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Encyclopedia > The Beatles

(left-right) Paul McCartney, Ringo Starr (back), George Harrison, and John Lennon perform on The Ed Sullivan Show in 1964.
Background information
Origin Liverpool, England
Genre(s) Rock/Pop[1]
Years active 1960–1970
Label(s) Parlophone, Capitol, Apple
Vee-Jay, Polydor, Swan, Tollie
Associated
acts
Tony Sheridan, The Quarrymen, The Plastic Ono Band, The Dirty Mac, Wings, Traveling Wilburys, Rory Storm and the Hurricanes, Ringo Starr All-Starr Band, Billy Preston
Website www.beatles.com
Members
John Lennon
Paul McCartney
George Harrison
Ringo Starr
Former members
Stuart Sutcliffe
Pete Best

The Beatles were an English musical group from Liverpool whose members were John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison, and Ringo Starr. They are amongst the most commercially successful and one of the most critically acclaimed bands in the history of popular music.[2] The Beatles U.S. chronology The Beatles is the ninth official album by The Beatles, a double album released in 1968 (see 1968 in music). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Beatles together on Ed Sullivan show (fair use) This is a screenshot of a copyrighted website, video game graphic, computer program graphic, television broadcast, or film. ... Sir James Paul McCartney, MBE (born 18 June 1942) is an Academy Award- and Grammy Award-winning English singer, songwriter and multi-instrumentalist who first gained worldwide fame as one of the founding members of The Beatles. ... Richard Starkey, MBE (born 7 July 1940), known by his stage name Ringo Starr, is an Academy Award and Grammy Award-winning English musician, singer and actor, best known as the drummer of The Beatles. ... George Harrison, MBE (25 February 1943[1][2] – 29 November 2001[3]) was an Academy Award and Grammy Award-winning English rock guitarist, singer, songwriter, author and sitarist best known as the lead guitarist of The Beatles. ... John Winston Ono Lennon, MBE (October 9, 1940 – December 8, 1980), (born John Winston Lennon, known as John Ono Lennon) was an iconic English 20th century rock and roll songwriter and singer, best known as the founding member of The Beatles. ... The Ed Sullivan Show is an American television variety show that ran from June 20, 1948 to June 6, 1971, and was hosted by former entertainment columnist Ed Sullivan. ... Location within England Coordinates: , Sovereign state United Kingdom Constituent country England Region North West England Ceremonial county Historic county Merseyside Lancashire Admin HQ Liverpool City Centre Founded 1207 City Status 1880 Government  - Type Metropolitan borough, City  - Governing body Liverpool City Council Area  - Borough & City 43. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Unified  -  by Athelstan 927 AD  Area  -  Total 130... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Rock music (disambiguation). ... For popular forms of music in general, see Popular music. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Parlophone is a record label which was founded in Germany prior to World War I by the Carl Lindstrom Company. ... Capitol Records is a major United States-based record label, owned by EMI. // The Capitol Records company was founded by the songwriter Johnny Mercer in 1942, with the financial help of movie producer Buddy DeSylva and the business acumen of Glenn Wallichs, (1910-1971) (owner of Music City, at the... Apple Records logo, featuring a Granny Smith apple. ... Vee-Jay Records was a record label, specializing in blues, rhythm and blues and rock and roll. ... 1920s vintage Polydor export label with its double-horn gramophone logo In 1954 Polydor Records introduced their distinctive orange label. ... Label of Swan record by Phil Napoleons jazz band Swan Records was a mid-20th century United States based record label based in Philadelphia. ... Tollie Records was formed in February, 1964 as a sub-label of Vee-Jay Records and closed in May 1965. ... Tony Sheridan (born Andrew Esmond Sheridan McGinnity on May 21, 1940), is an English rock and roll singer-songwriter and guitarist. ... The Quarry Men (sometimes Quarrymen) were a little-known skiffle group formed around Liverpool, England in March 1957 by John Lennon. ... For the 1970 album, see John Lennon/Plastic Ono Band The Plastic Ono Band was a conceptual supergroup formed by John Lennon and Yoko Ono in 1969 before the dissolution of The Beatles. ... The Dirty Mac were an English supergroup consisting of John Lennon, Eric Clapton, Keith Richards and Mitch Mitchell that Lennon put together for The Rolling Stones ill-fated TV special entitled The Rolling Stones Rock and Roll Circus. ... Wings was a rock music band led by Paul McCartney and formed in August 1971, shortly after the breakup of The Beatles. ... The Traveling Wilburys were a supergroup, comprised of George Harrison, Jeff Lynne, Roy Orbison, Tom Petty, and Bob Dylan. ... debjit ... To date, Ringo Starr has toured with nine versions of his All-Starr Band, where everybody on stage is a star in their own right [1]. // Dallas, 23 July 1989 [2] It Dont Come Easy / No No Song / Yellow Submarine / Such A Night (Dr. John) / The Weight (Levon Helm... William Everett Preston (September 2, 1946 – June 6, 2006) was an American soul musician from Houston, Texas, raised mostly in Los Angeles, California. ... John Winston Ono Lennon, MBE (October 9, 1940 – December 8, 1980), (born John Winston Lennon, known as John Ono Lennon) was an iconic English 20th century rock and roll songwriter and singer, best known as the founding member of The Beatles. ... Sir James Paul McCartney, MBE (born 18 June 1942) is an Academy Award- and Grammy Award-winning English singer, songwriter and multi-instrumentalist who first gained worldwide fame as one of the founding members of The Beatles. ... George Harrison, MBE (25 February 1943[1][2] – 29 November 2001[3]) was an Academy Award and Grammy Award-winning English rock guitarist, singer, songwriter, author and sitarist best known as the lead guitarist of The Beatles. ... Richard Starkey, MBE (born 7 July 1940), known by his stage name Ringo Starr, is an Academy Award and Grammy Award-winning English musician, singer and actor, best known as the drummer of The Beatles. ... Stuart Fergusson Victor Sutcliffe (23 June 1940 – 10 April 1962) was a British musician and artist who, until his early death, worked in a style related to Abstract Expressionism. ... The Beatles, early 1962: (L-R) Pete, George, Paul and John. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Unified  -  by Athelstan 927 AD  Area  -  Total 130... Location within England Coordinates: , Sovereign state United Kingdom Constituent country England Region North West England Ceremonial county Historic county Merseyside Lancashire Admin HQ Liverpool City Centre Founded 1207 City Status 1880 Government  - Type Metropolitan borough, City  - Governing body Liverpool City Council Area  - Borough & City 43. ... John Winston Ono Lennon, MBE (October 9, 1940 – December 8, 1980), (born John Winston Lennon, known as John Ono Lennon) was an iconic English 20th century rock and roll songwriter and singer, best known as the founding member of The Beatles. ... Sir James Paul McCartney, MBE (born 18 June 1942) is an Academy Award- and Grammy Award-winning English singer, songwriter and multi-instrumentalist who first gained worldwide fame as one of the founding members of The Beatles. ... George Harrison, MBE (25 February 1943[1][2] – 29 November 2001[3]) was an Academy Award and Grammy Award-winning English rock guitarist, singer, songwriter, author and sitarist best known as the lead guitarist of The Beatles. ... Richard Starkey, MBE (born 7 July 1940), known by his stage name Ringo Starr, is an Academy Award and Grammy Award-winning English musician, singer and actor, best known as the drummer of The Beatles. ... Music is considered to predate language (and certainly predates written language) by certain historians and is found in every known culture, past and present, varying wildly between times and places. ...


The Beatles are the best-selling musical act of all time in the United States of America, according to the Recording Industry Association of America, which certified them as the highest selling band of all time based on American sales of singles and albums.[3] In the United Kingdom, The Beatles released more than 40 different singles, albums, and EPs that reached number one. This commercial success was repeated in many other countries: their record company, EMI, estimated that by 1985 they had sold over one billion discs and tapes worldwide.[4] In 2004, Rolling Stone magazine ranked The Beatles #1 on its list of 100 Greatest Artists of All Time.[5] According to that same magazine, their innovative music and cultural impact helped define the 1960s,[2] and their influence on pop culture can still be felt today. In music, a band is a company of musicians, or musical ensemble, usually popular or folk, playing parts of or improvising a musical arrangement on different musical instruments. ... The RIAA Logo. ... The Beatles released twelve original albums, twelve EPs (featuring mostly otherwise available material), one double EP, and twenty-two singles (featuring mostly otherwise unavailable material) in eight years (1962-1970) in their native United Kingdom. ... The Beatles released twelve original albums, twelve EPs (featuring mostly otherwise available material), one double EP, and twenty-two singles (featuring mostly otherwise unavailable material) in eight years (1962-1970) in their native United Kingdom. ... The Beatles released twelve original albums, twelve EPs (featuring mostly otherwise available material), one double EP, and twenty-two singles (featuring mostly otherwise unavailable material) in eight years (1962-1970) in their native United Kingdom. ... The UK Singles Chart is currently compiled by The Official UK Charts Company (OCC) on behalf of the British record industry. ... The EMI Group (LSE: EMI) is a British music company comprising of the major record company EMI Music which operates several labels, based in Kensington in London, England, and EMI Music Publishing, based in New York. ... This article is about the magazine. ...


The Beatles led the mid-1960s musical "British Invasion" into the United States. Although their initial musical style was rooted in 1950s rock and roll and homegrown skiffle, the group explored genres ranging from Tin Pan Alley to psychedelic rock. Their clothes, styles, and statements made them trend-setters, while their growing social awareness saw their influence extend into the social and cultural revolutions of the 1960s. The appearance of The Beatles on The Ed Sullivan Show, February 9, 1964, was the breakthrough moment of the burgeoning British Invasion. ... Rock and roll (also spelled Rock n Roll, especially in its first decade), also called rock, is a form of popular music, usually featuring vocals (often with vocal harmony), electric guitars and a strong back beat; other instruments, such as the saxophone, are common in some styles. ... Doghouse Skiffle Group Skiffle is a type of folk music with a jazz and blues influence, usually using homemade or improvised instruments such as the washboard, tea chest bass, kazoo, cigar-box fiddle, musical saw, comb and paper, and so forth, as well as more conventional instruments such as acoustic... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Tin Pan Alley was the name given to the collection of New York City-centered music publishers and songwriters who dominated the popular music of the United States in the late 19th century and early 20th century. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Contents

1957–1960: Formation

Main article: The Quarrymen

In March 1957, while attending Quarry Bank Grammar School in Liverpool, John Lennon formed a skiffle group called The Quarrymen.[6] Lennon and the Quarrymen met guitarist Paul McCartney at the Woolton Garden Fête held at St. Peter's Church on 6 July 1957.[7] On 6 February 1958, the young guitarist George Harrison was invited to watch the group (who played under a variety of names) at Wilson Hall, Garston, Liverpool.[8] McCartney had become acquainted with Harrison on the morning school bus ride to the Liverpool Institute, as they both lived in Speke. At McCartney's insistence, Harrison joined the Quarrymen as lead guitarist[9] after a rehearsal in March 1958, overcoming Lennon's initial reluctance because of Harrison's young age.[10] Members continually joined and left the lineup during that period, and in January 1960 Lennon's art school friend Stuart Sutcliffe joined on bass.[11] Lennon and McCartney both played rhythm guitar and the group had a high turnover of drummers. The Quarry Men (sometimes Quarrymen) were a little-known skiffle group formed around Liverpool, England in March 1957 by John Lennon. ... Location within England Coordinates: , Sovereign state United Kingdom Constituent country England Region North West England Ceremonial county Historic county Merseyside Lancashire Admin HQ Liverpool City Centre Founded 1207 City Status 1880 Government  - Type Metropolitan borough, City  - Governing body Liverpool City Council Area  - Borough & City 43. ... Doghouse Skiffle Group Skiffle is a type of folk music with a jazz and blues influence, usually using homemade or improvised instruments such as the washboard, tea chest bass, kazoo, cigar-box fiddle, musical saw, comb and paper, and so forth, as well as more conventional instruments such as acoustic... The Quarry Men (sometimes Quarrymen) were a little-known skiffle group formed around Liverpool, England in March 1957 by John Lennon. ... Woolton is a suburban area of South Liverpool, England and a Liverpool City Council Ward. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... February 6 is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Liverpool Institute for Boys was founded in 1825, but occupied other premises while the money was found to build a dedicated building. ... Speke is a district of Liverpool, England. ... Lead guitar refers to a role within a popular music band, especially a rock band, that provides melody or melodic material, as opposed to the rhythm of the rhythm guitar, bass, and drums. ... Marie Bashkirtseff, In the Studio, 1881, Dnipropetrovsk State Art Museum, Dnipropetrovsk. ... Stuart Fergusson Victor Sutcliffe (23 June 1940 – 10 April 1962) was a British musician and artist who, until his early death, worked in a style related to Abstract Expressionism. ... The electric bass guitar (or electric bass) is a string instrument played with the fingers by plucking, slapping, or using a pick. ... Rhythm guitar is a guitar that is primarily used to provide rhythmic and harmonic accompaniment for a singer or for other instruments in an ensemble. ...


The Quarrymen went through a progression of names — "Johnny and the Moondogs", "Long John and the Beatles", "the Silver Beetles" (derived from Larry Parnes' suggestion of "Long John and the Silver Beetles") — before settling on "The Beatles". There are many theories as to the origin of the name and its unusual spelling. It is usually credited to Lennon, who said that the name was a combination word-play on the insects "beetles" (as a reference to Buddy Holly's band, the Crickets) and the word "beat". Cynthia Lennon suggests that Lennon came up with the name Beatles at a "brainstorming session over a beer-soaked table in the Renshaw Hall bar."[12] Lennon, who was well known for giving multiple versions of the same story joked in a 1961 Mersey Beat magazine article that "It came in a vision — a man appeared on a flaming pie and said unto them, 'From this day on you are Beatles with an A'".[13] During an interview in 2001, Paul McCartney took credit for the peculiar spelling of the name, saying that "John had the idea of calling us the Beetles, I said, 'how about the Beatles; you know, like the beat of the drum?' At the time, everyone was stoned enough to find it hilarious. It's funny how history is made." [14] Larry Parnes (full name Laurence Maurice Parnes) was born 1930, in Willesden, London; died 4 August 1989, London. ... Suborders Adephaga Archostemata Myxophaga Polyphaga See subgroups of the order Coleoptera Beetles are the most diverse group of insects. ... Charles Hardin Holley (September 7, 1936 – February 3, 1959), better known as Buddy Holly, was an American singer, songwriter, and a pioneer of rock and roll. ... The Crickets The Crickets were the backing band from Texas in the United States, formed by singer/songwriter Buddy Holly in the 1950s. ... Cynthia Lillian Lennon née Powell (born September 10, 1939) in Blackpool, Lancashire, England. ... Mersey Beat was a music publication in Liverpool, England in the early 1960s. ...


In May 1960 The Beatles toured northeast Scotland as a back-up band with singer Johnny Gentle.[15] They met Gentle an hour before their first gig, and McCartney referred to the tour as a great experience for the band.[16] For the tour the often drummerless group secured the services of Tommy Moore, who was considerably older than the others.[17] Soon after the tour, however, feeling the age gap was too great, Moore left the band and went back to work in a bottling factory as a fork-lift truck driver.[18] Norman Chapman was the band's next drummer, but was called up for National Service in a few weeks. His departure posed a significant problem as the group's unofficial manager, Allan Williams, had arranged for them to perform in clubs on the Reeperbahn in Hamburg, Germany.[19] US airman operates forklift at a truck A worker operating a forklift, moving pallets A forklift truck, a lift truck, a High/Low or a forklift and sideloader is a powered industrial truck used to lift and transport materials, normally by means of steel forks inserted under the load. ... National service is a common name for compulsory or voluntary military service programs. ... Former Liverpool businessman and promoter; original manager of The Beatles, who sent the young band to Hamburg, Germany, where they gained vital show business experience. ... A sexshop on the Reeperbahn The Reeperbahn is a street in Hamburgs St. ... Location Coordinates Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE6 First Mayor Ole von Beust (CDU) Governing party CDU Votes in Bundesrat 3 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  755 km² (292 sq mi) Population 1,754,317 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 2,324 /km² (6,018...


1960–1970: The Beatles

Hamburg

On 15 August 1960, McCartney invited Pete Best to become the group's permanent drummer. He had watched Best play with the Blackjacks[20] in the Casbah Club, owned by Pete's mother, Mona Best. This was a cellar club in West Derby, Liverpool, where The Beatles had played and often visited.[21] In the documentary The Compleat Beatles, Williams said that Best "played not too cleverly, but passable." The Beatles, early 1962: (L-R) Pete, George, Paul and John. ... West Derby is a leafy well-to-do and popular suburb of Liverpool, England, that achieved significance far earlier than Liverpool itself. ... The Compleat Beatles [sic] was a 1982 two-hour documentary, chronicling the career of the Fab Four. Though it has since been supplanted by the more extensive five-hour 1996 Beatles Anthology, The Compleat Beatles was for many years largely regarded as the definitive source of information on the Beatles. ...


The Beatles started playing in Hamburg at the Indra and Kaiserkeller bars. They were required to play six or seven hours a night, seven nights a week. Shortly after they began performing at a new venue, the "Top Ten Club",[22] Harrison was deported for having lied to the German authorities about his age.[23] A week later, having started a small fire at their living quarters while vacating it for more luxurious rooms, McCartney and Best were arrested, charged with arson, and deported.[24] Lennon followed the others to Liverpool in mid-December. Kaiserkeller was a night club in Hamburg, Germany, near the Reeperbahn. ...


The reunited Beatles played their first engagement on 17 December 1960 at the Casbah Club and returned to Hamburg in April 1961. Whilst playing at the Top Ten Club they were recruited by singer Tony Sheridan to act as his backing band on a series of recordings for the German Polydor Records label,[25] produced by famed bandleader Bert Kaempfert.[19] Kaempfert signed the group to its own Polydor contract at the first session on 22 June 1961. On 31 October Polydor released the recording "My Bonnie (Mein Herz ist bei dir nur)", which appeared on the German charts under the name "Tony Sheridan and the Beat Brothers", a generic name used for whoever happened to be in Sheridan's backup band.[26] In addition to the legend that this record led to the group's eventual meeting with Brian Epstein, it also resulted in their first mention in the American press. Around the beginning of 1962, Cashbox mentioned "My Bonnie" as the debut of a "new rock and roll team, Tony Sheridan and the Beat Brothers". A few copies were also pressed under the Decca label for U.S. disc jockeys, as American Decca had a distribution deal with Polydor parent Deutsche Grammophon.[27] (This was ironic, considering that by this time the then-unaffiliated British Decca had turned down the group's attempt to gain a recording contract.) When the group returned to Liverpool, Sutcliffe stayed on in Hamburg with his new German fiancee Astrid Kirchherr, [28] and McCartney took over bass duties.[29] December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1960 calendar). ... Tony Sheridan (born Andrew Esmond Sheridan McGinnity on May 21, 1940), is an English rock and roll singer-songwriter and guitarist. ... A backing band or backup band is a band which accompanies an artist at a live performance or on a recording. ... 1920s vintage Polydor export label with its double-horn gramophone logo In 1954 Polydor Records introduced their distinctive orange label. ... Bert Kaempfert (born Berthold Kämpfert; October 16, 1923 - June 21, 1980) was a German orchestra leader and songwriter. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 31 is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... My Bonnie was a 1962 album by Tony Sheridan and the Beat Brothers, better known as the Beatles. ... Brian Samuel Epstein, born in Liverpool, Lancashire, England (19 September 1934 – 27 August 1967), was an English businessman best known as the manager of The Beatles. ... Cash Box magazine was a weekly publication devoted to the music and coin-operated machine industry. ... Logo Deutsche Grammophon is a German record label. ... Astrid Kirchherr (born 20 May 1938) is a German photographer and artist, and is well-known for her association with The Beatles (along with her friends Klaus Voorman and Jürgen Vollmer) and her photographs of The Beatles while they were in Hamburg. ... The electric bass guitar (or electric bass) is a string instrument played with the fingers by plucking, slapping, or using a pick. ...


Their third stay in Hamburg was from 13 April to 31 May 1962, when they opened The Star Club.[19] Upon their arrival they were informed of Sutcliffe's death from a brain haemorrhage.[30] April 13 is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... May 31 is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Star-Club was a music club in Hamburg, Germany that opened April 13, 1962 and was initially operated by Manfred Weissleder und Horst Fascher. ... A cerebral hemorrhage is a condition in the brain in which a blood vessel leaks. ...


Epstein took over as the group's manager in January 1962 and led The Beatles' quest for a British recording contract. Epstein had been manager of the record department at North End Music Store (NEMS), an offshoot of his family's furniture store. He played on the status of NEMS as a major record dealer to gain access to producers and recording company executives. In a now-famous exchange, Decca Records A&R executive Dick Rowe turned Epstein down flat, informing him that "Guitar groups are on the way out, Mr. Epstein."[31] While Epstein was negotiating with Decca, he also approached EMI marketing executive Ron White.[32] White (who was not himself a record producer) in turn contacted EMI producers Norrie Paramor, Walter Ridley, and Norman Newell, all of whom declined to record The Beatles.[33] White did not approach EMI's fourth staff producer — George Martin — who was on holiday at the time.[34] A recording contract (commonly called a record deal) is a legal agreement between a record label and a recording artist (or group), where the artist makes a record (or series of records) for the label to sell and promote. ... It has been suggested that Decca Music Group be merged into this article or section. ... Dick Rowe was an A&R man at Decca Records from the 1940s to the 1960s. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Norrie Paramor is best known as a record producer, but was also a composer, arranger, and orchestral conductor. ... Sir George Henry Martin CBE (born 3 January 1926 in Highbury, London, England) is sometimes referred to as the fifth Beatle—a title that he owes to his work as producer of almost all of The Beatles records. ...


Record contract

After failing to impress Decca Records, Epstein went to the HMV store on Oxford Street in London to transfer the Decca tapes to discs. There, recording engineer Jim Foy referred him to Sid Coleman, who ran EMI's publishing arm. When Coleman heard the demo tapes he suggested taking the tapes to George Martin, who, Coleman explained, "does comedy records" and headed the Parlophone label at EMI. Epstein eventually met with Martin, who signed the group to EMI on a one-year renewable contract and scheduled their first recording session on 6 June at EMI's Abbey Road studios in north London.[35] Martin had not been particularly impressed by the band's demo recordings,[36] but he instantly liked them as people when he met them. He concluded that they had raw musical talent, but said (in later interviews) that what made the difference for him was their wit and humour.[37] This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Oxford Street, with Centre Point in the background Oxford Street in 1875, looking west from the junction with Duke Street. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Parlophone is a record label which was founded in Germany prior to World War I by the Carl Lindstrom Company. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Martin did have a problem with Pete Best, [36] whom he criticised for not being able to keep time. He privately suggested to Epstein that the band use another drummer in the studio. There was speculation by some that Best's popularity[38] with fans was another source of friction. In addition, Epstein had become exasperated with his refusal to adopt the distinctive hairstyle as part of their unified look. Best also had missed a number of engagements because of illness. The three founding members enlisted Epstein to dismiss Best - which he did on 16 August 1962.[39] They asked Ringo Starr (born Richard Starkey), the drummer for one of the top Merseybeat groups, Rory Storm and the Hurricanes, to join the band, as Starr had performed occasionally with The Beatles in Hamburg.[40] The first recordings of Lennon, McCartney, Harrison, and Starr together were made as early as 15 October 1960, in a series of demonstration records privately recorded in Hamburg while acting as the backing group for singer Lu Walters.[41] Starr played on The Beatles' second EMI recording session on 4 September 1962, but Martin hired session drummer Andy White for their next session on 11 September.[42] The Beatles, early 1962: (L-R) Pete, George, Paul and John. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Richard Starkey, MBE (born 7 July 1940), known by his stage name Ringo Starr, is an Academy Award and Grammy Award-winning English musician, singer and actor, best known as the drummer of The Beatles. ... For the TV program please see Merseybeat Merseybeat, sometimes referred to as Merseysound, was a style of music popular during the 1960s. ... debjit ... is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1960 calendar). ... is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 11 is the 254th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (255th in leap years). ...


Their recording contract paid them one penny for each single sold, which was split amongst the four Beatles — one farthing per group member.[43] This royalty rate was further reduced for singles sold outside the UK, on which they received half of one penny (again split between the whole band) per single. Martin said later that it was a "pretty awful" contract.[43]. For silver pennies produced after 1820 see Maundy money. ... Wren design Farthing from 1948 A farthing (meaning fourth part) was a British coin worth one quarter of a penny. ...


The Beatles' first EMI session on 6 June did not yield any releasable recordings but the September sessions produced a minor UK hit, "Love Me Do", which peaked on the charts at number 17.[44] ("Love Me Do" reached the top of the U.S. singles chart over 18 months later in May 1964.) On 26 November they recorded their second single "Please Please Me", which reached no. 2 in the official UK charts and no. 1 in the NME chart. Three months later they recorded their first album (also titled Please Please Me). The band's first televised performance was on the People and Places programme transmitted live from Manchester by Granada Television on 17 October 1962.[45] As The Beatles' fame spread, the frenzied adulation of the group, predominantly from teenage female fans, was dubbed 'Beatlemania'. is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Love Me Do is an early Lennon-McCartney song, mainly written by Paul McCartney in 1961-2. ... Please Please Me is the second single released from The Beatles first album, Please Please Me. ... Not to be confused with the Canadian music magazine Music Express The New Musical Express (better known as the NME) is a Popular music magazine in the United Kingdom which has been published weekly since March 1952. ... Please Please Me is the first album recorded by The Beatles, rush-released on 22 March 1963 in the United Kingdom to capitalise on the success of singles Please Please Me (#1)[1] and Love Me Do (#17). ... Manchester shown within England Coordinates: , Sovereign state United Kingdom Constituent country England Region North West England Ceremonial county Greater Manchester Admin HQ Manchester City Centre Founded 13th Century City Status 1853 Government  - Type Metropolitan borough, City  - Governing body Manchester City Council Area  - Borough & City 115. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Beatles arrival at Americas JFK Airport in 1964 has proved a particularly enduring image of Beatlemania. ...


America

Although the band experienced huge popularity in the UK record charts from early 1963, EMI's American operation, Capitol Records, declined to issue the singles "Please Please Me" and "From Me to You (their first official no. 1 hit in the UK)".[46] Vee-Jay Records, a small Chicago label, issued the singles as part of a deal for the rights to another performer's masters. Art Roberts, music director of Chicago powerhouse radio station WLS, placed "Please Please Me" into radio rotation in late February 1963, making it the first time a Beatles record was heard on American radio. Vee-Jay's rights to The Beatles were later cancelled for non-payment of royalties.[47] Capitol Records is a major United States-based record label, owned by EMI. // The Capitol Records company was founded by the songwriter Johnny Mercer in 1942, with the financial help of movie producer Buddy DeSylva and the business acumen of Glenn Wallichs, (1910-1971) (owner of Music City, at the... From Me To You is the name of the hit song written by John Lennon and Paul McCartney and released by their band, the Beatles, as a single in 1963. ... Vee-Jay Records was a record label, specializing in blues, rhythm and blues and rock and roll. ... Nickname: Motto: Urbs In Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country United States State Illinois County Cook & DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City  234. ... WLS (Worlds Largest Store) is the callsign two broadcast stations in Chicago: radio station WLS AM 890 TV station WLS-TV 7 (DTV 52) WLS (Weight Loss Surgery) see Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery   This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that...


In August 1963, Philadelphia-based Swan Records released "She Loves You", which also failed to receive airplay. A testing of the song on Dick Clark's TV show American Bandstand produced laughter from American teenagers when they saw the group's distinctive hairstyles. New York disc jockey Murray the K featured "She Loves You" on his '1010 WINS record revue' show in January.[48] In early November 1963, Brian Epstein persuaded Ed Sullivan to present The Beatles on three editions of his show in February, and parlayed this guaranteed exposure into a record deal with Capitol Records. Capitol committed to a mid-January release for "I Want to Hold Your Hand",[49] On 7 December 1963 a clip of The Beatles was shown on the CBS Evening News (the story originally had been scheduled to air on 22 November and was aired on the CBS Morning News but was pre-empted by the assassination of John F. Kennedy). The clip inspired a teenage girl in Washington, D.C. to request a Beatles song on a local radio station. The station secured an imported copy of "I Want to Hold Your Hand" — forcing Capitol Records to release the song ahead of schedule on 26 December.[50] Label of Swan record by Phil Napoleons jazz band Swan Records was a mid-20th century United States based record label based in Philadelphia. ... She Loves You is a hit song written by John Lennon and Paul McCartney, originally recorded by the The Beatles for release as a single in 1963. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Dick Clark, host of American Bandstand American Bandstand was a long-running dance music television show that aired in various versions from 1952 to 1989. ... The Beatles, each sporting the eponymous hairstyle The Beatle haircut, also known as the mop-top (for its resemblance to a mop) is a mid-length hairstyle named for and popularized by the British rock group the Beatles. ... Murray Kaufman (February 14, 1922 – February 21, 1982) professionally known as Murray the K, was a famous and influential rock and roll impresario and disc jockey of the 1950s, 60s and 70s. ... Ed Sullivan Edward Vincent Sullivan (September 28, 1901 – October 13, 1974) was an American entertainment writer and television host, best known as the emcee of a popular TV variety show called The Ed Sullivan Show that was at its height of popularity in the 1950s and 1960s. ... I Want to Hold Your Hand is a 1963 Beatles song that was written by John Lennon and Paul McCartney and started the British Invasion of the United States music charts. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... CBS Evening News is the flagship nightly television news program of the American television network CBS. The network has broadcast this program since 1948, and has used the CBS Evening News title since 1963. ... November 22 is the 326th day (327th on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... CBS Morning News is the half-hour daily television broadcast from CBS News that airs following Up to the Minute. ... John Fitzgerald Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), also referred to as John F. Kennedy, Kennedy, John Kennedy, Jack Kennedy, or JFK, was the 35th President of the United States. ... Nickname: Motto: Justitia Omnibus (Justice for All) Location of Washington, D.C., in relation to the states Maryland and Virginia Coordinates: , Country United States Federal District District of Columbia Government  - Mayor Adrian M. Fenty (D)  - City Council Chairperson: Vincent C. Gray (D) Ward 1: Jim Graham (D) Ward 2: Jack... is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Several New York radio stations — first WMCA, then WINS (AM) and WABC — began playing "I Want to Hold Your Hand" on its release day. The Beatlemania that had started in Washington was duplicated in New York and quickly spread to other markets. The record sold one million copies in just ten days, and by 16 January, Cashbox magazine had certified the record number one (in the edition marked 23 January). On 3 January 1964 a film of The Beatles performing "She Loves You" was aired on the late-night Jack Paar Show. WMCA, 570 AM, is a radio station in New York City, most known for its Good Guys Top 40 era in the 1960s. ... WINS (AM), known on-air as 1010 WINS, is an all-news radio station in New York City at 1010 kHz, owned by CBS Radio (formerly Infinity Broadcasting). ... WABC AM (770 kHz New York City) NewsTalkRadio 77 is the flagship station of the ABC Radio Network. ... The Beatles arrival at Americas JFK Airport in 1964 has proved a particularly enduring image of Beatlemania. ... is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Cash Box magazine was a weekly publication devoted to the music and coin-operated machine industry. ... is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 3 is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1964 (MCMLXIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1964 calendar). ... Jack Parr redirects here. ...


Beatlemania crosses the Atlantic

On 7 February 1964, a crowd of four thousand fans at Heathrow Airport waved to The Beatles as they took off for their first trip to America as a group.[51] They were accompanied by photographers, journalists (including Maureen Cleave) and Phil Spector, who had booked himself on the same flight.[52] The pilot had radioed ahead, and as they prepared to land said, "Tell the boys there's a big crowd waiting for them." Kennedy International Airport had never experienced such a crowd, estimated at about 3,000 screaming fans.[53] After a press conference (where they first met Murray the K) they were put into limousines and driven to New York. On the way McCartney turned on a radio and listened to a running commentary: "They [The Beatles] have just left the airport and are coming to New York City..."[54] After reaching the Plaza Hotel, they were besieged by fans and reporters. Harrison had a temperature of 102 the next day and was ordered to stay in bed, so Neil Aspinall replaced him for the first television rehearsal.[55] is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1964 (MCMLXIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1964 calendar). ... London Heathrow Airport (IATA airport code: LHR, ICAO airport code: EGLL, and often simply Heathrow) is the United Kingdoms busiest and best-connected airport. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Maureen Cleave was a journalist with the London Evening News and London Evening Standard who conducted interviews with famous musicians of the 1960s, including Bob Dylan and John Lennon. ... Harvey Philip Spector (born December 26, 1939) is an American musician, songwriter, and record producer. ... John F. Kennedy International Airport (IATA Airport Code: JFK, ICAO Airport Code: KJFK) is the main international airport in New York City, and is one of the largest airports in the world. ... A joint press conference by U.S. President George W. Bush and British Prime Minister Tony Blair at the White House. ... Murray Kaufman (February 14, 1922 – February 21, 1982) professionally known as Murray the K, was a famous and influential rock and roll impresario and disc jockey of the 1950s, 60s and 70s. ... NY redirects here. ... Neil Aspinall (born in Prestatyn, North Wales, October 13, 1942) was the road manager and personal assistant for the Beatles. ...


Their first live American television appearance was on the The Ed Sullivan Show on 9 February 1964. The next morning practically every newspaper wrote that The Beatles were nothing more than a "fad", and "could not carry a tune across the Atlantic".[56] Their first American concert appearance was at Washington Coliseum in Washington, D.C. on 11 February.[57] The Ed Sullivan Show is an American television variety show that ran from June 20, 1948 to June 6, 1971, and was hosted by former entertainment columnist Ed Sullivan. ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1964 (MCMLXIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1964 calendar). ... The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one_fifth of its surface. ... Uline Arena, renamed Washington Coliseum in 1959, was an indoor arena in Washington, D.C. that held 7,000 people. ... February 11 is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


After The Beatles' huge success in 1964, Vee-Jay Records and Swan Records took advantage of their previously secured rights to The Beatles' early recordings and reissued the songs, all of which reached the top ten the second time around. (MGM and Atco also secured rights to The Beatles' early Tony Sheridan-era recordings and had minor hits with "My Bonnie" and "Ain't She Sweet", the latter featuring John Lennon on lead vocal.) In addition to Introducing... The Beatles, which was essentially The Beatles' debut British album with some minor alterations, Vee-Jay also issued an unusual LP called The Beatles Vs The Four Seasons. This 2-LP set paired Introducing... The Beatles and The Golden Hits Of The Four Seasons, another successful act that Vee-Jay had under contract, in a 'contest' (the back cover featured a 'score card'). Another unusual release was the Hear The Beatles Tell All album, which consisted of two lengthy interviews with Los Angeles radio disc jockeys (side one was titled "Dave Hull interviews John Lennon," while side two was titled "Jim Steck interviews John, Paul, George, Ringo"). No Beatles music was included on this interview album, which turned out to be the only Vee Jay Beatles album Capitol Records could not reclaim. Vee-Jay Records was a record label, specializing in blues, rhythm and blues and rock and roll. ... Label of Swan record by Phil Napoleons jazz band Swan Records was a mid-20th century United States based record label based in Philadelphia. ... A traditional Scottish folk song. ... Aint She Sweet was an American album featuring four tracks recorded in Hamburg in 1961 by The Beatles featuring Tony Sheridan (except for the title song with vocal by John Lennon) and cover versions of Beatles and British Invasion songs recorded by The Swallows. ... Introducing. ...


The Vee-Jay/Swan-issued recordings eventually ended up with Capitol, who issued most of the Vee-Jay material on the American-only Capitol release The Early Beatles, with three songs left off this final US version of the album. ("I Saw Her Standing There" was issued as the American B-side of "I Want to Hold Your Hand," and also appeared on the Capitol Records album Meet The Beatles. "Misery" and "There's a Place" were issued as a Capitol "Starline" reissue single in 1964, and reappeared on the 1980 Rarities compilation album.) The early Vee-Jay and Swan Beatles records command a high price on the record collectors' market, and all have been copiously bootlegged.[58] The Swan tracks ("She Loves You" and "I'll Get You") were issued on the Capitol LP The Beatles' Second Album. (Swan also issued the German-language version of "She Loves You," called "Sie Liebt Dich." This song later appeared (in stereo) on Capitol's US version of the Rarities compilation album.) The Early Beatles was The Beatles first 1965 release on Capitol. ... The Beatles Second Album was the Beatles second Capitol release. ... Rarities is a compilation album released by Capitol Records featuring a selection of songs by The Beatles. ...


In mid-1964 the band undertook their first appearances outside of Europe and North America. They toured Australia without Ringo Starr, who was suffering from tonsillitis and was temporarily replaced by session drummer Jimmy Nicol. In Adelaide they were greeted by over 300,000 people who turned out at Adelaide Town Hall.[59]. Ringo had rejoined by the time they got to New Zealand on 21 June.[60] World map showing the location of Europe. ... North America North America is a continent [1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... Richard Starkey, MBE (born 7 July 1940), known by his stage name Ringo Starr, is an Academy Award and Grammy Award-winning English musician, singer and actor, best known as the drummer of The Beatles. ... James George Nicol, known as Jimmie Nicol or Jimmy Nicol, is an English musician born August 3, 1939. ... Adelaide is the capital and most populous city of the Australian state of South Australia, and is the fifth largest city in Australia, with a population of over 1. ... The Adelaide Town Halls clock tower is a feature of King William Street Adelaide Town Hall is a landmark building on King William Street in Adelaide, South Australia. ...


In June 1965, Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II appointed the four Beatles Members of the Order of the British Empire, MBE. The band members were nominated by Prime Minister Harold Wilson (who also was the M.P. for Huyton, Liverpool).[61] The appointment — at that time primarily bestowed upon military veterans and civic leaders — sparked some conservative MBE recipients to return their insignia in protest.[62] The first two were returned on 14 June, before The Beatles received theirs on 26 October 1965.[63] On 15 August that year, the Beatles performed the first major stadium concert in the history of rock at Shea Stadium in New York to a crowd of 55,600.[64] Their sixth album, Rubber Soul, was released in early December 1965. It was hailed as a major leap forward in the maturity and complexity of the band's music.[65] Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... Commanders Badge of the Order of the British Empire The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is an order of chivalry established on 4 June 1917 by George V. The Order includes five classes in civil and military divisions, in order of seniority: Knight or Dame Grand Cross... James Harold Wilson, Baron Wilson of Rievaulx, KG, OBE, FRS, PC (11 March 1916 – 24 May 1995) was one of the most prominent British politicians of the 20th century. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ... Huyton is a town within the Metropolitan Borough of Knowsley, in Merseyside, England. ... Location within England Coordinates: , Sovereign state United Kingdom Constituent country England Region North West England Ceremonial county Historic county Merseyside Lancashire Admin HQ Liverpool City Centre Founded 1207 City Status 1880 Government  - Type Metropolitan borough, City  - Governing body Liverpool City Council Area  - Borough & City 43. ... October 26 is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ... William A. Shea Municipal Stadium, usually shortened to Shea Stadium, is an American baseball stadium in Flushing, New York. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


Backlash and controversy

In July 1966, when The Beatles toured the Philippines, they unintentionally snubbed the nation's first lady, Imelda Marcos, who had expected the group to attend a breakfast reception at the Presidential Palace.[66] When presented with the invitation, Brian Epstein politely declined on behalf of the group, as it had never been the group's policy to accept such "official" invitations.[67] The group soon found that the Marcos regime was unaccustomed to accepting "no" for an answer. After the 'snub' was broadcast on Philippine television and radio, all of The Beatles' police protection disappeared. The group and their entourage had to make their way to Manila airport on their own. At the airport, roadie Mal Evans was beaten and kicked, and the band members were pushed and jostled about by a hostile crowd.[68] Once the group boarded the plane, Epstein and Evans were ordered off, and Evans said, "Tell my wife that I love her."[69] Epstein was forced to give back all the money that the band had earned while they were there before being allowed back on the plane.[70] Imelda Romuáldez Marcos (born July 2, 1929 in Manila) is a former First Lady and erstwhile powerful political figure in the Philippines. ... Brian Samuel Epstein, born in Liverpool, Lancashire, England (19 September 1934 – 27 August 1967), was an English businessman best known as the manager of The Beatles. ... Malcolm Mal Evans (27 May 1935 – 5 January 1976). ...


Almost as soon as they returned from the Philippines, an earlier comment by Lennon made in March that year launched a backlash against The Beatles from religious and social conservatives in the United States. In an interview with British reporter Maureen Cleave,[71] Lennon had offered his opinion that Christianity was dying and that The Beatles were "more popular than Jesus now."[72] Afterwards, a radio station in Birmingham, Alabama, ran a story on burning Beatles records, in what was considered to be a joke. However, many people affiliated with rural churches in the American South started taking the suggestion seriously. Towns across the United States and South Africa started to burn Beatles records in protest. Attempting to make light of the incident, McCartney said, "They've got to buy them before they can burn them." Under tremendous pressure from the American media, Lennon apologised for his remarks at a press conference in Chicago on August 11, the eve of the first performance of what turned out to be their final tour.[73] Maureen Cleave was a journalist with the London Evening News and London Evening Standard who conducted interviews with famous musicians of the 1960s, including Bob Dylan and John Lennon. ... Christianity percentage by country, purple is highest, orange is lowest Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Nickname: Location in Jefferson County in the state of Alabama Coordinates: Country United States State Alabama County Jefferson, Shelby Government  - Mayor Bernard Kincaid (D) Area  - City  151. ... The U.S. Southern states or The South, known during the American Civil War era as Dixie, is a distinctive region of the United States with its own unique historical perspective, customs, musical styles, and cuisine. ... Nickname: Motto: Urbs In Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country United States State Illinois County Cook & DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City  234. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The group's two-year series of Capitol compilations also took a strange twist in the United States when one of their publicity shots, used for a Yesterday and Today album and a poster promoting the UK release of "Paperback Writer", created an uproar, as it featured the band draped in meat and plastic dolls. Thousands of these copies had to be withdrawn. Years later, the cover shot was linked with the group's interest in German expressionism.[73] This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ...


Elvis Presley disapproved of The Beatles's anti-war activism and open use of drugs, later asking President Nixon to ban all four members of the group from entering the United States. Peter Guralnick writes, "The Beatles, Elvis said, [...] had been a focal point for anti-Americanism. They had come to this country, made their money, then gone back to England where they fomented anti-American feeling."[74] Guralnick adds, "Presley indicated that he is of the opinion that The Beatles laid the groundwork for many of the problems we are having with young people by their filthy unkempt appearances and suggestive music while entertaining in this country during the early and middle 1960s."[75] Despite Elvis' remarks, Lennon still had some positive feeling towards him: "Before Elvis, there was nothing."[76] Elvis Aron Presley (January 8, 1935 – August 16, 1977), often known simply as Elvis and also called The King of Rock n Roll or simply The King, was an American singer, musician and actor. ... Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ... Peter Guralnick is a music critic and historian of American popular music. ...


In stark contrast, Bob Dylan recognised the Beatles' contribution, stating: "America should put up statues to The Beatles. They helped give this country's pride back to it."[77] Bob Dylan (born Robert Allen Zimmerman, May 24, 1941) is an American singer-songwriter, author, musician, and poet who has been a major figure in popular music for five decades. ...


The studio years

In April 1966, the group began recording what would be their most ambitious album to date, Revolver. During the recording sessions for the album, tape looping and early sampling were introduced in a complex mix of ballad, R&B, soul and world music. Back cover The back cover of the original 1966 UK LP. The main photo was edited in separate parts for the booklet of the 1988 compact disc release. ...


The Beatles performed their last concert before paying fans at Candlestick Park in San Francisco on 29 August 1966.[73] McCartney asked Tony Barrow to tape the event, but the 30-minute tape he used ran out halfway through the last song. The concert lasted a little under 35 minutes.[78] Monster Park (colloquially, The Stick or Candlestick, after its original name of Candlestick Park) is an outdoor sports and entertainment stadium located in the San Francisco Bay Area in California. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... Tony Barrow worked with The Beatles as their Press Officer between 1962, when the groups first single Love Me Do was released in the UK until 1968. ...


From then on, The Beatles concentrated on recording. Less than seven months after recording Revolver, The Beatles returned to Abbey Road Studios on 24 November 1966 to begin the 129-day recording sessions for their eighth album, Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band, released on 1 June 1967. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... is the 328th day of the year (329th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... Back cover The back cover of the original 1967 UK LP. This release featured (for the first time on a Beatles album) complete lyrics. ... June 1 is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (the link is to a full 1967 calendar). ...


On 25 June 1967, The Beatles became the first band globally transmitted on television—before an estimated 400 million people worldwide. The band appeared in a segment within the first-ever worldwide TV satellite hook-up, a show titled Our World. The Beatles were transmitted live from Abbey Road Studios, and their new song "All You Need Is Love" was recorded live during the show. is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... An Earth observation satellite, ERS 2 For other uses, see Satellite (disambiguation). ... Our World was the first live international satellite television production, which was broadcast on 25 June 1967. ... Music sample All You Need Is Love ( file info) Problems? See media help. ...


The band's business affairs began to unravel after manager Brian Epstein died of an accidental prescription drug overdose on 27 August 1967 at the age of 32. At the end of 1967, they received their first major negative press in the UK with disparaging reviews of their surrealistic TV film Magical Mystery Tour.[79] Part of the criticism arose because colour was an integral part of the film, but in 1967 few viewers in the UK had colour televisions. The film's soundtrack, which features one of The Beatles' few instrumental tracks ("Flying"), was released in the United Kingdom as a double EP, and in the United States as a full LP (the LP is now the official version). Brian Samuel Epstein, born in Liverpool, Lancashire, England (19 September 1934 – 27 August 1967), was an English businessman best known as the manager of The Beatles. ... A drug overdose occurs when a drug is ingested in quantities and/or concentrations large enough to overwhelm the homeostasis of a living organism, causing severe illness or death. ... August 27 is the 239th day of the year (240th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Magical Mystery Tour, starring The Beatles, is an hour-long television film that initially aired on BBC1 on Boxing Day in 1967. ... Magical Mystery Tour is the name of the album and double EP by the English rock band the Beatles, first released in late 1967 (see 1967 in music). ... Flying is an instrumental song by The Beatles which first appeared on the late-1967 Magical Mystery Tour release (two EP discs in the UK, an LP in the US). ... A Double extended play (Double EP) is the name typically given to vinyl records or CDs containing two discs that would normally qualify for the name of EP. The name is thus analogous to double album. ...

The group spent the early part of 1968 in Rishikesh, Uttar Pradesh, India, studying transcendental meditation with the Maharishi Mahesh Yogi.[80] Upon their return, Lennon and McCartney went to New York to announce the formation of Apple Corps. The middle of 1968 saw the band busy recording the double album The Beatles, popularly known as The White Album because of its plain white cover. These sessions saw deep divisions opening within the band, with Starr temporarily walking out. The band carried on, with McCartney recording the drums on the songs "Martha My Dear", "Wild Honey Pie", "Dear Prudence" and "Back in the USSR". Among the other causes of dissension were that Lennon's new girlfriend, Yoko Ono, was at his side through almost all of the sessions, and that the others felt that McCartney was becoming too dominating.[81] Internal divisions within the band had been a small but growing problem during their early years; most notably, this was reflected in the difficulty that George Harrison experienced in getting his own songs onto Beatles albums. John Kelley photo of Ringo Starr from the The Beatles white album. ... John Kelley photo of Ringo Starr from the The Beatles white album. ... Richard Starkey, MBE (born 7 July 1940), known by his stage name Ringo Starr, is an Academy Award and Grammy Award-winning English musician, singer and actor, best known as the drummer of The Beatles. ... River Ganges in Rishikesh Rishikesh (also spelled Hrishikesh) (Hindi: )is a city and a municipal board in Dehradun district in the Indian state of Uttarakhand. ... , Uttar Pradesh (Hindi: , Urdu: , translation: Northern Province, IPA: ,  ), often referred to as U.P., is the most populous and fifth largest state in the Republic of India. ... // Transcendental Meditation or TM is a trademarked meditation technique introduced in 1958 by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi that involves the mental use of specific sounds, called mantras. ... Maharishi Mahesh Yogi (b. ... Apple Records logo, featuring a Granny Smith apple. ... The Beatles U.S. chronology The Beatles is the ninth official album by The Beatles, a double album released in 1968 (see 1968 in music). ... Martha My Dear is a Beatles song which first appeared on the double-disc album The Beatles (also known as The White Album). ... Wild Honey Pie is a short song written by Paul McCartney, but credited to Lennon-McCartney. ... Dear Prudence is a song by the Beatles, written by John Lennon,[1] and credited to Lennon/McCartney. ... Back in the U.S.S.R. is a song by The Beatles written by Paul McCartney (John Lennon shares songwriting credits), and which opens the double-disc album The Beatles (a. ... Yoko Ono Lennon (小野 洋子 Ono Yōko(ONO Yōko), born February 18, 1933) is a Japanese-American artist and musician. ... George Harrison, MBE (25 February 1943[1][2] – 29 November 2001[3]) was an Academy Award and Grammy Award-winning English rock guitarist, singer, songwriter, author and sitarist best known as the lead guitarist of The Beatles. ...


On the business side, McCartney wanted Lee Eastman, the father of his then-girlfriend Linda Eastman, to manage The Beatles, but the other members wanted New York manager Allen Klein. All past Beatles' decisions had been unanimous, but this time the four could not agree. Lennon, Harrison and Starr felt the Eastmans would put McCartney's interests before those of the group. In 1971 it was discovered that Klein, who had been appointed manager, had stolen £5 million from The Beatles' holdings. Years later, during the Anthology interviews, McCartney said of this time, "Looking back, I can understand why they would feel that he [Lee Eastman] was biased against them." Lee Eastman (12 January 1910 - 30 July 1991) was a New York show business attorney, the son of Louis and Della (Freyer) Epstein. ... Linda McCartney and Denny Laine in the 1970s as members of Wings Linda McCartney (September 24, 1941 - April 17, 1998), born Linda Eastman in Scarsdale, New York, was an American photographer. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Their final live performance was on the rooftop of the Apple building in Savile Row, London, on 30 January 1969, the next-to-last day of the difficult Get Back sessions. Most of the performance was filmed and later included in the film Let It Be. While the band was playing, the local police were called because of complaints about the noise. Although the group was simply asked to end their performance, the band members later remarked in the Anthology video that they were disappointed they were not arrested — pointing out that the police hauling the band members off in handcuffs would have been "an appropriate ending" for the film. For the Taiwanese film whose foreign title translates to the same name, see 無米樂 Let It Be is a 1970 film about the Beatles rehearsing and recording songs for the album Let It Be in January 1969. ... Savile Row Savile Row Savile Row is a road in the City of Westminster in central London that runs parallel to Regent Street between Conduit Street at the northern end and Vigo Street at the southern. ... January 30 is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Stargate SG-1 episode, see 1969 (Stargate SG-1). ... For the Taiwanese film whose foreign title translates to the same name, see 無米樂 Let It Be is a 1970 film about the Beatles rehearsing and recording songs for the album Let It Be in January 1969. ... Hiatts Speedcuffs in holster, as used by UK police A model wearing handcuffs, waist chain, and thumbcuffs Old handcuffs Handcuffs are restraints designed to secure an individuals wrists close together. ...


The Beatles recorded their final album, Abbey Road, in the summer of 1969. The completion of the song "I Want You (She's So Heavy)" for the album on 20 August was the last time all four Beatles were together in the same studio. Back cover The back cover of the original 1969 UK LP. Note that Her Majesty is not listed, unlike later reissues and the compact disc version - originaly making it a hidden track. ... I Want You (Shes So Heavy) is a song by The Beatles, from their album Abbey Road. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Their final new song was Harrison's "I Me Mine", recorded 3 January 1970 and released on the Let It Be album. It was recorded without Lennon, who was in Denmark when the song was recorded.[82] I Me Mine is a Beatles song, written and sung by George Harrison. ... January 3 is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... Let It Be was an album by The Beatles, released on May 8, 1970. ...


Breakup

Main article: The Beatles' breakup

John Lennon announced his departure to the rest of the group on 20 September 1969 but agreed that no announcement was to be publicly made until a number of legal matters were resolved. The Beatles were one of the most influential rock groups in history. ... is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Stargate SG-1 episode, see 1969 (Stargate SG-1). ...


In March 1970 the Get Back session tapes were given to American producer Phil Spector, who had produced Lennon's solo single "Instant Karma!". Spector's "Wall of Sound" production values went against the original intent of the record, which had been to record a stripped-down live performance. McCartney was deeply dissatisfied with Spector's treatment of "The Long and Winding Road", and unsuccessfully attempted to halt release of Spector's version of the song. McCartney publicly announced the break-up on 10 April 1970, a week before releasing his first solo album, McCartney. Pre-release copies included a press release with a self-written interview explaining the end of The Beatles and his hopes for the future.[83] On 8 May 1970, the Spector-produced version of Get Back was released as Let It Be, followed by the documentary film of the same name. The Beatles' partnership was finally dissolved in 1975.[84] Harvey Philip Spector (born December 26, 1939) is an American musician, songwriter, and record producer. ... Instant Karma! (We All Shine On) is John Lennons third solo single on Apple Records, and is notable for two reasons. ... Wall of Sound is a phrase used to describe the effect created by the music production techniques of record producer Phil Spector. ... The Long and Winding Road is a pop ballad written by Paul McCartney that originally appeared on The Beatles album Let It Be. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... McCartney is the first solo album by Paul McCartney and was released in 1970. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... Let It Be is the twelfth and final album by the Beatles, released on May 8, 1970 by the bands own Apple Records label. ... For the Taiwanese film whose foreign title translates to the same name, see 無米樂 Let It Be is a 1970 film about the Beatles rehearsing and recording songs for the album Let It Be in January 1969. ...


1970–present: After The Beatles

Shortly before and after the official dissolution of the group, all four Beatles released solo albums, including Lennon's John Lennon/Plastic Ono Band, McCartney's McCartney, Starr's Sentimental Journey, and Harrison's All Things Must Pass. Some of their albums featured contributions by other former Beatles; Starr's Ringo (1973) was the only one to include compositions and performances by all four, albeit on separate songs. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... McCartney is the first solo album by Paul McCartney and was released in 1970. ... Sentimental Journey is the first solo album release by former Beatles drummer Ringo Starr in 1970, as the band were splintering apart. ... All Things Must Pass is a triple album by George Harrison recorded and released after the break-up of The Beatles. ... Ringo is the third solo album by Ringo Starr, released in 1973. ...


Other than an unreleased jam session in 1974 (later bootlegged as A Toot and a Snore in '74), Lennon and McCartney never recorded together again. A Toot and a Snore in 74 is a rare bootleg album of the final recording session in which John Lennon and Paul McCartney played together, which gained wider prominence when McCartney made reference to the session in a 1997 interview. ...


In the wake of the expiration in 1975 of The Beatles' contract with EMI-Capitol, the American Capitol label, rushing to cash in on its vast Beatles holdings and freed from the group's creative control, released five LPs: Rock 'n' Roll Music (a compilation of their more uptempo numbers), The Beatles at the Hollywood Bowl (containing portions of two unreleased shows at the Hollywood Bowl), Love Songs (a compilation of their slower numbers), Rarities (a compilation of tracks that either had never been released in the U.S. or had gone out of print), and Reel Music (a compilation of songs from their films). There was also a non-Capitol-EMI release of a show from the group's early days at the Star Club in Hamburg captured on a poor-quality tape. Of all these post-breakup LPs, only the Hollywood Bowl LP had the approval of the group members. Upon the American release of the original British CDs in 1986, these post-breakup Capitol American compilation LPs were deleted from the Capitol catalogue. Rock n Roll Music is a compilation album by the Beatles that consists of previously released Beatles tracks considered by many to be quintessential rock and roll. The album was released in June 1976, and, at the time, some in the media speculated that the album was released to commemorate... The Beatles at the Hollywood Bowl is a live album released in May 1977 featuring songs by The Beatles compiled from two live performances at the Hollywood Bowl during August 1964 and August 1965. ... Love Songs is a 1977 compilation album that comprises love songs recorded by The Beatles between 1962 and 1970. ... Rarities is a compilation album released by Capitol Records featuring a selection of songs by The Beatles. ... Reel Music is a compilation album featuring a selection of songs by The Beatles that were featured in their films. ... Live! at the Star-Club in Hamburg, Germany; 1962. ...


John Lennon was shot and killed by Mark David Chapman on 8 December 1980 in New York City. Shortly afterward, in 1981, the three surviving Beatles reunited to record "All Those Years Ago", released as a George Harrison solo single. Its original lyrics had been rewritten as a tribute to Lennon. Mark David Chapman (born May 10, 1955) is the American man who shot and killed musician John Lennon on December 8, 1980. ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... All Those Years Ago is a song written by George Harrison, released in the spring of 1981 as a personal tribute to the recently murdered John Lennon. ...


The BBC has a large collection of Beatles recordings, mostly comprising original studio sessions from 1963 to 1968. Much of this material formed the basis for a 1988 radio documentary series The Beeb's Lost Beatles Tapes. In 1989, many outtakes from The Beatles sessions appeared on the radio series The Lost Lennon Tapes. Later, in 1994, the best of the BBC sessions were given an official EMI release on Live at the BBC. The British Broadcasting Corporation, which is usually known as the BBC, is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world in terms of audience numbers, employing 26,000 staff in the United Kingdom alone and with a budget of more than GB£4 billion. ... A radio documentary or feature is a radio programme devoted to covering a particular topic in some depth, usually with a mixture of commentary and sound pictures. ... The Beebs Lost Beatles Tapes was a music documentary series comprising 14 half-hour episodes, broadcast on BBC Radio 1 between October 1 and December 31, 1988. ... For the Dire Straits album, see Live at the BBC (Dire Straits album). ...


In 1988, The Beatles were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame as a group (not as individual performers) during their first year of eligibility.[85] On the night of their induction, Harrison and Starr appeared to accept their award along with Lennon's widow Yoko Ono and his two sons. McCartney stayed away, issuing a press release citing "unresolved difficulties" with Harrison, Starr, and Lennon's estate. Solo Beatles later inducted were Lennon in 1994, McCartney in 1999 and Harrison in 2004.

Collage of the various covers of the Anthology series
Collage of the various covers of the Anthology series

In February 1994, the three surviving Beatles reunited to produce and record additional music for a few of Lennon's home recordings. "Free as a Bird" premiered as part of The Beatles Anthology series of television documentaries and was released as a single in December 1995, with "Real Love" following in March 1996. These songs were also included in the three Anthology collections of CDs released in 1995 and 1996, each of which consisted of two CDs of never-before-released Beatles material. Klaus Voormann, who had known The Beatles since their Hamburg days and had previously illustrated the Revolver album cover, directed the Anthology cover concept. 450,000 copies of Anthology 1 were sold on its first day of release. In 2000, the compilation album 1 was released, containing almost every number-one single released by the band from 1962 to 1970. The collection sold 3.6 million copies in its first week (selling 3 copies a second) and more than 12 million in three weeks worldwide. The collection also reached number one in the United States and 33 other countries, and had sold 25 million copies by 2005 (about the ninth best selling album of all time). Image File history File links Anthology_cover_collage. ... Image File history File links Anthology_cover_collage. ... Free As A Bird is a song, single and video released by The Beatles in December 1995 as part of their reunion and promotion around the release of the video documentary Anthology and their Anthology 1 compilation album. ... The Beatles Anthology is the name of a documentary series, a series of three albums and a book, all of which focus on the history of the popular rock band the Beatles. ... A collection of various CD singles In music, a single is a short recording of one or more separate tracks. ... Real Love is a song originally written and performed as a demo by John Lennon, and later reworked by the three remaining members of The Beatles (Paul McCartney, George Harrison and Ringo Starr) in late 1995. ... Klaus Voormann (born 29 April 1938) is a German artist, musician, and record producer who was associated with the early days of The Beatles in Hamburg and later designed the cover of their album Revolver. ... Back cover The back cover of the original 1966 UK LP. The main photo was edited in separate parts for the booklet of the 1988 compact disc release. ... The Beatles Anthology 1 was released in late 1995, and includes rarites and alternatives tracks from their days as the Quarry Men, through the Decca auditions and the album Beatles for Sale. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


George Harrison during this time showed his socio-political consciousness and earned respect for his contribution for arranging the Concert For Bangladesh in New York in August 1971 along with sitar maestro Ravi Shankar. Harrison died of lung cancer on 29 November 2001. The Concert For Bangladesh was the event title for two concerts held on the afternoon and evening of August 1, 1971, playing to a total of 40,000 people at Madison Square Garden in New York. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Lung cancer is the malignant transformation and expansion of lung tissue, and is the most lethal of all cancers worldwide, responsible for 1. ... November 29 is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ...


In 2006, George Martin and his son Giles Martin remixed original Beatles recordings to create a soundtrack to accompany Cirque du Soleil's theatrical production Love. In 2007, McCartney and Starr reunited for an interview on Larry King Live to discuss their thoughts on the show. Yoko Ono (John Lennon's wife) and Olivia Harrison (George Harrison's wife) also appeared with McCartney and Starr in Las Vegas for the one year anniversary of Love. Giles Martin with Hayley Westenra and George Martin Giles Martin is an album producer. ... Love is a soundtrack compilation album by The Beatles released in November 2006. ... Cirque du Soleil (French for Circus of the Sun) is an entertainment empire based in Montréal, Québec Canada and founded in Baie-Saint-Paul, Québec in 1984 by two former street performers, Guy Laliberté and Daniel Gauthier. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Larry King Live is a nightly CNN interview program hosted by broadcaster and writer Larry King. ...


Musical evolution

The Beatles, by Richard Avedon. By 1967, the band had delved into psychedelic music.
See also: The Beatles' influence on music recording

The Beatles' constant demands to create new sounds on every new recording, combined with George Martin's arranging abilities and the studio expertise of EMI staff engineers such as Norman Smith, Ken Townshend and Geoff Emerick, all played significant parts in the innovative sounds of the albums Rubber Soul (1965), Revolver (1966) and Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band (1967). Image File history File links Download high resolution version (500x673, 298 KB) Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (500x673, 298 KB) Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Cover of Richard Avedons In the American West photo book. ... Psychedelia in music (or also psychedelic music, less formally) is a term that refers to a broad set of popular music styles, genres and scenes, that may include psychedelic rock, psychedelic folk, psychedelic pop, psychedelic soul, psychedelic ambient, psychedelic trance, psychedelic techno, and others. ... The Beatles influenced the way music was recorded in several ways. ... Norman Smith is a musician and record producer. ... Ken Townshend was an Abbey Road Studios engineer. ... Engineer Geoff Emerick. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Back cover The back cover of the original 1966 UK LP. The main photo was edited in separate parts for the booklet of the 1988 compact disc release. ... Back cover The back cover of the original 1967 UK LP. This release featured (for the first time on a Beatles album) complete lyrics. ...


The Beatles continued to absorb influences long after their initial success, often finding new musical and lyrical avenues by listening to their contemporaries. Among those influences were Bob Dylan, who influenced songs such as "You've Got to Hide Your Love Away" and "Norwegian Wood (This Bird Has Flown)".[86] Other contemporary influences included the Byrds and the Beach Boys, whose album Pet Sounds was a favourite of McCartney's.[87] Bob Dylan (born Robert Allen Zimmerman, May 24, 1941) is an American singer-songwriter, author, musician, and poet who has been a major figure in popular music for five decades. ... Youve Got to Hide Your Love Away is a song by the English 1960s rock band The Beatles. ... Norwegian Wood (This Bird Has Flown) is a song by The Beatles which first appeared on the 1965 album Rubber Soul. ... The Byrds (formed in Los Angeles, California, in 1964) were an American rock band. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Pet Sounds is a 1966 album recorded by American pop group the Beach Boys. ...


Along with studio tricks such as sound effects, unconventional microphone placements, tape loops, double tracking and vari-speed recording, The Beatles began to augment their recordings with instruments that were unconventional for rock music at the time. These included string and brass ensembles as well as Indian instruments such as the sitar as in "Norwegian Wood (This Bird Has Flown)" and the swarmandel as in "Strawberry Fields Forever". They also used early electronic instruments such as the Mellotron, with which McCartney supplied the flute voices on the intro to "Strawberry Fields Forever", and the ondioline, an electronic keyboard that created the unusual oboe-like sound on "Baby You're a Rich Man". Sound effects or audio effects are artificially created or enhanced sounds, or sound processes used to emphasize artistic or other content of movies, video games, music, or other media. ... Tape loops are loops of prerecorded magnetic tape used to create repetitive, rhythmic musical patterns. ... Double tracking is a well-worn technique in sound recording in which a performer sings or plays along with their own prerecorded part, for dramatic effect or to produce a stronger sound than with a single voice or instrument. ... A variable speed pitch control (or vari-speed) is a control on an audio device such as a turntable, reel-to-reel, tape deck or CD player that allows the operator to deviate from a standard speed (such as 33⅓ or 45 rpm in the case of a turntable). ... Diagram of some sitar parts. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... BRILLIANT SONG! Music sample Strawberry Fields Forever ( file info) Problems? See media help. ... The Mellotron is an electromechanical polyphonic keyboard musical instrument originally developed and built in Birmingham, England in the early 1960s. ... The flute is a musical instrument of the woodwind family. ... The Ondioline was a vacuum tube-powered keyboard instrument, invented by Georges Jenny, which was a forerunner of todays synthesizers. ... Baby Youre a Rich Man is a song by the Beatles recorded on May 11, 1967 at Olympic Sound Studios, 1st song recorded and mixed completely outside Abbey Road Studios. ...


Beginning with the use of a string quartet (arranged by George Martin with input from McCartney) on "Yesterday" in 1965, The Beatles pioneered a modern form of art song, exemplified by the double-quartet string arrangement on "Eleanor Rigby" (1966), "Here, There and Everywhere" (1966) and "She's Leaving Home" (1967). A televised performance of Bach's Brandenburg Concerto No. 2 directly inspired McCartney's use of a piccolo trumpet on the arrangement of "Penny Lane". The Beatles moved towards psychedelia with "Rain" and "Tomorrow Never Knows" from 1966, and "Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds", "Strawberry Fields Forever" and "I Am the Walrus" from 1967. Yesterday is a pop song originally recorded by The Beatles for their album Help! (1965). ... Art rock is a term used by some to describe rock music that is characterized by ambitious or avant-garde lyrical themes and/or melodic, harmonic, or rhythmic experimentation, often extending beyond standard modern popular music forms and genres, toward influences in jazz, classical, world music or the experimental avant... Music sample Eleanor Rigby ( file info) Problems? See media help. ... Here, There and Everywhere is a song by Paul McCartney (though credited to Lennon-McCartney), recorded for The Beatles 1966 album Revolver. ... Shes Leaving Home is a song written by John Lennon and Paul McCartney and performed by the Beatles on the album Sgt. ... Bach in a 1748 portrait by Haussmann Places in which Bach resided throughout his life Johann Sebastian Bach (pronounced ) (21 March 1685 O.S. – 28 July 1750 N.S.) was a prolific German composer and organist whose sacred and secular works for choir, orchestra and solo instruments drew together the... Johann Sebastian Bach, c. ... Piccolo trumpet in B-flat, with swappable leadpipes to tune the instrument to B-flat (shorter) or A (longer) The smallest of the trumpet family is the piccolo trumpet (picc or pixie in trumpeter slang). ... Music sample Penny Lane ( file info) Problems? See media help. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Rain is a song by The Beatles, first released in 1966. ... Tomorrow Never Knows is the final track of The Beatles 1966 studio album Revolver, but it was the first to be recorded for the album. ... Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds is a song written mainly by John Lennon (credited to Lennon/McCartney) in 1967, and recorded by The Beatles for their album Sgt. ... BRILLIANT SONG! Music sample Strawberry Fields Forever ( file info) Problems? See media help. ... I Am the Walrus is a 1967 song by The Beatles, written by John Lennon and credited to Lennon-McCartney. ...


Influence on popular culture

The Beatles influence on rock music and popular culture was—and remains—immense. ...

Lifestyle

The Beatles' lifestyles were greatly altered by their success and the income they earned. The availability of the first oral contraceptive and illegal drugs changed many people's opinions — including The Beatles' — about life, marriage, and sexual relationships.[88] The combined oral contraceptive pill, often referred to as the Pill, is a combination of an estrogen (oestrogen) and a progestin (progestogen), taken by mouth to inhibit normal fertility. ...


Recreational drug use

In Hamburg, The Beatles used "prellies" (Preludin) both recreationally and to maintain their energy through all-night performances.[89] McCartney would usually take one, but Lennon would often take four or five.[89] Bob Dylan introduced them to cannabis during a 1964 visit to New York.[90] McCartney remembered them all getting "very high" and giggling.[91] The Beatles occasionally smoked a spliff in the car on the way to the studio during the filming of Help!, which often made them forget their lines.[92] Phenmetrazine is a stimulant of the central nervous system. ... Bob Dylan (born Robert Allen Zimmerman, May 24, 1941) is an American singer-songwriter, author, musician, and poet who has been a major figure in popular music for five decades. ... A dried flowered bud of the Cannabis sativa plant. ... NY redirects here. ... A spliff. ... Help! is the title of a 1965 film starring the Beatles and featuring Leo McKern, Eleanor Bron, Victor Spinetti, John Bluthal and Roy Kinnear. ...


In April 1965, Lennon and Harrison were introduced to LSD by an acquaintance, dentist John Riley.[93] Lennon in particular became an avid "tripper", claiming in a 1970 interview in Rolling Stone to have taken LSD hundreds of times. McCartney was more reluctant to try the drug, but finally did so in 1966 and was the first Beatle to talk about it in the press. Lysergic acid diethylamide, commonly called LSD, LSD-25, or acid. ...


The Beatles added their names to an advertisement in The Times, on 24 July 1967, which asked for the legalisation of cannabis, the release of all prisoners imprisoned because of possession, and research into marijuana's medical uses. The advertisement was sponsored by a group called Soma, and was signed by 65 people, including Brian Epstein, Graham Greene, R.D. Laing, 15 doctors, and two MPs.[94] On a sailing trip to Greece, in 1967, the whole band sat around on the boat and took acid.[95] Generally speaking, advertising is the paid promotion of goods, services, companies and ideas by an identified sponsor. ... The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom since 1785, and under its current name since 1788. ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (the link is to a full 1967 calendar). ... Brian Samuel Epstein, born in Liverpool, Lancashire, England (19 September 1934 – 27 August 1967), was an English businessman best known as the manager of The Beatles. ... Henry Graham Greene, OM, CH (October 2, 1904 – April 3, 1991) was a great English playwright, novelist, short story writer, travel writer and critic whose works explore the ambivalent moral and political issues of the modern world. ... R.D.Laing; photo credit Robert E. Haraldsen Ronald David Laing (October 7, 1927 – August 23, 1989), was a Scottish psychiatrist who wrote extensively on mental illness and particularly the experience of psychosis. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ...


Meditation

On 24 August 1967, The Beatles met the Maharishi Mahesh Yogi at the London Hilton, and a few days later went to Bangor, in North Wales, to attend a weekend 'initiation' conference.[96] There, the Maharishi gave each of them a mantra.[97] Their time in early 1968 at the Maharishi's ashram in India was highly productive from a musical standpoint, as practically all of the songs that would later be recorded for The White Album and Abbey Road were composed there by Lennon, McCartney, and Harrison.[80] is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (the link is to a full 1967 calendar). ... Maharishi Mahesh Yogi (b. ... Entrance of the Beverly Hilton Hotel in Beverly Hills, California Beverly Hilton Hotel viewed from Wilshire Boulvard Hilton is a brand of the Hilton Hotels Corporation, based in Beverly Hills, California. ... Bangor, in north Wales, is one of the smallest cities in the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the country. ... In Tibet, many Buddhists carve mantras into rocks as a form of devotion. ... An Ashram (Pronounced aashram) in ancient India was a Hindu hermitage where sages (See Rishi) lived in peace and tranquility amidst nature. ... The self-titled double album The Beatles, released by the Beatles in 1968 at the height of their popularity, is often hailed as one of the major accomplishments in popular music. ... Back cover The back cover of the original 1969 UK LP. Note that Her Majesty is not listed, unlike later reissues and the compact disc version - originaly making it a hidden track. ...


Discography

Further information: List of Beatles songs by singerThe Beatles record sales, worldwide charts, and The Beatles bootlegs

The Beatles released twelve original albums, twelve EPs (featuring mostly otherwise available material), one double EP, and twenty-two singles (featuring mostly otherwise unavailable material) in eight years (1962-1970) in their native United Kingdom. ... The following is a list of all songs by The Beatles divided according to which Beatle(s) sang lead vocals: // Across the Universe Aint She Sweet All Ive Got to Do All You Need Is Love And Your Bird Can Sing Anna (Go to Him) Any Time at... The following is a list of The Beatles record sales and worldwide chart figures: // During the week of April 4, 1964 The Beatles occupied the first five slots of the Billboard Hot 100, #1 - Cant Buy Me Love, #2 - Twist and Shout, #3 - She Loves You, #4 - I Want... The cover of Kum Back; the first ever Beatles bootleg album to hit the market. ...

Official CD catalogue

In 1987, EMI released all 12 of The Beatles' studio albums — as originally released in the UK — on CD worldwide. (North American releases were on EMI's American subsidiary Capitol Records). It was a considered decision by Apple Corps to standardise The Beatles catalogue throughout the world. Because there were tracks that had been released in the UK on singles and EPs that had not been released on the original UK albums, in order for all their recordings to be available on CD it was necessary to create three further CDs that would contain the missing tracks. The Beatles released twelve original albums, twelve EPs (featuring mostly otherwise available material), one double EP, and twenty-two singles (featuring mostly otherwise unavailable material) in eight years (1962-1970) in their native United Kingdom. ... CD may stand for: Compact Disc Canadian Forces Decoration Cash Dispenser (at least used in Japan) CD LPMud Driver Centrum-Demokraterne (Centre Democrats of Denmark) Certificate of Deposit ÄŒeské Dráhy (Czech Railways) Chad (NATO country code) Chalmers Datorförening (computer club of the Chalmers University of Technology) a 1960s... Capitol Records is a major United States-based record label, owned by EMI. // The Capitol Records company was founded by the songwriter Johnny Mercer in 1942, with the financial help of movie producer Buddy DeSylva and the business acumen of Glenn Wallichs, (1910-1971) (owner of Music City, at the...


One CD was of a 1967 US compilation album that featured the 6-track 1967 UK EP Magical Mystery Tour and the various singles released in that year. The other two CDs were new compilations that gathered together all the other singles, EP tracks and recordings from 1962–1970 that had not been issued on the original British studio albums.

According to EMI and the Guinness Book of Records, The Beatles have sold in excess of one billion units (1,010,000,000, including cassettes, records, CDs and bootlegs). Magical Mystery Tour is the name of the album and double EP by the English rock band the Beatles, first released in late 1967 (see 1967 in music). ... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ... Alternate cover Double LP sleeve The Capitol label of the Past Masters, Volume One LP. Note the small Parlophone logo on the left Past Masters, Volume One is a compilation album by the The Beatles released in 1988. ... March 7 is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... The Capitol label of the Past Masters, Volume Two LP. Note the small Parlophone logo on the left Past Masters, Volume Two is an compilation album by The Beatles released in 1988. ... March 7 is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... Guinness World Records 2007 edition. ...


Beginning in 2004, the US album configurations were released as a series of box sets from Capitol Records (The Capitol Albums, Volume 1 & Volume 2); these included both stereo and mono versions based on the mixes that were prepared for vinyl at the time of their original 1960s releases. The Capitol Albums, Volume 1 is a box set compilation comprised of The Beatles 1964 American Capitol Records releases. ... The Capitol Albums, Volume 2 is a box set compilation comprised of The Beatles 1965 American Capitol Records releases. ...


Song catalogue

Main article: Northern Songs

In 1963 Lennon and McCartney agreed to assign their song publishing rights to Northern Songs, a company created by music publisher Dick James. The company was administered by James' own company Dick James Music. Northern Songs went public in 1965, with Lennon and McCartney each holding 15% of the company's shares whilst Dick James and the company's chairman, Charles Silver, held a controlling 37.5%. In 1969, following a failed attempt by Lennon and McCartney to buy the company, James and Silver sold Northern Songs to British TV company Associated TeleVision (ATV), from which Lennon and McCartney received stock. Northern Songs Ltd. ... Northern Songs Ltd. ... Dick James (born Reginald Leon Vapnick, in 1920, in London died 2 January 1986) was the singer of the Robin Hood and The Buccaneers themes, from British television in the 1950s and was a friend and associate of renowned record producer George Martin. ... Dick James (died 1986) was the singer of the Robin Hood and The Buccaneers themes, from British television in the 1950s and was a friend of producer George Martin. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


In 1985, after a short period in which the parent company was owned by Australian business magnate Robert Holmes à Court, ATV Music was sold to Michael Jackson for a reported $47 million (trumping a joint bid by McCartney and Yoko Ono), including the publishing rights to over 200 songs composed by Lennon and McCartney. Michael Robert Hamilton Holmes à Court (July 27, 1937, Johannesburg, South Africa - September 2, 1990, Perth, Western Australia) was an entrepreneur who became Australias first billionaire before dying suddenly of a heart attack in 1990. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Michael Joseph Jackson (August 29, 1958), commonly known as MJ as well as the King of Pop, is an American musician, entertainer, and pop icon whose successful career and controversial personal life have been a part of pop culture for the last three decades. ... Yoko Ono Lennon (小野 洋子 Ono Yōko(ONO Yōko), born February 18, 1933) is a Japanese-American artist and musician. ...


A decade later Jackson and Sony merged its music publishing businesses. Since 1995, Jackson and Sony/ATV Music Publishing have jointly owned most of the Lennon-McCartney songs recorded by The Beatles. Sony later reported that Jackson had used his share of their co-owned Beatles' catalogue as collateral for a loan from the music company. Meanwhile, Lennon's estate and McCartney still receive their respective songwriter shares of the royalties. (Despite his ownership of most of the Lennon-McCartney publishing, Jackson has only recorded one Lennon-McCartney composition himself, "Come Together" which was featured in his film Moonwalker.) Sony Corporation ) is a Japanese multinational corporation and one of the worlds largest media conglomerates with revenue of $68. ... Sony/ATV Music Publishing LLC is one of the worlds largest music publishing firms. ... Music sample Come Together ( file info) Problems? See media help. ... For other uses, see moonwalk. ...


Although the Jackson-Sony catalogue includes most of The Beatles' greatest hits, four of their earliest songs had been published by one of EMI's publishing companies prior to Lennon and McCartney signing with Dick James — and McCartney later succeeded in personally acquiring the publishing rights to "Love Me Do", "Please Please Me", "P.S. I Love You" and "Ask Me Why" from EMI. The EMI Group (LSE: EMI) is a British music company comprising of the major record company EMI Music which operates several labels, based in Kensington in London, England, and EMI Music Publishing, based in New York. ... Love Me Do is an early Lennon-McCartney song, mainly written by Paul McCartney in 1961-2. ... Please Please Me is the first album recorded by The Beatles, rush-released on 22 March 1963 in the United Kingdom to capitalise on the success of singles Please Please Me (#1)[1] and Love Me Do (#17). ... P.S. I Love You is a Lennon-McCartney song recorded by the Beatles and released on October 5, 1962 as the B-side of their Love Me Do single. ... Ask Me Why is a song by The Beatles from their album Please Please Me. ...


Harrison and Starr did not renew their songwriting contracts with Northern Songs in 1968, signing with Apple Publishing instead. Harrison later created Harrisongs, which still owns the rights to his post-1967 songs such as "While My Guitar Gently Weeps" and "Something". Starr also created his own company, called Startling Music. It holds the rights to his two post-1967 songs recorded by The Beatles, "Don't Pass Me By" and "Octopus's Garden". Apple Records logo, featuring a Granny Smith apple. ... Harrisongs Ltd. ... While My Guitar Gently Weeps is a rock song by The Beatles from the double album The Beatles (also known as The White Album). ... Something is a single released by The Beatles in 1969, and featured on the album Abbey Road. ... Startling Music is a music publishing company, founded by musician Ringo Starr, drummer of The Beatles. ... Dont Pass Me By is a song by The Beatles from the double-disc album The Beatles (also known as the White Album). ... Octopuss Garden is a song written by Ringo Starr with some help from George Harrison, although it is credited solely to Starr. ...


The future of The Beatles catalogue

The Beatles are but a few of the major artists (aside from Led Zeppelin and Garth Brooks) who have not to date allowed their entire recorded catalogue to be available through major online music services (iTunes, Napster, etc.). This may be due to the massive royalty fees demanded by the group. As a result, The Beatles' music (both officially and unofficially released) has been made available through illegal music search engines such as eMule and BearShare, and have apparently raised the ire of the entire music industry. Led Zeppelin were an English rock band who formed in 1968. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article is about about the iTunes application. ... Second version (revised 2001) of Napster logo: Cat wearing headphones. ... BearShare is a peer-to-peer file sharing application originally created by Free Peers, Inc. ...


However, sure signs that official online distributions may be coming is the fact that the video for Tomorrow Never Knows/Within You Without You (the remix from their album Love) is currently being distributed (as of June, 2007) via Napster, and many Internet radio networks (such as Pandora Internet Radio and Live365.com) are allowing Beatles songs to be broadcast over the World Wide Web. Recently, occasional iTunes commercials have been shown for Paul McCartney's new Album, Memory Almost Full, where he is singing and dancing to the first song of the Album, Dance Tonight. There has been talk of negotiations to make such an official online distribution schedule possible. Officials at Apple Corps have hinted at this, as they have confirmed that the entire Beatles catalog has been digitally remastered for online distribution. Tomorrow Never Knows is the final track of The Beatles 1966 studio album Revolver, but it was the first to be recorded for the album. ... Within You Without You is a song written by George Harrison and recorded with a group of Indian musicians, without any input from his fellow Beatles. ... Love is a soundtrack compilation album by The Beatles released in November 2006. ... Live365 logo Live365 is an Internet radio network where members can create their own online radio station or listen to other Live365 broadcasters online stations. ...


On film

Main article: The Beatles on film

The Beatles appeared in several films, all of which featured associated soundtrack albums. The Beatles appeared in several films, most of which were very well received. ... Film may refer to: photographic film a motion picture in academics, the study of motion pictures as an art form a thin skin or membrane, or any covering or coating, whether transparent or opaque a thin layer of liquid, either on a solid or liquid surface or free-standing Film... A soundtrack album is any album that incorporates music from a particular feature film. ...


The band played themselves in two films directed by Richard Lester, A Hard Day's Night (1964) and Help! (1965). The group produced and starred in the hour-long television movie Magical Mystery Tour (1967), while the documentary Let It Be (released 1970) followed the recording sessions for the early 1969 Get Back project and winning the Academy Award in 1971 for Best Original Song Score. In addition, the psychedelic animated film Yellow Submarine (1968) followed the adventures of a cartoon version of the band; the members did not provide their own voices, appearing only in a brief live-action epilogue. Richard Lester (born January 19, 1932 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) is a UK based film director famous for his work with The Beatles. ... A Hard Days Night (1964) is a British comedy film originally released by United Artists, written by Alun Owen and starring The Beatles during the height of Beatlemania. ... Help! is the title of a 1965 film starring the Beatles and featuring Leo McKern, Eleanor Bron, Victor Spinetti, John Bluthal and Roy Kinnear. ... “Telefilm” redirects here. ... Magical Mystery Tour, starring The Beatles, is an hour-long television film that initially aired on BBC1 on Boxing Day in 1967. ... For the Taiwanese film whose foreign title translates to the same name, see 無米樂 Let It Be is a 1970 film about the Beatles rehearsing and recording songs for the album Let It Be in January 1969. ... Let It Be is the twelfth and final album by the Beatles, released on May 8, 1970 by the bands own Apple Records label. ... Although he never won an Oscar for any of his movie performances, the comedian Bob Hope received two honorary Oscars for his contributions to cinema. ... The bouncing ball animation (below) consists of these 6 frames. ... For the song, see Yellow Submarine (song). ...


Other projects

Anthology

Main article: The Beatles Anthology

The Beatles Anthology is the name of a documentary series, a series of three albums and a book, all of which focus on the history of the popular rock band the Beatles. ...

Love

To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ...

Instrumentation

Mod revivalist band The Jams Bruce Foxton (left) on a Rickenbacker bass and Paul Weller on a Rickenbacker guitar Rickenbacker International Corporation, also known as Rickenbacker (IPA pronunciation: ) [1]), is an electric guitar manufacturer, notable for having invented the first electric guitar during the 1930s. ... Gretsch is a U.S. musical instrument manufacturer currently being distributed by guitar company Fender and drum craft company Kaman. ... Epiphone Emperor The Epiphone Company is a guitar manufacturer. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... It has been suggested that Fender Amplifier History be merged into this article or section. ... C.F. Martin & Company (Martin) is a US guitar manufacturer that was established in 1833 by Christian Frederick Martin. ... Karl Höfner GmbH & Co. ... It has been suggested that Fender Amplifier History be merged into this article or section. ... Mod revivalist band The Jams Bruce Foxton (left) on a Rickenbacker bass and Paul Weller on a Rickenbacker guitar Rickenbacker International Corporation, also known as Rickenbacker (IPA pronunciation: ) [1]), is an electric guitar manufacturer, notable for having invented the first electric guitar during the 1930s. ... Vox is the Latin word for voice. ... It has been suggested that Fender Amplifier History be merged into this article or section. ... Selmer is a town located in McNairy County, Tennessee. ... Premier Percussion Limited is a Leicestershire-based manufacturer of drums and percussion instruments. ... Ludwig-Musser is a drum and percussion instrument manufacturer owned by Conn-Selmer, Inc. ... Zildjian is a surname of Armenian origin and means cymbalsmith. It is notable for being the name of two cymbal manufacturers: Avedis Zildjian Company K. Zildjian This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Steinway & Sons is a piano manufacturing firm, currently based in New York and Hamburg, Germany. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Vox is a musical equipment manufacturer formerly based in Britain, and now owned by Japanese electronics giants Korg, which is most famous for making the AC30 guitar amplifier and the Vox organ. ... A Rhodes piano is a musical instrument. ... The Rudolph Wurlitzer Company, usually referred to simply as Wurlitzer, is an American company, formerly a producer of stringed instruments, woodwind, brass instruments, theatre organs, band organs, orchestrions, electric pianos and jukeboxes. ... Hohner is a company specialising in the manufacture of musical instruments. ... A series of electric pianos built by the Hohner company of Trossingen, West Germany from the 1950s to the 1970s. ... The term Moog(pronounced // as in moan) synthesizer can refer to any number of analog synthesizers designed by Dr. Robert Moog or manufactured by Moog Music, and is commonly used as a generic term for analog and digital music synthesisers. ... The Mellotron is an electromechanical polyphonic keyboard musical instrument originally developed and built in Birmingham, England in the early 1960s. ... Georg Neumann GmbH (Neumann), founded in 1928 and based in Berlin, Germany, is a prominent manufacturer of professional recording microphones. ... AKG Acoustics (originally ) is an Austrian manufacturer of audio electronics and accessories for professional and consumer markets. ... Standard Telephones and Cables Ltd (later STC plc) was a British telephone, telegraph, radio, telecommunications and related equipment R&D manufacturer. ...

Notes

  1. ^ The Beatles touched upon and helped popularise many subgenres of rock and pop. They are too numerous to list here.
  2. ^ a b The Beatles: Biography. Rolling Stone. rollingstone.com. Retrieved on 2007-03-29.
  3. ^ The American Recording Industry Announces its Artists of the Century. Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) (1999-11-10). Retrieved on 2007-06-26.
  4. ^ Shelokhonov, Steve. The Beatles - Biography. IMDB.com. Retrieved on 2007-04-06.
  5. ^ The Immortals: The First Fifty. Rolling Stone Issue 946. Rolling Stone.
  6. ^ AMG biography Retrieved: 29 January 2007
  7. ^ Spitz 2005 p93
  8. ^ Ray O'Brien, There are Places I'll Remember: Volume 1, 2001
  9. ^ Miles 1998. p47.
  10. ^ Spitz 2005. pp126–127
  11. ^ Miles 1998. p50.
  12. ^ Cynthia Lennon – “John” 2006. p65.
  13. ^ Davies, Hunter. The Beatles (1981 edition)
  14. ^ Ray O'Brien – There Are Places I'll Remember: The "Beatles" Early Venues in and Around Merseyside London, 2001. p22.
  15. ^ Coleman, Ray (1984). Lennon: The Definitive Biography. Pan Books. p212.
  16. ^ Spitz 2005. pp188–193
  17. ^ Lewisohn, Mark (1992). The Complete Beatles Chronicle. Chancellor Press. ISBN 1-85152-975-6.
  18. ^ Coleman, Ray (1984). Lennon: The Definitive Biography. Pan Books. 213.
  19. ^ a b c Lewisohn, Mark (1996). The Complete Beatles Chronicle. Chancellor Press, 368. 1851529756. 
  20. ^ [From Blackjacks to Beatles: How the Fab Four Evolved. Retrieved on 2006-06-21. From Blackjacks to Beatles]Retrieved: 29 January 2007
  21. ^ Casbah ClubRetrieved: 29 January 2007
  22. ^ [1] Photos of Clubs in Hamburg]Retrieved: 29 January 2007
  23. ^ Cynthia Lennon “John” 2006. p93.
  24. ^ Lewisohn. p24.
  25. ^ Cynthia Lennon “John” 2006. p97.
  26. ^ Spitz 2005. p.250
  27. ^ Palowski, Gareth L. How They Became The Beatles. Plume. ISBN 978-0452265066
  28. ^ Lewisohn. p25
  29. ^ Miles 1998. p74. It was Astrid Kirchherr who shot the famous black and white headshots, but contrary to popular belief, did not invent the distinctive haircut of the group.
  30. ^ Cynthia Lennon “John” 2006. p109.
  31. ^ The Beatles. The Beatles Anthology. Chronicle Books, LLC, 2000.
  32. ^ Coleman 88–89
  33. ^ Coleman 93
  34. ^ Coleman 93–94
  35. ^ Davies, Hunter. The Beatles (1981 edition). pp. 178
  36. ^ a b Spitz 2005. p318
  37. ^ Spitz 2005. pp318-319
  38. ^ Spitz 2005. p322
  39. ^ Spitz 2005. p330
  40. ^ Spitz 2005. p328
  41. ^ Lu Walters' recording sessionRetrieved: 29 January 2007
  42. ^ Spitz 2005. p353
  43. ^ a b "Beatles History: 1962" at Beatles Discography. Retrieved: 29 January 2007
  44. ^ Love Me DoRetrieved: 29 January 2007
  45. ^ Bill Harry The Ultimate Beatles Encyclopedia P.516
  46. ^ JPGRRetrieved: 29 January 2007
  47. ^ The Beatles on Vee Jay Records. Retrieved on August 19, 2006. Retrieved: 29 January 2007
  48. ^ Spitz 2005. p461
  49. ^ JPGR I Want to Hold Your Hand releaseRetrieved: 29 January 2007
  50. ^ I Want to Hold Your HandRetrieved: 29 January 2007
  51. ^ Spitz 2005. p457
  52. ^ Spitz 2006. p458
  53. ^ Spitz 2005. p459
  54. ^ Spitz 2005. p462
  55. ^ Spitz 2005. p464
  56. ^ Spitz 2005. p473
  57. ^ Harry, Bill (2000). The Beatles Encyclopedia: Revised and Updated, 1134. 
  58. ^ Rare BeatlesRetrieved: 29 January 2007
  59. ^ Ficher, P. and Seamark, K. H. (2005). Vintage Adelaide. East Street Publications, 70–71. ISBN 1-921037-06-7. 
  60. ^ Beatles in New Zealand Retrieved: 11 July 2007
  61. ^ Spitz 2005. p556
  62. ^ Spitz 2005. p557
  63. ^ Napier ChroniclesRetrieved: 29 January 2007
  64. ^ The Beatles Off The Record. London:Omnibus Press p193. ISBN 0-7119-798-5-5
  65. ^ Allmusic Rubber Soul review. Retrieved on 2007-06-14.
  66. ^ Spitz 2005. p619
  67. ^ Spitz 2005. p620
  68. ^ Spitz 2005. p623
  69. ^ Spitz 2005. p624
  70. ^ Spitz 2005. p625
  71. ^ "The John Lennon I Knew" from the Telegraph, 5 October 2006. Retrieved: 29 January 2007
  72. ^ Cleave, Maureen (1966). "How Does a Beatle Live? John Lennon Lives Like This". London Evening Standard 4 March 1966. Retrieved: 29 January 2007
  73. ^ a b c Miles 1998. pp293-295.
  74. ^ Peter Guralnick, Careless Love: The Unmaking of Elvis Presley, 420.
  75. ^ Guralnick, Careless Love, p.426. On Presley badmouthing The Beatles to President Nixon, see also Geoffrey Giuliano and Vmda Devi, Glass Onion: The Beatles in Their Own Words-Exclusive Interviews With John, Paul, George, Ringo and Their Inner Circle (1999).
  76. ^ CNN.com Elvis is still everywhere August 16, 2002. [2]
  77. ^ Sounes, Howard, Down the Highway: The Life Of Bob Dylan (Doubleday 2001; ISBN 0-55299929-6) p 203
  78. ^ Barrow, Tony. John, Paul, George, Ringo & Me. ISBN 1-86200-238-X
  79. ^ Magical Mystery TourRetrieved: 29 January 2007
  80. ^ a b Miles 1998. p397
  81. ^ Spitz 2005. pp777–779.
  82. ^ Mark Lewisohn. The Beatles Box Set booklet
  83. ^ Spitz 2005. p853
  84. ^ The Beatles' partnership was legally dissolved in 1975bbc.co.uk - Retrieved: 26 January 2007
  85. ^ Hall of FameRetrieved: 29 January 2007
  86. ^ GeocitiesRetrieved: 29 January 2007
  87. ^ Miles 1998. pp280–281.
  88. ^ Miles 1998. p142
  89. ^ a b Miles 1998. pp66–67.
  90. ^ Miles 1998. p185
  91. ^ Miles 1998. pp188–189
  92. ^ Miles 1998. p198.
  93. ^ Independent.co.ukRetrieved: 29 January 2007
  94. ^ Paul McCartney’s arrest in JapanRetrieved: 29 January 2007
  95. ^ Miles 1998. p379
  96. ^ Beatles in Bangor bbc.co.uk 16 November, 2006. Retrieved: 29 January 2007
  97. ^ Miles 1998. p396
  98. ^ LP version originally released in the United States on 27 November 1967.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... March 29 is the 88th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (89th in leap years). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Hunter Davies (born 7 January 1936) is a prolific British author, journalist and broadcaster, best known for his books about The Beatles. ... 1961 Pan Books edition of Ian Flemings James Bond novel Goldfinger is an example of the type of publication for which Pan Books became popular. ... 1961 Pan Books edition of Ian Flemings James Bond novel Goldfinger is an example of the type of publication for which Pan Books became popular. ... Mark Lewisohn (born 1958) is one of the worlds foremost experts on The Beatles. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Hunter Davies (born 7 January 1936) is a prolific British author, journalist and broadcaster, best known for his books about The Beatles. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... June 14 is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Headlines of the Evening Standard on the day of London bombing on July 7, 2005, in Waterloo Station The Evening Standard is a British tabloid newspaper published and sold in London and surrounding areas of southeast England. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... Mark Lewisohn (born 1958) is one of the worlds foremost experts on The Beatles. ... The Beatles Box Set was the first complete set of original Beatles material released by EMI and Capitol in digital format. ... is the 331st day of the year (332nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (the link is to a full 1967 calendar). ...

References

Hunter Davies (born 7 January 1936) is a prolific British author, journalist and broadcaster, best known for his books about The Beatles. ... The McGraw-Hill Companies logo. ... Cynthia Lillian Lennon née Powell (born September 10, 1939) in Blackpool, Lancashire, England. ... Hodder & Stoughton is a British publishing house, now an imprint of Hodder Headline. ... Mark Lewisohn (born 1958) is one of the worlds foremost experts on The Beatles. ... Barry Miles (commonly known as, and called, simply Miles) is an author who has written biographies of Paul McCartney, William Burroughs and Allen Ginsberg as well as books about John Lennon, the Beatles and Frank Zappa. ... Many Years From Now, is the official biography of Sir Paul McCartney, by Barry Miles. ... Vintage Books was founded in 1954 by Alfred A. Knopf as a trade paperback home for its authors. ... Random House is a publishing division of the German media conglomerate Bertelsmann based in New York City. ...

Further reading

  • Astley, John (2006). Why Don't We Do It In The Road? The Beatles Phenomenon. The Company of Writers. ISBN 0-9551834-7-2. 
  • Bramwell, Tony (2005). Magical Mystery Tours. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-33043-X. 
  • Braun, Michael (1964 [1995 Reprint]). Love Me Do: The Beatles' Progress. London: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-002278-3. 
  • Carr, Roy & Tyler, Tony (1975). The Beatles: An Illustrated Record. Harmony Books. ISBN 0-517-52045-1. 
  • Colonna, Roberto (2005). Dalla prospettiva degli scarafaggi. Napolipiù - La verità. 
  • Cross, Craig (2005). The Beatles: Day by Day, Song by Song, Record by Record. iUniverse, Inc. ISBN 0-595-34663-4. 
  • Dimery, Martin. Being John Lennon. SAF books, 2002. ISBN 0-946719-43-8.
  • Emerick, Geoff, & Massey, Howard Chiu (2006). Here, There and Everywhere: My Life Recording the Music of The Beatles. Gotham Books. ISBN 1-59240-179-1. 
  • Goldsmith, Martin (2004). The Beatles Come To America. Turning Points. ISBN 0-471-46964-5. 
  • Astrid Kirchherr & Klaus Voormann. Hamburg Days. Genesis Publications, 1999. ISBN 0-904351-73-4. [Chronicals The Beatles early years spent performing at Hamburg's Kaiserkeller, Top Ten Club, and the Star Club, 1960-1962. With Foreword by George Harrison and Afterword by Paul McCartney.]
  • Kubernik, Ken (October 16, 2005). Here, There & Everywhere. Variety Magazine's 100 Icons of the Century. Variety Magazine. Retrieved on January 28, 2006.
  • Lewis, Martin (October 16, 2005). The Apollonian Spirit of the Beatles. Variety Magazine's 100 Icons of the Century. Variety Magazine. Retrieved on January 28, 2006.
  • MacDonald, Ian (1995). Revolution in the Head: The Beatles' Records and the Sixties. Vintage. ISBN 0-7126-6697-4. 
  • Martin, George (1994). Summer of love: The Making of Sgt. Pepper. Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-60398-2. 
  • Norman, Philip (1997). Shout: The Beatles in Their Generation. MJF Books. ISBN 1-56731-087-7. 
  • Alan J. Porter Before They Were Beatles: The Early Years 1956–1960. Xlibris. ISBN 1-4134-3056-2.
  • Ryan, Kevin, and Brian Kehew. Recording The Beatles: The Studio Equipment and Techniques Used to Create Their Classic Albums. Houston: Curvebender Publishing, 2006. ISBN 0-9785200-0-9.
  • Schaffner, Nicholas (1977). The Beatles Forever. Cameron House. ISBN 0-8117-0225-1. 
  • Spitz, Bob (2005). The Beatles: The Biography. Little Brown. ISBN 0-316-80352-9. 
  • Turner, Steve. A Hard Day's Write. 3rd ed. New York: Harper Paperbacks, 2005. ISBN 0-06-084409-4. [Discusses the inspiration for or interprets every Beatles song.]

Headquartered in the legendary Flatiron Building in New York City, St. ... Penguin Books is a British publisher founded in 1935 by Allen Lane. ... Engineer Geoff Emerick. ... Astrid Kirchherr (born 20 May 1938) is a German photographer and artist, and is well-known for her association with The Beatles (along with her friends Klaus Voorman and Jürgen Vollmer) and her photographs of The Beatles while they were in Hamburg. ... Klaus Voormann (born 29 April 1938) is a German artist, musician, and record producer who was associated with the early days of The Beatles in Hamburg and later designed the cover of their album Revolver. ... Genesis Publications is a british publishing company specialized in art books of pop and rock ans rolls artists photos. ... George Harrison, MBE (25 February 1943[1][2] – 29 November 2001[3]) was an Academy Award and Grammy Award-winning English rock guitarist, singer, songwriter, author and sitarist best known as the lead guitarist of The Beatles. ... Sir James Paul McCartney, MBE (born 18 June 1942) is an Academy Award- and Grammy Award-winning English singer, songwriter and multi-instrumentalist who first gained worldwide fame as one of the founding members of The Beatles. ... October 16 is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years). ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Variety is a daily magazine for the entertainment industry. ... October 16 is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years). ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Variety is a daily magazine for the entertainment industry. ... Ian MacCormick (October 3, 1948 – August 20, 2003), who wrote under the pseudonym Ian MacDonald, was a British music critic and author, best known for his detailed history of The Beatles. ... Alan J. Porter (born in Sale, Greater Manchester, UK in October 1959, now resident in central Texas) is the founder and president of the 4Js Group a corporate publishing services and consulting company based in Austin texas; he is also a writer on various aspects of popular culture with... Brian Kehew is a Los Angeles-based musician and music producer. ...

See also

The Beatles Portal

Image File history File links Portal. ... This is a list of the line-ups of The Beatles and the individual members bands. ... The Beatles London This article looks at the history behind some of the London landmarks famously associated with the Beatles for example the Abbey Road Studios & crossing etc The famous Abbey Road Zebra crossing Abbey Road Studios The Beatles first came to the Abbey Road studios on June 6th... The Beatles influenced the way music was recorded in several ways. ... The Beatles influence on rock music and popular culture was—and remains—immense. ... Both Lennon and Harrison used the Gibson J160E, an acoustic guitar with an electric pickup at the base of the fretboard. ... The Rutles are a parody of The Beatles, jointly created by Eric Idle and Neil Innes. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is a sister project of Wikipedia, using the same MediaWiki software. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... John Winston Ono Lennon, MBE (October 9, 1940 – December 8, 1980), (born John Winston Lennon, known as John Ono Lennon) was an iconic English 20th century rock and roll songwriter and singer, best known as the founding member of The Beatles. ... Sir James Paul McCartney, MBE (born 18 June 1942) is an Academy Award- and Grammy Award-winning English singer, songwriter and multi-instrumentalist who first gained worldwide fame as one of the founding members of The Beatles. ... George Harrison, MBE (25 February 1943[1][2] – 29 November 2001[3]) was an Academy Award and Grammy Award-winning English rock guitarist, singer, songwriter, author and sitarist best known as the lead guitarist of The Beatles. ... Richard Starkey, MBE (born 7 July 1940), known by his stage name Ringo Starr, is an Academy Award and Grammy Award-winning English musician, singer and actor, best known as the drummer of The Beatles. ... The Beatles, early 1962: (L-R) Pete, George, Paul and John. ... Stuart Fergusson Victor Sutcliffe (23 June 1940 – 10 April 1962) was a British musician and artist who, until his early death, worked in a style related to Abstract Expressionism. ... Former Liverpool businessman and promoter; original manager of The Beatles, who sent the young band to Hamburg, Germany, where they gained vital show business experience. ... Brian Samuel Epstein, born in Liverpool, Lancashire, England (19 September 1934 – 27 August 1967), was an English businessman best known as the manager of The Beatles. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Lee Eastman (12 January 1910 - 30 July 1991) was a New York show business attorney, the son of Louis and Della (Freyer) Epstein. ... Neil Aspinall (born in Prestatyn, North Wales, October 13, 1942) was the road manager and personal assistant for the Beatles. ... Malcolm Mal Evans (27 May 1935 – 5 January 1976). ... Alistair Taylor is the personal assistant of Brian Epstein. ... Apple Records logo, featuring a Granny Smith apple. ... Sir George Henry Martin CBE (born 3 January 1926 in Highbury, London, England) is sometimes referred to as the fifth Beatle—a title that he owes to his work as producer of almost all of The Beatles records. ... Engineer Geoff Emerick. ... Norman Smith is a musician and record producer. ... Ken Scott (born April 20, 1947 in London) is an influential English record producer and engineer. ... Harvey Philip Spector (born December 26, 1939) is an American musician, songwriter, and record producer. ... Jeff Lynne (born December 30, 1947) is a Grammy Award-winning English rock songwriter, singer, guitarist and record producer. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Beatles released twelve original albums, twelve EPs (featuring mostly otherwise available material), one double EP, and twenty-two singles (featuring mostly otherwise unavailable material) in eight years (1962-1970) in their native United Kingdom. ... Please Please Me is the first album recorded by The Beatles, rush-released on 22 March 1963 in the United Kingdom to capitalise on the success of singles Please Please Me (#1)[1] and Love Me Do (#17). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A Hard Days Night by the Beatles (side 1) - Parlophone yellow and black label A Hard Days Night is the third album by The Beatles, released in the UK on 10 July 1964 as the soundtrack to their first film of the same name. ... Beatles for sale by The Beatles (side 1) - Parlophone yellow and black label. ... Help! is the fifth album released by The Beatles, the soundtrack album from their film Help!. Produced by George Martin for EMI Records, the album (in its original British form) contains seven songs that appeared in the movie of the same name, and seven that did not, including the most... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Back cover The back cover of the original 1966 UK LP. The main photo was edited in separate parts for the booklet of the 1988 compact disc release. ... Back cover The back cover of the original 1967 UK LP. This release featured (for the first time on a Beatles album) complete lyrics. ... Magical Mystery Tour is the name of the album and double EP by the English rock band the Beatles, first released in late 1967 (see 1967 in music). ... The Beatles U.S. chronology The Beatles is the ninth official album by The Beatles, a double album released in 1968 (see 1968 in music). ... Yellow Submarine is the eleventh album released by The Beatles. ... Back cover The back cover of the original 1969 UK LP. Note that Her Majesty is not listed, unlike later reissues and the compact disc version - originaly making it a hidden track. ... Let It Be is the twelfth and final album by the Beatles, released on May 8, 1970 by the bands own Apple Records label. ... For the Dire Straits album, see Live at the BBC (Dire Straits album). ... The Beatles Anthology is the name of a documentary series, a series of three albums and a book, all of which focus on the history of the popular rock band the Beatles. ... Let It Be… Naked is a remastered and remixed version of the original session tapes from the 1970 Let It Be album by The Beatles, first released in November 2003 (see 2003 in music). ... Love is a soundtrack compilation album by The Beatles released in November 2006. ... This article or section includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... This article or section includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Alternate cover Double LP sleeve The Capitol label of the Past Masters, Volume One LP. Note the small Parlophone logo on the left Past Masters, Volume One is a compilation album by the The Beatles released in 1988. ... The Capitol label of the Past Masters, Volume Two LP. Note the small Parlophone logo on the left Past Masters, Volume Two is an compilation album by The Beatles released in 1988. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A Hard Days Night (1964) is a British comedy film originally released by United Artists, written by Alun Owen and starring The Beatles during the height of Beatlemania. ... Help! is the title of a 1965 film starring the Beatles and featuring Leo McKern, Eleanor Bron, Victor Spinetti, John Bluthal and Roy Kinnear. ... Magical Mystery Tour, starring The Beatles, is an hour-long television film that initially aired on BBC1 on Boxing Day in 1967. ... For the song, see Yellow Submarine (song). ... For the Taiwanese film whose foreign title translates to the same name, see 無米樂 Let It Be is a 1970 film about the Beatles rehearsing and recording songs for the album Let It Be in January 1969. ... This is a list of the line-ups of The Beatles and the individual members bands. ... The cover of Kum Back; the first ever Beatles bootleg album to hit the market. ... The Beatles released twelve original albums, twelve EPs (featuring mostly otherwise available material), one double EP, and twenty-two singles (featuring mostly otherwise unavailable material) in eight years (1962-1970) in their native United Kingdom. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... The songwriting credit Lennon/McCartney appears on all Beatles songs that were written by John Lennon and/or Paul McCartney without the aid of the other two Beatles, George Harrison and Ringo Starr. ... The Beatles influence on rock music and popular culture was—and remains—immense. ... Modern Beatle boot replica. ... The Quarry Men (sometimes Quarrymen) were a little-known skiffle group formed around Liverpool, England in March 1957 by John Lennon. ... The Beatles were one of the most influential rock groups in history. ... The Beatles London This article looks at the history behind some of the London landmarks famously associated with the Beatles for example the Abbey Road Studios & crossing etc The famous Abbey Road Zebra crossing Abbey Road Studios The Beatles first came to the Abbey Road studios on June 6th... The Beatles arrival at Americas JFK Airport in 1964 has proved a particularly enduring image of Beatlemania. ... The Fifth Beatle is an informal title that numerous commentators in the press and entertainment industry have applied to several people who were at one point a member of The Beatles, or who had a strong association with the Fab Four other than John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison, and... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Beatles is an American animated television series featuring the fanciful and musical misadventures of the extraordinarily popular British rock band. ... The appearance of The Beatles on The Ed Sullivan Show, February 9, 1964, was the breakthrough moment of the burgeoning British Invasion. ... Apple Records logo, featuring a Granny Smith apple. ... Northern Songs Ltd. ... Yoko Ono Lennon (小野 洋子 Ono Yōko(ONO Yōko), born February 18, 1933) is a Japanese-American artist and musician. ... Linda Louise, Lady McCartney (September 24, 1941 – April 17, 1998) was an American photographer, musician, and animal rights activist. ... William Everett Preston (September 2, 1946 – June 6, 2006) was an American soul musician from Houston, Texas, raised mostly in Los Angeles, California. ... Tony Sheridan (born Andrew Esmond Sheridan McGinnity on May 21, 1940), is an English rock and roll singer-songwriter and guitarist. ... Chas Newby was temporarily the bassist for The Beatles in December of 1960, following the departure of Stuart Sutcliffe. ... Andy White (born 1930 in Scotland) is a drummer, best known for playing drums on some of the recordings of the Beatles first single, Love Me Do. White was a studio drummer in the 1950s and 1960sin London, recording with artists like Billy Fury, Marlene Dietrich, Hermans Hermits and... James George Nicol, known as Jimmie Nicol or Jimmy Nicol, is an English musician born August 3, 1939. ... Astrid Kirchherr (born 20 May 1938) is a German photographer and artist, and is well-known for her association with The Beatles (along with her friends Klaus Voorman and Jürgen Vollmer) and her photographs of The Beatles while they were in Hamburg. ... Klaus Voormann (born 29 April 1938) is a German artist, musician, and record producer who was associated with the early days of The Beatles in Hamburg and later designed the cover of their album Revolver. ...


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The Beatles MP3 Downloads - The Beatles Music Downloads - The Beatles Music Videos (9087 words)
Relentlessly imaginative and experimental, the Beatles grabbed a hold of the international mass consciousness in 1964 and never let go for the next six years, always staying ahead of the pack in terms of creativity but never losing their ability to communicate their increasingly sophisticated ideas to a mass audience.
The Beatles hadn't fully developed at this point, and these recordings -- many of which (including a couple of Sheridan-less tracks) were issued only after the band's rise to fame -- found their talents in a most embryonic state.
When the Beatles premiered their hippie anthem "All You Need Is Love" as part of a worldwide TV broadcast, they had been truly anointed as spokespersons for their generation (a role they had not actively sought), and it seemed they could do no wrong.
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