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Encyclopedia > The Blue Marble
Original caption: "View of the Earth as seen by the Apollo 17 crew traveling toward the moon. This translunar coast photograph extends from the Mediterranean Sea area to the Antarctica south polar ice cap. This is the first time the Apollo trajectory made it possible to photograph the south polar ice cap. Note the heavy cloud cover in the Southern Hemisphere. Almost the entire coastline of Africa is clearly visible. The Arabian Peninsula can be seen at the northeastern edge of Africa. The large island off the coast of Africa is Madagascar. The Asian mainland is on the horizon toward the northeast."
Original caption: "View of the Earth as seen by the Apollo 17 crew traveling toward the moon. This translunar coast photograph extends from the Mediterranean Sea area to the Antarctica south polar ice cap. This is the first time the Apollo trajectory made it possible to photograph the south polar ice cap. Note the heavy cloud cover in the Southern Hemisphere. Almost the entire coastline of Africa is clearly visible. The Arabian Peninsula can be seen at the northeastern edge of Africa. The large island off the coast of Africa is Madagascar. The Asian mainland is on the horizon toward the northeast."

The Blue Marble is a famous photograph of the Earth taken on 7 December 1972 by the crew of the Apollo 17 spacecraft at a distance of about 29,000 kilometres or about 18,000 statute miles.[1] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 599 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (3000 × 3002 pixel, file size: 6. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 599 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (3000 × 3002 pixel, file size: 6. ... Apollo 17 was the eleventh manned space mission in the NASA Apollo program. ... Mediterranean redirects here. ... southern hemisphere highlighted in yellow (Antarctica not depicted). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Arabia redirects here. ... For other uses, see Photograph (disambiguation). ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Apollo 17 was the eleventh manned space mission in the NASA Apollo program. ... “km” redirects here. ...


The name has also been applied by NASA to a modern series of image data sets covering the entire globe at relatively high resolution, created by carefully sifting through satellite captured sequences taken over time, to eliminate as much cloud cover as possible from the collated set of images. For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ...

Contents

The photograph

The snapshot taken by astronauts in 12/7/1972 is one of the most widely distributed photographic images in existence. The image is one of the few to show a fully lit Earth, as the astronauts had the Sun behind them when they took the image. To the astronauts, Earth had the appearance of a child's glass marble (hence the name). For other uses, see Astronaut (disambiguation). ... Hand-made marbles from West Africa Different glass marbles from a glass-mill For other uses, see Marbles (disambiguation). ...


History

The photo was originally taken 'upside down' in that the North Pole was at the bottom of the photo. This is because of the orientation in which the astronauts were traveling at the time.
The photo was originally taken 'upside down' in that the North Pole was at the bottom of the photo. This is because of the orientation in which the astronauts were traveling at the time. [2][3]

The photograph was taken on December 7, 1972 at 5:39 a.m. EST (10:39 UTC), about 5 hours and 6 minutes after launch[4], and about 1 hour 54 minutes after the spacecraft left parking orbit around the Earth to begin its trajectory to the Moon. The time of Apollo 17's launch, 12:33 a.m. EST, meant that Africa was in daylight during the early hours of the spacecraft's flight. With the December solstice approaching, Antarctica was also illuminated. Image File history File links Apollo17WorldReversed. ... Image File history File links Apollo17WorldReversed. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Eastern Standard Time Zone is a geographic region that keeps time by subtracting five hours from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). ... UTC redirects here. ... This article is about Earths moon. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... “Summer solstice” redirects here. ...


The photograph's official name is AS17-148-22727. (The photograph AS17-148-22726, taken just before and nearly identical to 22727, is also used as a full-Earth image.) The photographer used a 70-millimeter Hasselblad camera with an 80-millimeter lens.[5] NASA officially credits the image to the entire Apollo 17 crew — Eugene Cernan, Ronald Evans and Jack Schmitt — all of whom took photographic images during the mission with the on-board Hasselblad. After the mission, evidence showed that although the photo could have been taken by any of the astronauts, Jack Schmitt probably took the famous image.[6] This article is about Victor Hasselblad AB, the Swedish company. ... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... Apollo 17 was the eleventh manned space mission in the NASA Apollo program. ... Eugene Andrew Cernan (born March 14, 1934) is a retired United States Navy officer and a former NASA astronaut of Czech and Slovak ancestry. ... Ronald Ellwin Evans, Jr. ... Schmitts famous photograph of Earth taken from Apollo 17 as he travelled to the Moon Harrison Jack Schmitt (born July 3, 1935) is a geologist, astronaut, and senator. ...


Apollo 17 was the last manned lunar mission. No humans since have been at a range where taking a whole-Earth photograph such as The Blue Marble would be possible.


The Blue Marble was the first clear image of an illuminated face of Earth. Released during a surge in environmental activism during the 1970s, the image was seen by many as a depiction of Earth's frailty, vulnerability, and isolation amid the expanse of space. NASA archivist Mike Gentry has speculated that The Blue Marble is the most widely distributed image in human history. [6] The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ...


The picture was originally taken upside down from the usual view of North at the top, but was rotated before it was distributed.[2][3] This presumed upside down picture is one of the arguments for the reversed map theory. This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


The satellite imaging series

NASA released an extensive set of satellite captured imagery, including prepared images suitable for direct human viewing, as well as complete sets suitable for use in preparing further works, in 2002. [1] At the time, at 1km/pixel this was the most detailed such imagery available free, and permitting reuse (eg see [2]), without a need for extensive preparatory work to eliminate cloud cover and conceal missing data, or to parse specialized data formats. The data also included a similarly-manually assembled cloud cover and night-lights image sets, at lower resolutions.


The release was greeted enthusiastically and a subsequent release was made in 2005, named Blue Marble: Next Generation, this time produced with the aid of automated image-sifting which enabled including a complete, cloud-free globe 'frozen in time' for each month of the year, at even higher resolution (500m/pixel). [3] The original release of a single image-set covering the entire globe, had of necessity not been a true reflection of the extent of seasonal snow-and-vegetative cover across both hemispheres, but this newer release closely modeled the changes of the seasons.


A number of interactive viewers for this data have also been released, among them a music visualization for the PS3 that is based on the texture data.[7] See the NASA webpages for further information. Music/Audio players for personal computers became widespread in the mid to late 1990s as applications such as Winamp, Audion, and SoundJam. ... The PlayStation 3 , trademarked PLAYSTATION®3,[3] commonly abbreviated PS3) is the third home video game console produced by Sony Computer Entertainment; successor to the PlayStation 2. ...


Other applications of the term blue marble

Subsequent similar images of Earth (including composites at much higher resolution) have also been termed "blue marble" images, and the phrase "blue marble" (as well as the picture itself) is used - such as in the Earth flag - frequently by environmental activism organizations or companies attempting to promote an environmentally conscious image. There has also been a children's television program called Big Blue Marble. NASA Earth flag The Earth flag is not an official flag, since there is no official governing body over Earth. ... A television program (US), television programme (UK) or simply television show is a segment of programming in television broadcasting. ... Big Blue Marble was a half-hour childrens television series that ran from 1974-1983 in syndication. ...

Blue Marble composite images generated by NASA in 2001 (left) and 2002 (right).
Blue Marble composite images generated by NASA in 2001 (left) and 2002 (right).

Image File history File links BlueMarble-2001-2002. ... Image File history File links BlueMarble-2001-2002. ...

See also

  • Deep Space Climate Observatory, an as-yet-unlaunched satellite which would have regularly produced full Earth images
  • Earthrise, another iconic picture of the Earth taken aboard Apollo 8
  • Pale Blue Dot, an image of the Earth taken by Voyager 1
  • Stewart Brand, author who in 1966 lobbied NASA to release a then-rumored satellite photograph of the entire Earth
  • Whole Earth Catalog, an eclectic catalog compiled by Brand which was inspired in part by photographs of the Earth as a globe
  • Earth flag, a flag featuring the Blue Marble photo

Apollo 8 was a manned mission of the Apollo space program. ... Apollo 8 was the Apollo space programs second successful manned mission. ... Seen from four billion miles away, Earth is a dot obscured in a beam of scattered sunlight (pinpointed by artificial blue circle). ... Stewart Brand speaking September 5, 2004 Stewart Brand (born December 14, 1938 in Rockford, Illinois) is an author, editor, and creator of The Whole Earth Catalog and CoEvolution Quarterly. ... The Whole Earth Catalog was a sizeable catalog published twice a year from 1968 to 1972, and occasionally thereafter, until 1998. ... NASA Earth flag The Earth flag is not an official flag, since there is no official governing body over Earth. ...

References

  1. ^ Apollo 17 30th Anniversary: Antarctica Zoom-out. Scientific Visualization Studio. NASA (2002-11-21). Retrieved on 2007-09-04.
  2. ^ a b "Worth a thousand worlds", Geek Trivia, TechRepublic, 2005-12-06. Retrieved on 2007-04-22. 
  3. ^ a b Apollo 17: The Blue Marble - Photo Timeline
  4. ^ Apollo 17 Image Library. Apollo 17 Multimedia. NASA. Retrieved on 2007-04-29.
  5. ^ NASA Mapping Sciences Branch (May 1974). Apollo 17 Index: 70 mm, 35 mm, and 16 mm Photographs, page 88. PDF. 
  6. ^ a b Apollo 17: The Blue Marble. ehartwell.com (2007-04-25). Retrieved on 2008-01-18.
  7. ^ Gamasutra - Special: Q-Games On PS3's 'Gaia' Music Visualizer

For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • NASA history of Blue Marble image releases

1972 photograph

This article is about Victor Hasselblad AB, the Swedish company. ...

21st century NASA composite images

  • Blue Marble (2002)
    • Blue Marble Mapserver Web interface for viewing small sections of the above
  • Blue Marble: Next Generation (2005; one picture per month)
    • Blue Marble Navigator Web interface for viewing local sections of the above, incl. links to other such interfaces, download sites etc.
    • Blue Marble: Next Generation in NASA World Wind

  Results from FactBites:
 
NASA - NASA Unveils its Blue Marble: Next Generation (1419 words)
The original Blue Marble was a composite of four months of MODIS observations with a spatial resolution (level of detail) of 1 square kilometer per pixel.
Those who intend to use the Blue Marble: Next Generation in their own publications or projects should be aware of areas that still require improvement.
Deep oceans are not included in the source data; the creator of the Blue Marble uses a uniform blue color for deep ocean regions, and this value has not been completely blended with observations of shallow water in coastal areas.
The Blue Marble - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (653 words)
The Blue Marble is a famous photograph of the Earth taken on 7 December 1972 by the crew of the Apollo 17 spacecraft at a distance of about 45,000 kilometers or about 28,000 miles.
Released during a surge in environmental activism during the 1970s, the image was seen by many as a depiction of Earth's frailty, vulnerability, and isolation amid the expanse of space.
Subsequent similar images of Earth (including composites at much higher resolution) have also been termed "blue marble" images, and the phrase "blue marble" (as well as the picture itself) is used frequently by environmental activism organizations or companies attempting to promote an environmentally conscious image.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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