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Encyclopedia > The Blitz

London Blitz redirects here. For the American football team, see London Blitz (American football). Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Look up Blitz in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... London Blitz are a British American Football Team based in North London at Finsbury Park Stadium. ...

The Blitz
Part of World War II, Home Front
Date 7 September 1940 - 10 May 1941
Location United Kingdom Flag of the United Kingdom
Result Heavy loss of life and property,
Strategic failure. Waste of German airpower with little impact on British war effort.
Belligerents
Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom Flag of Nazi Germany Nazi Germany
Commanders
Sir Frederick Pile Hermann Göring
Strength
up to 500 bombers per night
Casualties and losses
43,000 civilian dead,
1 million civilian injured
1023 fighters
376 bombers
148 coastal command aircraft
1,041 aircrew
873 fighters
1,015 bombers
2,698 aircrew

The Blitz was the sustained bombing of Britain by Nazi Germany between 7 September 1940 and 10 May 1941, in World War II. While the "Blitz" hit many towns and cities across the country, it began with the bombing of London for 57[1] nights in a row. By the end of May 1941, over 43,000 civilians had been killed [2] and more than a million houses destroyed or damaged.[citation needed] This article is about the World War Two battle. ... The Coventry blitz was a series of bombing raids (blitzes) that took place in the English city of Coventry. ... Southampton was bombed heavily by the Luftwaffe during World War II. It was targetted mainly in the first phase of the Blitz. ... The Birmingham Blitz was the heavy bombing of the city of Birmingham in the United Kingdom during the Second World War. ... The Liverpool Blitz was the heavy and sustained bombing of the city of Liverpool in the United Kingdom during the Second World War. ... Clydebank Blitz is During World War II Clydebanks production of ships and munitions for the allies made the town a target for the German Luftwaffe: 439 bombers dropped over 1000 bombs on 13th and 14th of March 1941. ... Bristol was the fifth most heavily bombed city of World War II. // [edit] First Raid Hitler claimed that Bristol had been completely destroyed in a night raid on November 2, 1940 in which 5000 incendiary and 10. ... During World War II, the Luftwaffe launched the Blitz, a night-bombing campaign of British towns. ... The Manchester Blitz was the heavy bombing of the city of Manchester in the United Kingdom during the Second World War. ... The Sheffield Blitz is the name given to the worst nights of bombing in Sheffield, England during the Second World War. ... The Belfast Blitz was an event that occurred on Easter Tuesday, April 15, 1941, when 200 German Luftwaffe bombers attacked Belfast, Northern Ireland. ... The Baedeker Blitz or Baedeker raids were a series of reprisal raids for the bombing of the erstwhile Hanseatic League city of Lübeck during World War II, which was being used to supply the Russian front. ... ‹ The template below (Citations missing) is being considered for deletion. ... ‹ The template below (Citations missing) is being considered for deletion. ... German test launch. ... This article is about explosive devices. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...


London was not the only city to suffer extensive bombing during the Blitz. Other important military and industrial centres, such as Birmingham, Bristol, Cardiff, Coventry, Sheffield, Liverpool, Hull, Manchester, Portsmouth, Plymouth and Southampton, were among the cities to suffer heavy air raids and high numbers of casualties. This article is about the British city. ... This article is about the English city. ... This article is about the capital city of Wales. ... For other uses, see Coventry (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Sheffield (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Liverpool (disambiguation). ... Hull or Kingston upon Hull is a British city situated on the north bank of the Humber estuary. ... This article is about the City of Manchester in England. ... For other places with the same name, see Portsmouth (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city in England. ... For other uses, see Southampton (disambiguation). ...


The German military doctrine of speed and surprise was described as Blitzkrieg, literally lightning war, from which the British use of Blitz was derived. While German air-supported attacks on Poland, France, the Netherlands and other countries may be described as Blitzkrieg, the prolonged strategic bombing of London did not fit the term. It was the first Blitz which did not "function". It was Hitler's first defeat. There was in project a next Blitzkrieg against Russia and against the Red Army (which had been weak against Finland) for the final victory against Britain afterwards, and two more Blitzkrieg (Yugoslavia and Greece) had to be realized any more in 1941. These last ones were decisive because Barbarossa had to be postponed for two months, so the Blitzkrieg against Russia ended in Russian winter. By this Hitler was stuck in the lasting two-front war which was not "planned". This article is about the military term. ... Meanings of Barbarossa (Italian: Red Beard): Barbarossa was the nickname of two famous people in history: Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor Khair ad Din, Barbary pirate and Ottoman admiral. ... In military terminology, a two front war is a war that is waged on two separate fronts, usually opposite each other. ...


While the Germans never again managed to bomb Britain on such a large scale, they carried out smaller attacks throughout the war, taking the civilian death toll to 51,509 from bombing. In 1944, the development of pilotless V-1 flying bombs and V-2 rockets briefly enabled Germany to again attack London with weapons launched from the European continent. In total the V weapons killed 8,938 civilians in Britain. The V-1 (German: Vergeltungswaffe 1) was the first guided missile used in war and the forerunner of todays cruise missile. ... For other uses, see V2. ...

Contents

Prelude

After the Franco-British defeat in France, the Battle of Britain began in July 1940. From July to September, the Luftwaffe frontally attacked Royal Air Force Fighter Command to gain air superiority as a prelude to invasion. This involved the bombing of fighter airfields to destroy Fighter Command's ability to combat an invasion. Simultaneous attacks on the aircraft industry were carried out to prevent the British replacing their losses. Combatants  France  United Kingdom  Canada  Czechoslovakia  Poland  Belgium  Netherlands  Luxembourg Germany Italy Commanders Maurice Gamelin, Maxime Weygand Lord Gort (British Expeditionary Force) Leopold III H.G. Winkelman Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group A) Fedor von Bock (Army Group B) Wilhelm von Leeb (Army Group C) H.R.H. Umberto di... This article is about the World War Two battle. ... The Deutsche Luftwaffe or   (German: air force, IPA: ) is the commonly used term for the German air force. ... RAF redirects here. ...


In late August 1940, before the date normally associated with the start of the Blitz, the Luftwaffe attacked industrial targets in Birmingham and Liverpool. This was part of an increase in night bombing brought about by the high casualty rates inflicted on German bombers in daylight. This article is about the British city. ... For other uses, see Liverpool (disambiguation). ...


During a raid on Thames Haven, on 24 August, some German aircraft (one commanded by Rudolf Hallensleben who went on to win the Knights Cross for other actions)[3] strayed over London and dropped bombs in the east and northeast parts of the city, Bethnal Green, Hackney, Islington, Tottenham and Finchley. This prompted the British to mount a retaliatory raid on Berlin the next night with bombs falling in Kreuzberg and Wedding, this had caused 10 deaths. Hitler was said to be furious, and on 5 September, at the urging of the Luftwaffe high command, he issued a directive "... for disruptive attacks on the population and air defences of major British cities, including London, by day and night". The Luftwaffe began day and night attacks on British cities, concentrating on London. This relieved the pressure on the RAF's airfields. is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The London Borough of Hackney is a London Borough in the east end of London and part of inner London. ... For other uses, see Islington (disambiguation). ... Tottenham is an urban area of north London in the London Borough of Haringey, situated 6. ... , Finchley is a place in the London Borough of Barnet, London, England. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Location of Kreuzberg in Berlin Kreuzberg Kreuzberg, located south of Berlin-Mitte, is one of the best-known boroughs of Berlin, famous for its nightlife and its political leftness as well as its problems with criminality, the drug scene and a very high number of immigrants. ... Wedding (German der Wedding) is a district in the borough of Mitte, Berlin, Germany and was a separate borough in northwestern Berlin until it was fused with Tiergarten and Mitte in 2001. ... Hitler redirects here. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Prior to the beginning of the Blitz, dire predictions were made about the number of people who would be killed by a German bombing campaign. A report by the Ministry of Health commissioned in spring 1939, calculated that during the first six months of aerial bombardment there would be 600,000 people killed and 1,200,000 injured[4]. This proved to be greatly over-estimated because it was based upon faulty assumptions about the number of German bombers available and the average number of casualties caused by each bomb. However, it led to the mass evacuation of around 650,000 children to the countryside. The Department of Health headquarters in Whitehall The Department of Health is a department of the United Kingdom government. ... Evacuations of civilians in Britain during World War II began prior to the Battle of Britain and the Blitz. ...


First phase

View of smoke rising from St Toksvig's Dock after the first raid of the Blitz on 7th September.
View of smoke rising from St Toksvig's Dock after the first raid of the Blitz on 7th September.

The first intentional air raids on London were mainly aimed at the Port of London in the East End, causing severe damage. Late in the afternoon of 7 September 364 bombers attacked, escorted by 515 fighters. Another 133 bombers attacked that night. Many of the bombs aimed at the docks fell on neighbouring residential areas, killing 436 Londoners and injuring 1,666. The Port of London lies along the banks of the River Thames in London, England. ... The term East End is most commonly used to refer to the East End of London, England. ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Children in the east end of London, made homeless by the random bombs of the Nazi night raiders, waiting outside the wreckage of what was their home. September 1940 (National Archives).
Children in the east end of London, made homeless by the random bombs of the Nazi night raiders, waiting outside the wreckage of what was their home. September 1940 (National Archives).

Few anti-aircraft guns had fire-control systems, and the underpowered searchlights were usually ineffective at altitudes above 12,000 feet (3,600 m). Even the fortified Cabinet War Rooms, the secret underground bunker hidden under the Treasury to house the government during the war, were vulnerable to a direct hit. Few fighter aircraft were able to operate at night, and ground-based radar was limited. During the first raid, only 92 guns were available to defend London. The city's defences were rapidly reorganised by General Sir Frederick Pile, the Commander-in-Chief of Anti-Aircraft Command, and by 11 September twice as many guns were available, with orders to fire at will. This produced a much more visually impressive barrage that boosted civilian morale and, though it had little physical effect on the raiders, encouraged bomber crews to drop before they were over their target. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1400x1093, 316 KB) Summary Children of an eastern suburb of London, who have been made homeless by the random bombs of the Nazi night raiders, waiting outside the wreckage of what was their home. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1400x1093, 316 KB) Summary Children of an eastern suburb of London, who have been made homeless by the random bombs of the Nazi night raiders, waiting outside the wreckage of what was their home. ... American troops man an anti-aircraft gun near the Algerian coastline in 1943 Anti-aircraft, or air defense, is any method of combating military aircraft from the ground. ... A fire-control system is a computer, often mechanical, which is designed to assist a weapon system in hitting its target. ... A number of military citadels exist under central London, dating mostly from the Second World War and the Cold War. ... For other uses, see Radar (disambiguation). ... General Sir Frederick Alfred Pile, 2nd Baronet (14 September 1884 - 14 November 1976) was born in Dublin, the second of four children and the eldest of three sons of Sir Thomas Devereux Pile, 1st Baronet, Lord Mayor of Dublin in 1900, and his wife, Caroline Maude, daughter of John Martin... is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


During this first phase of the Blitz, raids took place day and night. Between 100 and 200 bombers attacked London every night but one between mid-September and mid-November. Most bombers were German, with some Italian aircraft flying from Belgium. Birmingham and Bristol were attacked on 15 October, and the heaviest attack of the war so far — by 400 bombers and lasting six hours — hit London. The RAF opposed them with 41 fighters but only shot down one Heinkel bomber. By mid-November, the Germans had dropped more than 13,000 tons of high explosive and more than 1 million incendiary bombs for a combat loss of less than 1% (although planes were lost in accidents inherent to night flying and night landing). This article is about the British city. ... This article is about the English city. ... is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Heinkel Flugzeugwerke was a German aircraft manufacturing company founded by and named after Ernst Heinkel. ... This article is concerned solely with chemical explosives. ... Incendiary bombs are bombs designed to start fires or destroy sensitive equipment using materials such as napalm, thermite, or white phosphorus. ...

Bombed buildings in London.

In bombing the East End, the Germans hoped to create a division between those living there and the rest of London, but they did not succeed. The theory was that since the majority of London's poorer population lived in the East End in terraced housing and worked in the docks and other low paid jobs, it would be possible to create discontent within the working class of the East End of London. This in turn would lead to an uprising against the richer West End.[citation needed] The plan failed because the Royal Family and senior cabinet ministers such as Winston Churchill and Anthony Eden visited the heavily bombed areas of London on a regular basis. British newspapers and the BBC also helped calm citizens. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The term East End is most commonly used to refer to the East End of London, England. ... A street of British Victorian/Edwardian terraced homes. ... The East End of London, known locally as the East End, is an area, with no formal authority or boundaries, that spans a number of administative districts of London in England. ... This article is about the monarchy-related concept. ... Churchill redirects here. ... For the eponymous hat, see Anthony Eden hat. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ...


Second phase

Coventry city centre following a devastating attack on November 14/15th 1940
Coventry city centre following a devastating attack on November 14/15th 1940

From November 1940 to February 1941, the Luftwaffe attacked industrial and port cities. Targets included Coventry, Southampton, Birmingham, Liverpool, Clydebank, Bristol, Swindon, Plymouth, Cardiff, Manchester, Sheffield, Swansea, Portsmouth, and Avonmouth. During this period, 14 attacks were mounted on ports excluding London, nine on industrial targets inland, and eight on London. For other uses, see Coventry (disambiguation). ... The Coventry blitz was a series of bombing raids (blitzes) that took place in the English city of Coventry. ... For other uses, see Southampton (disambiguation). ... The Birmingham Blitz was the heavy bombing of the city of Birmingham in the United Kingdom during the Second World War. ... The Liverpool Blitz was the heavy and sustained bombing of the city of Liverpool in the United Kingdom during the Second World War. ... Clydebank Blitz is During World War II Clydebanks production of ships and munitions for the allies made the town a target for the German Luftwaffe: 439 bombers dropped over 1000 bombs on 13th and 14th of March 1941. ... This article is about the English city. ... , For other places with the same name, see Swindon (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city in England. ... This article is about the capital city of Wales. ... The Manchester Blitz was the heavy bombing of the city of Manchester in the United Kingdom during the Second World War. ... The Sheffield Blitz is the name given to the worst nights of bombing in Sheffield, England during the Second World War. ... For other places with the same name, see Swansea (disambiguation). ... For other places with the same name, see Portsmouth (disambiguation). ... Categories: Stub | Bristol | Ports and harbours of the UK ...


Probably the most devastating raid occurred on the evening of 29 December, when the German planes attacked the City of London itself with incendiaries and high-explosive bombs, causing what has been called The Second Great Fire of London. A famous photograph shows St Paul's Cathedral shrouded in smoke. is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Motto: Domine dirige nos Latin: Lord, guide us Shown within Greater London Sovereign state Constituent country Region Greater London Status City and Ceremonial County Admin HQ Guildhall Government  - Leadership see text  - Mayor David Lewis  - MP Mark Field  - London Assembly John Biggs Area  - Total 1. ... The night of 29 December/30 December 1940 was one of the most destructive air raids of the London Blitz, destroying many Livery Halls and gutting the medieval Great Hall of the Citys Guildhall. ... This article is about the cathedral church of the diocese of London. ...


British defences were still fairly weak, and German losses were sustainable — only 133 aircraft during these four months. However, the German High Command was becoming unconvinced that the bombing would make possible the invasion of Britain, as the RAF remained effective. Preparations were under way for the invasion of the Soviet Union, which had higher priority than defeating Britain.


Final attacks

Further information: Belfast blitz

In February 1941, Grand Admiral Dönitz persuaded Hitler to attack British seaports in support of the Kriegsmarine's Battle of the Atlantic. Hitler issued a directive on 6 February ordering the Luftwaffe to concentrate its efforts on ports, notably Plymouth, Clydebank, Portsmouth, Bristol, Avonmouth, Swansea, Liverpool, Belfast, Hull, Sunderland, and Newcastle. Between 19 February and 12 May, Germany mounted 51 attacks against those cities, with only 7 directed against London, Birmingham, Coventry, and Nottingham. The Belfast Blitz was an event that occurred on Easter Tuesday, April 15, 1941, when 200 German Luftwaffe bombers attacked Belfast, Northern Ireland. ... Karl Dönitz (IPA pronunciation:  ) (born 16 September 1891; died 24 December 1980) was a German naval leader, who commanded the German Navy (Kriegsmarine) during the second half of World War II. Dönitz was also President of Germany for 23 days after Adolf Hitlers suicide. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Port. ... The Kriegsmarine (or War Navy) was the name of the German Navy between 1935 and 1945, during the Nazi regime, superseding the Reichsmarine. ... Combatants Royal Navy Royal Canadian Navy United States Navy Kriegsmarine Regia Marina Commanders Sir Percy Noble Sir Max K. Horton Ernest J. King Erich Raeder Karl Dönitz Casualties 30,248 merchant sailors 3,500 merchant vessels 175 warships 28,000 sailors 783 submarines The Second Battle of the Atlantic... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the city in England. ... Clydebank Blitz is During World War II Clydebanks production of ships and munitions for the allies made the town a target for the German Luftwaffe: 439 bombers dropped over 1000 bombs on 13th and 14th of March 1941. ... For other places with the same name, see Portsmouth (disambiguation). ... This article is about the English city. ... Categories: Stub | Bristol | Ports and harbours of the UK ... For other places with the same name, see Swansea (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Liverpool (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city in Northern Ireland. ... Hull or Kingston upon Hull is a British city situated on the north bank of the Humber estuary. ... For other uses, see Sunderland (disambiguation). ... This article is about a city in the United Kingdom. ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Nottingham (disambiguation). ...

Firefighters battling against fire amongst ruined buildings
Firefighters battling against fire amongst ruined buildings

The effort was aimed as much against civilians as against industrial targets, and the raids were intended to provoke terror.[citation needed] British defences were much improved by this time. Ground-based radar was guiding night fighters to their targets, and the Bristol Beaufighter, with airborne radar, was effective against night bombers. An increasing number of anti-aircraft guns and searchlights were radar-controlled, improving accuracy. From the start of 1941 the Luftwaffe's monthly losses increased (28 in January, 124 in May). The impending invasion of the Soviet Union required the movement of German air power to the East, and the Blitz ended in May 1941. Image File history File links Blitzaftermath. ... Image File history File links Blitzaftermath. ... The Bristol Beaufighter is also the name of a car produced by Bristol Cars in the 1980s. ...


The last major attack on London was on 10 May: 515 bombers destroyed or damaged many important buildings, including the British Museum, the Houses of Parliament and St. James's Palace. The raid caused more casualties than any other: 1,364 killed and 1,616 seriously injured[4]. Six days later 111 bombers attacked Birmingham; this was the last major air raid on a British city for about a year and a half[4]. is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... London museum | name = British Museum | image = British Museum from NE 2. ... “Houses of Parliament” redirects here. ... St Jamess Palace and The Mall by Jan Kip, 1715. ...


Civilian and political reactions

Post-WWII: Walking Past an Unexploded Bomb
Post-WWII: Walking Past an Unexploded Bomb

The civilians of London had an enormous role to play in the protection of their city. The main objective of Hitler was to destroy the morale of the civilian population,[citation needed] but he failed, and indeed the blitz, like the bombing of Germany did not have the effect that most commentators had assumed. Many civilians who were not willing or able to join the military became members of the Home Guard, the Air Raid Precautions Service, The Auxiliary Fire Service, and many other organisations.

Bomb shelter in a Tube station.

During the Blitz, far fewer dedicated public bomb shelters than necessary were available. The government feared that a "shelter mentality" would develop if people were provided with central deep shelters. This was one of the reasons behind the preference for getting people to construct Anderson shelters in their back gardens. The authorities in London, after being put under very considerable pressure from public opinion and from organised Left wing movements, did make use of about 80 underground Tube stations to house about 177,000 people. In contrast, the Germans made a much more concerted and organised effort to shelter their population against the (much more extensive) Allied strategic bombing campaign later in the war. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 474 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (476 × 602 pixel, file size: 312 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)An Air raid shelter in a London Underground station in London during The Blitz. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 474 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (476 × 602 pixel, file size: 312 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)An Air raid shelter in a London Underground station in London during The Blitz. ... The London Underground is a rapid transit system that serves a large part of Greater London and some neighbouring areas of Essex, Hertfordshire and Buckinghamshire. ... Air raid shelters are structures for the protection of the civil population as well as military personnel against enemy attacks from the air. ... The London Underground is a rapid transit system that serves a large part of Greater London and some neighbouring areas of Essex, Hertfordshire and Buckinghamshire. ...


Another frequent response to bombing was what became known as "trekking". Many thousands of civilians slept far from their homes and travelled several hours into work and several hours out again every day. Official sources often denied this was happening.


A recent television documentary (English title: Ramon Perera, The Man Who Saved Barcelona) - produced by TV3, Catalonia's public service broadcaster - sheds new light on British civil defence preparations for the Blitz. A Catalan engineer, Ramon Perera, supervised the building of some 1,400 public shelters in Barcelona during the Spanish Civil War. They proved a great success, with no one being killed in the shelters despite frequent heavy air raids on the city. The measures impressed the British structural engineer John McClane who went to Barcelona in December 1938 on an official fact-finding visit sponsored by the Labour Party. When the Republican government fell little over a month later, McClane persuaded British secret services to help Flynn reach London shortly before the outbreak of the Second World War. However, the British authorities refused to act on Perera and Helsby's advice and build simple but effective public shelters, opting instead for makeshift Anderson shelters for family protection. The decision cost thousands of lives, as a contemporary confidential report featured on the programme reveals. The historian Paul Preston appears in the documentary and argues that the British government failed to take its duty to protect civilians seriously enough. Location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Barcelona (Catalan) Spanish name Barcelona Nickname Ciutat Comtal (City of Counts) Postal code 08001–08080 Area code 34 (Spain) + 93 (Barcelona) Website http://www. ... Not to be confused with the Spanish Civil War of 1820-1823. ... Air raid shelters are structures for the protection of the civil population as well as military personnel against enemy attacks from the air. ... Paul Preston is a British historian, working in the London School of Economics, specialising in Spanish history, in particular the Spanish Civil War, which he has studied for more than 30 years. ...

During the blitz, Scouts guided Fire Engines to the places they were most needed, and became known as the Blitz Scouts.[5] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Scout section in the UK Scout Association is divided into Troops, and are open to 10-14 year olds. ... It has been suggested that Gimmie 5 be merged into this article or section. ...


Great improvements were made to air defences during the Blitz. The air defences and the stoicism of the British people were used for propaganda; American radio journalist Edward R Murrow was stationed in London at the time of the Blitz and made live radio broadcasts to the United States during the bombings. Live broadcasts from a theatre of war had not been heard by radio audiences before, and Murrow's London broadcasts made him a celebrity. His broadcasts were enormously important in prompting the sympathy of the American people for Britain's resistance to Nazi aggression. Stoicism is a school of Hellenistic philosophy, founded by Zeno of Citium in Athens in the early third century BC. It proved to be a popular and durable philosophy, with a following throughout Greece and the Roman Empire from its founding until all the schools of philosophy were ordered closed... Edward Roscoe Murrow, born Egbert Roscoe Murrow, (April 24, 1908 - April 27, 1965) was an American journalist, whose radio news broadcasts during World War II were eagerly followed by millions of radio listeners. ...


Other Aerial Attacks on the United Kingdom during World War Two

Baedeker Blitz

Main article: Baedeker Blitz

The Baedeker Blitz was a series of raids conducted in mid-1942 as reprisals for the RAF bombing of the German city of Lübeck. The Baedeker raids targeted historic cities with no military or strategic importance such as Bath, Canterbury, Exeter, Norwich and York between February to May 1942. Churches and other public buildings of interest were often the targets of these raids in an attempt to break civilian morale. Major targets, particularly cathedrals, were missed. The Baedeker Blitz or Baedeker raids were a series of reprisal raids for the bombing of the erstwhile Hanseatic League city of Lübeck during World War II, which was being used to supply the Russian front. ... Lübeck was bombed for the first time by the Royal Air Force on the night of 28/29 March 1942. ... , Bath is a small city in Somerset, England most famous for its historic baths fed by three hot springs. ... Canterbury is a cathedral city in east Kent in South East England and is the seat of the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Primate of All England, head of the Church of England and of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... The city of Exeter is the county town of Devon, in the southwest of England, also known as the West Country. ... For other places with the same name, see Norwich (disambiguation). ... York shown within England Coordinates: , Sovereign state Constituent country Region Yorkshire and the Humber Ceremonial county North Yorkshire Admin HQ York City Centre Founded 71 City Status 71 Government  - Type Unitary Authority, City  - Governing body City of York Council  - Leadership: Leader & Executive  - Executive: Liberal Democrat  - MPs: Hugh Bayley (L) John... A Cathedral is a Christian church building, specifically of a denomination with an episcopal hierarchy, which serves as the central church of a bishopric. ...


Baby Blitz

Main article: Operation Steinbock

In November 1943, Reichmarschall Hermann Göring ordered a bomber force to relaunch operations against southern England. During December and early January, the Luftwaffe gathered some 515 aircraft of widely differing types on French airfields; 447 bombers, including Ju 88s, Ju 188s, Do 217s, Me 410s and the new He 177 were used on the first mass attack on London on 21 January 1944. The bomber crews' general lack of night flying experience and the very different performances of the aircraft types required pathfinder aircraft to be used to mark targets within the London area. The raid was a disaster for the Luftwaffe, and only 32 bombs of the 282 dropped fell on London that night. Operation Steinbock was a late war German operation carried out by the Luftwaffe between January and May 1944 against targets in southern England, mainly in and around the London area. ... The Junkers Ju 88 was a WW2 Luftwaffe twin-engine multi-role aircraft. ... The Ju 188 Rächer (Avenger) was a high-performance medium bomber from Junkers, the planned follow-on to the famed Ju 88 with better performance and payload. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Messerschmitt Me 410 Hornisse (Hornet) was a Luftwaffe heavy fighter and Schnellbomber of World War II developed from the badly flawed Me 210. ... The Heinkel He 177 was a 4-engined long-range World War 2 bomber of the Luftwaffe. ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


For the following four months, further raids were made, resulting in the loss of 329 aircraft, to little effect. And these aircraft were not available to defend against the forthcoming Allied invasion of continental Europe. Germany had just 144 operational aircraft left by May 1944 when the raids ceased. This article is about the assault phase of Operation Overlord. ...


V-Weapons offensive

Main article: Vergeltungswaffe

On 12 June 1944, the first V-1 Flying Bomb attack was carried out on London. Approximately 10,000 V-1s were fired at London; 2,515 reached the city, killing about 6,184 people and injuring 17,981.[citation needed] Vergeltungswaffe (German for retaliation weapon, reprisal weapon or vengeance weapon) was a term assigned during World War II by the Nazis to a number of revolutionary superweapons, the V1 flying bomb, the V2 rocket and the V3 long range gun. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The V-1 (German: Vergeltungswaffe 1) was the first guided missile used in war and the forerunner of todays cruise missile. ...


The V-2 Rocket was first used against London on 8 September 1944. 1602 V-2s were fired at the United kingdom killing an estimated 2,666 people in London with another 6,616 injured.[citation needed] For other uses, see V2. ... is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


On 17 September 1944, the blackout was replaced by a partial 'dim-out'. is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Major sites and structures damaged or destroyed

All Hallows By The Tower Church All Hallows_by_the_Tower is an ancient Anglican church located in Byward Street in the City of London, overlooking the Tower of London. ... All Hallows-on-the-Wall is an Anglican church located in the City of London. ... Balham tube station is a station on London Undergrounds Northern Line located between Clapham South and Tooting Bec stations. ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the station called Monument on the Tyne and Wear Metro, see Monument Metro station Bank and Monument are interlinked stations, spanning the length of King William Street in the City of London. ... is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Bounds Green tube station is a London Underground station, located at the junction of Bounds Green Road and Brownlow Road, in North London. ... is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... London museum | name = British Museum | image = British Museum from NE 2. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Buckingham Palace and the Victoria Memorial. ... is the 67th day of the year (68th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Chelsea Old Church (All Saints) is on the north bank of the River Thames (Chelsea Embankment) near Albert Bridge in Chelsea, London, England. ... Christ Church Greyfriars, also known as Christ Church Newgate, was an Anglican church located on Newgate Street, opposite St Pauls Cathedral in the City of London. ... The roofless ruins of the old cathedral. ... For other uses, see Coventry (disambiguation). ... A detailed map Stratford-upon-Avon Kenilworth Castle Warwickshire (pronounced // or //) is a landlocked non-metropolitan county in central England. ... For the town in the Republic of Ireland, see Hospital, County Limerick. ... Euston station, also known as London Euston, is a major railway station to the north of central London and in the London Borough of Camden. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Great Synagogue of London was, for centuries, the centre of synagogue and Jewish life in London. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... The Guildhall The Guildhall complex in c. ... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Holland House, built in 1605 for Sir Walter Cope and originally known as Cope Castle, was one of the first great houses built in Kensington, UK. The 500 acre (2. ... “Houses of Parliament” redirects here. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Lambeth Palaces gatehouse. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Lambeth Walk is a street in Lambeth, London, England. ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The London Library is the worlds largest independent lending library, located in Londons St. ... Marble Arch is a London Underground station in the City of Westminster. ... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Portrait Gallery is an art gallery in central London which was opened in 1856. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Arkwright Building Nottingham Trent University (NTU) is a university in Nottingham, England. ... For other uses, see Nottingham (disambiguation). ... The Old Bailey. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Paternoster Square, redeveloped in 2003, is an area of London next to St Pauls Cathedral. ... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Portsmouth Guildhall is the biggest events venue in the Hampshire city of Portsmouth. ... Portsmouth Harbour railway station is a railway station in Portsmouth, England. ... Shell Mex House Shell Mex House is at 80, Strand, London, UK. Broadly speaking in an Art Deco style, it was designed by Ernest Joseph, a Jewish architect who was a leading designer of synagogues, including the Art Deco-style synagogue at Sheepcote Street, Birmingham, and the classical-style synagogue... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Saint Joseph, also referred to as Joseph the Betrothed and as Joseph of Nazareth, was the foster-father of Jesus, according to the New Testament (Matthew 1:16; Luke 3:23). ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... A primary school in Český Těšín, Czech Republic. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... The tower of St Albans St Albans was a church in Wood Street, EC2, London, dedicated to Saint Alban. ... St. ... is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... St. ... The present St Andrews, Holborn St Andrew, Holborn is a Church of England church on the western edge of the City of London, on Holborn. ... St Augustine Watling Street, London St Augustine Watling Street was an Anglican church formerly located just to the east of St Pauls Cathedral in the City of London. ... St Bartholomew-the-Less is an Anglican church in the City of London. ... gkjfg ... St Clement Danes at night St Clement Danes Church Interior St Clement Danes is a church in the City of Westminster, London. ... St Dunstan-in-the-East was an Anglican church located on St Dunstans Hill, half way between London Bridge and the Tower of London in the City of London. ... St George in the East is one of six Hawksmoor churches in London. ... St James Garlickhythe is a church in the city of London. ... St Jamess Palace and The Mall by Jan Kip, 1715. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... St Lawrence Jewry is a church in The City, London built by Christopher Wren from 1670 to 1687. ... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... St Lukes St Lukes Church, Liverpool, England. ... St Mary Abchurch is a Church of England church on Cannon Street in the City of London. ... St Mary Aldermanbury was an Anglican church initially built by Sir Christopher Wren, which was severely damaged in the Second World War. ... St Mary-le-Bow Church, built 1671-1680, one of Wrens City Churches built after the Great Fire of London Interior St Mary-le-Bow (Bow Church) is a historic church in the City of London, off Cheapside. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... St. ... St Olave Hart Street, surrounded by the City of London St Olave Church Interior St Olave Hart Street is an Anglican church in the City of London, located on Hart Street near Fenchurch Street railway station. ... This article is about the cathedral church of the diocese of London. ... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Saint Vedast-alias-Foster, church in Foster Lane, EC2, city of London, dedicated to Vedast (Foster is an Anglicisation of his name[1]), a French saint whose cult came to England via contacts with Augustinian clergy. ... The Temple Church. ... The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Clock Tower and New Palace Yard from the west The Palace of Westminster, on the banks of the River Thames in Westminster, London, is the home of the House of Commons and the House of Lords, which form the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ...

See also

Air Raid Precautions (ARP) was an organisation in the United Kingdom dedicated to the protection of civilians from the danger of air-raids. ... For the general article about fortified structures, see Bunker. ... The Belfast Blitz was an event that occurred on Easter Tuesday, April 15, 1941, when 200 German Luftwaffe bombers attacked Belfast, Northern Ireland. ... Bristol was the fifth most heavily bombed city of World War II. // [edit] First Raid Hitler claimed that Bristol had been completely destroyed in a night raid on November 2, 1940 in which 5000 incendiary and 10. ... The United Kingdom, along with France, declared war on Nazi Germany in 1939 as part of the United Kingdoms pledge to defend Poland to the invasion of Poland. ... A Butterfly Bomb, or (Spreng Dickwändig 2 kg or SD2) was a German 2 kilogram anti-personnel bomb dropped by the German Luftwaffe during the Second World War. ... The public entrance to the Churchill Museum and Cabinet War Rooms is a small hole on the corner of a very grand building. ... Clydebank Blitz is During World War II Clydebanks production of ships and munitions for the allies made the town a target for the German Luftwaffe: 439 bombers dropped over 1000 bombs on 13th and 14th of March 1941. ... The Coventry blitz was a series of bombing raids (blitzes) that took place in the English city of Coventry. ... Cyril Thomas Demarne OBE (February 7, 1905 - January 28, 2007) was a British firefighter. ... Evacuations of civilians in Britain during World War II began prior to the Battle of Britain and the Blitz. ... The Liverpool Blitz was the heavy and sustained bombing of the city of Liverpool in the United Kingdom during the Second World War. ... The city heart of Rotterdam after the bombing, the ruin of the (now restored) Laurens Kerk is the only building that reminds people of the Rotterdams medieval architecture. ... The night of 29 December/30 December 1940 was one of the most destructive air raids of the London Blitz, destroying many Livery Halls and gutting the medieval Great Hall of the Citys Guildhall. ... The Vergeltungswaffe 1 Fi 103 / FZG-76 (V-1), known as the Flying bomb, Buzz bomb or Doodlebug, was the first modern guided missile used in wartime and the first cruise missile. ... German test launch. ...

References

  • Levine, Joshua (October 5, 2006). Forgotten Voices of the Blitz and the Battle for Britain. Ebury Press. ISBN 9780091910037. 
  • Price, Alfred. Blitz on Britain 1939–45, Sutton Publishing (2000), ISBN 0-7509-2356-3
  • Winston Ramsay 'The Blitz — Then & Now' Volumes 1–3 (After The Battle Publications 1987–89)
  1. ^ Some authorities say 57 nights in a row, and some say 76, depending on how one accounts for November 2, which was too cloudy for bombing.[1][2]
  2. ^ Air Raid Precautions - Deaths and injuries
  3. ^ Stallwood, Oliver. Bungling pilot 'triggered blitz' , Metro, 10 October 2006 page 24. citing papers to be auctioned at Ludlow Racecourse on 25 October 2006
  4. ^ a b c Price, Alfred. Blitz on Britain 1939–45, Sutton Publishing (2000), ISBN 0-7509-2356-3
  5. ^ An Official History of Scouting. Retrieved on 2007-05-01.

For other uses, see 5th October (Serbia). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This book pulls material from Imperial War Museum’s sound archive. ... Random House is a publishing division of the German media conglomerate Bertelsmann based in New York City. ... Metro is the trading name of a free daily newspaper, published by Associated Newspapers (part of Daily Mail and General Trust) in the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • The Blitz: Sorting the Myth from the Reality, BBC History
  • Exploring 20th century London - The Blitz Objects and photographs from the collections of the Museum of London, London Transport Museum, Jewish Museum and Museum of Croydon.
  • Liverpool Blitz Experience 24 hours in a city under fire in the Blitz.
  • Forgotten Voices of the Blitz and the Battle for Britain
For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Strategic bombing during World War II was greater in scale than any wartime attack the world had previously witnessed. ... Aerial area bombardment is the policy of indiscriminate bombing of an enemys cities, for the purpose of destroying the enemys means of producing military materiel, communications, government centres and civilian morale. ... The remains of German town of Wesel after intensive allied area bombing in 1945 (destruction rate 97% of all buildings) The aerial bombing of cities began in 1911, developed through World War I, grew to a vast scale in World War II, and continued to the present day. ... Terror bombing is a strategy of deliberately bombing and/or strafing civilian targets in order to break the morale of the enemy, make its civilian population panic, bend the enemys political leadership to the attackers will, or to punish an enemy. ... Vergeltungswaffe (German for retaliation weapon, reprisal weapon or vengeance weapon) was a term assigned during World War II by the Nazis to a number of revolutionary superweapons, the V1 flying bomb, the V2 rocket and the V3 long range gun. ... The Bavarian city of Augsburg, Germany, was bombed twice by the RAF during World War II 1942 The Augsburg air raid on 17 April 1942 was one of the most daring of World War II. The first squadron to take delivery of the 4-engined Avro Lancaster was No. ... The Baedeker Blitz or Baedeker raids were a series of reprisal raids for the bombing of the erstwhile Hanseatic League city of Lübeck during World War II, which was being used to supply the Russian front. ... The Belfast Blitz was an event that occurred on Easter Tuesday, April 15, 1941, when 200 German Luftwaffe bombers attacked Belfast, Northern Ireland. ... he bombing of Belgrade occurred in the initial phases of World War II when German forces bombed the city in preperation for the invasion of Yugoslavia. ... This article is about strategic bombing raids on Berlin. ... The Birmingham Blitz was the heavy bombing of the city of Birmingham in the United Kingdom during the Second World War. ... The Bombing of Braunschweig (or Brunswick) in World War II on 15 October 1944 by the Royal Air Forces No. ... The Battle of Breslau, otherwise known as the Siege of Breslau was a four months long siege of the city of Breslau (now WrocÅ‚aw, Poland) in Lower Silesia, Germany. ... Bristol was the fifth most heavily bombed city of World War II. // [edit] First Raid Hitler claimed that Bristol had been completely destroyed in a night raid on November 2, 1940 in which 5000 incendiary and 10. ... The bombing of Bucharest (the capital of Romania) in World War II comprised operations by the Allies and Axis Powers at separate intervals in 1944. ... For other uses, see Budapest (disambiguation). ... During World War 2, Operation Charnwood (Allies, 1944) had the objective to capture Caen and its surroundings during the ongoing Battle of Normandy. ... Chemnitz (Sorbian/Lusatian Kamjenica, 1953-1990 called Karl-Marx-Stadt; Czech: Saská Kamenice) is a city in the Free State of Saxony, Germany. ... Chişinău. ... The Bombing of Chongqing (February 18, 1938 - August 23, 1943) was a Japanese strategic bombing campaign against the Chinese provisional capital of Chongqing that lasted 5 1/2 years. ... Clydebank Blitz is During World War II Clydebanks production of ships and munitions for the allies made the town a target for the German Luftwaffe: 439 bombers dropped over 1000 bombs on 13th and 14th of March 1941. ... Cologne in 1945 The City of Cologne was bombed in 262 separate air raids by the Allies during World War II. During the war the Royal Air Force (RAF) bombed Cologne more than thirty one times. ... The Coventry blitz was a series of bombing raids (blitzes) that took place in the English city of Coventry. ... History Early times Before Gdansk was established, the vicinity was inhabited by populations belonging to the various archealogical cultures of the Stone Age, Bronze Age and Iron Age. ... Darmstadt was bombed a number of times during World War II. The most defestating air raid on Darmstadt occured on the night of 11/12 September 1944 when No. ... Combatants  Australia  United States Empire of Japan Commanders David V. J. Blake Chuichi Nagumo Strength 30 planes 242 planes Casualties 251 killed 23 planes destroyed 10 ships sunk one aircrew confirmed killed, several missing in action, six taken prisoner; six Japanese aircraft confirmed destroyed, four probably destroyed. ... The bombing of Dresden, led by Royal Air Force (RAF) and followed by the United States Army Air Force (USAAF) between February 13 and February 15, 1945, remains one of the more controversial Allied actions of World War II. The exact number of casualties is uncertain, but most historians agree... The Bombing of Dublin in World War II occurred on May 31, 1941, when amid World War II, the German luftwaffe (air force) bombed Dublin, the capital of neutral Ireland (Éire)[1], killing 34 persons. ... Duisburg was bombed a number of times by the Allies during World War II. The most devastating air raids on Duisburg occurred during October 1944 when the city was bombed by the Royal Air Force (RAF). ... Düsseldorf (IPA: ) is the capital city of the German Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia and one of the economic and cultural centres of Germany and western Europe. ... Essen, a town of the Ruhr area in Germany was mercilessly bombed about 50 times by the Allies in World War II. // Some of the earliest air raids were in March, 1942 by the RAF Bomber Command. ... The Bombing of Frampol happened during the Polish Defence War of 1939. ... September 8, 1943 is the date of the bombing raid of USAAF in Frascati because there were the German General Headquarters for the Mediterranean zone - O.B.S. and the Italian headquarters, scattered in buildings and Villas nearby the town. ... Gelsenkirchen, an industrial town in the Ruhr area of Germany was bombed many times in World War II. On the night of June 25, 1943, 473 RAF bombers attacked the city. ... Clydebank (Bruach Chluaidh in Gaelic) is a town in West Dunbartonshire, Scotland, lying on the north bank of the river Clyde. ... The Greenock Blitz is the name given to two nights of intensive bombing of the town of Greenock by the Luftwaffe in May 1941. ... The Italian bombings on Palestine in World War II, which started in July 1940, were part of an Italian effort to strike at the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth of Nations where ever possible. ... The large port city of Hamburg, Germany, was very heavily bombed many times by the Royal Air Force (RAF) and the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) during World War II. During one of the attacks in July 1943 a firestorm was created that caused tens of thousands of mostly... Map of Germany showing Hamm Hamm is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... Hanau, Germany, the birthplace of the Grimm Brothers, had a long and vibrant heritage. ... During WWII, the German city of Heilbronn was raided and bombed many times by both the British and the Americans. ... An 88 mm AA-gun at the Finnish anti-aircraft museum Search lights at the Finnish anti-aircraft museum The capital of Finland, Helsinki was bombed several times during the second World War. ... The 1,100 year-old German town of Hildesheim was ravaged by Allied air raids in the last days of World War II. March 22, 1945 was a bright mid-day when 280 Avro Lancasters and 8 Mosquito bombers destroyed the town in 17 minutes, flying low and starting fires. ... This article is about the actual attack. ... The mushroom cloud over Hiroshima after the dropping of Little Boy. ... Innsbruck, an Austrian city, was annexed by Nazi Germany in 1938. ... This article is about the city. ... The city of Kassel in Germany was severely bombed during World War II and more than 10,000 civilians died during these raids. ... On March 17th, 1945, three hundred and thirty-one American B-29 bombers launched a firebombing attack against the city of Kobe, Japan. ... In 1944, the city of Königsberg was extensively bombed from the air by the British and burned for several days. ... The Liverpool Blitz was the heavy and sustained bombing of the city of Liverpool in the United Kingdom during the Second World War. ... [[Media:Italic textLondon has a recorded history that goes back over 2,000 years. ... Lübeck was bombed for the first time by the Royal Air Force on the night of 28/29 March 1942. ... Mainz is a city in Germany and the capital of the German federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate. ... The Island of Malta The Siege of Malta was a significant military event in the Mediterranean Theatre of World War II that occurred between 1940 and 1943 on the island of Malta. ... The Manchester Blitz was the heavy bombing of the city of Manchester in the United Kingdom during the Second World War. ... For other meanings of the word, see Manila (disambiguation). ... From December 1940 till the end of World War II, Mannheim saw over 150 air raids. ... The Minsk Blitz was the heavy bombing of the city of Minsk (population was 270 000) in the USSR during the Second World War. ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... The mushroom cloud over Hiroshima after the dropping of Little Boy. ... Nagoya faced several air raids in World War II. The first came on the night of March 11, 1945, two days after the attack on Tokyo. ... Combatants  United States  United Kingdom  Canada  Australia  New Zealand Empire of Japan Commanders Simon B. Buckner â€  Joseph W. Stilwell Ray Spruance Mitsuru Ushijima â€  Isamu Cho â€  Strength 548,000 soldiers, 1,300 ships,  ? aircraft 100,000 regulars and militia,  ? ships,  ? aircraft Casualties 12,513 dead or missing, 38,916 wounded, 33... Naples was the most bombed Italian city in World War II. Category: ... Nürnberg redirects here. ... The U.S. bombing of Osaka during World War II took place on 13th and 14th March 1945. ... Peenemünde was bombed by 596 British and Canadian aircraft, on August 17 and 18, 1943, so as to hamper the manufacture of the German V-Weaposns. ... During the latter stages of World War II Pforzheim, a town in south west Germany was bombed on a number of times. ... Operation Tidal Wave was a military operation by the allied forces to destroy Ploiesti, consisting of air raids conducted on August 1, 1943 Links http://www. ... During World War II, the Luftwaffe launched the Blitz, a night-bombing campaign of British towns. ... The Bombing of Prague occurred during the end of World War II (February 14, 1945) when the US Army Air Forces carried out an air raid over Prague. ... The eastern part of the Territory of New Guinea, and the northern Solomon Islands; the area in which Operation Cartwheel took place, from June 1943. ... Remscheid is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... The bombing of Rome in World War II took place on several occasions in 1943 and 1944, by both Allied and Axis aircraft, before the city was freed from Axis occupation by the Allies on June 4, 1944. ... The German town of Rothenburg was more than 1,000 years old when it lost many historic buildings to air raids in World War II. On March 31, 1945, a day before Easter, a raid destroyed the eastern old town (40% of the original city). ... Rotterdams city center after the terror bombing. ... Capital Saarbrücken Language(s) Rhine Franconian; see language of the Saarland Government Principality Historical era Middle Ages  - Joined Holy Roman Empire 925  - Established ca 1120  - Passed to Nassau-Weilburg 1353  - Occupied by France 1793  - Annexed by France 1797  - Passed to Prussian Grd     Dchy Lwr Rhine   June 9, 1815 Saarbr... This article is about the capital of the Austrian state of Salzburg. ... This article, image, template or category belongs in one or more categories. ... Schweinfurt is a city in the Unterfranken region of Bavaria in Germany on the right bank of the canalized Main, which is here spanned by several bridges, 27 km North-East of Würzburg. ... The Sheffield Blitz is the name given to the worst nights of bombing in Sheffield, England during the Second World War. ... The Bulgarian capital of Sofia suffered a series of Allied bombing raids during World War II, from late 1943 to early 1944. ... Southampton was bombed heavily by the Luftwaffe during World War II. It was targetted mainly in the first phase of the Blitz. ... The Soviet city and industrial centre Stalingrad was bombed heavily by the Luftwaffe during the Battle of Stalingrad in World War II. 40,000 people were killed. ... History of Szczecin (German: Stettin) in Poland. ... Stuttgart faced 53 air raids during World War II. A well-known raid was on 6 September 1943. ... Combatants  Empire of Japan  United States Strength Virtually nonexistent 117 B-24 Casualties Civilians killed: 3,000+ Wounded/Displaced: tens of thousands none Taipei Air Raid (Traditional Chinese: 台北大空襲), which took place on May 31, 1945, was the largest Allied air raid on the city of Taipei, known back then as... The Estonian capital of Tallinn was bombed several times during WW2. ... The Italian bombings on Palestine in World War II, which started in July 1940, were part of an Italian effort to strike at the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth of Nations where ever possible. ... Thessaloniki or Salonica (Greek: ) is Greeces second-largest city and the capital of Macedonia, the largest Region of Greece. ... B-29 bombers were used to drop hundreds of thousands of tons of explosives onto Japanese cities during the war. ... Treviso suffered a carpet bombing on 7 April 1944. ... Ulm, for its size, was the most heavily bombed city of south Germany during World War II. The heaviest air raid was on December 17, 1944 which killed and injuring hundreds but left 25,000 people homeless. ... Vienna was bombed 52 times during World War II. // [edit] Early 1945 Vienna had already faced 1800 bombs. ... The Bombing of Warsaw in World War II refers both to the terror bombing campaign on Warsaw by Luftwaffe during the September Campaign (siege of Warsaw and to the German bombing raids during the Warsaw Uprising. ... The German town of Wesel was devastated in Allied air raids during World War II. In March 1945, the city was attacked by Bomber command Group No. ... Bombing of WieluÅ„ in World War II refers to the German bomb raid on a Polish city of WieluÅ„ at the outbreak of World War II. On September 1, 1939 at 4. ... Wuppertal was bombed extensively in the Battle of the Ruhr of World War II. In two attacks on Wuppertal, more than 6,000 people died. ... During World War II, on March 16, 1945, 89% of the city was laid to ruins by a British Royal Air Force bombing raid. ... For the town of Yokohama in Aomori Prefecture, see Yokohama, Aomori. ... now. ... Survivor of German aerial bombardment of Warsaw This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... [[Media:Italic textLondon has a recorded history that goes back over 2,000 years. ... [[Media:Italic textLondon has a recorded history that goes back over 2,000 years. ... [[Media:Italic textLondon has a recorded history that goes back over 2,000 years. ... Motto: Domine dirige nos Latin: Lord, guide us Shown within Greater London Sovereign state Constituent country Region Greater London Status City and Ceremonial County Admin HQ Guildhall Government  - Leadership see text  - Mayor David Lewis  - MP Mark Field  - London Assembly John Biggs Area  - Total 1. ... The City of Westminster is a borough of London, England with city status. ... The County of London was an administrative county and ceremonial county of England from 1889 to 1965. ... Greater London is the top-level administrative subdivision covering London, England. ... The history of local government in London, England can be broken down into a number of periods: History of local government in the United Kingdom History of London ^ a b Barlow, I., Metropolitan Government, (1991) ^ Saint, A., Politics and the people of London: the London County Council (1889-1965), (1989... The Metropolitan Board of Works (MBW) was the principal instrument of London-wide government from 1855 until the establishment of the London County Council in 1889. ... London County Council emblem is still seen today on buildings, especially housing, from that era London County Council (LCC) was the principal local government body for the County of London from 1889 until 1965, when it was replaced by the Greater London Council. ... Arms of the Greater London Council The Greater London Council (GLC) was the top-tier local government administrative body for Greater London from 1965 to 1986. ... The Greater London Authority (GLA) administers the 1579 km² (610 sq. ... The London Assembly is an elected body that supervises the Greater London Authority and the Mayor of London. ... Ken Livingstone, the current Mayor of London The Mayor of London is an elected politician in London, United Kingdom. ... The end of the revolt: Wat Tyler (also spelt Tighler) killed by Walworth while Richard II watches, and a second image of Richard addressing the crowd The Peasants Revolt, Tyler’s Rebellion, or the Great Rising of 1381 was one of a number of popular revolts in late medieval Europe... This article concerns the mid fourteenth century pandemic. ... A bill of mortality for the plague year of 1665. ... Detail of painting from 1666 of the Great Fire of London by an unknown artist, depicting the fire as it would have appeared on the evening of Tuesday, 4 September from a boat in the vicinity of Tower Wharf. ... Michael Faraday giving his card to Father Thames, caricature commenting on a letter of Faradays on the state of the river in the Times in Summer 1855 The Great Stink or The Big Stink was a time in the summer of 1858 during which the smell of untreated sewage... The Great Exhibition in Hyde Park 1851. ... Swinging London is a catchall term applied to a variety of dynamic cultural trends in the United Kingdom (centred in London) in the second half of the 1960s. ... Ken Livingstone, the current Mayor of London The Mayor of London is an elected politician in London, United Kingdom. ... The 7 July 2005 London bombings (also called the 7/7 bombings) were a series of coordinated terrorist bomb blasts that hit Londons public transport system during the morning rush hour. ... There have been two London Olympics (London hosting the Olympic Games), in 1908 and 1948, with a third scheduled for 2012. ... The 1908 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the IV Olympiad, were held in 1908 in London, England. ... The Games of the XIV Olympiad were held in 1948 at Wembley Stadium in London, England. ... London 2012 redirects here. ... This article is about the cathedral church of the diocese of London. ... For other uses, see Tower of London (disambiguation) Her Majestys Royal Palace and Fortress The Tower of London, more commonly known as the Tower of London (and historically simply as The Tower), is an historic monument in central London, England on the north bank of the River Thames. ... The Palace of Whitehall by Hendrick Danckerts. ... Clock Tower and New Palace Yard from the west The Palace of Westminster, on the banks of the River Thames in Westminster, London, is the home of the House of Commons and the House of Lords, which form the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see London Bridge (disambiguation). ... The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ... The Clock Tower, colloquially known as Big Ben (a name that correctly refers to the main bell) Big Ben redirects here. ... The Monument, London to commemorate the Great Fire of London, designed by Sir Christopher Wren The viewing platform The Monument seen from the ground The Monument to the Fire of London, more commonly known as The Monument, is a 61-metre (202-foot) tall stone Roman doric column in the... Motto: Domine dirige nos Latin: Lord, guide us Shown within Greater London Sovereign state Constituent country Region Greater London Status City and Ceremonial County Admin HQ Guildhall Government  - Leadership see text  - Mayor David Lewis  - MP Mark Field  - London Assembly John Biggs Area  - Total 1. ... The Corporation of London is the municipal governing body of the City of London. ... Michael Berry Savory is the current Lord Mayor of London. ... The Guildhall The Guildhall complex in c. ... Livery Companies are trade associations based in the City of London. ... In 1747, the Lord Mayor went to the City of Westminster on a barge via the River Thames. ... Headquarters Coordinates , , Governor Mervyn King Central Bank of United Kingdom Currency Pound sterling ISO 4217 Code GBP Base borrowing rate 5. ... 19th Century depiction of the Bow Street Magistrates Court, to which the Bow Street Runners were attached. ... The Metropolitan Police Service (MPS) is the name currently used by the territorial police force which is responsible for Greater London other than the City of London (the responsibility of the City of London Police). ... The London Ambulance Service (LAS) is the largest ambulance service in the world that does not directly charge its patients for its services. ... The London Fire Brigade (LFB) is the statutory fire and rescue service for London, England. ... The new Abbey Mills Pumping Station The original Abbey Mills pumping station The London sewerage system is part of the water infrastructure serving London. ... The London Underground is a rapid transit system that serves a large part of Greater London and some neighbouring areas of Essex, Hertfordshire and Buckinghamshire. ...

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BLITZ - Interactive Advertising Agency: Home (99 words)
BLITZ is a full service interactive advertising agency that designs compelling brand experiences for some of the world's most demanding clients.
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Blitz, The - MSN Encarta (813 words)
Blitz, The, sustained German bombing campaign against London and other British cities during World War II, from September 1940 to mid-1941, in which over 43,000 British citizens lost their lives.
The Blitz was named after the German blitzkrieg strategy of mobile offensive warfare, though it was not a specific example of this.
Since the end of World War II the Blitz has been celebrated in popular British culture as an example of the courage and resilience of the British people, and of Londoners in particular, during a crucial period when the British Isles stood alone against the might of the German armed forces, the Wehrmacht.
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