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Encyclopedia > Thaddeus Stevens
Thaddeus Stevens
Thaddeus Stevens

Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Pennsylvania's 8th & 9th district
In office
March 4, 1849March 3, 1853
March 4, 1859August 11, 1868
Preceded by John Strohm
Anthony E. Roberts
Succeeded by Henry A. Muhlenberg
Oliver J. Dickey

Born April 4, 1792(1792-04-04)
Danville, Vermont, U.S.
Died August 11, 1868 (aged 76)
Washington D.C., U.S.
Political party Federalist, Anti-Masonic, Whig, Republican
Spouse none
Profession Politician, Lawyer
Signature Thaddeus Stevens's signature

Thaddeus Stevens (April 4, 1792August 11, 1868), was one of the most powerful members of the United States House of Representatives, representing the state of Pennsylvania. Stevens and Massachusetts Senator Charles Sumner were the prime leaders of the Radical Republicans during the American Civil War and Reconstruction. His biographer characterizes him as, "The Great Commoner, savior of free public education in Pennsylvania, national Republican leader in the struggles against slavery in the United States and intrepid mainstay of the attempt to secure racial justice for the freedmen during Reconstruction, the only member of the House of Representatives ever to have been known, even if mistakenly, as the 'dictator' of Congress."[1] ImageMetadata File history File links Stevens_thadee. ... Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party... Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 280 miles (455 km)  - Length 160 miles (255 km)  - % water 2. ... Map Pennsylvania District 8 of the United States House of Representatives is a Congressional district that serves Bucks County, along with a small portion of Montgomery County and northeast Philadelphia, in Pennsylvania. ... Pennsylvanias 9th congressional district is a relatively safe seat for the Republicans. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1849 (MDCCCXLIX) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1853 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1859 (MDCCCLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about The Pennsylvania Congressman. ... Anthony Ellmaker Roberts Anthony Ellmaker Roberts (October 29, 1803—January 23, 1885), was an American politician, member of the United States House of Representatives from 1855 to 1859, an abolitionist and close associate of Thaddeus Stevens. ... Henry Augustus Muhlenberg (1823-1854) was a member of the United States House of Representatives from Pennsylvania and a member of the Muhlenberg Family political dynasty. ... Oliver James Dickey Oliver James Dickey (April 6, 1823–April 21, 1876) was a Republican member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Pennsylvania. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Danville, Vermont Danville is a town located in Caledonia County, Vermont. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... The Federalist Party (or Federal Party) was an American political party in the period 1793 to 1816, with remnants lasting into the 1820s. ... The Anti-Masonic Party (also known as the Anti-Masonic Movement) was a 19th century minor political party in the United States. ... The Whig Party was a political party of the United States during the era of Jacksonian democracy. ... The Republican Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States of America, along with the Democratic Party. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A politician is an individual who is a formally recognized and active member of a government, or a person who influences the way a society is governed through an understanding of political power and group dynamics. ... For the fish called lawyer, see Burbot. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 102 pixelsFull resolution (889 × 113 pixel, file size: 14 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) http://www. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party... Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 280 miles (455 km)  - Length 160 miles (255 km)  - % water 2. ... Massachusetts ratified the Constitution on February 26, 1788. ... For other persons named Charles Sumner, see Charles Sumner (disambiguation). ... The Radical Republicans were an influential faction of American politicians in the Republican party during the American Civil War and Reconstruction eras, 1860-1876. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... For other uses, see Reconstruction (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Early life

Stevens was born in Danville, Vermont on April 4, 1792; around 1786, his parents had arrived there from Methuen, Massachusetts. He suffered from many hardships during his childhood, including a club foot. The fate of his father Joshua Stevens, an alcoholic, profligate shoemaker who was unable to hold a steady job, is uncertain. He may have died at home, abandoned the family, or been killed in the War of 1812; in any case, he left his wife, Sally (Morrill) Stevens, and four small sons in dire poverty.[2] Having completed his course of study at Peacham Academy, Stevens entered Dartmouth College as a sophomore in 1811, and graduated in 1814; before doing so, he spent one term and part of another at the University of Vermont. He then moved to York, Pennsylvania, where he taught school and studied law. After admission to the bar, he established a successful law practice, first in Gettysburg, then in Lancaster in 1815. He later took on several young lawyers, among them Edward McPherson, who later became his protegé and ardent supporter in Congress. Danville, Vermont Danville is a town located in Caledonia County, Vermont. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Methuen is a city[1] in Essex County, Massachusetts, United States. ... Club foot. ... This article is about the U.S. – U.K. war. ... Dartmouth College is a private, coeducational university located in Hanover, New Hampshire, USA. Incorporated as Trustees of Dartmouth College,[6][7] it is a member of the Ivy League and one of the nine colonial colleges founded before the American Revolution. ... The University of Vermont and State Agricultural College, or simply The University of Vermont, is a public university located in Burlington, Vermont. ... Nickname: Coordinates: , Country United States State Pennsylvania County York Incorporated  - Borough September 24, 1787  - City January 11, 1887 Government  - Mayor John Brenner Area  - City  5. ... Gettysburg is a borough 38 miles (68 km) south by southwest of Harrisburg in Adams County, Pennsylvania, USA, of which it is the county seatGR6. ... Nickname: Location of Lancaster County in Pennsylvania Location of Lancaster in Lancaster County Country United States State Pennsylvania County Lancaster Founded 1730 Incorporated March 10, 1818 Government  - Mayor Rick Gray (D) Area  - City  7. ... Edward McPherson (July 31, 1830 – December 14, 1895) was a prominent Pennsylvania newspaperman, attorney, and United States Congressman. ...


Political life

At first, Stevens belonged to the Federalist Party, but switched to the Anti-Masonic Party, then to the Whig Party, and finally to the Republican Party. He devoted his enormous energies to the destruction of what he considered the Slave Power, that is the conspiracy he saw of slave owners to seize control of the federal government and block the progress of liberty. In 1848, while still a Whig party member, Stevens was elected to serve in the House of Representatives. He defended and supported Indians, Seventh-day Adventists, Mormons, Jews, Chinese, and women. However, the defense of runaway or fugitive slaves gradually began to consume the greatest amount of his time, until the abolition of slavery became his primary political and personal focus. He was actively involved in the Underground Railroad, assisting runaway slaves in getting to Canada, sometimes as many as 16 a week. The Federalist Party (or Federal Party) was an American political party in the period 1793 to 1816, with remnants lasting into the 1820s. ... The Anti-Masonic Party (also known as the Anti-Masonic Movement) was a 19th century minor political party in the United States. ... The Whig Party was a political party of the United States during the era of Jacksonian democracy. ... The Republican Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States of America, along with the Democratic Party. ... The Slave Power was the term used in the Northern United States in the period 1840-1865 to describe the political power of the slaveholding class in the South. ... The U.S. House election, 1848 was an election for the United States House of Representatives in 1848. ... Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party... The Seventh-day Adventist Church (SDA), colloquially referred to as the Adventists, is an evangelical Protestant Christian denomination that grew out of the prophetic Millerite movement in the United States during the middle part of the 19th century. ... This article is about the history and use of the word Mormon. For information about the religious beliefs and culture of Mormons, see Mormonism. ... The Buxton Memorial Fountain, celebrating the emancipation of slaves in the British Empire in 1834, London. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This article is about a 19th-century slave escape route. ...


During the American Civil War Stevens was one of the three or four most powerful men in Congress, using his slashing oratorical powers, his chairmanship of the Ways and Means Committee, and above all his single-minded devotion to victory. His power grew during Reconstruction as he dominated the House and helped to draft both the Fourteenth Amendment and the Reconstruction Act in 1867. Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... The Committee on Ways and Means is a committee of the United States House of Representatives. ... For other uses, see Reconstruction (disambiguation). ... Amendment XIV in the National Archives The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution (Amendment XIV) is one of the post-Civil War amendments (known as the Reconstruction Amendments), first intended to secure rights for former slaves. ... Nearly two years after the end of the Civil War, as part of the on-going process of Reconstruction, the United States Congress passed four statutes known as Reconstruction Acts (March 2, 1867 (39 Cong. ...


Radical Republicanism

Stevens was one of two Congressmen in July 1861 opposing the Crittenden-Johnson Resolution stating the limited war aim of restoring the Union while preserving slavery; he helped repeal it in December. In August, 1861, he supported the first law attacking slavery, the Confiscation Act that said owners would forfeit any slaves they allowed to help the Confederate war effort. By December he was the first Congressional leader pushing for emancipation as a tool to weaken the rebellion. He called for total war on January 22, 1862: The Crittenden-Johnson Resolution (also called the Crittenden Resolution) was passed by the United States Congress on July 25, 1861 after the start of the American Civil War, which began on April 12, 1861. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about 1862 . ...

"Let us not be deceived. Those who talk about peace in sixty days are shallow statesmen. The war will not end until the government shall more fully recognize the magnitude of the crisis; until they have discovered that this is an internecine war in which one party or the other must be reduced to hopeless feebleness and the power of further effort shall be utterly annihilated. It is a sad but true alternative. The South can never be reduced to that condition so long as the war is prosecuted on its present principles. The North with all its millions of people and its countless wealth can never conquer the South until a new mode of warfare is adopted. So long as these states are left the means of cultivating their fields through forced labor, you may expend the blood of thousands and billions of money year by year, without being any nearer the end, unless you reach it by your own submission and the ruin of the nation. Slavery gives the South a great advantage in time of war. They need not, and do not, withdraw a single hand from the cultivation of the soil. Every able-bodied white man can be spared for the army. The black man, without lifting a weapon, is the mainstay of the war. How, then, can the war be carried on so as to save the Union and constitutional liberty? Prejudices may be shocked, weak minds startled, weak nerves may tremble, but they must hear and adopt it. Universal emancipation must be proclaimed to all. Those who now furnish the means of war, but who are the natural enemies of slaveholders, must be made our allies. If the slaves no longer raised cotton and rice, tobacco and grain for the rebels, this war would cease in six months, even though the liberated slaves would not raise a hand against their masters. They would no longer produce the means by which they sustain the war."[3]

Stevens led the Radical Republican faction in their battle against the bankers over the issuance of money during the Civil War. Stevens made various speeches in Congress in favor of President Lincoln and Henry Carey's "Greenback" system, interest-free currency in the form of fiat government-issued United States Notes that would effectively threaten the bankers' profits in being able to issue and control the currency through fractional reserve loans. Stevens warned that a debt-based monetary system controlled by for-profit banks would lead to the eventual bankruptcy of the people, saying "the Government and not the banks should have the benefit from creating the medium of exchange," yet after Lincoln's assassination the Radical Republicans lost this battle and a National banking monopoly emerged in the years after. United States Notes (also known as Legal Tender Notes because of their payment obligation stating This Note is a Legal Tender) are banknotes characterized by a red seal and serial number. ...

U.S. Reps. John A. Bingham and Thaddeus Stevens before the Senate addressing the impeachment vote on U.S. President Andrew Johnson .
Stevens giving his closing remarks of the impeachment of President Johnson.
Stevens giving his closing remarks of the impeachment of President Johnson.

Stevens was so outspoken in his condemnation of the Confederacy that Maj. Gen. Jubal Early of the Army of Northern Virginia made a point of burning much of his iron business, at modern day Caledonia State Park, to the ground during the Gettysburg Campaign. Early claimed that this action was in direct retaliation for Stevens' perceived support of similar atrocities by the Union Army in the South. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 504 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (574 × 682 pixel, file size: 67 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) http://hdl. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 504 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (574 × 682 pixel, file size: 67 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) http://hdl. ... John Bingham (1815–1900) was a Republican Congressman from Ohio, a Radical Republican, and the principal framer of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... For other persons of the same name, see Andrew Johnson (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 799 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (901 × 676 pixel, file size: 115 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) http://hdl. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 799 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (901 × 676 pixel, file size: 115 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) http://hdl. ... For other persons of the same name, see Andrew Johnson (disambiguation). ... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial) Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia (May 29, 1861–April 2, 1865) Danville, Virginia (from April 3, 1865) Language(s) English (de facto) Religion... Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ... The name Jubal Early may refer to: Jubal Anderson Early - a Confederate General during the American Civil War Jubal Early - a character on the Firefly television series. ... The Army of Northern Virginia was the primary military force of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War in the eastern theater. ... Caledonia State Park is a state park of Pennsylvania, located between Chambersburg and Gettysburg. ... Meade and Lee of Gettysburg Gettysburg Campaign (through July 3); cavalry movements shown with dashed lines. ... The 21st Michigan Infantry, a company of Shermans veterans. ...


Stevens was the leader of the Radical Republicans who had full control of Congress after the 1866 elections. He largely set the course of Reconstruction. He wanted to begin to rebuild the South, using military power to force the South to recognize the equality of Freedmen. When President Johnson resisted, Stevens proposed and passed the resolution for the impeachment of Andrew Johnson in 1868. The Radical Republicans were an influential faction of American politicians in the Republican party during the American Civil War and Reconstruction eras, 1860-1876. ... The U.S. House election, 1866 was an election for the United States House of Representatives in 1866 which occurred during President Andrew Johnsons term. ... For other uses, see Reconstruction (disambiguation). ... For other persons of the same name, see Andrew Johnson (disambiguation). ...


Stevens told W. W. Holden, the Republican governor of North Carolina, in December, 1866, "It would be best for the South to remain ten years longer under military rule, and that during this time we would have Territorial Governors, with Territorial Legislatures, and the government at Washington would pay our general expenses as territories, and educate our children, white and colored."[4] Categories: Stub | 1818 births | 1892 deaths | Governors of North Carolina ... The Governor of North Carolina is the top executive of the government of the U.S. state of North Carolina. ...


Death

Thaddeus Stevens died at midnight on August 11, 1868, in Washington, D.C., less than three months after the acquittal of Johnson by the Senate. The public expression of grief in Washington was second only to that following the death of Abraham Lincoln in 1865. Stevens' coffin lay in state inside the Capitol Rotunda, flanked by a Black Union Honor Guard from Massachusetts. is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... Capitol dome The rotunda is the central rotunda and dome of the United States Capitol. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ...


Twenty thousand people, one-half of whom were free black men, attended his funeral in Lancaster, Pennsylvania. He chose to be buried in the Shreiner-Concord Cemetery because it was the only cemetery that would accept people without regard to race. Nickname: Location of Lancaster County in Pennsylvania Location of Lancaster in Lancaster County Country United States State Pennsylvania County Lancaster Founded 1730 Incorporated March 10, 1818 Government  - Mayor Rick Gray (D) Area  - City  7. ...


Stevens wrote the inscription on his head stone that reads: "I repose in this quiet and secluded spot, not from any natural preference for solitude, but finding other cemeteries limited as to race, by charter rules, I have chosen this that I might illustrate in my death the principles which I advocated through a long life, equality of man before his Creator."


Stevens monument is at the intersection of North Mulberry Street and West Chestnut Street in Lancaster, Pennsylvania. Nickname: Location of Lancaster County in Pennsylvania Location of Lancaster in Lancaster County Country United States State Pennsylvania County Lancaster Founded 1730 Incorporated March 10, 1818 Government  - Mayor Rick Gray (D) Area  - City  7. ...


Legacy

Stevens dreamed of a socially just world, where unearned privilege did not exist.[5] He believed from his personal experience that being different or having a different perspective can enrich society.[6] He believed that differences among people should not be feared or oppressed but celebrated.[7] In his will he left $50,000 to establish Stevens, a school for the relief and refuge of homeless, indigent orphans. His will stated: Orphans, by Thomas Kennington An orphan (from the Greek ορφανός) is a person (typically a child), who has lost both parents, often through death. ...


"They shall be carefully educated in the various branches of English education and all industrial trades and pursuits. No preference shall be shown on account of race or color in their admission or treatment. Neither poor Germans, Irish or Mahometan, nor any others on account their race or religion of their parents, shall be excluded. They shall be fed at the same table."


This original bequest has now evolved into Thaddeus Stevens College of Technology. The College continually strives to provide underprivileged individuals with opportunities and to create an environment in which individual differences are valued and nurtured. Thaddeus Stevens College of Technology is a two-year co-educational technical college that provides an education in twenty two programs for about 650 students. ...


Historians' views of Stevens have swung sharply since his death as interpretations of Reconstruction have changed. The Dunning School, which viewed the period as a disaster and held racist views of blacks, saw Stevens as a villain for his advocacy of harsh measures in the South, and this characterization held sway for most of the 20th Century. Austin Stoneman, the corrupt congressman in D.W. Griffith's The Birth of a Nation, was modeled on Stevens. The congressman's reputation has been rehabilitated since the rise of the neo-abolitionist school in the 1960s, and Stevens has been praised for his far-sighted views on race relations. The Dunning School was from 1900 to 1960 the dominant school of historiography regarding the Reconstruction period in American history, 1865-1877. ... David Lewelyn Wark Griffith (January 22, 1875 - July 23, 1948) was an American film director (commonly known as D. W. Griffith) probably best known for his film The Birth of a Nation. ... For the 1982 film of the same name, see Birth of a Nation (1982 film). ... Neoabolitionist (or neo-abolitionist or new abolitionism) is a term used by historians to refer to the rebirth of the civil rights movement in the late 1950s and early 1960s, and to the late 20th century historiographic tradition by historians who re-evaluated periods of slavery, the American Civil War...


Stevens also was something of a pioneer in personal interrace relations, having a long-term mulatto mistress to whom he was reportedly very devoted, so much so that it was commented upon in his obituary in the New York World. The New York World was a newspaper published in New York from 1860 until 1931. ...


In Washington, D.C., the Stevens Elementary School was built in 1868 as one of the first publicly funded schools for black children and is now the city's oldest school in continuous operation. (President Carter's daughter Amy went there.)


See also

Thaddeus Stevens College of Technology is a two-year co-educational technical college that provides an education in twenty two programs for about 650 students. ... 1864 National Union Party candidate and U.S. President-elect Abraham Lincoln 1864 National Union Party candidate and U.S. Vice President-elect Andrew Johnson U.S. Postmaster General, Montgomery Blair. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Trefouse p. xi
  2. ^ "Thaddeus Stevens". Dictionary of American Biography. American Council of Learned Societies, 1928-1936.
  3. ^ Woodburn 178-179
  4. ^ Holden, Memoirs of W. W. Holden (1911) p. 85 online at [1]
  5. ^ Woodburn pp 606-620
  6. ^ Woodburn pp 606-620
  7. ^ Woodburn pp 606-620

References

  • Beale Howard K. The Critical Year: A Study of Andrew Johnson and Reconstruction. (1930)
  • Belz Herman. Reconstructing the Union: Theory and Practice During the Civil War. (1969)
  • Benedict Michael Les. A Compromise of Principle: Congressional Republicans and Reconstruction 1863-1869. (1974)
  • Brodie Fawn M. Thaddeus Stevens, Scourge of the South (1959), psychohistory
  • Stryker, Lloyd Paul; Andrew Johnson: A Study in Courage (1929) online version
  • Trefousse, Hans L. Thaddeus Stevens: Nineteenth-Century Egalitarian (1997) online version
  • James Albert Woodburn; The Life of Thaddeus Stevens: A Study in American Political History, Especially in the Period of the Civil War and Reconstruction. (1913) online version

Cover of Fawn McKay Brodie: A Biographers Life Fawn McKay Brodie (September 15, 1915 — January 10, 1981) was a biographer and professor of history at UCLA, best known for Thomas Jefferson: An Intimate History, a work of psychobiography, and No Man Knows My History, the first important non-hagiographic...

Primary sources

  • Palmer, Beverly Wilson and Holly Byers Ochoa, eds. The Selected Papers of Thaddeus Stevens 2 vol (1998), 900pp; his speeches plus letters to and from Stevens

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Thaddeus Stevens
Preceded by
John Strohm
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Pennsylvania's 8th congressional district

18491853
Succeeded by
Henry A. Muhlenberg
Preceded by
Anthony E. Roberts
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Pennsylvania's 9th congressional district

18591868
Succeeded by
Oliver J. Dickey
Preceded by
John Sherman
Chairman of the House Ways and Means Committee
18611865
Succeeded by
Justin S. Morrill
Preceded by
Abraham Lincoln
Persons who have lain in state or honor
in the United States Capitol rotunda

August 13-August 14, 1868
Succeeded by
Charles Sumner

  Results from FactBites:
 
Thaddeus Stevens - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (769 words)
Stevens was one of the leaders of the Radical Republicans.
As a Radical Republican, Stevens was an outspoken proponent of Reconstruction.
Stevens was so outspoken in his condemnation of the Confederacy that the Army of Northern Virginia made a point of burning his iron business to the ground during the Gettysburg Campaign.
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