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Encyclopedia > The Hero with a Thousand Faces
The Hero with a Thousand Faces
Author Joseph Campbell
Country United States
Language English
Genre(s) Non-Fiction
Publisher Princeton University Press
Publication date 1949
Media type Print (Hardback & Paperback)
ISBN 978-0691017846

The Hero with a Thousand Faces (1949) is a non-fiction book, and seminal work of comparative mythology by Joseph Campbell. In this publication, Campbell discusses his theory of the journey of the archetypal hero found in world mythologies and religions. For other uses, see Joseph Campbell (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Country (disambiguation). ... A publisher is a person or entity which engages in the act of publishing. ... The Princeton University Press is a publishing house, a division of Princeton University, that is highly respected in academic publishing. ... Hardcover books A hardcover (or hardback or hardbound) is a book bound with rigid protective covers (typically of cardboard covered with cloth, heavy paper, or sometimes leather). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... “ISBN” redirects here. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A seminal work [from Latin semen meaning seed] is a work from which other works grow. ... Comparative mythology, related to comparative religion, is a field of study which is technically part of anthropology but more usually regarded as part of the subject of ancient history. ... For other uses, see Joseph Campbell (disambiguation). ... Archetype is defined as the first original model of which all other similar persons, objects, or concepts are merely derivative, copied, patterned, or emulated. ... For other uses, see Hero (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Mythology (disambiguation). ...


Since publication of The Hero with a Thousand Faces, Campbell's theory has been consciously applied by a wide variety of modern writers and artists. The best known is perhaps George Lucas, who has acknowledged a debt to Campbell regarding the stories of the Star Wars films. George Walton Lucas, Jr. ... This article is about the series. ...

Contents

Summary

Campbell explores the theory that important myths from around the world that have survived for thousands of years all share a fundamental structure, which Campbell called the monomyth. The monomyth (often referred to as the heros journey) is a description of a basic pattern found in many narratives from around the world. ...


This fundamental structure contains a number of stages, which include (1) a call to adventure, which the hero has to accept or decline, (2) a road of trials, regarding which the hero succeeds or fails, (3) achieving the goal or "boon," which often results in important self-knowledge, (4) a return to the ordinary world, again as to which the hero can succeed or fail, and finally, (5) application of the boon in which what the hero has gained can be used to improve the world.


In a well-known quote from the introduction to The Hero with a Thousand Faces, Campbell wrote:

A hero ventures forth from the world of common day into a region of supernatural wonder: fabulous forces are there encountered and a decisive victory is won: the hero comes back from this mysterious adventure with the power to bestow boons on his fellow man.[1]

The classic examples of the monomyth relied upon by Campbell and other scholars include the Buddha, Moses, and Christ stories, although Campbell cites many other classic myths from many cultures which rely upon this basic structure. Media:Example. ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... This page is about the title, office or what is known in Christian theology as the Divine Person. ...


While Campbell offers a discussion of the hero's journey by using the Freudian concepts popular in the 1940s and 1950s, the monomythic structure is not tied to these concepts. Similarly, Campbell uses a mixture of Jungian archetypes, unconscious forces, and Arnold van Gennep's structuring of rites of passage rituals to provide some illumination.[2] However, this pattern of the hero's journey influences artists and intellectuals worldwide, suggesting a basic usefulness for Campbell's insights not tied to academic categories and mid-20th century forms of analysis. Sigmund Freud His famous couch Sigmund Freud (May 6, 1856 - September 23, 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of the psychoanalytic school of psychology, a movement that popularized the theory that unconscious motives control much behavior. ... Carl Gustav Jung Carl Gustav Jung (July 26, 1875 – June 6, 1961) was a Swiss psychiatrist and founder of the neopsychoanalytic school of psychology. ... For other uses, see Archetype (disambiguation). ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Arnold Van Gennep was born 23 April 1873 at Ludwigsbourg in Germany and died in 1957 at Bourg-la-Reine in France. ... A rite of passage is a ritual that marks a change in a persons social or sexual status. ...


Fundamental structure of the monomyth

In the monomyth, the hero starts in the ordinary world, and receives a call to enter an unusual world of strange powers and events. If the hero accepts the call to enter this strange world, the hero must face tasks and trials, and may have to face these trials alone, or may have assistance. At its most intense, the hero must survive a severe challenge, often with help earned along the journey. If the hero survives, the hero may achieve a great gift or "boon." The hero must then decide whether to return to the ordinary world with this boon. If the hero does decide to return, the hero often faces challenges on the return journey. If the hero is successful in returning, the boon or gift may be used to improve the world. The stories of Osiris, Prometheus, Moses, Buddha, and Christ, for example, follow this structure very closely. For other uses, see Osiris (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Prometheus (disambiguation). ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... Media:Example. ... This page is about the title, office or what is known in Christian theology as the Divine Person. ...


Campbell describes a number of stages or steps along this journey. Very few myths contain all of these stages — some myths contain many of the stages, while others contain only a few; some myths may have as a focus only one of the stages, while other myths may deal with the stages in a somewhat different order. These stages may be organized in a number of ways, including division into three sections: Departure (sometimes called Separation), Initiation and Return. "Departure" deals with the hero venturing forth on the quest; "Initiation" deals with the hero's various adventures along the way; and "Return" deals with the hero's return home with knowledge and powers acquired on the journey.


Contents

Prologue: The Monomyth

  • 1. Myth and Dream
  • 2. Tragedy and Comedy
  • 3. The Hero and the God
  • 4. The World Navel

PART ONE: The Adventure of the Hero


Chapter I: Departure

  • 1. The Call to Adventure
The adventure begins with the hero receiving a call to action, such as a threat to the peace of the community, or the hero simply falls into or blunders into it. The call is often announced to the hero by another character who acts as a "herald". The herald, often represented as dark or terrifying and judged evil by the world, may call the character to adventure simply by the crisis of his appearance.
  • 2. Refusal of the Call
In some stories, the hero initially refuses the call to adventure. When this happens, the hero may suffer somehow, and may eventually choose to answer, or may continue to decline the call.
  • 3. Supernatural Aid
After the hero has accepted the call, he encounters a protective figure (often elderly) who provides special tools and advice for the adventure ahead, such as an amulet or a weapon.
  • 4. The Crossing of the First Threshold
The hero must cross the threshold between the world he is familiar with and that which he is not. Often this involves facing a "threshold guardian", an entity that works to keep all within the protective confines of the world but must be encountered in order to enter the new zone of experience.
  • 5. The Belly of the Whale
The hero, rather than passing a threshold, passes into the new zone by means of rebirth. Appearing to have died by being swallowed or having their flesh scattered, the hero is transformed and becomes ready for the adventure ahead.

Chapter II: Initiation

  • 1. The Road of Trials
Once past the threshold, the hero encounters a dream landscape of ambiguous and fluid forms. The hero is challenged to survive a succession of obstacles and, in so doing, amplifies his consciousness. The hero is helped covertly by the supernatural helper or may discover a benign power supporting him in his passage.
  • 2. The Meeting with the Goddess
The ultimate trial is often represented as a marriage between the hero and a queenlike, or mother-like figure. This represents the hero's mastery of life (represented by the feminine) as well as the totality of what can be known. When the hero is female, this becomes a male figure.
  • 3. Woman as the Temptress
His awareness expanded, the hero may fixate on the disunity between truth and his subjective outlook, inherently tainted by the flesh. This is often represented with revulsion or rejection of a female figure.
  • 4. Atonement with the Father
The hero reconciles the tyrant and merciful aspects of the father-like authority figure to understand himself as well as this figure.
The hero's ego is disintegrated in a breakthrough expansion of consciousness. Quite frequently the hero's idea of reality is changed; the hero may find an ability to do new things or to see a larger point of view, allowing the hero to sacrifice himself.
  • 6. The Ultimate Boon
The hero is now ready to obtain that which he has set out, an item or new awareness that, once he returns, will benefit the society that he has left.


Chapter III: Return Look up Apotheosis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

  • 1. Refusal of the Return
Having found bliss and enlightenment in the other world, the hero may not want to return to the ordinary world to bestow the boon onto his fellow man.
  • 2. The Magic Flight
When the boon's acquirement (or the hero's return to the world) comes against opposition, a chase or pursuit may ensue before the hero returns.
  • 3. Rescue from Without
The hero may need to be rescued by forces from the ordinary world. This may be because the hero has refused to return or because he is successfully blocked from returning with the boon. The hero loses his ego.
  • 4. The Crossing of the Return Threshold
The hero returns to the world of common day and must accept it as real.
  • 5. Master of the Two Worlds
Because of the boon or due to his experience, the hero may now perceive both the divine and human worlds.
  • 6. Freedom to Live
The hero bestows the boon to his fellow man.

Chapter IV: The Keys


PART TWO: The Cosmogonic Cycle


Chapter I: Emanations

  • 1. From Psychology to Metaphysics
  • 2. The Universal Round
  • 3. Out of the Void -Space
  • 4. Within Space -Life
  • 5. The Breaking of the One into the Manifold
  • 6. Folk Stories of Creation

Chapter II: The Virgin Birth

  • 1. Mother Universe
  • 2. Matrix of Destiny
  • 3. Womb of Redemption
  • 4. Folk Stories of Virgin Motherhood

Chapter III: Transformations of the Hero

  • 1. The Primordial Hero and the Human
  • 2. Childhood of the Human Hero
  • 3. The Hero as Warrior
  • 4. The Hero as Lover
  • 5. The Hero as Emperor and as Tyrant
  • 6. The Hero as World Redeemer
  • 7. The Hero as Saint
  • 8. Departure of the Hero

Chapter IV: Dissolutions

  • 1. End of the Microcosm
  • 2. End of the Macrocosm

Epilogue: Myth and Society

  • 1. The Shapeshifter
  • 2. The Function of Myth, Cult, and Meditation
  • 3. The Hero Today

Artists influenced by work

Main article: Monomyth

The Hero with a Thousand Faces has influenced a number of artists, musicians, poets, and filmmakers, including Bob Dylan and George Lucas. Mickey Hart, Bob Weir and Jerry Garcia of the Grateful Dead had long noted Campbell's influence and agreed to participate in a seminar with him in 1986 entitled From Ritual to Rapture.[1] The monomyth (often referred to as the heros journey) is a description of a basic pattern found in many narratives from around the world. ... This article is about the recording artist. ... George Walton Lucas, Jr. ... Mickey Hart (born September 11, 1943) is a percussionist and musicologist. ... Robert Hall Weir (October 16, 1947–) is an American guitar player, most recognized as a founding member of the Grateful Dead. ... Jerome John Jerry the Bulldog Garcia (August 1, 1942 – August 9, 1995) was an American musician, songwriter, and artist best known for being the lead guitarist and vocalist of the psychedelic rock band the Grateful Dead. ... This article is about the band. ...


Stanley Kubrick introduced Arthur C. Clarke to the book during the writing of 2001: A Space Odyssey. [2] “Kubrick” redirects here. ... Sir Arthur Charles Clarke, CBE (born 16 December 1917) is a British science-fiction author and inventor, most famous for his novel 2001: A Space Odyssey, and for collaborating with director Stanley Kubrick on the film of the same name. ... A movie poster from the original release of 2001 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968) is an immensely popular and influential science fiction film and book; the film directed by Stanley Kubrick and the book written by Arthur C. Clarke. ...


George Lucas' deliberate use of Campbell's theory of the monomyth in the making of the Star Wars movies is well-documented. In addition to the extensive discussion between Campbell and Bill Moyers, broadcast in 1988 on PBS as The Power of Myth (filmed at "Skywalker Ranch"), on Campbell's influence on the Star Wars films, Lucas gave an extensive interview for the biography Joseph Campbell: A Fire in the Mind (Larsen and Larsen, 2002, pages 541-543) on this topic. This article is about the series. ... Bill D. Moyers (born June 5, 1934 as Billy Don Moyers) is an American journalist and public commentator. ... Not to be confused with Public Broadcasting Services in Malta. ... The Power of Myth is a book and six part television documentary first broadcast on PBS in 1988 as Joseph Campbell and the Power of Myth. ... Skywalker Ranch is the name of the well-disguised workplace of film director and producer George Lucas in secluded but open country near Nicasio, California. ...


Christopher Vogler, a Hollywood film producer and writer, wrote the book The Writer's Journey: Mythic Structure For Writers, which became the basis for a number of successful Hollywood films and is believed to have been used in the development of the Matrix series. Christopher Vogler is a Hollywood screenwriter. ... The Matrix series consists primarily of three films, The Matrix, The Matrix Reloaded and The Matrix Revolutions. ...


Background

Campbell used the work of early 20th century theorists to develop his model of the hero (see also structuralism), including Freud (particularly the Oedipus complex), Carl Jung (archetypal figures and the collective unconscious), and Arnold Van Gennep (the three stages of The Rites of Passage, translated by Campbell into Departure, Separation, and Return). Campbell also looked to the work of ethnographers James Frazer and Franz Boas and psychologist Otto Rank. (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... Structuralism as a term refers to various theories across the humanities, social sciences and economics many of which share the assumption that structural relationships between concepts vary between different cultures/languages and that these relationships can be usefully exposed and explored. ... Sigmund Freud His famous couch Sigmund Freud (May 6, 1856 - September 23, 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of the psychoanalytic school of psychology, a movement that popularized the theory that unconscious motives control much behavior. ... The Oedipus complex in Freudian psychoanalysis refers to a stage of psychosexual development in childhood where children of both sexes regard their father as an adversary and competitor for the exclusive love of their mother. ... “Jung” redirects here. ... Archetype is defined as the first original model of which all other similar persons, objects, or concepts are merely derivative, copied, patterned, or emulated. ... Collective unconscious is a term of analytical psychology originally coined by Carl Jung. ... Arnold Van Gennep was born 23 April 1873 at Ludwigsbourg in Germany and died in 1957 at Bourg-la-Reine in France. ... Sir James George Frazer (January 1, 1854, Glasgow, Scotland – May 7, 1941), was a Scottish social anthropologist influential in the early stages of the modern studies of mythology and comparative religion. ... Franz Boas Franz Boas (July 9, 1858 – December 21, 1942[1]) was one of the pioneers of modern anthropology and is often called the Father of American Anthropology. Born in Germany, Boas worked for most of his life in North America. ... Otto Rank (April 22, 1884 – October 31, 1939) was an Austrian psychologist. ...


Campbell called this journey of the hero the monomyth.[3] Campbell was a noted scholar of James Joyce (in 1944 he had authored A Skeleton Key to Finnegans Wake with Henry Morton Robinson), and Campbell borrowed the term monomyth from Joyce's Finnegans Wake. In addition, Joyce's Ulysses was also highly influential in the structuring of The Hero with a Thousand Faces. The monomyth (often referred to as the heros journey) is a description of a basic pattern found in many narratives from around the world. ... This article is about the writer and poet. ... A Skeleton Key to Finnegans Wake (1944) by mythologist Joseph Campbell and Henry Morton Robinson is an important work of literary criticism. ... Henry Morton Robinson (born September 7, 1898–died January 13, 1961) was an American novelist, best known for his 1950 novel The Cardinal, which was adapted to an Academy Award nominated film in 1963. ... For the street ballad which the novel is named after, see Finnegans Wake. ... Ulysses is a novel by James Joyce, first serialized in parts in the American journal The Little Review from March 1918 to December 1920, and then published in its entirety by Sylvia Beach on February 2, 1922, in Paris. ...


The Princeton University Press published all editions of this text. Originally issued in 1949, The Hero with a Thousand Faces has been reprinted a number of times. Reprints issued after the release of Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope in 1977 used the image of Mark Hamill as Luke Skywalker on the cover.[3] The 2004 Commemorative Edition has both a new introduction by Clarissa Pinkola Estés and a new cover. The Princeton University Press is a publishing house, a division of Princeton University, that is highly respected in academic publishing. ... This movie poster for Star Wars depicts many of the films important elements, such as Luke Skywalker, Princess Leia, Han Solo, X-Wing and Y-Wing fighters Star Wars, retitled Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope in 1981 (see note at Title,) is the original (and in chronological... Mark Richard Hamill (born September 25, 1951) is an American actor and voice actor. ... Luke Skywalker is a fictional character in the Star Wars universe, portrayed by Mark Hamill in the films Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope, Star Wars Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back, and Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi. ... Clarissa Pinkola Estés, Ph. ...


Quotes

Preface:

  • "There are of course differences between the numerous mythologies and religions of mankind, but this is a book about similarities; and once they are understood the differences will be found to be much less great than is popularly (and politically) supposed. My hope is that a comparative elucidation may contribute to the perhaps not-quite disparate causes of those forces that are working in the present world for unification, not in the name of some ecclesiastical or political empire, but in the sense of human mutual understanding" (Third edition, page VIII).
  • "As we are told in the Vedas: 'Truth is one, the sages speak of it by many names,' " (Third edition, page VII).

Veda redirects here. ...

Criticism

  • Clyde W. Ford (2000) was initially distressed by the opening lines of the prologue to The Hero with a Thousand Faces. He eventually returned to the text, in order to synthesize what was of value to him: "Several months passed before I mustered the courage to challenge Campbell again...I was rewarded for my persistence. Campbell's shortsightedness about Africa could not obliterate his immense contributions to mythology, and his omission gave me an opportunity to explore African mythology in a novel and meaningful way" (p. 12).
  • Marc Manganaro (1992), argues that Campbell's theories violate the expectations of poststructuralism: "Campbell's reading of mythology as text hardly aligns with post-structuralist notions of 'world as text,' as a realm of constantly shifting signifiers having no provable reference to a ground of signified meaning...on the contrary Campbell's trope of 'text'...functions as a shell that covers the true interior of the myth" (p. 159).
  • Pearson and Pope (1981) claim that Campbell's model discounts the possibility of female heroes: "The great works on the hero--such as Joseph Campbell's The Hero With A Thousand Faces...all begin with the assumption that the hero is male" (p. vii).
  • Novelist David Brin has criticized Campbell for ignoring the negative side of the monomyth, arguing that it is anti-populist, and was used by kings and priests to justify tyranny. Brin also pointed out that the existence of a monomyth may reflect cross-cultural historical similarities, rather than some deeper "human insight". He points out that, until relatively recently, story tellers were dependent upon the oligarchy for their livelihood and that the aristocracy only recently lost its power to punish irreverence. Once those historical factors disappeared, science fiction emerged--a story-telling mode Brin sees as the antithesis of Campbell's monomyth.[4]
  • Novelist David Foster Wallace in the short story Another Pioneer (part of the collection, Oblivion, 2004) critiques Campbell's journey of the hero.
  • American novelist Kurt Vonnegut satirized Campbell's views on the monomyth as being excessively complicated by offering his interpretation, called the "In The Hole" theory; loosely defined as "The hero gets into trouble. The hero gets out of trouble."[citation needed]
  • American philosopher John Shelton Lawrence and American religious scholar Robert Jewett have discussed an "American Monomyth" in many of their books, The American Monomyth, The Myth of the American Superhero, and Captain American and the Crusade of Zealous Nationalism.

Post-structuralism is a body of work that followed in the wake of structuralism, and sought to understand the Western world as a network of structures, as in structuralism, but in which such structures are ordered primarily by local, shifting differences (as in deconstruction) rather than grand binary oppositions and... A novel is an extended work of written, narrative, prose fiction, usually in story form; the writer of a novel is a novelist. ... Glen David Brin, Ph. ... The monomyth (often referred to as the heros journey) is a description of a basic pattern found in many narratives from around the world. ... The monomyth (often referred to as the heros journey) is a description of a basic pattern found in many narratives from around the world. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Oligarchy (Greek , Oligarkhía) is a form of government where political power effectively rests with a small, elite segment of society (whether distinguished by wealth, family or military powers). ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The term aristocracy refers to a form of government where power is held by a small number of individuals from an elite or from noble families. ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... The monomyth (often referred to as the heros journey) is a description of a basic pattern found in many narratives from around the world. ... A novel is an extended work of written, narrative, prose fiction, usually in story form; the writer of a novel is a novelist. ... David Foster Wallace (born February 21, 1962) is an American novelist, essayist, and short story writer. ... A novel is an extended work of written, narrative, prose fiction, usually in story form; the writer of a novel is a novelist. ... Kurt Vonnegut, Jr. ... John Shelton Lawrence is an emeritus professor of philosophy at Morningside College in Sioux City, Iowa, United States. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Campbell, Joseph. The Hero with a Thousand Faces. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1949. p. 30.
  2. ^ Since the late 1960s, with the introduction of post-structuralism, theories such as the monomyth (to the extent they are based in structuralism) have lost ground in the academic world.
  3. ^ Source of term monomyth.
  4. ^ http://www.salon.com/ent/movies/feature/1999/06/15/brin_main/

To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Structuralism as a term refers to various theories across the humanities, social sciences and economics many of which share the assumption that structural relationships between concepts vary between different cultures/languages and that these relationships can be usefully exposed and explored. ...

References

  • The Hero's Journey: Joseph Campbell on His Life and Work. Edited and with an Introduction by Phil Cousineau. Forward by Stuart L. Brown, Executive Editor. New York: Harper and Row, 1990.
  • Campbell, Joseph and Henry Morton Robinson. A Skeleton Key to Finnegans Wake, 1944.
  • Campbell, Joseph. The Hero with a Thousand Faces. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1949.
  • Ford, Clyde W. The Hero with an African Face. New York: Bantam, 2000.
  • Henderson, Mary. Star Wars: The Magic of Myth. Companion volume to the exhibition at the National Air and Space Museum of the Smithsonian Institution. New York: Bantam, 1997.
  • Larsen, Stephen and Robin Larsen. Joseph Campbell: A Fire in the Mind. Rochester, Vermont: Inner Traditions, 2002.
  • Manganaro, Marc. Myth, Rhetoric, and the Voice of Authority: A Critique of Frazer, Eliot, Frye, and Campbell. New Haven: Yale, 1992.
  • Moyers, Bill and Joseph Campbell. The Power of Myth. Anchor: Reissue edition, 1991. ISBN 0-385-41886-8
  • Pearson, Carol and Katherine Pope. The Female Hero in American and British Literature. New York: R.R. Bowker, 1981.
  • Vogler, Christopher. The Writer's Journey: Mythic Structure For Writers. Studio City, CA: Michael Wiese Productions, 1998.

This article is about the book and documentary on Joseph Campbell. ... Phil Cousineau (1952- ) is an author, screenwriter, and documentary filmmaker. ... A Skeleton Key to Finnegans Wake (1944) by mythologist Joseph Campbell and Henry Morton Robinson is an important work of literary criticism. ... The Princeton University Press is a publishing house, a division of Princeton University, that is highly respected in academic publishing. ... National Air and Space Museum exterior The National Air and Space Museum (NASM) of the Smithsonian Institution is a museum in Washington, D.C., United States, and is the most popular of the Smithsonian museums. ... The Smithsonian Institution Building or Castle on the National Mall serves as the Institutions headquarters. ... The Power of Myth is a book and six part television documentary first broadcast on PBS in 1988 as Joseph Campbell and the Power of Myth. ... Christopher Vogler is a Hollywood screenwriter. ...

See also

The Golden Bough: A Study in Magic and Religion is a wide-ranging comparative study of mythology and religion, written by Scottish anthropologist Sir James George Frazer (1854–1941). ... A bildungsroman (IPA: /, German: novel of personal development) is a novelistic form which concentrates on the spiritual, moral, psychological, or social development and growth of the protagonist usually from childhood to maturity. ... Otto Rank (April 22, 1884 – October 31, 1939) was an Austrian psychologist. ...

External links


 
 

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Will
12th May 2010
This is pretty interesting stuff

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