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Encyclopedia > The Bass
The Bass Rock from North Berwick.
The Bass Rock from North Berwick.
The Bass Rock from Tantallon Castle
The Bass Rock from Tantallon Castle

The Bass Rock (56°4′31″N, 2°38′21″W), more correctly simply The Bass [1], is an island in the outer part of the Firth of Forth in the east of Scotland, approximately one mile off North Berwick. Personal photograph taken by Mick Knapton in August 2004 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Personal photograph taken by Mick Knapton in August 2004 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2580x1932, 615 KB) Summary Taken by myself, Hellinterface 2005. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2580x1932, 615 KB) Summary Taken by myself, Hellinterface 2005. ... Tantallon Castle is located 3 miles east of North Berwick in Scotland. ... The Firth of Forth from Calton Hill The Forth Bridges cross the Firth Satellite photo of the Firth and the surrounding area The Firth of Forth (Abhainn Dhubh [Black River] in Scottish Gaelic) is the estuary or firth of Scotlands River Forth, where it flows into the North Sea... Motto: (Latin for No one provokes me with impunity)1 Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official language(s) English, Gaelic, Scots 2 Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister of the UK Tony Blair MP  - First Minister Jack McConnell MSP Unification    - by Kenneth I... North Berwick is a small Scottish seaside town in East Lothian, on the south shore of the Firth of Forth, about 25 miles east of Edinburgh. ...


The island is a volcanic plug and stands over 100 m high in the Firth of Forth Islands Special Protection Area which covers some, but not all of the islands in the inner and outer Firth. The Bass Rock is a Site of Special Scientific Interest in its own right, due to its Gannet colony. It is sometimes called "the Ailsa Craig of the East". It is of a similar geological form to nearby North Berwick Law, a hill on the mainland. This article is about volcanoes in geology. ... A Special Protection Area or SPA is a designation under the European Commission Directive on the Conservation of Wild Birds (79/409/EEC). ... A Site of Special Scientific Interest or SSSI is a conservation designation denoting a protected area in the United Kingdom. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... This article is about Ailsa Craig, a Scottish island. ... North Berwick Law is a conical hill which rises incongruously from the surrounding landscape (indeed, this is the definition of the Scots word law). It overlooks East Lothian town of North Berwick and stands at 613 ft (187 m) above sea level. ...


It plays host to at least 40,000 pairs of Gannets and is the largest single rock gannetry in the world so that, when viewed from the mainland, large regions of the surface appear white due to the sheer number of birds (and their droppings). In fact the scientific name for the Northern Gannet, Sula bassana or Morus bassanus, derives its name from the rock. They were traditionally known locally as 'Solan Goose', and were harvested for their eggs and flesh which were considered delicacies. Binomial name Morus bassanus Linnaeus, 1758 Northern Gannet range The Northern Gannet (Morus bassanus, formerly Sula bassana) is a large seabird of the gannet family, Sulidae. ...

Contents

History

The Lauder Family

Historically the home of the Lauder of The Bass family (from whom Sir Harry Lauder is descended), who are the earliest recorded proprietors, the island is said to have been a gift from King Máel Coluim III of Scotland. Their crest is, appropriately, a Gannet standing upon a rock. Sir Harry Lauder, KBE (4 August 1870 - 26 February 1950) was a very famous Scottish entertainer, described by Sir Winston Churchill as Scotlands greatest ever ambassador! // Early Years Born Henry Lauder at 4 Bridge Street Portobello, the residence of his mother’s father, he was the eldest son of... Máel Coluim mac Donnchada (anglicised Malcolm III) (1030x1038–13 November 1093) was King of Scots. ...


The family had from an early date a castle on the island. Sir Robert de Lawedre is mentioned by Blind Harry as a compatriot of William Wallace, and Alexander Nisbet recorded his tombstone in 1718, in the floor of the old kirk in North Berwick: "here lies Sir Robert de Lawedre, great laird of The Bass, who died May 1311". Five years later his son received that part of the island which until then had been retained by The Church because it contained the holy cell of Saint Baldred. A century on Wyntown's Cronykil relates: "In 1406 King Robert III, apprehensive of danger to his son James (afterwards James I) from the Duke of Albany, placed the youthful prince in the safe-custody of Sir Robert Lauder in his secure castle on The Bass prior to an embarkation for safer parts on the continent." Subsequently, says Tytler, "Sir Robert Lauder of The Bass was one of the few people whom King James I admitted to his confidence." In 1424 Sir Robert Lauder of The Bass, with 18 men, had a safe-conduct with a host of other noblemen, as a hostage for James I at Durham. J J Reid also mentions that "in 1424 when King James I returned from his long captivity in England, he at once consigned to the castle of The Bass, Walter Stewart, the eldest son of Murdoc, Duke of Albany, his cousin. The person who received the payments for the prisoner's support was Sir Robert Lauder", whom Tytler further describes as "a firm friend of the King". Blind Harry (ca. ... William Wallace Sir William Wallace (c. ... North Berwick is a small Scottish seaside town in East Lothian, on the south shore of the Firth of Forth, about 25 miles east of Edinburgh. ... Events Construction of Forbidden City begins in Beijing. ... Robert III (c. ... See James VI of Scotland and I of England James I of Scotland James I of Aragon James I of Sicily James I of Cyprus This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Statistics Population: 42,939 (2001) Ordnance Survey OS grid reference: NZ274424 Administration District: City of Durham Shire county: Durham Region: North East England Constituent country: England Sovereign state: United Kingdom Other Ceremonial county: Durham Historic county: Durham Services Police force: County Durham Ambulance service: North East Post office and telephone...


In 1497 King James IV visited the Bass and stayed in the castle with a later Sir Robert Lauder of The Bass (d.bef Feb 1508). The boatmen who conveyed the King from Dunbar were paid 14 shillings. James IV (March 17, 1473 - September 9, 1513) was king of Scotland from 1488 to 1513. ... SIR ROBERT LAUDER OF THE BASS, (born before 1440 - died before February 1508), Knight, Scottish Governor of the Castle at Berwick-upon-Tweed, he held the feudal barony of The Bass, (the caput of which was the castle on the Bass Rock), East Lothian, Edrington Castle and lands in the... View towards Belhaven Bay (John Muir Country Park) with North Berwick Law and the Bass Rock in the distance. ...


The family lost The Bass during Cromwell's invasion, and the castle subsequently (in 1671) became a notorious gaol for many decades where many religious and political prisoners including Prophet Peden were sent. John Blackadder, the best known of the Covenanting martyrs, died on the Bass in 1686. He is buried at North Berwick, where a United Free Church was named after him. Map of Scotland The Scottish Civil War The Scottish Civil War of 1644-47 was part of wider conflict known as the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, which included the Bishops Wars, the English Civil War and Irish Confederate Wars. ... Events May 9 - Thomas Blood, disguised as a clergyman, attempts to steal the Crown Jewels from the Tower of London. ... The word Gaol can refer to the following: Gaol American/British English jail, Early Modern English spelling, though this spelling is seldom used today, it is still considered the official spelling in Australian English. ... Pedens mask and wig Alexander Peden also known as Prophet Peden (1626–26 January 1686) was one of the leading forces in the Covenant movement, was born at Auchincloich Farm near Sorn, Ayrshire, about 1626, and was educated at the University of Glasgow. ... The Covenanters, named after the Solemn League and Covenant, were a party that, originating in the Reformation movement, played an important part in the history of Scotland, and to a lesser extent in that of England, during the 17th century. ... Events The League of Augsburg is founded. ... ‹ The template below has been proposed for deletion. ...


Buildings & Structures

Not far above the landing-place the slope is crossed by a curtain wall, which naturally follows the lie of the ground, having sundry projections and round bastions where a rocky projection offers a suitable foundation. The parapets are battlemented, with the usual walk along the top of the walls. Another curtain wall at right-angles runs down to the sea close to the landing-place, ending in a ruined round tower, whose vaulted base has poorly splayed and apparently rather unskilfully constructed embrasures. The entrance passes through this outwork wall close to where it joins the other. Glass curtain wall of the Bauhaus Dessau. ... Categories: Stub | Fortification ... A parapet consists of a dwarf wall along the edge of a roof, or round a lead flat, terrace walk, etc. ... A battlement, in defensive architecture such as that of city walls or castles, comprises a parapet (i. ... Categories: Fortification | Architectural elements | Stub ...


The main defences are entered a little farther on in the same line, through a projecting two-story building which has some fireplaces with very simple and late mouldings. The buildings are of the local basalt, and the masonry is rough rubble; there are, as is so frequently the case, no very clear indications for dating the different parts, which were in all probability erected at different times. Basalt Columnar basalt at Sheepeater Cliff in Yellowstone Basalt (IPA: ) is a common gray to black volcanic rock. ...


A little beyond the entrance there is a tower that formed a simple bastion and to which has been added a gabled chamber in the 17th century, which, though of restricted dimensions, must have been comfortable enough, with blue Dutch tiles round its moulded fireplace, now very much decayed. (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ...


During the 16th and 17th centuries there was sufficient grass present for 100 sheep to graze. Strangely, the freshwater well was right at the top of the island, where today the foghorn is situated. For the village on the Isle of Wight, see Freshwater, Isle of Wight. ... Cable tool water well drilling rig in Kimball, West Virginia. ... Foghorns near Lizard Point, Cornwall Foghorns are a navigation aid for mariners. ...


Half-way up the island stands the ruin of St Baldred's Chapel, which is sited upon a cell or cave in which this Scottish Saint spent some time. Although the Lauders held most of the Bass Rock, this part of it had remained in the ownership of The Church until 1316 when it was granted to the family. The chapel appears to have been rebuilt by the Lauder family several times. A Papal Bull dated May 6, 1493, refers to the Parish Church of the Bass, or the Chapel of St Baldred, being "noviter erecta" at that time. On the January 5, 1542 we find John Lauder, son of Sir Robert Lauder of The Bass, Knt., as "the Cardinal's Secretary" representing Cardinal David Beaton at a reconsecration of the restored and ancient St. Baldred's chapel on The Bass. In 1576 it is recorded that the Church on the Bass, and that at Auldhame (on the mainland), required no readers, doubtless something to do with the Reformation. Papal bull of Pope Urban VIII, 1637, sealed with a leaden bulla. ... May 6 is the 126th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (127th in leap years). ... 1493 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A parish church is the church which acts as the religious centre of a parish, the basic administrative unit of episcopal churches. ... January 5 is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events War resumes between Francis I of France and Emperor Charles V. This time Henry VIII of England is allied to the Emperor, while James V of Scotland and Sultan Suleiman I are allied to the French. ... John Lauder (born c1488, died between 1551 - 1556) was Scotlands Public Accuser of Heretics. ... SIR ROBERT LAUDER OF THE BASS, (born before 1440 - died before February 1508), Knight, Scottish Governor of the Castle at Berwick-upon-Tweed, he held the feudal barony of The Bass, (the caput of which was the castle on the Bass Rock), East Lothian, Edrington Castle and lands in the... Cardinal David Beaton Archbishop David Cardinal Beaton (c. ... Events May 5 - Peace of Beaulieu or Peace of Monsieur (after Monsieur, the Duc dAnjou, brother of the King, who negotiated it). ... Auldhame and Scoughall are hamlets in East Lothian, Scotland. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ...


It is also home to a 20 metre lighthouse, built in 1902 by David Stevenson, who demolished the 13th century keep, or governor's house, and some other buildings within the castle for the stone. It has been unmanned since 1988. The Peggys Point lighthouse in Nova Scotia, Canada An aid for navigation and pilotage at sea, a lighthouse is a tower building or framework sending out light from a system of lamps and lenses or, in older times, from a fire. ... 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... David Alan Stevenson (born 1854, Edinburgh; died 1938) was a lighthouse engineer who built twenty six lighthouses in and around Scotland. ... 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


References

  • The Bass Rock by M'Crie, Miller, Anderson, Fleming, and Balfour, Edinburgh, 1847.
  • The History of Scotland, by Patrick Fraser Tytler, Edinburgh, 1866, vol.III, pps:187 -190.)
  • The Bass - Early notices by John J. Reid, in Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, 1885.
  • Calendar of Documents relating to Scotland 1357 - 1509, edited by Joseph Bain, F.S.A.,(Scot), Edinburgh, 1888, vol. iv, number 942, 3rd February, 1424.
  • North Berwick, Gullane, Aberlady and East Linton District, by R.P.Phillimore, North Berwick, 1913, p.40.
  • The Berwick and Lothian Coasts by Ian C. Hannah, London & Leipzig, 1913.
  • The Bass Rock in History in Transactions of the East Lothian Antiquarian & Field Naturalists' Society, 5th vol., 1948.
  • The Lauders of The Bass by G.M.S.Lauder-Frost, F.S.A.,(Scot), in East Lothian Life, Autumn 1996, issue 22, ISSN 1361-7818

Patrick Fraser Tytler (August 30, 1791 - December 14, 1849) Scottish historian, son of Lord Woodhouselee, was born at Edinburgh. ... The Society of Antiquaries of Scotland is an archaeological learned society formed for the purpose of studying the history of Scotland. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ...

External links


Islands of the Forth
Bass Rock | Craigleith | Cramond Island | Eyebroughy | Fidra | Inchcolm | Inchgarvie | Inchkeith | Inchmickery | The Lamb | Isle of May |

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