925. ... The Children of Húrin (2007) is a completion of a tale by J. R. R. Tolkien begun in 1918. ... The History of The Hobbit, a new study of J. R. R. Tolkien’s The Hobbit, is to be published by Houghtin Mifflin in May and June 2007. ... The original Gawain manuscript, Cotton Nero A.x. ... This article lacks information on the importance of the subject matter. ... Ancrene Wisse and Hali Meiðhad is a 1929 essay by J. R. R. Tolkien on the 13th century early Middle English treatise Ancrene Wisse The Anchoresses Rule, and on the tract on virginity Hali Meiðhad Holy Maidenhood. The essay has been called the most perfect of Tolkiens... Sigelwara Land is the title of an essay in two parts by J. R. R. Tolkien, appeared in Medium Aevum Vol. ... The Reeves Prologue and Tale is the third story to be told in Geoffrey Chaucers The Canterbury Tales. ... On Fairy-Stories is an essay by J. R. R. Tolkien which discusses the fairy-story as a literary form. ... Sir Orfeo is an anonymous Middle English narrative poem. ... Ancrene Wisse (also Ancrene Riwle) or Guide for Anchoresses is a monastic rule (or manual) for anchorite nuns, written in the early 13th century in Middle English. ... English and Welsh is the title of J. R. R. Tolkiens valedictory address to the University of Oxford of 1955, explaining the origin of the word Welsh. In a lengthy sidenote, Tolkien discusses his notions of native tongue as opposed to cradle tongue, and of an inherited taste of... Tree and Leaf is a collection of works by J. R. R. Tolkien including an essay called On Fairy-Stories, a short story called Leaf by Niggle and a poem called Mythopoeia. The book was originally illustrated by Pauline Baynes. ... The Jerusalem Bible (JB) is a Catholic translation of the Bible which first was introduced to the English-speaking public in 1966 and published by Darton, Longman & Todd. ... The original Gawain manuscript, Cotton Nero A.x. ... Pearl is a Middle English alliterative poem written in the late 14th century. ... Sir Orfeo is an anonymous Middle English narrative poem. ... Finn and Hengest is a study by J.R.R Tolkien, published posthumously in book form in 1982. ... The Monsters and the Critics is a collection of J. R. R. Tolkiens scholarly linguistic essays published posthumously in 1983. ... Beowulf and the Critics by J. R. R. Tolkien is a book edited by Michael D. C. Drout that presents scholary editions of the two manuscript versions of Tolkiens essays or lecture series Beowulf and the Critics, which served as the basis for the much shorter 1936 lecture Beowulf... Tolkien redirects here. ... J. R. R. Tolkiens The Hobbit was adapted into an animated television movie by the team at Rankin-Bass Productions in 1977. ... This article is about the Peter Jackson films. ... The works of J. R. R. Tolkien have served as the inspiration to painters, musicians, film-makers and writers, to such an extent that Tolkien is sometimes seen as the father of the entire genre of high fantasy. ... While an immense number of computer and video games owe a great deal to J. R. R. Tolkiens works and the many other works making up the high fantasy settings based upon them, relatively few games have been directly adapted from his world of Middle-earth. ... Bilbo Baggins (2890 Third Age - ? Fourth Age) is an important character in J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium. ... For other uses, see Gandalf (disambiguation). ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth legendarium, Thorin Oakenshield was a Dwarf, the son of Thráin II and the grandson of King Thrór. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens fantasy world of Middle-earth, Balin was a Dwarf leader, the son of Fundin and elder brother of Dwalin. ... Dwalin is a fictional character in The Hobbit by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... Fíli and Kíli are fictional characters in The Hobbit by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... Fíli and Kíli are fictional characters in The Hobbit by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... Spoiler warning: In J. R. R. Tolkiens fantasy, The Hobbit, Dori is one of three dwarf brothers (the other two are Nori and Ori) who befriend Bilbo and travel with him in search of Smaugs treasure caverns. ... Nori is a fictional character in The Hobbit by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... Ori is a fictional character in J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth. ... This is a list of Dwarves from J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth. ... This is a list of Dwarves from J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens The Hobbit, Bifur the fictional Dwarf was a companion to Bilbo Baggins and Thorin Oakenshield on the quest of Erebor. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens The Hobbit, Bofur the fictional Dwarf was a companion to Bilbo Baggins and Thorin Oakenshield on the quest of Erebor. ... This is a list of Dwarves from the fictional universe of Middle-earth. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens world of Middle-earth, Trolls are very large (twelve feet tall or more) humanoids of great strength and poor intellect. ... Elrond Half-elven is a fictional character in J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth legendarium. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens fiction of Middle-earth, Goblin Town is a goblin (or Orc) dwelling which lies under the High Pass in the Misty Mountains, ruled by the Great Goblin. ... This article is about the fictional character. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth legendarium, Beorn was a shape-shifter, a man who could assume the appearance of a great black bear. ... King Thranduil was a character in the fictitious world of Middle-earth created by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... A fictional character in The Hobbit by J. R. R. Tolkien, Bard the Bowman of Esgaroth was one of the most skilled archers among Men, and the heir of Girion, the last king of old Dale. ... Master of the Lake-town in J.R.R. Tolkiens Middle-earth is the title given to the civic leader of the settlement of Men on the Long Lake near Erebor. ... Smaug in his lair: an illustration for the fantasy The Hobbit Smaug is a fictional character in The Hobbit by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... The History of The Hobbit, a new study of J. R. R. Tolkien’s The Hobbit, is to be published by Houghtin Mifflin in May and June 2007. ... This article is about the novel. ... The Fellowship of the Ring is the first of three volumes of the epic novel The Lord of the Rings by the English author J. R. R. Tolkien. ... The Two Towers is the second volume of J. R. R. Tolkiens The Lord of the Rings. ... This article is about the book. ... The Adventures of Tom Bombadil is a collection of poetry by J. R. R. Tolkien, published in 1962. ... This article is about the book by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... Unfinished Tales (full title Unfinished Tales of Númenor and Middle-earth) is a collection of stories by J. R. R. Tolkien that were never completed during his lifetime, but were edited by his son Christopher Tolkien and published in 1980. ... The History of Middle-earth is a 12-volume series of books published from 1983-1996, that collect and analyse material relating to the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, compiled and edited by his son, Christopher Tolkien. ... The History of The Lord of the Rings is a 4-volume work by Christopher Tolkien that documents the process of J. R. R. Tolkiens writing of his masterwork The Lord of the Rings (LotR). ... Bilbos Last Song is a poem by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... The Children of Húrin (2007) is a completion of a tale by J. R. R. Tolkien begun in 1918. ...


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The Hobbit - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4357 words)
The Hobbit is a novel written by J.
A hobbit named Bilbo Baggins is smoking on the front step of his comfortable hole one morning when Gandalf the Wizard passes by.
In the annotated version of the hobbit, Tolkien claims that Beowulf was among his most valued sources, although it wasn't consciously present to the mind when he was writing it.
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