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Encyclopedia > The Crucible
The Crucible
Written by Arthur Miller
Characters Abigail Williams
Reverend John Hale
Reverend Samuel Parris
John Proctor
Elizabeth Proctor
Thomas Danforth
Mary Warren
Date of premiere 22 January 1953
Place of premiere Martin Beck Theatre
New York City, New York
Original language English
Subject Salem witch trials
Genre Tragedy, Drama
Setting Salem, Massachusetts
IBDB profile
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The Crucible by Arthur Miller is a play written in the early 1950s during the time of McCarthyism, when the government blacklisted accused communists. Miller himself was questioned by the House of Representatives' Committee on Un-American Activities in 1956. The play was first performed on Broadway on January 22, 1953. The reviews of the first production were hostile, but a year later a new production succeeded and the play became a classic. Today it is studied in high schools and universities, because of its status as a revolutionary work of theatre and for its allegorical relationship to testimony given before the House Committee On Un-American Activities during the 1950s. Crucible can mean: A cup shaped piece of labratoratory equipment, a crucible. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Arthur Bob Miller (October 17, 1915 – February 10, 2005) was an American playwright and essayist. ... Abigail Williams testimony against George Jacobs, Jr. ... John Hale (3 June 1636-15 May 1700) was the pastor of the Church of Christ in Beverly, Massachusetts during the Salem witch hunt in 1692. ... Reverend Samuel Parris (1653-1720) Samuel Parris (1653 – February 27, 1720) was the Puritan minister in the town of Salem Village (now Danvers, Massachusetts) during the Salem witch trials, as well as the father and uncle of two of the afflicted girls. ... John Proctor (1632–1692) was a tavern-keeper in 17th century Massachusetts. ... Elizabeth Proctor was an indirect victim of the Salem witch trials whose husband, John Proctor, was executed. ... Thomas Danforth (1622 - November 5, 1699) was a judge for the 1692 Salem witch trials in early colonial America. ... For the philosophy professor and writer of abortion issues, see Mary Ann Warren. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Martin Beck Theatre is a notable Broadway theatre in New York. ... New York, New York redirects here. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... 1876 illustration of the courtroom; the central figure is usually identified as Mary Walcott The Salem witch trials were a series of hearings by local magistrates and county court trials to prosecute people alleged to have committed acts of witchcraft in Essex, Suffolk and Middlesex Counties of Massachusetts in 1692... For other uses, see Tragedy (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Drama (disambiguation). ... Nickname: Location in Essex County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Essex Settled 1626 Incorporated 1626 A City 1836 Government  - Type Mayor-council city  - Mayor Kimberley Driscoll Area  - Total 18. ... Arthur Bob Miller (October 17, 1915 – February 10, 2005) was an American playwright and essayist. ... A 1947 comic book published by the Catechetical Guild Educational Society warning of the supposed dangers of a Communist takeover. ... Blacklisted redirects here. ... Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party... HUAC hearings The House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC or HCUA,[1] 1938–1975) was an investigative committee of the United States House of Representatives. ... For other uses of Broadway, see Broadway. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... HUAC hearings House Committee on Un-American Activities or HUAC (or, rarely, HCUA) (1938-1975) was an investigating committee of the United States House of Representatives. ...


The play was adapted for film twice, by Jean-Paul Sartre as the 1957 film Les Sorcières de Salem and by Miller himself as the 1996 film The Crucible, the latter with a cast including Paul Scofield, Daniel Day-Lewis and Winona Ryder. Miller's adaptation earned him an Academy Award nomination for Best Screenplay based on Previously Produced Material, his only nomination. The play was also adapted by composer Robert Ward into an opera, The Crucible, which was first performed in 1961 and received the Pulitzer Prize. This article is about motion pictures. ... Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (June 21, 1905 – April 15, 1980), normally known simply as Jean-Paul Sartre (pronounced: ), was a French existentialist philosopher and pioneer, dramatist and screenwriter, novelist and critic. ... The year 1957 in film involved some significant events. ... Les Sorcieres de Salem ... The year 1996 in film involved some significant events. ... David Paul Scofield, CH, CBE (born 21 January 1922) is a British actor who was born in Hurstpierpoint, Sussex, England. ... Daniel Michael Blake Day-Lewis (born 29 April 1957) is an Academy-Award winning and Golden Globe-award nominated actor. ... Winona Laura Horowitz[1] (born October 29, 1971), better known under her professional name Winona Ryder, is a two-time Academy Award-nominated and Golden Globe-winning American actress. ... The Academy Award for Writing Adapted Screenplay is one of the Academy Awards, the most prominent film awards in the United States. ... Robert Ward (born September 13, 1917 in Cleveland, Ohio) is an American composer. ... The Crucible is an English language opera written by Robert Ward based on the play The Crucible by Arthur Miller. ... The Pulitzer Prize is an American award regarded as the highest national honor in print journalism, literary achievements, and musical composition. ...


The play has also been presented several times on stage and television. One notable 1967 TV production starred George C. Scott as John Proctor, Colleen Dewhurst (Scott's wife at the time) as Elizabeth Proctor, and Tuesday Weld as Abigail Williams. The year 1967 in television involved some significant events. ... George Campbell Scott (October 18, 1927 - September 22, 1999) was a stage and film actor, director, and producer. ... John Proctor (1632–1692) was a tavern-keeper in 17th century Massachusetts. ... Colleen Dewhurst (born June 3, 1924; died August 22, 1991) was a Canadian-born actress best known for playing Marilla Cuthbert in the various Anne of Green Gables productions from Sullivan Entertainment. ... Elizabeth Proctor was an indirect victim of the Salem witch trials whose husband, John Proctor, was executed. ... Tuesday Weld, born August 27, 1943, is an American film actress. ... Abigail Williams testimony against George Jacobs, Jr. ...

Contents

Plot summary

Act 1

The play begins in the bedroom. Betty Parris, the daughter of the local preacher Samuel Parris, has fallen ill. It is soon discovered that Betty was found with some local girls who were dancing and chanting around a fire in the woods with Parris's slave, Tituba. A well to-do in the town, Thomas Putnam, and his wife, Ann Putnam, are also concerned as their daughter, Ruth, has also fallen sick after the escapade in the forest. Panic spreads through the village as people believe that witchcraft is afoot. Reverend Parris sends for the Reverend John Hale, an authority on witchcraft, to investigate what is going on. Reverend Parris questions the manipulative Abigail Williams, who is the unofficial leader of the group of girls, regarding what took place in the forest. Abigail denies any witchcraft and claims she and the girls were simply dancing. Abigail then threatens the other girls to prevent them from revealing what really happened in the forest the last night. John Proctor enters, and Abigail confronts him, alluding to her past affair with him. When Parris and Hale interrogate Tituba, she confesses to witchcraft after Parris threatens to whip her to death. She accuses Sarah Good and Goody Osborne. Betty and Abigail take Tituba's cue, confess witchcraft, and start accusing almost all of the women from town. Reverend Samuel Parris (1653-1720) Samuel Parris (1653 – February 27, 1720) was the Puritan minister in the town of Salem Village (now Danvers, Massachusetts) during the Salem witch trials, as well as the father and uncle of two of the afflicted girls. ... Tituba was the first person accused of practicing witchcraft during the Salem witch trials of 1692 in Salem Village, Massachusetts. ... Witch redirects here. ... John Hale (1636-1700) was a well-known Witch Hunter who was involved in the Salem witch trials. ... Abigail Williams testimony against George Jacobs, Jr. ... John Proctor (1632–1692) was a tavern-keeper in 17th century Massachusetts. ... Sarah Good (July 14, 1653 - July 19, 1692) was one of the first three people to be accused and convicted of witchcraft during the Salem witch trials in Salem, Massachusetts. ... Sarah Osborne (also variously spelled Osborn, Osburne, etc. ...


Act 2

Late one evening in the Proctor household, John Proctor comes home from planting in his fields to his wife, Elizabeth. Their forced conversation eventually grows into an argument concerning John's past infidelity with Abigail and Elizabeth's inability to either forgive or forget the incident. Mary Warren, their house servant, comes home in a disturbed state. She is serving as a clerk of the court and witnessed the first handing down of a death sentence to one of the accused witches that very day. She gives Elizabeth a poppet that she made during the trials that day. Mary then goes to bed, but only after telling the Proctors that Elizabeth's name has been mentioned in the court. John and Elizabeth continue their argument, now enhanced by Elizabeth's fear of Abigail and the other girls' vicious power in the courts. They are interrupted by the sudden appearance of John Hale at their doorway. He is traveling from house to house, speaking to those mentioned in the court to gain more information about them. During their discussion, John reveals that he is aware that Abigail and the other girls are lying. They are all then interrupted by two Salem citizens, Giles Corey and Francis Nurse, that have had wives arrested, and they are shortly followed by a party come to arrest Elizabeth. They find a needle stuck in the poppet that Mary had given Elizabeth, which appears to confirm the accusation on witchcraft made upon Elizabeth by Abigail (this is also called a voodoo doll). The act closes with Elizabeth being taken away and John telling Mary that he will come to the court to dispute the claims made by Abigail. A Poppet is a Maiden or Mother Goddess doll. ... Voodoo is a religious tradition originating in West Africa, which became prominent in the New World due to the importation of African slaves. ...


Act 3

Act Three takes place 33 days after the events in Act Two, set in the Salem court house. Mr. Corey and Mr. Proctor arrive to interrupt the proceedings so that the judges can be presented with the evidence that the girls are lying. Judge Hathorne, the lead judge in the trials, has little patience for them and dismisses them quickly. John Proctor and Mary Warren, however, arrive to dispute Abigail's claims. Danforth questions Mary and Proctor, revealing that Elizabeth is pregnant, and decides to investigate the situation further, calling in Abigail and the other girls. The resulting actions result in Corey being arrested for contempt of court and warrants issued for several citizens that had supported the claims of Mr. Nurse. While examining Abigail further, Parris and others try to get Mary to demonstrate how she and the other girls would pretend to faint. She is unable to do so, and Abigail and the girls start to make accusations against Mary. To attempt to break the hold that Abigail has, John admits to his infidelity with her. In order to determine if John Proctor is telling the truth, they call Elizabeth into the courtroom. Despite John's assertion that Elizabeth never lies, she does not admit to any belief that John has ever strayed, in an attempt to save his name. This results in Mary and John's claims being dismissed. Abigail and the other girls then go into violent fits, accusing Mary of dark witchcraft. Mary becomes completely desperate and turns on John Proctor, saying that he is in league with the Devil. John states that if these events can occur, then "God is dead." The courtroom erupts into chaos and the act ends. For the novel, see God is Dead (novel). ...


Act 4

Act Four starts with Proctor chained to a jail wall totally isolated from the outside. The authorities send Elizabeth to him, telling her to try to convince Proctor to confess to being a warlock. Proctor gives in to the authorities and the advice of Reverend Hale. Hale is now a broken man who spends all his time with the prisoners, praying with them and hoping to save their lives from their unjust fates. Hale advises prisoners to confess to witchcraft, so that they can live. Proctor signs a confession, but retracts it when he realizes that Danforth intended to nail the confession to the church door (which Proctor fears will ruin his name and the names of other Salemites). The play ends with Proctor and Rebecca Nurse (an accused witch) being led to the gallows to hang.


Characters

  • John Proctor - a hard working farmer, and native of Salem who lives just outside town; he is married to Elizabeth Proctor. Before the play, he has an affair with Abigail Williams, which ultimately leads to his downfall. When the hysteria over witchcraft begins in the village, he fails to expose Abigail as a fraud for fear of spoiling his good name. However, when his wife is accused, he tries to tell the court the truth, but it is too late. He is then accused himself of witchcraft by Mary Warren. He is sentenced to be hanged unless he names other witches and repents; however, Proctor dies rather than lie and bring dishonor to all other convicted "witches" who will not.
  • Abigail Williams - Williams is Parris’ niece. She is 17 years old in the play and during the trials. Abigail was once the maid for the Proctor house, but Elizabeth Proctor fired her after she discovered that Abigail was having an affair with her husband, John Proctor. Abigail and her uncle's slave, Tituba, lead the local girls in love-spell rituals in the Salem forest over a fire. Rumors of witchcraft fly, and Abigail tries to use the town's fear to her advantage. She viciously accuses many of witchcraft, starting first with the outcasts of society and gradually moving up to respected members of the community. Finally, she accuses Elizabeth Proctor, most likely out of spite. She is manipulative and dramatic, as well as darkly charismatic. She resists anyone who stands in her way (i.e. Mary Warren, Mrs. Proctor). She later flees Salem during the trials and, "legend has it", becomes a prostitute in Boston. In real life, the maidservant in the Proctor household was not Abigail Williams, but the teenage Mary Warren, who was both an accuser and accused. The real Abigail Williams was only 11 years old in 1692 and she did not have an affair with the real John Proctor, who was 60. The real Abigail Williams was an orphaned niece of Minister Samuel Parris and Elizabeth Parris and lived with them. Although Samuel Parris was minister he came to Salem to preach after he went to Barbados and bought Tituba and another slave, John Indian.
  • Reverend John Hale - Hale is a well respected minister reputed to be an expert on witchcraft. Reverend Hale is called in to Salem to examine the witchcraft trials, and Parris’s daughter Betty, who has fallen into a mysterious illness after being discovered participating in the suspect rituals. He originally believes that there are witches in Salem and advocates the trials, but later realizes the widespread corruption and abuse of the trials, and struggles to get accused witches to lie and confess, rather than stick to the truth, and die.
  • Elizabeth Proctor - John Proctor's wife, and a resident of Salem, famous for her quotation: "No matter what happens tonight... I still love you." She is accused of witchcraft, and is only saved from death due to the fact that she is pregnant. Abigail hates her for being Proctor's wife, and for keeping Proctor's heart.
  • Reverend Samuel Parris - Parris is the poorly respected minister of Salem’s church. He is disliked by many Salem residents because of his greedy, dominating nature. The man is more concerned about his reputation than of the well being of his sick daughter, Betty. He is also less concerned about his missing niece, Abigail Williams, and the lives of the dead and condemned on his conscience and more about the money taken. He is related to the history of Salem where in real life his niece and daughter were the first to be accused of witchcraft and he owned the slave, Tituba who was also accused of witchcraft and survived prison.

John Proctor (1632–1692) was a tavern-keeper in 17th century Massachusetts. ... Abigail Williams testimony against George Jacobs, Jr. ... John Hale (1636-1700) was a well-known Witch Hunter who was involved in the Salem witch trials. ... Elizabeth Proctor was an indirect victim of the Salem witch trials whose husband, John Proctor, was executed. ... Reverend Samuel Parris (1653-1720) Samuel Parris (1653 – February 27, 1720) was the Puritan minister in the town of Salem Village (now Danvers, Massachusetts) during the Salem witch trials, as well as the father and uncle of two of the afflicted girls. ...

Minor Characters

  • Giles Corey - Giles is a friend of John Proctor, who is very concerned about his land. He believes Thomas Putnam is trying to take it and other people's land by getting the girls to accuse Giles' wife of witchcraft. Giles gains this information from an anonymous man whom he will not name as he knows the man would be put in prison. Instead of telling them he lets his interrogators kill him under the weight of rocks stacked on his torso. The character of Giles Corey is based on a real person. Giles' wife, Martha, is executed because of the witchcraft accusations.

It is unusual for persons to refuse to plead, and extremely rare to find reports of persons who have been able to endure this painful form of death in silence. The pressing of Giles Corey is unique in New England. It is similar to the case, in England, of Margaret Clitherow, who, having been arrested on the 10th of March, 1586 for the crime of harboring priests, hearing Mass, and secretly being of the Catholic faith, she refused to plead, since the only witnesses against her would be her own small children and servants, whom she could not bear to involve. Therefore, when arraigned on the 14th of March 1586 she was condemned to the peine forte et dure, to be pressed to death, and this was carried out on Lady Day, 1586, even though it was most likely that she was with child at the time, which should have protected her from execution. She was laid on the ground, a sharp stone beneath her back, hands stretched out and bound between two posts, and a door placed on top of her, which was weighted down, until she was crushed to death. Her last words were "Jesus! Jesus! Jesus! Have mercy on me!" Because she did not plead, her family could not be involved further in any investigation of her actions. Giles Corey (also spelled Cory or Coree, c. ... Giles Corey (also spelled Cory or Coree, c. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... Saint Margaret Clitherow (1556 – 1586) is a saint and martyr of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Peine forte et dure, (Law French for strong and hard punishment) was formerly a method of torture in the common law legal system, where the defendant who refused to plead (stood mute) would be subjected to having heavier and heavier stones placed upon the chest until a plea was entered... In the Christian calendar, Lady Day is the Feast of the Annunciation (25 March) and the first of the four traditional Irish Quarter days and English quarter days. ...


In the play, we hear Giles' story by proxy, out of the mouth of Elizabeth Proctor: "Elizabeth [Quietly, factually]: He were not hanged. He would not answer aye or nay to his indictment; for if he denied the charge they'd hang him surely, and auction out his property. So he stand mute, and died Christian under the law. And so his sons will have his farm. It is the law, for he could not be condemned a wizard without he answer the indictment, aye or nay." From this it is obvious of Giles' reason for holding out so long against so much pain: As long as he did not answer yes or no, his children would be able to keep his estate. Whether this was for his children's sake or for an attempt to spite Thomas Putnam's greedy obsession with buying up land is arguable. The play supports both possibilities.

  • Thomas Putnam - Thomas Putnam lives in Salem village and owns a bit of land close to Giles Corey, Giles accuses him of trying to steal it, and says Putnam got his daughter to accuse Giles' wife of witchcraft.
  • Tituba - Tituba is Rev. Parris' slave. Parris seems to have owned and possibly purchased her in Barbados. She cares for the children and prepares a potion for Abigail that will kill Elizabeth Proctor. Additionally, she attempts to raise the spirits of Ann Putnam's dead children. During the first scene of the play, she is turned in by Abigail and responds by claiming that four women in Salem are witches. She is not seen again until the final scene of the play in the jail. It seems that by this point the events have troubled her to the point of hallucinations and hysteria.
  • Mary Warren - Mary Warren serves as housemaid for the Proctors after Abigail Williams. The play portrays her as a lonely girl who considers herself an "official of the court" at the beginning of the trials. John Proctor abuses her and hits her with a whip. She nearly confesses that she and the other girls were lying about witchcraft until the other girls pretend that she is sending out her spirit upon them in the courtroom. This event, which could have led to her death, propels her to accuse John Proctor of witchcraft and to state that he forced her to lie about herself and the others.
  • Rebecca Nurse - Rebecca Nurse, wife of Francis Nurse, is highly respected in Salem for her helpful nature. Very firm in her opinions, and willing to make any sacrifice in the cause of truth, she voices her opposition to the idea of witchcraft. Near the end, she is accused of being a witch on the prompting of the Putnams, who are jealous of her good fortune.

Thomas Putnam (January 12, 1651/2 - May 24, 1699) was a real person ([1]) in the Salem witch trials, and is a character in the play, The Crucible by Arthur Miller. ... Tituba was the first person accused of practicing witchcraft during the Salem witch trials of 1692 in Salem Village, Massachusetts. ... For the philosophy professor and writer of abortion issues, see Mary Ann Warren. ... Rebecca Towne Nurse (or Nourse) (baptized February 21, 1621 – July 19, 1692) was executed for witchcraft in the Salem witch trials. ...

Historical accuracy

The following are historical inaccuracies from Arthur Miller's "The Crucible"[1]

  • Betty Parris' mother was not dead, but very much alive at the time. She died in 1696, four years after the events.
  • Soon after the legal proceedings began, Betty was shuttled off to live in Salem Town with Stephen Sewall's family. Stephen was the clerk of the Court, brother of Judge Samuel Sewall.
  • Stage directions call for a 'rifle' to be used by the inhabitants of Salem, disregarding the fact that rifling would not have been available to them for at least a hundred years.
  • The Parris family also included two other children -- an older brother, Thomas (b. 1681), and a younger sister, Susannah (b. 1687) -- not just Betty and her relative Abigail, who was probably born around 1681.
  • Abigail Williams is often called Rev. Parris' "niece" but in fact there is no genealogical evidence to prove their familial relationship. She is sometimes in the original texts referred to as his "kinfolk" however.
  • Miller admits in the introduction to the play that he boosted Abigail Williams' age to 17 even though the real girl was only 12, but he never mentions that John Proctor was 62 and Elizabeth, 41, was his third wife. He was not a farmer but a tavern keeper. Living with them was their daughter aged 15, their son who was 17, and John's 33-year-old son from his first marriage. Everyone in the family was eventually accused of witchcraft. Elizabeth Proctor was indeed pregnant, during the trial, and did have a temporary stay of execution after convicted, which ultimately spared her life because it extended past the end of the period that the executions took place.
  • The first two girls to become afflicted were Betty Parris and Abigail Williams, not Ruth Putnam, and they had violent, physical fits, not a sleep that they could not wake from.
  • There never was any wild dancing rite in the woods led by Tituba, and Rev. Parris certainly never stumbled upon it. Some of the local girls had attempted to divine the occupations of their future husbands with an egg in a glass -- crystal-ball style. Tituba and her husband, John Indian (absent in Miller's telling), were asked by a neighbor, Mary Sibley, to bake a special "witch cake," -- made of rye and the girls' urine, and fed to a dog -- European white magic to ascertain who the witch was who was afflicting the girls.
  • The Putnam's daughter was not named Ruth, but Ann, like her mother, probably changed by Miller so the audience wouldn't confuse the mother and the daughter. In reality, the mother was referred to as "Ann Putnam Senior" and the daughter as "Ann Putnam Junior."
  • Ann/Ruth was not the only Putnam child out of eight to survive infancy. In 1692, the Putnams had six living children, Ann being the eldest, down to 1-year-old Timothy. Ann Putnam Sr. was pregnant during most of 1692. Ann Sr. and her sister, however did lose a fair number of infants, though certainly not all, and by comparison, the Nurse family lost remarkably few for the time.
  • Rev. Parris claims to Giles Corey that he is a "graduate of Harvard" -- he did not in fact graduate from Harvard, although he had attended for a while and dropped out.
  • The judges in The Crucible are Samuel Sewall, Thomas Danforth, and John Hathorne. The full panel of magistrates for the special Court of Oyer and Terminer were in fact named by the new charter, which arrived in Massachusetts on May 14, 1692 were William Stoughton, John Richards, Nathaniel Saltonstall, Wait Winthrop, Bartholomew Gedney, Samuel Sewall, John Hathorne, Jonathan Corwin and Peter Sergeant. Five of these eight had to be present to form a presiding bench, and at least one of those five had to be Stoughton, Richards, or Gedney. Thomas Danforth the Deputy Governor, joined the magistrates on occasion as the presiding magistrate.
  • The events portrayed here were the examinations of the accused in Salem Village from March to April in the context of a special court of "Oyer and Terminer." These were not the actual trials, per se, which began later, in June 1692. The procedure was basically this: someone would bring a complaint to the authorities, and the authorities would decide if there was enough reason to send the sheriff or other law enforcement officer to arrest them. While this was happening, depositions -- statements people made on paper outside of court -- were taken and evidence gathered, typically against the accused. After evidence or charges were presented, and depositions sworn to before the court, the grand jury would decide whether to indict the person, and if so, on what charges. If indicted, the person's case would then go to a petit jury, or to "trial" something like we know it only much faster, to decide guilt or innocence. Guilt in a case of witchcraft in 1692 came with an automatic sentence of death by hanging, as per English law.
  • Saltonstall was one of the original magistrates, but quit early on because of the reservations portrayed as attributed to Sewall's character in the play. Of the magistrates, only Sewall ever expressed public regret for his actions, asking in 1696 to have his minister, Rev. Samuel Willard, read a statement from the pulpit of this church to the congregation, accepting his share of the blame for the trials.
  • Rebecca Nurse was hanged on July 19, John Proctor on August 19, and Martha Corey on September 22 -- not all on the same day on the same gallows.
  • Reverend Hale would not have signed any "death warrants," although he claims to have signed 17 in the play. That was not for the clergy to do. Both existing death warrants are signed by William Stoughton.
  • The elderly George Jacobs was not accused of sending his spirit in through the window to lie on the Putnam's daughter -- in fact, it was usually quite the opposite case: women such as Bridget Bishop were accused of sending their spirits into men's bedrooms to lie on them. In that period, women were perceived as the lusty, sexual creatures whose allure men must guard against.
  • Abigail Williams probably couldn't have laid her hands on 31 pounds in Samuel Parris' house, to run away with John Proctor, when Parris' annual salary was contracted at 66 pounds, only a third of which was paid in money. The rest was to be paid in foodstuffs and other supplies, but he even then, he had continual disputes with the parishioners about supplying him with much-needed firewood they owed him.
  • Certain key people in the real events appear nowhere in Miller's play: John Indian, Rev. Nicholas Noyes, Sarah Cloyce, and most notably, Cotton Mather.
  • "The afflicted" comprised not just a group of a dozen teenage girls - there were men and adult women who were also "afflicted," including John Indian, Ann Putnam, Sr., and Sarah Bibber - or anyone in Andover, where more people were accused than in Salem Village.
  • Giles Corey is put to death sometime before John Proctor. When in fact John Proctor dies first on 19 August 1692, and Giles Corey dies later on 19 September 1692.

For other uses, see Rifle (disambiguation). ... Rifling of a Canon de 75 modèle 1897 A 35 caliber Remington, with a microgroove rifled barrel with a right hand twist. ... is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 13 - Massacre of Glencoe March 1 - The Salem witch trials begin in Salem Village, Massachusetts Bay Colony with the charging of three women with witchcraft. ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 13 - Massacre of Glencoe March 1 - The Salem witch trials begin in Salem Village, Massachusetts Bay Colony with the charging of three women with witchcraft. ...

Film adaptations

Main articles: The Crucible (1957 film) and The Crucible (1996 film)
  • A French and German film version known as Les Sorcières de Salem, in 1956, released in the U.S. in 1957. It starred Yves Montand as John, Simone Signoret as Elizabeth, and Mylène Demongeot as Abigail.
  • A TV version shot on videotape in 1967, directed by Don Taylor, starring George C. Scott as John Proctor, Tuesday Weld as Abigail, and Colleen Dewhurst as Elizabeth.
  • A British TV version in 1980.
  • The latest version, a film made in 1996, starred Winona Ryder as Abigail, Daniel Day-Lewis as John and Joan Allen as Elizabeth. Arthur Miller wrote the screenplay. Miller was nominated for an Oscar for his screen adaptation, with Allen receiving an Oscar nomination for Best Supporting Actress.

Les Sorcieres de Salem ... Yves Montand Yves Montand (October 13, 1921 – November 9, 1991) was a French/Italian actor, born Ivo Livi in Monsummano Alto, Italy. ... Simone Signoret (March 25, 1920 - September 30, 1985), was an Academy Award-winning French actress. ... Mylène Demongeot (*1936) is a French actress. ... Bottom view of VHS videotape cassette with magnetic tape exposed Videotape is a means of recording images and sound onto magnetic tape as opposed to movie film. ... There are several people of note by the name Don Taylor or Donald Taylor known for achievements in various fields. ... George Campbell Scott (October 18, 1927 - September 22, 1999) was a stage and film actor, director, and producer. ... Tuesday Weld, born August 27, 1943, is an American film actress. ... Colleen Dewhurst (born June 3, 1924; died August 22, 1991) was a Canadian-born actress best known for playing Marilla Cuthbert in the various Anne of Green Gables productions from Sullivan Entertainment. ... Winona Laura Horowitz[1] (born October 29, 1971), better known under her professional name Winona Ryder, is a two-time Academy Award-nominated and Golden Globe-winning American actress. ... Daniel Michael Blake Day-Lewis (born 29 April 1957) is an Academy-Award winning and Golden Globe-award nominated actor. ... Joan Allen in a scene from The Contender Joan Allen (b. ...

References

  1. ^ Margo Burns (04 August 2004). Arthur Miller's The Crucible: Fact & Fiction. 17th Century New England. Retrieved on 2008-06-19.

2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

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The Crucible
1876 illustration of the courtroom; the central figure is usually identified as Mary Walcott The Salem witch trials were a series of hearings by local magistrates and county court trials to prosecute people alleged to have committed acts of witchcraft in Essex, Suffolk and Middlesex Counties of Massachusetts in 1692... William Stoughton (30 September 1631 – 7 July 1701) was in charge of what has come to be known as the Salem Witch Trials, first as the Chief Magistrate of the Special Court of Oyer and Terminer in 1692, and then as the Chief Justice of the Superior Court of Judicature... John Hathorne (August 5, 1641 - May 10, 1717) was one of the associate magistrates in the Salem witch trials, and later, the only one not to repent of his actions. ... Jonathan Corwin (November 14, 1640 - July 25, 1718) was a Puritan, wealthy New England merchant, and a judge in the Salem, Massachusetts area who was involved in the Salem Witch Trials // Corwin was called to investigate the widespread accusations of witchcraft in Salem in 1692. ... Samuel Sewall (March 28, 1652 - January 1, 1730). ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Thomas Danforth (1622 - November 5, 1699) was a judge for the 1692 Salem witch trials in early colonial America. ... Col. ... Joseph Herrick (August 6, 1645-@1710) was the principal law enforcement officer in Salem, Massachusetts during the Salem Witchcraft Trials of 1692. ... George Herrick (1658-1695) was the Marshal for the Court of Oyer and Terminer during the Salem Witch Trials. ... Reverend Samuel Parris (1653-1720) Samuel Parris (1653 – February 27, 1720) was the Puritan minister in the town of Salem Village (now Danvers, Massachusetts) during the Salem witch trials, as well as the father and uncle of two of the afflicted girls. ... This article is about the 17th century Puritan minister. ... The Reverend Increase Mather (June 21, 1639 – August 23, 1723) was a major figure in the early history of the Massachusetts Bay Colony and Province of Massachusetts Bay (now the Federal state of Massachusetts). ... Nicholas Noyes was a colonial minister in Salem, Massachusetts during the time of the Salem witch trials. ... John Hale (3 June 1636-15 May 1700) was the pastor of the Church of Christ in Beverly, Massachusetts during the Salem witch hunt in 1692. ... Samuel Willard (1640-1707) was a Colonial clergyman. ... Sir William Phips (or Phipps) (February 2, 1651 – February 18, 1695) was a colonial governor of Massachusetts. ... Robert Calef (about 1648 - 1719 Roxbury, Massachusetts) was a Boston, Massachusetts Baptist cloth merchant who came to America before 1688. ... Thomas Putnam (January 12, 1651/2 - May 24, 1699) was a real person ([1]) in the Salem witch trials, and is a character in the play, The Crucible by Arthur Miller. ... 1876 illustration of the courtroom; the central figure is usually identified as Mary Walcott Mercy Lewis was born around 1642 in Suffield, Hartford, Connecticut and was the servant in Thomas Putnam’s household. ... After shuving up her anusElizabeth Betty Parris (November 28, 1682 – March 21, 1760) was the nine-year-old daughter of the Salem villages reverend Samuel Parris (1653–1720) and was the first to become ill after being bewitched as most people thought. ... House of Ann Putnam, Jr. ... Mary Walcott (July 5, 1675 – after 1719) was one of the witnesses at the Salem Witch Trials of Salem, Massachusetts in the years 1692 and 1693. ... Abigail Williams testimony against George Jacobs, Jr. ... Reverend Samuel Parris (1653-1720) Samuel Parris (1653 – February 27, 1720) was the Puritan minister in the town of Salem Village (now Danvers, Massachusetts) during the Salem witch trials, as well as the father and uncle of two of the afflicted girls. ... // Edward Bishop married 2d, as her third husband, Bridget the widow of Thomas Oliver. ... Edward Bishop and his wife Sarah were involved in the witchcraft hysteria of 1692. ... Rebecca Blake Eames According to Essex County Mass. ... Dorothy Good was the real name of the four-year-old daughter of Sarah Good, both of whom were accused of practicing witchcraft in Salem in 1692. ... Sarah Osborne (also variously spelled Osbourne, Osburne, etc. ... Elizabeth Proctor was an indirect victim of the Salem witch trials whose husband, John Proctor, was executed. ... Tituba was the first person accused of practicing witchcraft during the Salem witch trials of 1692 in Salem Village, Massachusetts. ... Abigail Hobbs was a girl of about 15 years old when she was was arrested for witchcraft on April 18, 1692 along with Giles Corey, Mary Warren, and Bridget Bishop. ... Deliverance and her husband originally came from Casco, Maine, which is in Wabanaki indian territory. ... For the philosophy professor and writer of abortion issues, see Mary Ann Warren. ... Ann Foster (born Ann Alcock, 1617-1693), was the widow of Andrew Foster. ... Briget Bishop (ca. ... George Burroughs (c. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Mary Towne(Eastey) was Rebecca Nurses other sister, along with Sarah Cloyce. ... Sarah Good (July 14, 1653 - July 19, 1692) was one of the first three people to be accused and convicted of witchcraft during the Salem witch trials in Salem, Massachusetts. ... Archival photograph of George Jacobs house taken in the later 19th century or early 20th century. ... Born in England in 1625, Susannah Martin was the third daughter of Richard North. ... Rebecca Towne Nurse (or Nourse) (baptized February 21, 1621 – July 19, 1692) was executed for witchcraft in the Salem witch trials. ... Richard and Mary Parker are fictional characters of Marvel Comics. ... John Proctor (1632–1692) was a tavern-keeper in 17th century Massachusetts. ... Ann Greenslit[1] Pudeator was a well-to-do septuagenarian widow hanged on charges of being a witch on September 22, 1692[2]. Thomas Greenslit was her first husband and they had five children (Thomas, Jr. ... A memorial marker found at Old Burial Hill in Marblehead, near Redds Pond Wilmot Redd was one of the victims of the Salem witch trials of 1692. ... John Willard was an Australian politician, elected as a member of the New South Wales Legislative Assembly. ... Ann Foster (born Ann Alcock, 1617-1693), was the widow of Andrew Foster. ... Sarah Osborne (also variously spelled Osbourne, Osburne, etc. ... Roger Toothaker (November 27, 1634, England – June 1692, Massachusetts) was a physician who came to Massachusetts from England shortly after he was born. ... Giles Corey (also spelled Cory or Coree, c. ... Arthur Bob Miller (October 17, 1915 – February 10, 2005) was an American playwright and essayist. ... No Villain is a play written by Arthur Miller (1915- 2005) during his sophomore year in 1936, during spring break. ... In 1936, Arthur Millers first play, Honors at Dawn, for which he won the Avery Hopwood Award, was produced at the University of Michigan. ... The Man Who Had All the Luck was an early (1944) play by Arthur Miller. ... All My Sons is the name of a 1947 play by Arthur Miller. ... For other uses, see Death of a Salesman (disambiguation). ... The original frontpage of Henrik Ibsens En folkefiende, 1882. ... A View from the Bridge is a play by Arthur Miller originally produced as a one-act verse drama on Broadway in 1955. ... this is a memory of 2 mondays ... The Misfits is a 1961 American film, written by Arthur Miller, directed by John Huston, and starring Clark Gable, Marilyn Monroe, Montgomery Clift, Eli Wallach, and Thelma Ritter. ... After the Fall is a play by American dramatist Arthur Miller. ... Incident at Vichy is a play by Arthur Miller focusing upon the subject of anti-semitism in Europe. ... Arthur Asher Miller (October 17, 1915 – February 10, 2005) was an American playwright, essayist and author. ... The Creation of the World and Other Business is a play by Arthur Miller. ... The Arch-Bishops Ceiling is a drama written by Arthur Miller. ... The American Clock is a play by Arthur Miller. ... Up from Paradise is a musical with a book and lyrics by Arthur Miller and music by Stanley Silverman. ... Everybody Wins is a play written by Arthur Miller, who also wrote the screenplay for the film of the same name directed by Karel Reisz released in 1990 starring Debra Winger and Nick Nolte. ... The Last Yankee is a play by Arthur Miller. ... Penguin Books edition with (left to right) Frances Conroy, Patrick Stewart, and Katy Selverstone The Ride Down Mt. ... Cover to the Penguin Group edition. ... Mr. ... Resurrection Blues (2002) is Arthur Millers penultimate play. ... Finishing the Picture is Arthur Millers final play. ... Situation Normal is the second album by SNAFU. Pete Solleys fiddle lends this album a curious Country and Western tone in places, unusual for what was essentaily an R&B band. ... Arthur Asher Miller (October 17, 1915 – February 10, 2005) was an American playwright, essayist and author. ...

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Crucible Compaction Metals offers Superalloys, Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP), Corrosion Resisting Metals and much more! (186 words)
Crucible Materials Corporation has been a pioneer in the technical development of tool steels, powder metallurgy, titanium alloys, and advanced alloy systems for leading edge manufacturers.
Crucible Compaction Metals' autoclave is used for HIP of powder metal products and toll-HIP services for the densification of investment castings.
Crucible Compaction Metals is an ISO 9001:2000/AS9100 Registered Firm.
Crucible - Encyclopedia, History, Geography and Biography (917 words)
Crucibles are commonly used with a high temperature-resistant crucible cover (or lid) made of a similar material.
These crucibles are very durable and resist temperatures to over 1600 °C. A crucible is placed into a furnace and, after the melting, the liquid metal is taken out of the furnace and poured into the mold.
In the area of chemical analysis, crucibles are used in quantitative gravimetric chemical analysis (analysis by measuring mass of an analyte).
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