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Encyclopedia > The Black Book of Communism
The Black Book of Communism

The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression is a book that describes the history of political repressions by Communist states, including extrajudicial executions, deportations, and man-made famines that the book argues resulted from communist policies. The book was originally published in 1997 in France under the title, Le Livre noir du communisme : Crimes, terreur, répression. In the United States it is published by Harvard University Press. Image File history File links BlackBook. ... Image File history File links BlackBook. ... Political repression is the oppression or persecution of an individual or group for political reasons, particularly for the purpose of restricting or preventing their ability to take part in the political life of society. ... This article is about a form of government in which the state operates under the control of a Communist Party. ... Extrajudicial punishment is physical punishment without the permission of a court or legal authority, and as such, constitutes a violation of basic human rights (such as the right to due process and humane treatment). ... Deportation is the expelling of someone from a country. ... <nowiki>Insert non-formatted text hereBold text</nowiki>A famine is a social and economic crisis that is commonly accompanied by widespread malnutrition, starvation, epidemic and increased mortality. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... The Harvard University Press is a publishing house, a division of Harvard University, that is highly respected in academic publishing. ...

Contents

Authors

The book was authored by several European academics and specialists and edited by Stéphane Courtois. Stéphane Courtois is a French historian, currently employed as research director (i. ...

  • Stéphane Courtois is a director of research at the Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS).
  • Nicolas Werth is a researcher at the Institut d'Histoire du Temps Présent (IHTP) in Paris.
  • Jean-Louis Panné is a specialist on the international Communist movement.
  • Andrzej Paczkowski is the deputy director of the Institute for Political Studies of the Polish Academy of Sciences and a member of the archival commission for the Polish Ministry of Internal Affairs.
  • Karel Bartošek (1930–2004) was a historian from the Czech Republic, and a researcher at IHTP.[1]
  • Jean-Louis Margolin is a lecturer at the Université de Provence and a researcher as the Research Institute on Southeast Asia.
  • Sylvain Boulougue is a research associate at GEODE, Université Paris X.
  • Pascal Fontaine is a journalist with a special knowledge of Latin America.
  • Rémi Kauffer is a specialist in the history of intelligence, terrorism, and clandestine operations.
  • Pierre Rigoulet is a researcher at the Institut d'Histoire Sociale.
  • Yves Santamaria is a historian.(p. 857-8)

Martin Malia wrote the foreword to the English edition. The Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS) is the largest and most prominent public research organization in France. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Categories: PAN | PAU | Scientific societies | Polish scientific societies | Stub | Education in Poland | Polish institutions | National academies ... Ministry of Internal Affairs and Administration (Polish: ) is an administration structure contrilling main administration and security branches of the Polish government. ... The Université de Provence Aix-Marseille I is a university located in both Aix-en-Provence and Marseille. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... Martin Edward Malia (1924-2004) was a historian specializing in Russian history. ...


Introduction

The introduction, by editor Stéphane Courtois, states that that "...Communist regimes...turned mass crime into a full-blown system of government". Using unofficial estimates he cites a death toll which totals 94 million, not counting the "excess deaths" (decrease of the population due to lower than the expected birth rate). The breakdown of the number of deaths given by Courtois is as follows:

It explicitly states that Communist regimes are responsible for a greater number of deaths than any other political ideal or movement, including Nazism. The statistics of victims includes executions, intentional destruction of population by starvation, and deaths resulting from deportations, physical confinement, or through forced labor. It does not include "excess deaths" due to higher mortality or lower birth rates than expected of the population. A map of the Eastern Bloc 1948-1989. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ... Execution is a synonym for the actioning of something, of putting something into effect. ... Unfree labour is a generic or collective term for forms of work, especially in modern or early modern history, in which adults and/or children are employed without wages, or for a minimal wage. ...


A more detailed partial listing of some of the repressions committed in the Soviet Union under the regimes of Lenin and Stalin described in the book include: Vladimir Ilyich Lenin ( Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин  listen?), original surname Ulyanov (Улья́нов) ( April 22 (April 10 ( O.S.)), 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a Russian revolutionary, the leader of the Bolshevik party, the first Premier of the Soviet Union, and the founder of the ideology of Leninism. ... Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვილი; see Other names section) (December 21, 1879[1] – March 5, 1953) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and leader of the Soviet Union. ...

The book, among other sources, used material from the (then) recently opened KGB files and other Soviet archives. For other uses, see Red Terror (disambiguation). ... Help!, a Soviet poster from 1921. ... In 1919 the Soviet engaged in a policy to eliminate the Cossack threat to proletarian power by de-Cossackization: extirpating the Cossack elite; terrorizing all other Cossacks; and bringing about the formal liquidation of the Cossackry. ... Don Cossacks refers to cossacks that settled along the Don River, Russia it its lower and middle parts. ... The Great Purge (Russian: , transliterated Bolshaya chistka) refers collectively to several related campaigns of political repression and persecution in the Soviet Union orchestrated by Joseph Stalin during the 1930s, which removed all of his remaining opposition from power. ... Nikolai Getman, Moving out Dekulakization (Russian: раскулачивание) was the Soviet campaign of political repressions, including arrests, deportations, and executions of millions of the better-off peasants and their families in 1929-1932. ... Kulaks (Russian: кула́к, kulak, fist, literally meaning tight-fisted) was a category of rich peasants in later Russian Empire, Soviet Russia and Soviet Union. ... Child victim of the Holodomor Map of Ukrainian SRR in 1932-1933 (7 Oblast`s (Regions) + Moldavian ASSR) administrative borders given in light grey The Ukrainian famine (1932-1933), or Holodomor (Ukrainian: Голодомор), was one of the largest national catastrophes of the Ukrainian nation in modern history with direct loss of... See the article about the Holodomor for a desciption of the 1932-33 famine in Ukraine, much of which also applies to the wider Soviet famine in other regions. ... The three Baltic states: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. ... For other uses of Moldavia or Moldova, see Moldova (disambiguation). ... 1927 map of Bessarabia from Charles Upson Clarks book Bessarabia (Basarabia in Romanian, Бесарабія in Ukrainian, Бессарабия in Russian, Бесарабия in Bulgarian, Besarabya in Turkish) is a historical term for the geographic entity in Eastern Europe bounded by the Dniester River on the East and the Prut River on the West. ... Volga German pioneer family commemorative statue in Victoria, Kansas, USA. The Volga Germans (German: or Russlanddeutsche) were ethnic Germans living near the Volga River in the region of southern European Russia around Saratov and to the south, maintaining German culture, language, traditions and religions: Evangelical Lutheranism, Reformed and Roman Catholicism... The Crimean Tatars (sg. ... This article covers the Chechen people as an ethnic group, not Chechen meaning citizens of Chechnya. ... The Ingush are a people of the northern Caucasus, mostly inhabiting the Russian republic of Ingushetia. ... Not by Their Own Will. ... This article is about the KGB of the Soviet Union. ...


Controversy

Two of the other authors, Nicolas Werth and Jean-Louis Margolin, sparked a debate in France when they publicly disassociated themselves from Courtois's statements in the introduction about the scale of Communist terror. They felt that he was being obsessed with arriving at a total of 100 million victims. They instead estimated that Communism has claimed between 65 and 93 million lives[2]. They rejected his equation of Soviet repression with Nazi genocide. Werth, a well-regarded French specialist on the Soviet Union whose sections in the Black Book on the Soviet Communists are sobering and damning, said there was still a qualitative difference between Nazism and Communism. He told Le Monde, "Death camps did not exist in the Soviet Union" [3], and "The more you compare communism and nazism, the more the differences are obvious." [4] For the song by the Thievery Corporation, see Le Monde (song). ...


Reception

Unsurprisingly, because of the nature of the subject matter it deals with, the book has evoked a wide variety of responses, ranging from enthusiastic support to severe criticism.


Support

The Black Book of Communism received praise from American and British mainstream media, including the Times Literary Supplement, New York Times Book Review, Library Journal, Kirkus Reviews, The New Republic, The National Review and The Weekly Standard.[5] The Times Literary Supplement (or TLS) is a weekly literary review published in London by News International, a subsidiary of News Corporation. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... Library Journal is a trade publication for librarians. ... Kirkus Reviews is an American book review company located at 770 Broadway in New York City. ... For other uses, see New Republic. ... National Review (NR) is a conservative political magazine founded by author William F. Buckley, Jr. ... The Weekly Standard is an American neoconservative [1] magazine published 48 times per year. ...


Historian Tony Judt, reviewing the book for The New York Times:[5] Tony Judt (born 1948, London, England) is a British historian, author and professor. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ...

An 800-page compendium of the crimes of Communist regimes worldwide, recorded and analyzed in ghastly detail by a team of scholars. The facts and figures, some of them well known, others newly confirmed in hitherto inaccessible archives, are irrefutable. The myth of the well-intentioned founders--the good czar Lenin betrayed by his evil heirs--has been laid to rest for good. No one will any longer be able to claim ignorance or uncertainty about the criminal nature of Communism, and those who had begun to forget will be forced to remember anew.

Anne Applebaum, author of Gulag: A History:[5] Anne Applebaum (born 1964) is a journalist and author who has written extensively about issues related to communism and the development of civil society in Eastern Europe and the USSR / Russia. ...

A serious, scholarly history of Communist crimes in the Soviet Union, Eastern and Western Europe, China, North Korea, Cambodia, Vietnam, Africa, and Latin America...The Black Book does indeed surpass many of its predecessors in conveying the grand scale of the Communist tragedy, thanks to its authors' extensive use of the newly opened archives of the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe.

Martin Malia, Professor of History at the University of California, Berkeley, writing for the Times Literary Supplement:[5] Martin Edward Malia (1924-2004) was a historian specializing in Russian history. ... Sather tower (the Campanile) looking out over the San Francisco Bay and Mount Tamalpais. ...

The publishing sensation in France this winter (1999) has been an austere academic tome, Le Livre Noir du Communisme, detailing Communism's crimes from Russia in 1917 to Afghanistan in 1989...[The Black Book of Communism] gives a balance sheet of our present knowledge of Communism's human costs, archivally based where possible, and otherwise drawing on the best secondary works, and with due allowance for the difficulties of quantification. Yet austere though this inventory is, its cumulative impact is overwhelming. At the same time, the book advances a number of important analytical points.

Criticism

Questioning the estimated number of victims

There is no consensus among historians about the number of repression victims in the Communist countries. Some of them put the number of deaths higher than in Black Book, but others say that the number is lower. For instance, the estimates for Joseph Stalin's regime in the Soviet Union range between 3.5 and 60 million,[2][6] and those for Mao Zedong's China range between 19.5 and 75 million [3]. The authors of the Black Book defend their estimates for the Soviet Union (20 million) and Eastern Europe (1 million) by stating that they made use of sources that were not available to previous researchers (the archives mentioned above). At the same time, the authors acknowledge that the estimates from China and other nations still ruled by communist parties are uncertain since their archives are still closed. In recent years some authors have published progressively larger estimates of deaths under communist regimes; thus, recent books such as Mao: The Unknown Story and A Century of Violence in Soviet Russia have claimed higher death tolls than the Black Book for China and Russia respectively. A Communist state is a state governed by a single political party which declares its allegiance to the principles of Marxism-Leninism. ... Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from... Mao redirects here. ...


UCLA professor J. Arch Getty noted that famine accounted for more than half of Courtois's 100 million death toll. He believes that deaths of man-made hunger, such as ones during the Holodomor, are not equal to the deaths from forced labor in Gulag. [7] Binomial name Ucla xenogrammus Holleman, 1993 The largemouth triplefin, Ucla xenogrammus, is a fish of the family Tripterygiidae and only member of the genus Ucla, found in the Pacific Ocean from Viet Nam, the Philippines, Palau and the Caroline Islands to Papua New Guinea, Australia (including Christmas Island), and the... J. Arch Getty is a historian at the UCLA, formerly at UC Riverside. ... Child victim of the Holodomor Map of Ukrainian SRR in 1932-1933 (7 Oblast`s (Regions) + Moldavian ASSR) administrative borders given in light grey The Ukrainian famine (1932-1933), or Holodomor (Ukrainian: Голодомор), was one of the largest national catastrophes of the Ukrainian nation in modern history with direct loss of... Nikolai Getman Moving out. ...


Another UCLA professor Mark Tauger also disagrees with author's thesis that the famine death of a Ukrainian peasant child "is worth that of a Jewish child in the Warsaw ghetto". He does not interpret Holodomor as a man-made famine and genocide [4] This is an ongoing controversy among historians. For example Robert Conquest also sees this famine, the Holodomor, as intentional. Binomial name Ucla xenogrammus Holleman, 1993 The largemouth triplefin, Ucla xenogrammus, is a fish of the family Tripterygiidae and only member of the genus Ucla, found in the Pacific Ocean from Viet Nam, the Philippines, Palau and the Caroline Islands to Papua New Guinea, Australia (including Christmas Island), and the... Monument to the Ghetto Heroes in Warsaw The Warsaw Ghetto was the largest of the Jewish ghettos established by Nazi Germany in Warsaw, former capital of Poland in the General Government during the Holocaust in World War II. Between 1941 and 1943, starvation, disease and deportations to concentration camps and... Child victim of the Holodomor Map of Ukrainian SRR in 1932-1933 (7 Oblast`s (Regions) + Moldavian ASSR) administrative borders given in light grey The Ukrainian famine (1932-1933), or Holodomor (Ukrainian: Голодомор), was one of the largest national catastrophes of the Ukrainian nation in modern history with direct loss of... For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ... Dr. George Robert Ackworth Conquest (born July 15, 1917), British historian, became one of the best-known writers on the Soviet Union with the publication, in 1968, of his account of Stalins purges of the 1930s, The Great Terror. ... Child victim of the Holodomor Map of Ukrainian SRR in 1932-1933 (7 Oblast`s (Regions) + Moldavian ASSR) administrative borders given in light grey The Ukrainian famine (1932-1933), or Holodomor (Ukrainian: Голодомор), was one of the largest national catastrophes of the Ukrainian nation in modern history with direct loss of...


Argument that described political systems were not "communist"

Critics of the Black Book have alleged that it uses the umbrella term "communism" to refer to a wide variety of different systems, and that it "arbitrarily throws together completely different historical phenomena such as the civil war of 1918-21, the forced collectivisation and the Great Terror in the Soviet Union, the rule of Mao in China and Pol Pot in Cambodia, the military government of Ethiopia as well as various Latin American political movements, from the Sandinistas in Nicaragua to the 'Shining Path' in Peru." [5] While not necessarily disputing the communist nature of the aforementioned countries, the French newspaper Le Monde diplomatique has argued that local history and traditions played a role at least as important as the role of communism in each case [6]. Karl Marx famously quipped "If anything is certain, it is that I myself am not a Marxist" after experiencing French Marxists towards the end of his life [7]. The Great Purge (Russian: , transliterated Bolshaya chistka) refers collectively to several related campaigns of political repression and persecution in the Soviet Union orchestrated by Joseph Stalin during the 1930s, which removed all of his remaining opposition from power. ... Saloth Sar (May 19, 1925 – April 15, 1998), aliases Pol, Pouk, Hay, Grand-Uncle, First Brother, 87, Phem, 99, and best known as Pol Pot[1], was the leader of the communist movement called Khmer Rouge and the Prime Minister of Cambodia (officially renamed the Democratic Kampuchea during his rule... Sandinista redirects here. ... The Communist Party of Peru (Spanish: Partido Comunista del Perú), more commonly known as the Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso), is a Maoist guerrilla organization in Peru that launched the internal conflict in Peru in 1980. ... This monthly magazine is not to be mistaken for the daily Le Monde. Le Monde diplomatique (nicknamed Le Diplo by its French readers) is a monthly publication offering analysis and opinion on politics, culture, and current affairs. ...


A number of critics argue that some or all of the regimes mentioned in the book were not, in fact, Marxist. This is not a new idea: the question of whether the historical communist states represented an accurate implementation of Marxism has been open since the 1930s. In the introduction to the Black Book, Stéphane Courtois claims that "there will always be some nitpickers who maintain that actual communism has nothing in common with theoretical communism."(p. 2) He does not elaborate on this point, and, for the purpose of the book, a communist state is defined as a one-party state where the ruling party openly proclaims its adherence to Marxism-Leninism. Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism is a political and economic theory which builds upon Marxism; it is a branch of Marxism (and it has been the dominant branch of Marxism in the world since the 1920s). ...


Argument that book is one-sided

Another criticism of the Black Book is the charge that discusses the communist states alone, without making any sort of comparison to capitalist states. Critics have argued that, if one were to apply the Black Book's standards to capitalism, it could be held responsible for just as many deaths as communist states, or perhaps more according to some scholars (see The Black Book of Capitalism). Among the alleged crimes of capitalism are deaths resulting from colonialism and imperialism, repressions of the working class and trade unions in the 19th century and 20th century, pro-western dictatorships during the Cold War, and the sharp return to capitalism in former communist states after 1990. [8] [9] Le Monde Diplomatique points out that the Black Book incriminates the communist side in many wars and revolutions without mentioning the deaths and other crimes committed by the anti-communist side at the same time. [10] Noam Chomsky, an anarchist, holds that the arguments used by capitalists to justify such deaths are very similar to the arguments used to defend the communist states. For example, it is alleged that colonialism and imperialism did not represent true capitalism, and that the deaths under pro-western dictatorships in the Cold War were necessary in order to fight communism. The Black Book of Capitalism (in French: Le Livre Noir du Capitalisme) is a book published in 1998, in reaction to The Black Book of Communism (1997), by editions of Le Temps des Cerises. ... It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ... Cecil Rhodes: Cape-Cairo railway project. ... The Lawrence textile strike (1912), with soldiers surrounding peaceful demonstrators A trade union or labor union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas of wages, hours, and working conditions. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, political activist, author, and lecturer. ... Anarchism is a generic term describing various political philosophies and social movements that advocate the elimination of hierarchy and imposed authority. ...


Marxist journalist Daniel Singer also notes that many massacres of the last century were not committed by communists and claims that deaths from poverty in general should be blamed on capitalism.[8] Marxism is the political practice and social theory based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary, along with Friedrich Engels. ... Daniel Singer (September 26, 1926 – December 2, 2000) was a socialist writer and journalist. ... A boy from an East Cipinang trash dump slum in Jakarta, Indonesia shows what he found. ...


The article Criticisms of communism contains a more in-depth discussion of the criticisms and counter-criticisms used in debates about communism. This article is on criticisms of communism, a branch of socialism. ...


Trivia

The book Stalinism and Nazism: History and Memory Compared argues that the title echoes that of Ilya Ehrenburg's and Vasily Grossman's documentary record of the Nazi atrocities, The Black Book.[9] Ilya Grigoryevich Ehrenburg (Russian: IPA: ), January 27 [O.S. January 15] 1891 (Kiev, Ukraine) – August 31, 1967 (Moscow, Soviet Union) was a Soviet-Jewish Russian writer and journalist whose 1954 novel gave name to the Khrushchev Thaw. ... Vasily Semyonovich Grossman (first name alternatively spelled as Vassily or Vasiliy, Russian: ), December 12, 1905 – September 14, 1964, was a prominent Soviet-era writer and journalist. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... The Black Book, also known by its Russian language name, Chornaya Kniga (Чёрная Книга) was a result of the collaborative effort by the Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee (JAC) and members of the American Jewish community to document the anti-Jewish crimes of the Holocaust and the participation of Jews in the fighting...


References

  1. ^ Bartošek Karel. www.paseka.cz. Retrieved on 2008-02-24.
  2. ^ Le Monde, 14 November 1997
  3. ^ J Arch Getty, The Atlantic Monthly, Boston: Mar 2000.Vol.285, Iss. 3; pg. 113, 4 pgs [1]
  4. ^ Le Monde, 21 September 2000
  5. ^ a b c d Harvard University Press: The Black Book of Communism : Crimes, Terror, Repression by Stéphane Courtois. www.hup.harvard.edu. Retrieved on 2008-02-24.
  6. ^ Ponton, G. (1994) The Soviet Era.
  7. ^ J Arch Getty, The Atlantic Monthly, Boston: Mar 2000. Vol.285, Iss. 3; pg. 113, 4 pgs
  8. ^ Exploiting a Tragedy, or Le Rouge en Noir. www.thenation.com. Retrieved on 2008-02-24.
  9. ^ Henry Rousso (edt), Stalinism and Nazism: History and Memory Compared (2004), ISBN 0803239459, p. xiii

2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Atlantic redirects here; for the ocean, see Atlantic Ocean. ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

Anne Applebaum (born 1964) is a journalist and author who has written extensively about issues related to communism and the development of civil society in Eastern Europe and the USSR / Russia. ... Dr. George Robert Ackworth Conquest (born July 15, 1917), British historian, became one of the best-known writers on the Soviet Union with the publication, in 1968, of his account of Stalins purges of the 1930s, The Great Terror. ... Richard Pipes, Warsaw (Poland), October 20, 2004 Richard Edgar Pipes (b. ... Aleksandr Isayevich Solzhenitsyn (Russian: , IPA:  ; born December 11, 1918) is a Russian novelist, dramatist and historian. ... Rudolph Joseph Rummel (born October 21, 1932) is professor emeritus of political science at the University of Hawaii and alternative historian. ... Communist terrorism (or Communist terror) is terrorism committed by Communist organizations or Communist states against civilians to achieve political or ideological objectives by creating fear [1] [2][3] After Islamic groups, Communist groups are the largest number of organizations on the U.S. State Department list of Foreign Terrorist Organizations. ... President George W. Bush dedicates the Victims of Communism Memorial on June 12, 2007 The Victims of Communism Memorial is a memorial in Washington, D.C. at the intersection of Massachusetts and New Jersey Avenues and G Street, N.W., two blocks from Union Station and within view of the... The Gulag Archipelago. ... The Great Terror: A Reassessment by Robert Conquest The Great Terror is the title of a book by British writer Robert Conquest, published in 1968. ... Darkness at Noon is the most famous novel by Hungarian-born British novelist Arthur Koestler. ... One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich (Russian: ) is a story by Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, originally published in November 1962 in the Soviet literary magazine Novy Mir. ... The Black Book of Capitalism (in French: Le Livre Noir du Capitalisme) is a book published in 1998, in reaction to The Black Book of Communism (1997), by editions of Le Temps des Cerises. ...

Further reading

  • Nicolas Werth, Karel Bartošek, Jean-Louis Panné, Jean-Louis Margolin, Andrzej Paczkowski, Stéphane Courtois, The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression, Harvard University Press, 1999, hardcover, 858 pages, ISBN 0-674-07608-7
  • Anne Applebaum, foreword, Paul Hollander, introduction and editor, From the Gulag to the Killing Fields: Personal Accounts of Political Violence And Repression in Communist Studies, Intercollegiate Studies Institute (April 17, 2006), hardcover, 760 pages, ISBN 1-932236-78-3

Stéphane Courtois is a French historian, currently employed as research director (i. ... The Harvard University Press is a publishing house, a division of Harvard University, that is highly respected in academic publishing. ... Anne Applebaum (born 1964) is a journalist and author who has written extensively about issues related to communism and the development of civil society in Eastern Europe and the USSR / Russia. ... Paul Hollander (born 1932 in Hungary, escaped 1956) is an American scholar, journalist, and political writer. ...

External links

Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, political activist, author, and lecturer. ... Libération (affectionately known as Libé) is a French daily newspaper founded in Paris in 1973 by Jean-Paul Sartre, Pierre Victor alias Benny Lévy and Serge July in the wake of the protest movements of May 1968. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... Gilles Perrault (*1931) is a French writer and journalist. ... This monthly magazine is not to be mistaken for the daily Le Monde. Le Monde diplomatique (nicknamed Le Diplo by its French readers) is a monthly publication offering analysis and opinion on politics, culture, and current affairs. ... Ronald Radosh is an American historian specializing in the espionage case of Ethel and Julius Rosenberg. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
NCPA Debate Central -- The Black Book of Communism (1071 words)
Black Book, written by six former proponents of communism or fellow travelers, properly notes that both Nazism and communism murdered people not for what they did, but for who they were.
Communism compiled a lengthy enemies list, which included political parties, clergy, intellectuals, shopkeepers, many ethnic groups, and other "socially dangerous elements." Enemies were starved and worked to death; executed with bullets, shovels, and hammers; devoured by dogs; lit on fire; and made to kill one another for their capturers' amusement.
Black Book puts to rest the odious fiction that has softened communism's image for so long: that communism was the salvation of the downtrodden.
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