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Encyclopedia > Thallium
81 mercurythalliumlead
In

Tl

Uut
General
Name, Symbol, Number thallium, Tl, 81
Chemical series poor metals
Group, Period, Block 13, 6, p
Appearance silvery white
Standard atomic weight 204.3833(2) g·mol−1
Electron configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p1
Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 3
Physical properties
Phase solid
Density (near r.t.) 11.85 g·cm−3
Liquid density at m.p. 11.22 g·cm−3
Melting point 577 K
(304 °C, 579 °F)
Boiling point 1746 K
(1473 °C, 2683 °F)
Heat of fusion 4.14 kJ·mol−1
Heat of vaporization 165 kJ·mol−1
Heat capacity (25 °C) 26.32 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure
P(Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T(K) 882 977 1097 1252 1461 1758
Atomic properties
Crystal structure hexagonal
Oxidation states 3, 1
(mildly basic oxide)
Electronegativity 1.62 (scale Pauling)
Ionization energies 1st: 589.4 kJ/mol
2nd: 1971 kJ/mol
3rd: 2878 kJ/mol
Atomic radius 190 pm
Atomic radius (calc.) 156 pm
Covalent radius 148 pm
Van der Waals radius 196 pm
Miscellaneous
Magnetic ordering  ???
Electrical resistivity (20 °C) 0.18 µ Ω·m
Thermal conductivity (300 K) 46.1 W·m−1·K−1
Thermal expansion (25 °C) 29.9 µm·m−1·K−1
Speed of sound (thin rod) (20 °C) 818 m/s
Young's modulus 8 GPa
Shear modulus 2.8 GPa
Bulk modulus 43 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.45
Mohs hardness 1.2
Brinell hardness 26.4 MPa
CAS registry number 7440-28-0
Selected isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of thallium
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
203Tl 29.524% Tl is stable with 122 neutrons
204Tl syn 119 Ms
(3.78 y)
β- 0.764 204Pb
ε 0.347 204Hg
205Tl 70.476% Tl is stable with 124 neutrons
References

Thallium (IPA: /ˈθaliəm/) is a chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol Tl and atomic number 81.[1] This soft gray malleable poor metal resembles tin but discolors when exposed to air. Thallium is highly toxic and is used in rat poisons and insecticides but since it might also cause cancer (although the United States EPA does not class it as carcinogen), this use has been cut back or eliminated in many countries. It is also used in infrared detectors.[2] It has even been used in some murders, earning the nicknames "The Poisoner's Poison" and "Inheritance powder" (alongside arsenic). General Name, Symbol, Number mercury, Hg, 80 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 6, d Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight 200. ... This article is about the metal. ... General Name, Symbol, Number indium, In, 49 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous gray Standard atomic weight 114. ... General Name, Symbol, Number ununtrium, Uut, 113 Chemical series presumably poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 7, p Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (284) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p1 (guess based on thallium) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32... See Image:Tl-TableImage-BIG.png. ... This is a standard display of the periodic table of the elements. ... An extended periodic table was suggested by Glenn T. Seaborg in 1969. ... This is a list of chemical elements, sorted by name and color coded according to type of element. ... A table of chemical elements ordered by atomic number and color coded according to type of element. ... A group, also known as a family, is a vertical column in the periodic table of the chemical elements. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... A group, also known as a family, is a vertical column in the periodic table of the chemical elements. ... In the periodic table of the elements, a period is a horizontal row of the table. ... A block of the periodic table of elements is a set of adjacent groups. ... The Boron group is periodic table group 13 (IUPAC style) in the periodic table. ... A period 6 element is one of the chemical elements in the sixth row (or period) of the periodic table of the elements, including the Lanthanides. ... The p-block of the periodic table of elements consists of the last six groups. ... Color is an important part of the visual arts. ... Thallium sample. ... The atomic mass (ma) is the mass of an atom at rest, most often expressed in unified atomic mass units. ... To help compare different orders of magnitude we list here masses between 60. ... Hydrogen = 1 List of Elements in Atomic Number Order. ... Electron atomic and molecular orbitals In atomic physics and quantum chemistry, the electron configuration is the arrangement of electrons in an atom, molecule, or other physical structure (, a crystal). ... General Name, Symbol, Number xenon, Xe, 54 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 5, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 131. ... For other uses, see Electron (disambiguation). ... Example of a sodium electron shell model An electron shell, also known as a main energy level, is a group of atomic orbitals with the same value of the principal quantum number n. ... In the physical sciences, a phase is a set of states of a macroscopic physical system that have relatively uniform chemical composition and physical properties (i. ... For other uses, see Solid (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Room temperature (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... Italic text This article is about the boiling point of liquids. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... Standard enthalpy change of fusion of period three. ... The joule per mole (symbol: J·mol-1) is an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material. ... The standard enthalpy change of vaporization, ΔvHo, also (less correctly) known as the heat of vaporization is the energy required to transform a given quantity of a substance into a gas. ... The joule per mole (symbol: J·mol-1) is an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Vapor pressure is the pressure of a vapor in equilibrium with its non-vapor phases. ... Enargite crystals In mineralogy and crystallography, a crystal structure is a unique arrangement of atoms in a crystal. ... The oxidation number of an element in a molecule or complex is the charge that it would have if all the ligands (basically, atoms that donate electrons) were removed along with the electron pairs that were shared with the central atom[1]. It means that the oxidation number is the... Acids and bases: Acid-base extraction Acid-base reaction Acid dissociation constant Acidity function Buffer solutions pH Proton affinity Self-ionization of water Acids: Lewis acids Mineral acids Organic acids Strong acids Superacids Weak acids Bases: Lewis bases Organic bases Strong bases Superbases Non-nucleophilic bases Weak bases edit In... Electronegativity is a measure of the ability of an atom or molecule to attract electrons in the context of a chemical bond. ... The ionization energy (IE) of an atom or of a molecule is the energy required to strip it of an electron. ... Kilojoule per mole are an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material, where energy is measured in units of 1000 joules, and the amount of material is measured in mole units. ... Atomic radius: Ionic radius Covalent radius Metallic radius van der Waals radius edit Atomic radius, and more generally the size of an atom, is not a precisely defined physical quantity, nor is it constant in all circumstances. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... One picometre is defined as 1x10-12 metres, in standard units. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... Atomic radius: Ionic radius Covalent radius Metallic radius van der Waals radius edit The covalent radius, rcov, is a measure of the size of atom which forms part of a covalent bond. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... The van der Waals radius of an atom is the radius of an imaginary hard sphere which can be used to model the atom for many purposes. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... For other senses of this word, see magnetism (disambiguation). ... // Headline text POOP!! Danny Hornsby (also known as Gnome) is a measure indicating how strongly a Gnome can opposes the flow of electric current. ... K value redirects here. ... During heat transfer, the energy that is stored in the intermolecular bonds between atoms changes. ... This page is about the physical speed of sound waves in a medium. ... Metre per second (U.S. spelling: meter per second) is an SI derived unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector), defined by distance in metres divided by time in seconds. ... In solid mechanics, Youngs modulus (E) is a measure of the stiffness of a given material. ... In materials science, shear modulus, G, or sometimes S or μ, sometimes referred to as the modulus of rigidity, is defined as the ratio of shear stress to the shear strain:[1] where = shear stress; force acts on area ; = shear strain; length changes by amount . ... The bulk modulus (K) of a substance essentially measures the substances resistance to uniform compression. ... Figure 1: Rectangular specimen subject to compression, with Poissons ratio circa 0. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Brinell scale characterises the indentation hardness of materials through the scale of penetration of an indenter, loaded on a material test-piece. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... Thallium (Tl) Standard atomic mass: 204. ... For other uses, see Isotope (disambiguation). ... Natural abundance refers to the prevalence of different isotopes of an element as found in nature. ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... Radioactive decay is the process in which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy by emitting radiation in the form of particles or electromagnetic waves. ... The decay energy is the energy released by a nuclear decay. ... The electronvolt (symbol eV) is a unit of energy. ... In nuclear physics, a decay product, also known as a daughter product, is a nuclide resulting from the radioactive decay of a parent or precursor nuclide. ... Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A Synthetic radioisotope is a radionuclide that is not found in nature: no natural process or mechanism exists which produces it, or it is so unstable that it decays away in a very short period of time. ... A year (from Old English gÄ“r) is the time between two recurrences of an event related to the orbit of the Earth around the Sun. ... In nuclear physics, beta decay (sometimes called neutron decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta particle (an electron or a positron) is emitted. ... This article is about the metal. ... Electron capture is a decay mode for isotopes that will occur when there are too many protons in the nucleus of an atom, and there isnt enough energy to emit a positron; however, it continues to be a viable decay mode for radioactive isotopes that can decay by positron... General Name, Symbol, Number mercury, Hg, 80 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 6, d Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight 200. ... Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Recommended values for many properties of the elements, together with various references, are collected on these data pages. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... The periodic table of the chemical elements A chemical element, or element, is a type of atom that is defined by its atomic number; that is, by the number of protons in its nucleus. ... The Periodic Table redirects here. ... See also: List of elements by atomic number In chemistry and physics, the atomic number (also known as the proton number) is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the metallic chemical element. ... Toxic redirects here, but this is also the name of a song by Britney Spears; see Toxic (song) Look up toxic and toxicity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A rat in urban environment Rat poisons are a category of pest control chemicals intended to kill rats. ... It has been suggested that ovicide be merged into this article or section. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... EPA redirects here. ... An infrared detector is a detector that reacts to infrared (IR) radiation. ... General Name, Symbol, Number arsenic, As, 33 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15, 4, p Appearance metallic gray Standard atomic weight 74. ...

Contents

Notable characteristics

1 gram of Thallium

This metal is very soft and malleable and can be cut with a knife. When it is first exposed to air, thallium has a metallic luster but quickly tarnishes with a bluish-gray tinge that resembles lead (it is preserved by keeping it under oil). A heavy layer of oxide builds up on thallium if left in air. In the presence of water, thallium hydroxide is formed. Image File history File links Thallium_1. ... Image File history File links Thallium_1. ... For the file system called Lustre, see Lustre (file system) Lustre (American English: luster) is a description of the way light interacts with the surface of a crystal, rock or mineral. ... This article is about the metal. ... An oxide is a chemical compound containing an oxygen atom and other elements. ... Hydroxide is a polyatomic ion consisting of oxygen and hydrogen: OH− It has a charge of −1. ...

Applications

The odorless and tasteless thallium sulfate was widely used in the past as a rat poison and ant killer. In the United States and many other countries this use is no longer allowed due to safety concerns. Other uses: “Aroma” redirects here. ... Taste is one of the traditional five senses and refers to the ability to detect the flavor of foodstuffs and other substances (e. ... Thallium(I) sulfate (Tl2SO4), archaically known as thallous sulfate, is the sulfate salt of thallium. ... A rat in urban environment Rat poisons are a category of pest control chemicals intended to kill rats. ... For other uses, see Ant (disambiguation). ...

  • thallium sulfide's electrical conductivity changes with exposure to infrared light therefore making this compound useful in photocells.
  • thallium bromide-iodide crystals have been used as infrared optical materials, because they are harder than other common infrared optics, and because they have transmission at significantly longer wavelengths. The trade name KRS-5 referes to this material.
  • thallium oxide has been used to manufacture glasses that have a high index of refraction.
  • used in semiconductor materials for selenium rectifiers,
  • in gamma radiation detection equipment,
  • high-density liquid used for sink-float separation of minerals,
  • used in the treatment of ringworm and other skin infections. However this use has been limited due to the narrow margin that exists between toxicity and therapeutic benefit.
  • radioactive thallium-201 (half-life of 73 hours) is used for diagnostic purposes in nuclear medicine, particularly in stress tests used for risk stratification in patients with coronary artery disease A(CAD).[3][4] This isotope of thallium can be generated using a transportable generator which is similar to the technetium cow.[5] The generator contains lead-201 (half life 9.33 hours) which decays by electron capture to the thallium-201. The lead-201 can be produced in a cyclotron by the bombardment of thallium with protons or deuterons by the (p,3n) and (d,4n) reactions.[6]
  • combined with sulfur or selenium and arsenic, thallium has been used in the production of high-density glasses that have low melting points in the range of 125 and 150 °C. These glasses have room temperature properties that are similar to ordinary glasses and are durable, insoluble in water and have unique refractive indices.
  • thallium amalgam is used in thermometers for low temperature, because it freezes at -58 °C (pure mercury freezes at -38 °C).

In addition, research activity with thallium is ongoing to develop high-temperature superconducting materials for such applications as magnetic resonance imaging, storage of magnetic energy, magnetic propulsion, and electric power generation and transmission. Electrical conductivity or specific conductivity is a measure of a materials ability to conduct an electric current. ... Image of a small dog taken in mid-infrared (thermal) light (false color) Infrared (IR) radiation is electromagnetic radiation of a wavelength longer than visible light, but shorter than microwave radiation. ... A photoresistor is an electronic component whose resistance decreases with increasing incident light intensity. ... A bromide is a phrase, or person who uses phrases, which have been used and repeated so many times as to become either insincere in their meaning, or seem like an attempt at trying to explain the obvious. ... An iodide ion is an iodine atom with a −1 (negative one) charge. ... For other uses, see Crystal (disambiguation). ... This article lacks information on the importance of the subject matter. ... This article is about the material. ... The refractive index (or index of refraction) of a medium is a measure for how much the speed of light (or other waves such as sound waves) is reduced inside the medium. ... A semiconductor is a solid whose electrical conductivity is in between that of a conductor and that of an insulator, and can be controlled over a wide range, either permanently or dynamically. ... This article is about electromagnetic radiation. ... For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ... This article is about the fungal infection. ... Dermatitis is a term literally meaning inflammation of the skin. It is usually used to refer to eczema, which is also known as Dermatitis eczema. ... Radioactive decay is the set of various processes by which unstable atomic nuclei (nuclides) emit subatomic particles. ... Shown above is the bone scintigraphy of a young woman. ... Coronary heart disease (CHD), also called coronary artery disease (CAD) and atherosclerotic heart disease, is the end result of the accumulation of atheromatous plaques within the walls of the arteries that supply the myocardium (the muscle of the heart). ... The first technetium cow (a device for separating Tc-99m from its parent isotope, Mo-99) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. ... This article is about the metal. ... Electron capture is a decay mode for isotopes that will occur when there are too many protons in the nucleus of an atom, and there isnt enough energy to emit a positron; however, it continues to be a viable decay mode for radioactive isotopes that can decay by positron... A pair of Dee electrodes with loops of coolant pipes on their surface at the Lawrence Hall of Science. ... For other uses, see Proton (disambiguation). ... Deuterium (symbol 2H) is a stable isotope of hydrogen with a natural abundance of one atom in 6500 of hydrogen. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... For other uses, see Selenium (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number arsenic, As, 33 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15, 4, p Appearance metallic gray Standard atomic weight 74. ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ... The refractive index of a material is the factor by which electromagnetic radiation is slowed down (relative to vacuum) when it travels inside the material. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor, cooled with liquid nitrogen. ... “MRI” redirects here. ... A magnetic sail or magsail is a proposed method of spacecraft propulsion which would use a static magnetic field to deflect charged particles radiated by the Sun as a plasma wind, and thus impart force to accelerate the spacecraft. ... Itaipu Dam is a hydroelectric generating station Electricity generation is the first process in the delivery of electricity to consumers. ...


History

Thallium (Greek θαλλός, thallos, meaning "a green shoot or twig")[7] was discovered by Sir William Crookes in 1861 in England while he was making spectroscopic determinations for tellurium on residues from a sulfuric acid plant. The name comes from Thallium's bright green spectral emission lines. In 1862 Crookes and Claude-Auguste Lamy isolated the metal independently of each other. Categories: People stubs | 1832 births | 1919 deaths | British scientists | English chemists | Physicists | Discoverer of a chemical element ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number tellurium, Te, 52 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 16, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous gray Standard atomic weight 127. ... R-phrases S-phrases , , , Flash point Non-flammable Related Compounds Related strong acids Selenic acid Hydrochloric acid Nitric acid Related compounds Hydrogen sulfide Sulfurous acid Peroxymonosulfuric acid Sulfur trioxide Oleum Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... For other uses, see Green (disambiguation). ... A spectral line is a dark or bright line in an otherwise uniform and continuous spectrum, resulting from an excess or deficiency of photons in a narrow frequency range, compared with the nearby frequencies. ...


Occurrence

Although the metal is reasonably abundant in the Earth's crust at a concentration estimated to be about 0.7 mg/kg, mostly in association with potassium minerals in clays, soils, and granites, it is not generally considered to be commercially recoverable from those forms. The major source of commercial thallium is the trace amounts found in copper, lead, zinc, and other sulfide ores. This article is about Earth as a planet. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... For other uses, see Clay (disambiguation). ... Loess field in Germany Surface-water-gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland Technically, soil forms the pedosphere: the interface between the lithosphere (rocky part of the planet) and the biosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere. ... For other uses, see granite (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... This article is about the metal. ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... Formally, sulfide is the dianion, S2−, which exists in strongly alkaline aqueous solutions formed from H2S or alkali metal salts such as Li2S, Na2S, and K2S. Sulfide is exceptionally basic and, with a pKa > 14, it does not exist in appreciable concentrations even in highly alkaline water. ... Iron ore (Banded iron formation) Manganese ore Lead ore Gold ore An ore is a volume of rock containing components or minerals in a mode of occurrence which renders it valuable for mining. ...


Thallium is found in the minerals crookesite TlCu7Se4, hutchinsonite TlPbAs5S9, and lorandite TlAsS2. It also occurs as trace in pyrites and extracted as a by-product of roasting this ore for sulfuric acid production. The metal can be obtained from the smelting of lead and zinc rich ores. Manganese nodules found on the ocean floor also contain thallium, but nodule extraction is prohibitively expensive and potentially environmentally destructive. In addition, several other thallium minerals, containing 16% to 60% thallium, occur in nature as sulfide or selenide complexes with antimony, arsenic, copper, lead, and silver, but are rare, and have no commercial importance as sources of this element. See also: Category:Thallium minerals. Crookesite is a selenide mineral composed of copper and selenium with thallium or silver. ... Hutchinsonite is a sulfosalt mineral of thalium, arsenic and lead with formula (Tl,Pb)2As5S9. ... Lorandite is a thallium arsenic sulfosalt with formula: TlAsS2. ... The mineral pyrite, or iron pyrite, is iron sulfide, FeS2. ... Smelting rhymes with melting Electric phosphate smelting furnace in a TVA chemical plant (1942) Chemical reduction, or smelting, is a form of extractive metallurgy. ... Polymetallic nodules, also called manganese nodules, are rock concretions on the sea bottom formed of concentric layers of iron and manganese hydroxides around a core. ... The seabed (also sea floor, seafloor, or ocean floor) is the bottom of the ocean. ... This article is about the element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number arsenic, As, 33 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15, 4, p Appearance metallic gray Standard atomic weight 74. ... This article is about the chemical element. ...


Isotopes

Main article: isotopes of thallium

Thallium has 25 isotopes which have atomic masses that range from 184 to 210. 203Tl and 205Tl are the only stable isotopes, and 204Tl is the most stable radioisotope, with a half-life of 3.78 years. Thallium (Tl) Standard atomic mass: 204. ... For other uses, see Isotope (disambiguation). ... The atomic mass (ma) is the mass of an atom at rest, most often expressed in unified atomic mass units. ... A radionuclide is an atom with an unstable nucleus. ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ...


Thallium-202 (half life 12.23 days) can be made in a cyclotron[8], while thallium-204 (half life 3.78 years) is made by the neutron activation of stable thallium in a nuclear reactor.[9] Neutron activation is the process by which neutron radiation induces radioactivity in materials. ... Core of a small nuclear reactor used for research. ...


Toxicity

Thallium and its compounds are very toxic, and should be handled with great care. Contact with skin is dangerous, and adequate ventilation should be provided when melting this metal. Thallium(I) compounds have a high aqueous solubility and are readily absorbed through the skin. Exposure to them should not exceed 0.1 mg per of skin in an 8-hour time-weighted average (40-hour work week). Thallium is a suspected human carcinogen. Image File history File links Skull_and_crossbones. ... Solubility is a chemical property referring to the ability for a given substance, the solute, to dissolve in a solvent. ... The milligram (symbol mg) is an SI unit of mass. ... A square metre (US spelling: square meter) is by definition the area enclosed by a square with sides each 1 metre long. ... The hazard symbol for carcinogenic chemicals in the Globally Harmonized System. ...


Part of the reason for thallium's high toxicity is that, when present in aqueous solution as the univalent thallium(I) ion (Tl+), it exhibits some similarities with essential alkali metal cations, particularly potassium (as the atomic radius is almost identical). It can thus enter the body via potassium uptake pathways. However, other aspects of thallium's chemistry are very different from that of the alkali metals (e.g. its high affinity for sulfur ligands due to the presence of empty d-orbitals), and so this substitution disrupts many cellular processes (for instance, thallium may attack sulphur-containing proteins such as cysteine residues and ferredoxins). The alkali metals are a series of elements comprising Group 1 (IUPAC style) of the periodic table: lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb), caesium (Cs), and francium (Fr). ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... Cysteine is a naturally occurring, sulfur-containing amino acid that is found in most proteins, although only in small quantities. ... Ferredoxin is an electron receptor used in both Cyclic and Non cyclic photophosphorylation. ...


Thallium's toxicity has led to its use (now discontinued in many countries) as a rat and ant poison. Species 50 species; see text *Several subfamilies of Muroids include animals called rats. ... For other uses, see Ant (disambiguation). ...


Among the distinctive effects of thallium poisoning are loss of hair (which led it to its initial use as a depilatory before its toxicity was properly appreciated) and damage to peripheral nerves (victims may experience a sensation of walking on hot coals). Thallium was once an effective murder weapon before its effects became understood, and an antidote (prussian blue) discovered. Depilation is a generic term for hair removal which affects the part of the hair above the surface of the skin. ... A sample of Prussian blue Prussian blue (German: Preußischblau or Berliner Blau, in English Berlin blue) is a dark blue pigment used in paints and formerly in blueprints. ...


Thallium has recently been in the news due to the poisoning of two Russian-American women by this substance. The incident is under investigation both in Moscow — where the apparent poisoning took place — as well as in Los Angeles, which is home to the two women.


Treatment and internal decontamination

One of the main methods of removing thallium (both radioactive and normal) from humans is to use Prussian blue, which is a solid ion exchange material which absorbs thallium and releases potassium. The prussian blue is fed by mouth to the person, and it passes through their digestive system and comes out in the stool.[10] A sample of Prussian blue Prussian blue (German: Preußischblau or Berliner Blau, in English Berlin blue) is a dark blue pigment used in paints and formerly in blueprints. ... Ion exchange is defined as an exchange of ions between two electrolytes. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... Human feces (also faeces — see spelling differences), also known as stools, vary significantly in appearance, depending on the state of the whole digestive system, influenced by diet and health. ...


Famous uses as a poison

  • The CIA is believed (by its Inspector General) to have conceived a scheme to poison Fidel Castro by exposure to thallium salts placed in his shoes while they were being polished. The goal was to discredit him by causing him to lose his characteristic hair and beard. The scheme progressed as far as testing on animals, but the trip during which the poison was to be administered fell through.[11]
  • In 1953, Australian Caroline Grills was sentenced to life in prison after three family members and a close family friend died. Authorities found thallium in tea that she had given to two additional family members.[12]
  • Félix-Roland Moumié, a leader of the Cameroonian anticolonial armed struggle against France was murdered by thallium poisoning on October 15, 1960. A French agent posing as a journalist was the main suspect of this murder.
  • In October 1988, Peggy Carr of Alturas, Florida began to suffer from a mysterious illness. She was admitted to the hospital and remained there for several days before being discharged. After discharge, Peggy’s condition worsened, and she was readmitted to the hospital. Travis Carr and Duane Dubberly also exhibited similar symptoms and were transported to the hospital. Thallium poisoning was suspected based on the symptoms displayed. Within one day, thallium poisoning was confirmed. Peggy Carr’s condition worsened, and she fell into a coma. She died when life support was disconnected in March of 1989. Travis Carr and Duane Dubberly remained in the hospital for treatment of thallium poisoning. Further testing revealed the presence of thallium in other family members, including Gelena Shiver, Kasey Bell and Parealyn Carr. George Trepal of Alturas, Florida was convicted and sentenced to death for the murder of Peggy Carr on March 6, 1991. He is still on death row in Florida.
  • In 1991, Robert Curley was poisoned with thallium. His wife, Joann Curley, murdered him for insurance money.
  • In 1995, Zhu Ling, a student at Tsinghua University in Beijing, China, was reportedly poisoned twice by her roommate, over a period of a few months. The classmates of the victim asked for help through Usenet, to which access was very new in mainland China at the time. Joint efforts by physicians who responded through the web led to the diagnosis of thallium poisoning. The case was covered by news reports around the world. However, efforts came too late to prevent major damage: she now cannot speak, remains largely paralyzed and blind and with severely reduced mental function.
Corroded Thallium rod
Corroded Thallium rod
  • In June 2004, 25 Russian soldiers earned Honorable Mention Darwin Awards after becoming ill from thallium exposure when they found a can of mysterious white powder in a rubbish dump on their base at Khabarovsk in the Russian Far East. Oblivious to the danger of misusing an unidentified white powder from a military dump site, the conscripts added it to tobacco, and used it as a substitute for talcum powder on their feet.[13]
  • In 2005, a 17 year old girl in Numazu, Shizuoka, Japan, admitted to attempting to murder her mother by lacing her tea with thallium, causing a national scandal.[14]
  • In November of 2006, it was initially believed that Russian dissident Alexander Litvinenko was poisoned by use of thallium, until the presence of the radioisotope polonium-210 was discovered in his body.
  • In February of 2007, two Americans, Marina and Yana Kovalevsky, a mother and daughter, visiting Russia were hospitalized due to Thallium poisoning. Both had emigrated from the Soviet Union to the United States in 1989 and had made several trips to Russia since then. [15]

The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (born on August 13, 1926) is the current President of Cuba but on indefinite medical hiatus. ... Caroline Grills became a suspect in 1947 after three family members and a close family friend died. ... Félix-Roland Moumié was a Cameroonian Marxist leader, assassinated in Geneva in 1960 by the SDECE (French secret services) with thalium [1]. Félix-Roland Moumié succeeded to Ruben Um Nyobe, killed in September 1958, as leader of the Union des Populations du Cameroun (UPC - or also Union du... For other people named Mandela, or other uses, see Mandela. ... Robben Island (Afrikaans Robben Eiland) is an island in Table Bay, 12 km off the coast from Cape Town, South Africa and is located at . ... The Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) was a court-like body assembled in South Africa after the end of Apartheid. ... Graham Frederick Young (September 7, 1947 – August 1, 1990) was a British serial killer who poisoned a total of three people to death (his stepmother, and then years later two work colleagues, Bob Egle and Fred Biggs) as well as administering smaller doses to scores of others. ... The Young Poisoners Handbook is a British-German-French-produced black comedy film based on the life of Graham Frederick Young, more commonly known as the teacup murderer. It was directed by Benjamin Ross, and written by the aforesaid director and Jeff Rawle. ... Zhu Ling is best known as the victim of an unsolved 1995 thallium poisoning case in Beijing, China. ... Tsinghua University (THU; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is a university in Beijing, China. ... “Peking” redirects here. ... Usenet (USEr NETwork) is a global, decentralized, distributed Internet discussion system that evolved from a general purpose UUCP architecture of the same name. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1548x924, 540 KB) Summary Heavily corroded thallium metal rod. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1548x924, 540 KB) Summary Heavily corroded thallium metal rod. ... A Darwin Award is a tongue-in-cheek honor named after evolutionary theorist Charles Darwin. ... Government Country District Krai Russia Far Eastern Federal District Khabarovsk Krai Established 1858 Mayor Alexandr Sokolov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 372 km² Population  - City (2005) 579,000 Coordinates Other Information Postal Code 680xxx Dialing Code +7 4212 Website: www. ... Talc block Talc is a mineral composed of hydrated magnesium silicate with the chemical formula H2Mg3(SiO3)4 or Mg3Si4O10(OH)2. ... Numazu (沼津市; -shi) is a city located in eastern Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan. ... Shizuoka Prefecture ) is located in the ChÅ«bu region on HonshÅ« island, Japan. ... Alexander Valterovich Litvinenko (Russian: ) (30 August 1962[1][2] – 23 November 2006) was a lieutenant-colonel in the Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation, alleged agent of MI6[3] , and later a Russian dissident and writer. ... A radionuclide is an atom with an unstable nucleus. ... Polonium-210 is the most readily available isotope of Polonium. ...

In Fiction

  • In Nigel Williams' 1990 novel The Wimbledon Poisoner, Henry Far uses thallium to baste a roast chicken in a failed attempt to murder his wife.
  • "Concentrated thallium" is used as the poison of choice of the Wyoming Widow in the 2006 comedy Big Nothing

Agatha Mary Clarissa, Lady Mallowan, DBE (15 September 1890 – 12 January 1976), mainly known as Agatha Christie, was an English crime fiction writer. ... The mortar and pestle is an international symbol of pharmacists and pharmacies. ... Basil Rathbone as Sherlock Holmes Detective fiction is a branch of crime fiction that centers upon the investigation of a crime, usually murder, by a detective, either professional or amateur. ... The Pale Horse (published in 1961) is a detective novel by Agatha Christie, featuring her novelist-cum-detective Ariadne Oliver. ... Nigel Williams (born January 20, 1948 in Cheadle,Cheshire ) is a British novelist, screenwriter and playwright. ... The Wimbledon Trilogy consists of three books written by Nigel Williams set in Wimbledon, London and published by Faber & Faber: The Wimbledon Poisoner (1990, ISBN 978-0571161317) : Henry Farr, a struggling solicitor is desperate to get rid of his wife, Elinor and decides to poison her, following the example of... Basting involves cooking meat with either its own juices or some type of preparation such as a sauce or marinade. ... Big Nothing is a black comedy film directed by Jean-Baptiste Andrea starring David Schwimmer and Simon Pegg. ...

See also

  • Thallium compounds

References

  1. ^ thallium, Los Alamos National Laboratory. Retrieved November 21, 2006.
  2. ^ Nayer, P. S; Hamilton, O.. Thallium selenide infrared detector. Smithsonian/NASA ADS Physics Abstract Service. Retrieved on 2006-11-25.
  3. ^ Thallium Test from Walter Reed Army Medical Center
  4. ^ Thallium Stress Test from the American Heart Association
  5. ^ Abstract
  6. ^ Thallium-201 production from Harvard Medical School's Joint Program in Nuclear Medicine
  7. ^ Liddell & Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, sub θαλλος
  8. ^ Thallium Research from Department of Energy
  9. ^ Manual for reactor produced radioisotopes from the International Atomic Energy Agency
  10. ^ Prussian blue fact sheet from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
  11. ^ Interim Report: Alleged Assassination Plots Involving Foreign Leaders, U.S. Senate report no. 94-465 ("Church Report"). From The Assassination Archives and Research Center. Retrieved November 21, 2006.
  12. ^ a b What is thallium?, BBC, November 19, 2006. Retrieved November 21, 2006.
  13. ^ White Russians at DarwinAwards.com
  14. ^ Girl admits trying to kill mom by lacing her tea, "GaijinPot", April 28, 2005. News Source from Mainichi Shimbun. Retrieved November 21, 2006.
  15. ^ Embassy Confirms Hospitalization of Two Americans for Thallium Poisoning, Foxnews.com, March 7, 2007. Retrieved March 7, 2007.

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External links

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  Results from FactBites:
 
thallium - definition of thallium in Encyclopedia (954 words)
Thallium is highly toxic and is used in rodent and insect poisons but since it can also cause cancer, this use has been cut back or eliminated in many countries.
The odorless and tasteless thallium sulfate was widely used in the past as a rat poison and ant killer.
Thallium is found in the minerals crooksite, hutchinsonite, and lorandite.
Thallium - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1111 words)
Thallium is highly toxic and is used in rat poisons and insecticides but since it might also cause cancer (although the EPA does not class it as carcinogen), this use has been cut back or eliminated in many countries.
Although the metal is reasonably abundant in the Earth's crust at a concentration estimated to be about 0.7 mg/kg, it exists mostly in association with potassium minerals in clays, soils, and granites and, thus, is not generally considered to be commercially recoverable from those forms.
Thallium was once an effective murder weapon before its effects became understood and an antidote (prussian blue) discovered.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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