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Encyclopedia > Texas Revolution
Texas Revolution
Date October 2 1835-April 21 1836
Location Texas
Result Texas Independence, Treaties of Velasco
Combatants
Texas Mexico
Commanders
Stephen F. Austin
Sam Houston
Antonio López de Santa Anna
Martin Perfecto de Cos
Strength
c.2,000 c.6,500
Casualties
c.700 c.1,500

The Texas Revolution or Texas War of Independence was fought from October 2, 1835 to April 21, 1836 between Mexico and the Texas (Tejas) portion of the Mexican state of Coahuila y Tejas. | Come and take it, slogan of the Texas Revolution 1835 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1836 (MDCCCXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Official language(s) No official language See languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Largest metro area Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 261,797 sq mi (678,051 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... The Treaties of Velasco were two treaties signed at Velasco, Texas, on 14 May 1836 between Antonio López de Santa Anna of Mexico and the Republic of Texas, in the aftermath of the Battle of San Jacinto (21 April 1836). ... Image File history File links Previous_flag_of_Texas. ... Capital Washington-on-the-Brazos, Harrisburg, Galveston, Velasco, Columbia (1836) Houston (1837–1839) Austin (1839–1845) Language(s) English (de facto) Spanish, French, German and Native American languages regionally Government Republic President1  - 1836-1838 Sam Houston  - 1838-1841 Mirabeau B. Lamar  - 1841-1844 Sam Houston  - 1844-1845 Anson Jones Vice... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mexico_(1823-1864,_1867-1968). ... Stephen F. Austin Stephen Fuller Austin (November 3, 1793 – December 27, 1836), known as the Father of Texas, led the second and ultimately successful colonization of the region by the United States. ... Samuel Houston (March 2, 1793–July 26, 1863) was a 19th century American statesman, politician and soldier. ... Antonio de Padua María Severino López de Santa Anna y Pérez de Lebrón (February 21, 1794 – June 21, 1876), also known simply as Santa Anna, was a Mexican political leader who greatly influenced early Mexican and Spanish politics and government, first fighting against independence from Spain... Martin Perfecto de Cos (1800-1854) was born in Veracruz. ... The Battle of Gonzales was a skirmish that took place on October 2, 1835, in the Texas town of Gonzales between the Texian settlers and a detachment of Mexican army. ... The Battle of Concepción A 19th century skirmish between the Republic of Mexico and the rebellious Mexican state of Texas on 28 October 1835, during the Texas Revolution, Republic of Texass independence from Mexico. ... The Grass Fight was a battle // between the Republic of Mexico and the rebelling Texas colonists in the Mexican GO TEXAS Dudes state of Coahuila y Texas. ... Combatants Mexico Texas Commanders Martín Perfecto de Cos Stephen F. Austin Edward Burleson Strength 1,200 600 Casualties 150 killed, wounded & captured 35 killed, wounded & captured {{{notes}}} The Siege of Bexar (or Bejar) was an early campaign of the Texas Revolution in which a volunteer Texan army successfully besieged... The Battle of San Patricio was a 19th century battle fought on 27 February 1836 between the Republic of Mexico and the rebelling Mexican state of Texas. ... The Battle of Los Cuates de Agua Dulce was a 19th century battle between the Republic of Mexico and the rebelling Mexican state of Texas. ... Combatants Republic of Mexico Mexican state of Coahuila y Tejas Commanders Antonio López de Santa Anna Pérez de Lebrón William Travis† Jim Bowie† Davy Crockett† Strength 6,000 in attack (1,800 in assault-see below) 183 to 250 Casualties 370 to 600 total 70 to 200... Battle of Refugio 12-15 March 1836, Refugio, Texas- Mexican Gen. ... The Battle of Coleto (also known as The Battle of Coleto Creek) was a 19th century battle of the Texas Revolution fought between rebelling Texan colonists and the Republic of Mexico on March 19 and March 20, 1836. ... Combatants Mexico Republic of Texas Commanders Antonio López de Santa Anna{POW} Manuel Fernandez Castrillon† Juan Almonte{POW} Sam Houston{wounded} Strength about 1,400 800 Casualties 630 killed, 208 wounded, 730 captured 9 killed, 26 wounded For other battles of the same name, see San Jacinto. ... is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... | Come and take it, slogan of the Texas Revolution 1835 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1836 (MDCCCXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Coahuila y Tejas (or Coahuila and Texas) was one of the constituent states of the newly established United Mexican States under its 1824 Constitution. ...


Animosity between the Mexican government and the American settlers in Texas (who were called (Texians) began with the Siete Leyes of 1835, when Mexican President and General Antonio López de Santa Anna Pérez de Lebrón abolished the Constitution of 1824 and proclaimed a new anti-federalist constitution in its place. Unrest soon followed throughout all of Mexico, and war began in Texas on October 1, 1835, with the Battle of Gonzales. Early Texian success at La Bahia and San Antonio were soon met with crushing defeat at the same locations a few months later. Soon after, a Texian fort was overrun, and all save a few of the defenders were killed in the Battle of the Alamo. Official language(s) No official language See languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Largest metro area Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 261,797 sq mi (678,051 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... The Texians were Anglo-American citizens of Texas when Texas was part of Mexico, and subsequently when it was a sovereign nation. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... The President of the United Mexican States is the head of state of Mexico. ... Antonio de Padua María Severino López de Santa Anna y Pérez de Lebrón (February 21, 1794 – June 21, 1876), also known simply as Santa Anna, was a Mexican political leader who greatly influenced early Mexican and Spanish politics and government, first fighting against independence from Spain... Mexicos so-called 1835 Constitution was not a formal, fully-fledged constitution, but two documents that amended the 1824 Constitution in a way that substantially changed the character of Mexican government: the Siete Leyes (Seven Laws) of 1835 and the 1836 Constitution Laws. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... | Come and take it, slogan of the Texas Revolution 1835 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The Battle of Gonzales was a skirmish that took place on October 2, 1835, in the Texas town of Gonzales between the Texian settlers and a detachment of Mexican army. ... Goliad is a city in Goliad County, Texas, United States. ... Nickname: Location in the state of Texas Coordinates: Counties Bexar County Government  - Mayor Phil Hardberger Area  - City  412. ... Combatants Republic of Mexico Mexican state of Coahuila y Tejas Commanders Antonio López de Santa Anna Pérez de Lebrón William Travis† Jim Bowie† Davy Crockett† Strength 6,000 in attack (1,800 in assault-see below) 183 to 250 Casualties 370 to 600 total 70 to 200...


The war ended at the Battle of San Jacinto (about 20 miles (32 km) east of modern day downtown Houston) where General Sam Houston led the Texas Army to victory in 18 minutes over a portion of the Mexican Army under Santa Anna, who was captured shortly after the battle. The conclusion of the war resulted in the creation of the Republic of Texas. The Republic was never recognized by the government of Mexico, and during its brief existence, it teetered between collapse and invasion from Mexico. Texas was annexed by the United States of America in 1845, and it was not until the Mexican-American War that the "Texan Question" was resolved. Combatants Mexico Republic of Texas Commanders Antonio López de Santa Anna{POW} Manuel Fernandez Castrillon† Juan Almonte{POW} Sam Houston{wounded} Strength about 1,400 800 Casualties 630 killed, 208 wounded, 730 captured 9 killed, 26 wounded For other battles of the same name, see San Jacinto. ... “Houston” redirects here. ... Samuel Houston (March 2, 1793–July 26, 1863) was a 19th century American statesman, politician and soldier. ... Capital Washington-on-the-Brazos, Harrisburg, Galveston, Velasco, Columbia (1836) Houston (1837–1839) Austin (1839–1845) Language(s) English (de facto) Spanish, French, German and Native American languages regionally Government Republic President1  - 1836-1838 Sam Houston  - 1838-1841 Mirabeau B. Lamar  - 1841-1844 Sam Houston  - 1844-1845 Anson Jones Vice... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Zachary Taylor Winfield Scott Stephen W. Kearney Antonio López de Santa Anna Mariano Arista Pedro de Ampudia José Mariá Flores Strength 78,790 soldiers 25,000–40,000 soldiers Casualties KIA: 1733 Total dead: 13,271 Wounded: 4,152 AWOL: 9,200+ 25,000...

Contents

Background

Stephen F. Austin, the "Father of Texas".
Stephen F. Austin, the "Father of Texas".

The Panic of 1819 plunged the United States into a major depression. An American businessman and former Spanish subject named Moses Austin lost his lead manufacturing business during this time. After a trip to Texas, he developed a plan to bring American settlers into the region, which would help Spain develop the area and help him jump-start his business career. In 1820, he applied for a Spanish grant to settle 300 families in Texas. His son, Stephen F. Austin, helped his father secure loans in the U.S. to back this venture. In late 1820, Moses Austin received his grant from Spain, but he died in June 1821. Stephen F. Austin inherited his father’s Spanish grant and formed an agreement with Governor Martinez that settlers could receive 640 acres (259 ha) for the head of a family, 320 acres (129 ha) for his wife, 160 acres (65 ha) for each child, and 80 acres (32 ha) for each slave[3]. Because of economic hardships in the U.S., when Austin published the terms in New Orleans, he had no problem finding the 300 families stipulated in the grant. Stephen F. Austin Image taken from http://www. ... Stephen F. Austin Image taken from http://www. ... Stephen F. Austin Stephen Fuller Austin (November 3, 1793 – December 27, 1836), known as the Father of Texas, led the second and ultimately successful colonization of the region by the United States. ... The Panic of 1819 was the first major financial crisis in the United States. ... Moses Austin (October 4, 1761–June 10, 1821) is best known for his efforts in the American lead industry and as the father of Stephen F. Austin. ... For Pb as an abbreviation, see PB. General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... Stephen F. Austin Stephen Fuller Austin (November 3, 1793 – December 27, 1836), known as the Father of Texas, led the second and ultimately successful colonization of the region by the United States. ... New Orleans is the largest city in the state of Louisiana, United States of America. ...


Mexican independence and Texas settlement

Austin’s plans for settlement were being worked on amid ongoing political turmoil in Mexico. The Declaration of Independence from Spain, by the priest Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, in 1810, initiated eleven years of brutal warfare. Fortune seemed to favor the Spanish forces until 1821 when Spanish generals, notably Agustín de Iturbide and Santa Anna, switched allegiance in favor of the Mexican rebellion. This resulted in Mexican victory, and the Mexican War of Independence ended in 1821. Statue of Miguel Hidalgo, Coyoacán, DF Don Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla (8 May 1753 – 30 July 1811) was the chief instigator of Mexicos war of independence against Spain. ... Agustín Cosme Damián de Iturbide y Arámburu (September 27, 1783 – July 19, 1824) was Emperor of Mexico from 1822 to 1823. ... Combatants Mexico Spain Commanders Miguel Hidalgo José María Morelos Vicente Guerrero Spanish colonial authorities Strength  ?  ? Casualties  ?  ? Mexican War of Independence (1810-1821), was an armed conflict between the people of Mexico and Spanish colonial authorities, which started on September 16, 1810. ...


In December 1821, Austin’s settlers arrived by land and sea to settle around San Felipe. To Austin’s disappointment, the government of newly independent Mexico refused to approve the original Spanish grant. Austin traveled to and from Mexico City for three years to settle the issue, and the grants were eventually accepted by the new government. During this time, Austin learned to speak Spanish and became close friends with Mexican revolutionary José Antonio Navarro. In the coming years, they would work together to bring more settlers to Texas. San Felipe is a town located in Austin County, Texas. ... Nickname: Motto: Capital en movimiento Location of Mexico City in south central Mexico Coordinates: , Country Federal entity Boroughs The 16 delegaciones Founded c. ... José Antonio Navarro (February 27, 1795 – January 13, 1871) was a Texas statesman, revolutionary, and politician. ...


Under the rules of the grant, each new settler had to convert to Roman Catholicism, meet high standards of moral character, become a Mexican citizen, and change their names to Spanish equivalents. Each were given over 4,000 acres (16 km²) of land. The Anglo settlers were called Texians, and the Hispanic settlers were called Tejanos. The colony flourished and, three years after it was started, its population had grown to 18,000. Navarro found himself to be the owner of more than 25,000 acres (101 km²) of land by 1830. The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ...


Formation of Texas

In 1822, Agustín de Iturbide was crowned Emperor of the newly formed Mexican Empire and, in 1823, Emperor Iturbide finally approved Austin’s grant. Under his Plan de Iguala, slavery was formally abolished for the first time, but it still continued throughout the nation. Iturbide’s regime soon became unstable, and in the same year Guadalupe Victoria and Antonio López de Santa Anna issued the Plan de Casa Mata. It called for the overthrow of the Emperor in order to establish a republic. Iturbide abdicated, went into forced exile, returned and was executed the next year. Austin had to restart negotiations to maintain his grant with the new government but was eventually successful. His success was attributed to a deal he made with Santa Anna agreeing that the settlers would sell their goods first to Mexico before offering them to other markets. Agustín Cosme Damián de Iturbide y Arámburu (September 27, 1783 – July 19, 1824) was Emperor of Mexico from 1822 to 1823. ... The Mexican Empire was the name of Mexico on two non-consecutive occasions in the 19th century when it was ruled by an Emperor. ... The Plan de Iguala — the Iguala Plan, also known as Plan of the Three Guarantees (Plan Trigarante) — was proclaimed on 24 February 1821 in the final phases of Mexicos War of Independence from Spain. ... Guadalupe Victoria, born José Miguel Ramón Adaucto Fernández y Félix in the state of Durango, served as the first President of Mexico from 1824 to 1829. ... Antonio de Padua María Severino López de Santa Anna y Pérez de Lebrón (February 21, 1794 – June 21, 1876), also known simply as Santa Anna, was a Mexican political leader who greatly influenced early Mexican and Spanish politics and government, first fighting against independence from Spain... The Plan de Casa Mata was formulated to finish with the monarchy in Mexico and to establish the republic. ...


Mexico became a republic under the new Constitution of 1824, and Texas was merged with Coahuila to form the state of Coahuila y Tejas. The borders of the Texas part of this state were considerably different than those today. The lower border only extended to the Nueces River (where Corpus Christi lies today). South of that was the state of Tamaulipas. The western border of Texas ended about 200 miles (320 km) west of San Antonio where the state of Chihuahua began, and a 200-mile wide strip of land extended between Tamaulipas and Chihuahua, 100 miles (160 km) southwest across the Rio Grande to connect Texas to Coahuila. Coahuila (formal name: Coahuila de Zaragoza) is one of Mexicos 31 component states. ... Map of the Nueces River and associated watershed The Nueces River is a river in the U.S. state of Texas, approximately 315 mi (507 km) long. ... Nickname: Location in the state of Texas Counties Government  - Mayor Henry Garrett Area  - City 1,192. ... Tamaulipas is a state in the northeast of Mexico. ... This article is about the state in Mexico. ... “Río Bravo” redirects here. ...


Mexico formally abolished slavery for a third time under the Constitution of 1824, although it continued throughout the entire nation. Austin gained three more grants from the newly formed Mexican Republic to settle 900 additional families in 1825, 1827, and 1828, under the new empresario system of immigration, which Mexico instituted. As an empresario, Austin was given the duties of both bringing in qualified families and then governing them when they arrived. Many others were made empresarios such as Dr. Lorenzo de Zavala, Haden Edwards, and the old filibuster Ben Milam. During all of this, however, other citizens from the U.S. trickled in alongside the colonists that had been accepted. Empresario is one of of the most exciting musical happenings to come out of Manchester in recent years. ... Lorenzo de Zavala (October 3, 1788 – November 16, 1836) was a 19th-century Mexican politician. ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ... A filibuster is a private individual who engages in unauthorized warfare against a foreign country, often with the intent of overthrowing the existing government. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Descent into revolution

The Fredonian Rebellion

By 1826, the empresario Haden Edwards had been in several land and political disputes with various leaders and settlers, including attempts to legalistically dispossess land owners with preexisting land grants and claims over a century old. These culminated in a final dispute that resulted in his expulsion and a massive financial loss to Edwards. This inspired him to instigate and organize a minor uprising in Nacogdoches. He proclaimed the area an independent republic called Fredonia. Lieutenant Colonel Mateo Ahumada was ordered to Texas. Austin gathered the Texian militia and joined Ahumada’s forces. Together they marched on Nacogdoches. Edwards and his followers immediately fled Texas without a shot fired. Fredonia was the name of a proposed republic in Texas, in the region near Nacogdoches where Haden Edwards had a land grant. ...


Mexico becomes concerned

In 1827, U.S. President John Quincy Adams offered Mexico US$1 million to buy Texas, which was rejected. Two years later, in 1829, President Andrew Jackson tried again with an offer of US$5 million, which Mexico also rejected. The same year, Spain attempted to re-conquer their former colony. Santa Anna swiftly defeated the invading Spanish army at Tampico and was hailed as a national hero. In 1830, Mexico became alarmed by the number of immigrants crossing the border from the U.S. into Mexico. With the recent Fredonian Rebellion and the U.S. so obviously hungry for Texas, there was concern about who was entering the state. Mexico passed the "April 6 law". These would annul prospective or incomplete settlements previously approved in various grants given to various empresarios. The decree allowed taxes to be collected, provided a larger military presence in Texas, and ended immigration into Texas. Austin eventually got the law repealed after three years of working with the Mexican government, but in the meantime military measures were enacted to enforce this law, which triggered an uprising in Anahuac, Texas. This was the first of what would be called the Anahuac Disturbances. John Quincy Adams (July 11, 1767 – February 23, 1848) was a diplomat, politician, and the sixth President of the United States (March 4, 1825 – March 4, 1829). ... For other uses, see Andrew Jackson (disambiguation). ... This article is about a city in Mexico. ... Anahuac is a city located in Chambers County, Texas. ... The Anahuac Disturbances, occurring in and around Anahuac, Texas, in 1832 and 1835 helped to precipitate the Texas Revolution that led to the secession of Texas from Mexico and the formation of the Republic of Texas. ...


Texian disillusionment

Texians were becoming increasingly disillusioned with the Mexican government. Many of the Mexican soldiers garrisoned in Texas were convicted criminals who were given the choice of prison or serving in the army in Texas. Many Texians were also unhappy with the location of their state capital, which moved periodically between Saltillo and Monclova, both of which were in southern Coahuila, some 500 miles (800 km) away; they wanted Texas to be a separate state from Coahuila (but not independent from Mexico) and to have its own capital. They believed a closer location for the capital would help to stem corruption and facilitate other matters of government. Some citizens were accustomed to the rights they had in the U.S. that they did not have in Mexico. For example, Mexico did not protect Freedom of Religion, instead requiring colonists to pledge their acceptance of Roman Catholicism. Also, there was discontent with the deal Stephen Austin made with the Mexican government where farmers and ranchers had to offer their products first to Mexico before other markets. Cotton was in high demand throughout Europe and most settlers wanted to raise cotton for big profits. But Mexico demanded that the settlers produce corn, grain, and beef and dictated which crops each settler would plant and harvest. Unlike in the states of the Southern United States where slavery was legal, the status of slaves in Mexico was ambiguous. Although Mexico had officially outlawed slavery, the government was widely tolerant of the holding of slaves,[citation needed] but not their sale. Slave traders were thus unhappy with the limitations imposed upon them. Although these many issues caused friction, they were not sufficient to incite the settlers to revolt as a whole.[citation needed] For people named Garrison, see Garrison (disambiguation) Garrison House, built by William Damm in 1675 at Dover, New Hampshire Garrison (from the French garnison, itself from the verb garnir, to equip) is the collective term for the body of troops stationed in a particular location, originally to guard it, but... Saltillo is a city in northeast Mexico, located at 25°42′ N 101°00′ W. It is the current capital of the state of Coahuila. ... Monclova is a city in the northern Mexican state of Coahuila. ... Coahuila (formal name: Coahuila de Zaragoza) is one of Mexicos 31 component states. ... The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen guarantees freedom of religion, as long as religious activities do not infringe on public order in ways detrimental to society. ... Historic Southern United States. ... Slave redirects here. ...


Santa Anna

Between 1829 and 1832, a series of Mexican presidents were killed in a series of coups. Santa Anna had a hand in each of these events. The Mexican Republic became heavily divided between two factions known as Conservatives, who were for a centralized monarchical government, and Liberals, who were for a democratic federal government. In the presidential elections of 1833, Santa Anna ran as a liberal and won. Soon after, Santa Anna retired to his hacienda, allowing Vice President Valentín Gómez Farías to run the country. The government initiated drastic liberal reforms, angering the Conservatives. Returning from his hacienda, Santa Anna renounced the government's policies and overthrew the presidency, forcing Gomez Farías and many of his supporters to flee Mexico for the United States. Santa Anna declared that Mexico was not ready for democracy, became an openly Conservative Catholic centralist, and appointed himself dictator. Antonio López de Santa Anna, mid 19th century painting. ... Antonio López de Santa Anna, mid 19th century painting. ... Antonio de Padua María Severino López de Santa Anna y Pérez de Lebrón (February 21, 1794 – June 21, 1876), also known simply as Santa Anna, was a Mexican political leader who greatly influenced early Mexican and Spanish politics and government, first fighting against independence from Spain... Valentín Gómez Farías Valentín Gómez Farías (14 February 1781 – 5 July 1858) was twice acting president of Mexico in the 1830s and 1840s. ... A government in which power is concentrated in a central authority to which local governments are subject. ... A dictator is an absolutist or autocratic ruler who assumes sole power over the state, though the term is normally not applied to an absolute monarch. ...


Though disturbed by Santa Anna’s turn, Austin and the settlers had backed Santa Anna in his bid for power and now wanted to capitalize on it. Austin therefore traveled to Mexico City with a petition asking for separate statehood from Coahuila, a better judicial system, and the repeal of the April 6 law that had caused the First Anuhuac and Velasco Disturbances (1832), among other things. They were all approved except for separate statehood. Despondent over not getting Texas separated from Coahuila, he wrote an angry letter to a friend, which seemed to encourage rebellion. Mexican officials intercepted the letter, and Austin was arrested for sedition. He spent 18 months in prison.


The number of immigrants entering Texas quickly escalated. Santa Anna believed that the influx of immigrants to Texas was part of a plot by the U.S. to take over the region. In 1834, because of perceived troubles within the Mexican government, Santa Anna went through a process of dissolving state legislatures, disarming state militias, and abolishing the Constitution of 1824. To make matters worse, he imprisoned some cotton plantation owners who refused to raise their assigned crops. These actions triggered outrage throughout the nation of Mexico. The country then became divided between Centralists, who backed Santa Anna’s dictatorship, and Federalists, who wanted the Constitution of 1824 re-instituted. Santa Anna then ordered all unauthorized settlers out of Texas.


Revolution begins

Much of Mexico led by the states of Yucatan, Zacatecas, and Coahuila, promptly rose in revolt of Santa Anna's actions. Santa Anna spent two years suppressing the revolts. Under the Liberal banner, the Mexican state of Zacatecas revolted against Santa Anna. The revolt was brutally crushed in May 1835. As a reward, Santa Anna allowed his soldiers two days of rape and pillage in the capital city of Zacatecas; civilians were massacred by the thousands. Santa Anna also looted the rich Zacatecan silver mines at Fresnillo, and as further punishment, he split Zacatecas into a smaller state, separating an independent agricultural territory, Aguascalientes. This was to become a disturbing tendency Santa Anna would employ on those he regarded as traitors. He then ordered his brother-in law, General Martin Perfecto de Cos, to march into Texas and put an end to disturbances against the state. The Yucatán Peninsula separates the Caribbean Sea from the Gulf of Mexico. ... Zacatecas is one of the 31 constituent states of Mexico. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... Aguascalientes IPA: is a state of Mexico, situated in the center of the country. ... Martin Perfecto de Cos (1800-1854) was born in Veracruz. ...


Revolution in Texas

Throughout 1835, as a few tried to incite discontent, Texians informally debated the issues. Incidents between locals and the Mexican revenue forts at Anahuac and Velasco caused minor confrontations between Texian militia and Mexican troops. In late June, a second Anahuac Disturbance ejected Mexican troops.[1] After the expulsion of troops from Anahuac, an enraged Santa Anna ordered more troops into Texas and began preparations for the subjugation of Texas. The Texians as a whole were relatively loyal to a constitutional Mexico into August, despite their disgust over what had happened to Austin, the horrific events in Zacatecas, the call to disarm militias, the order to expel all illegal immigrants, and particularly the dissolution of the Constitution of 1824. In August, the continued increasing presence of Mexican troops, their unrelenting demand for individual radical Texian leaders to be delivered for military trial, and major legislative land scandals began to erode the Texians' support for the Peace party and attachment to Mexico, and to build support for the War Party and independence. The Anahuac Disturbances, occurring in and around Anahuac, Texas, in 1832 and 1835 helped to precipitate the Texas Revolution that led to the secession of Texas from Mexico and the formation of the Republic of Texas. ...


In the DeWitt Colony, a centralista Mexican soldier bludgeoned Texian settler Jesse McCoy with a musket in an altercation. At Gonzalez, Mexican military authorities demanded the recall of a small cannon from local militia.[2][3] On September 20, General Cos landed at Copano[4] with an advance force of about 300 soldiers bound for Goliad, San Antonio and San Felipe de Austin. is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Austin was released in July, having never been formally charged with sedition, and was in Texas by August. Austin saw little choice but revolution. A consultation was scheduled for October to discuss possible formal plans to revolt, and Austin sanctioned it.


Texan victories

Before the consultation could happen, however, in accordance with Santa Anna’s nationwide call to disarm state militias, Colonel Domingo Ugartechea, who was stationed in San Antonio, ordered the Texians to return a cannon given to them by Mexico that was stationed in Gonzales. The Texians refused. Ugartechea sent Lieutenant Francisco Castañeda and 100 dragoons to retrieve it. When he arrived at the rain-swollen banks of the Guadalupe River near Gonzales, there were just eighteen Texians to oppose him. Unable to cross, Castañeda established a camp, and the Texians buried the cannon and called for volunteers. Two Texian militias answered the call. Colonel John Henry Moore was elected head of the combined rebels/militias, and they dug up the cannon and mounted it on a pair of cartwheels. A Coushatta Native American entered Castañeda’s camp and informed him that the Texians had 140 men. The Battle of Gonzales was a skirmish that took place on October 2, 1835, in the Texas town of Gonzales between the Texian settlers and a detachment of Mexican army. ... The Battle of Concepción was a 19th Century Battle between the Republic of Mexico and the rebellious Mexican state of Texas on October 28, 1835, during the Texas Revolution. ... Image File history File links Come_And_Take_It_Mural. ... Image File history File links Come_And_Take_It_Mural. ... Come and Take It. ... UGARTECHEA, DOMINGO DE (?-1839). ... French dragoon, 1745. ... The Guadalupe River near Hunt in the Texas Hill Country The Guadalupe River runs from Kerr County, Texas, to the San Antonio River near the Gulf of Mexico. ... The Coushatta (also Koasati) are a Native American people living primarily in the U.S. state of Louisiana. ...


On October 1, 1835, at 7 p.m., the Texians headed out slowly and quietly to attack Castañeda’s dragoons. At 3 a.m. they reached the camp, and gunfire was exchanged. There were no casualties except for a Texian who had bloodied his nose when he fell off his horse during the skirmish. The next morning, negotiations were held, and the Texians urged Castañeda to join them in their revolt. Despite claiming sympathy for the Texian cause, he was shocked by the invitation to mutiny, and negotiations fell through. The Texians created a banner with a crude drawing of the disputed cannon and the words "Come and take it" written on it. Since they had no cannon balls, they filled it with scrap metal and fired it at the dragoons. They charged and fired their muskets and rifles, but Castañeda decided not to engage them and led the dragoons back to San Antonio. Thus the war had begun. And, as at Gonzales, most of the early engagements favored the Texians because the sudden upheaval had not given Mexican garrisons time to prepare for war. is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... | Come and take it, slogan of the Texas Revolution 1835 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Come and Take It. ...


Next, the Texans captured Bexar, under the defence of General Cos. When General Austin gave his army of volunteers the boring task of waiting for General Cos’ army to starve, many of the volunteers simply left. Throughout November 1835, the Texian army dwindled from 800 to 600 men, and the officers began to bicker about strategy and why they were fighting against the Mexicans. Several officers resigned, including Jim Bowie, who went to Gonzales. The siege of Bexar, which began on October 12, 1835, would demonstrate how little leadership the Texan "Army" had. Austin had been appointed Commander of all the Texan forces, but his talents were not well suited for military life. James Bowie James Bowie (probably April 10, 1796 - March 6, 1836), aka Jim Bowie, was a nineteenth century pioneer and soldier who took a prominent part in the Texas Revolution and was killed at the Battle of the Alamo. ... Combatants Mexico Texas Commanders Martín Perfecto de Cos Stephen F. Austin Edward Burleson Strength 1,200 600 Casualties 150 killed, wounded & captured 35 killed, wounded & captured {{{notes}}} The Siege of Bexar (or Bejar) was an early campaign of the Texas Revolution in which a volunteer Texan army successfully besieged... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... | Come and take it, slogan of the Texas Revolution 1835 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


The siege ended on December 11 with the capture of General Cos and his starving army, despite Austin's leadership. The Mexican prisoners were paroled and sent back to Mexico after being made to promise not to fight again. December 11 is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The early victories of the Texans were greatly attributed to their effective hunting rifles, which could fire at distant targets and with more accuracy than the smooth bore muskets of the Mexican infantry.


The remaining Texan army, poorly led, and with no collective motivation, prepared to advance towards Matamoros, hoping to sack the town. Although the Matamoros Expedition, as it came to be known, was but one of many schemes to bring the war to Mexico, nothing came of it. On November 6, 1835, the Tampico Expedition under José Antonio Mexía left New Orleans, intending to capture the town from the Centralists. The expedition failed. These independent missions drained the Texan movement of supplies and men, bringing only disaster for months to come. The name Matamoros, meaning Moor-killer or Moor-slayer in Spanish, may refer to: People Santiago Matamoros, St. ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... | Come and take it, slogan of the Texas Revolution 1835 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Battle of Tampico 15 November 1835 Gregorio Gómez and the Mexican Centralist garrison engaged Gen. ... A great supporter of Federalism in Mexico. ... New Orleans is the largest city in the state of Louisiana, United States of America. ...


Provisional government

In Gonzales, the consultation scheduled for the month before finally got underway after enough delegates from the colonies arrived to signify a quorum. After bitter debate, they finally created a provisional government that was not to be separate from Mexico but only to oppose the Centralists. They elected Henry Smith as governor and Sam Houston was appointed commander-in-chief of the regular Army of Texas. There was no regular army yet; Austin’s army was all volunteers, so Houston would have to build one. They had more land than money so land was chosen as an incentive to join the army; extra land would be given to those who enlisted as regulars and not as volunteers. The provisional government commissioned privateers and established a postal system. A merchant was sent to the U.S. to borrow $100,000. They ordered hundreds of copies of various military textbooks. They gave Austin the option to step down as commander of the army in Béxar and go to the U.S. as a commissioner. Austin stayed for the time being. On November 24, 1835, Austin stepped down as general. Elections were held, and Colonel Edward Burleson became Austin’s successor. Henry Smith may be: Henry Smith (regicide) (1620–1668), one of the commissioners who signed the death warrant of King Charles I of England Henry Smith (Rhode Island) (1766–1818), acting Governor of Rhode Island, 1805–1806 Henry Smith (Texas Governor) (1788–1851), first American-born Governor of the Mexican... Samuel Houston (March 2, 1793–July 26, 1863) was a 19th century American statesman, politician and soldier. ... is the 328th day of the year (329th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... | Come and take it, slogan of the Texas Revolution 1835 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Edward Burleson (December 15, 1798–December 26, 1851) was a soldier, general, and statesman in the state of Missouri, the Republic of Texas, and later the U.S. state of Texas. ...


Santa Anna's offensive

Army of Operations

With the successes gained at Bexar and at the Battle of Goliad and the victorious skirmish of the Grass Fight by the rebels, Santa Anna decided to take the counter-offensive. General Cos informed Santa Anna of the situation in Texas, and the general proceeded to advance north with his Army of Operations, a force of about 6,000. The army had gathered in San Luis Potosí and soon marched across the deserts of Mexico during the worst winter recorded in that region. The army suffered hundreds of casualties, but it marched forward, arriving in Texas months before it was expected. Taking Bexar, the political and military center of Texas, was Santa Anna's initial objective. The Battle of Goliad was a battle between Mexican forces and Texan forces during the Texas Revolution (1835-36). ... The Grass Fight was a battle // between the Republic of Mexico and the rebelling Texas colonists in the Mexican GO TEXAS Dudes state of Coahuila y Texas. ... The Mexican state of San Luis Potosí has an area of 62,848 km² (24,266 mi²). It is in the north-central part of the Mexican republic, bordered by the states of Jalisco, Guanajuato, Querétaro, Hidalgo, Veracruz, Tamaulipas, Nuevo León, Coahuila, and Zacatecas. ...


Alamo

Main article: Battle of the Alamo

Santa Anna's arrival at Bexar on February 23 would mark the second time he had occupied the town, the first being in 1813 after the Battle of the Medina River, in which Santa Anna was engaged as a junior officer in the Spanish Army. In 1813, the anti-Royalist prisoners at San Antonio were massacred. Like at Zacatecas in 1835, ultimately, Santa Anna would give "no quarter" to those Texans barricaded inside the Alamo mission. Combatants Republic of Mexico Mexican state of Coahuila y Tejas Commanders Antonio López de Santa Anna Pérez de Lebrón William Travis† Jim Bowie† Davy Crockett† Strength 6,000 in attack (1,800 in assault-see below) 183 to 250 Casualties 370 to 600 total 70 to 200... is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... ...


The defenders inside the Alamo awaited reinforcement. "At dawn on the first of March, Capt. Albert Martin, with 32 men (himself included) from Gonzales and DeWitt's Colony, passed the lines of Santa Anna and entered the walls of the Alamo, never more to leave them. These men, chiefly husbands and fathers, owning their own homes, voluntarily organized and passed through the lines of an enemy four to six thousand strong, to join 150 of their countrymen and neighbors, in a fortress doomed to destruction."[5] No further reinforcement arrived. Gonzales is a city located in Gonzales County, Texas. ...


The Alamo was defended by about 183-189 men under the command of William Barret Travis and Jim Bowie. Numerous sick and wounded from the siege of Bexar, perhaps raising the Texan military total to around 250, as well as non-combatants were also reported present afterwards. The Battle of the Alamo ended on March 6 after a 13 day siege in which all Texan combatants were killed. The alcalde of San Antonio reported cremation of 182 defenders' bodies; one defender's burial by a Mexican army relative was allowed. Santa Anna's army casualties have been estimated as about 600 - 1000 troops—the quoted number of Mexican soldiers killed varies greatly. The defense of the Alamo proved to be of no military consequence for the Texan cause, but its martyrs were soon hailed as heroes. The most important result during this time was the 1836 Convention signing of the Texas Declaration of Independence from Mexico, on March 2. William Barret Travis (August 1809–March 6, 1836) was an early figure in Texas history. ... Combatants Republic of Mexico Mexican state of Coahuila y Tejas Commanders Antonio López de Santa Anna Pérez de Lebrón William Travis† Jim Bowie† Davy Crockett† Strength 6,000 in attack (1,800 in assault-see below) 183 to 250 Casualties 370 to 600 total 70 to 200... is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Alcalde is the Spanish title of the chief administrator of a town. ... The Texas Declaration of Independence was the formal declaration of independence of the Republic of Texas from Mexico in the Texas Revolution. ... is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Soon, Santa Anna divided his army and sent flying columns across Texas. The objective was to force a decisive battle over the Texan Army, now led by General Sam Houston. A Flying column, in military organization pre-dating World War I, is an independent corps of troops usually composed of all arms, to which a particular task is assigned. ...


Goliad and Urrea's victories

General José Urrea marched into Texas from Matamoros, making his way north following the coast of Texas, thus preventing any foreign aid by sea and opening up an opportunity for the Mexican Navy to land much needed provisions. Urrea's forces were engaged at the Battle of Agua Dulce on March 2, 1836, which would soon lead to the Goliad Campaign. General Urrea was never defeated in any engagement his forces conducted in Texas. José de Urrea (March 19, 1796 - August, 1848) was a successful general in the Mexican Army notorious for carrying out the Goliad Massacre. ... The name Matamoros, meaning Moor-killer or Moor-slayer in Spanish, may refer to: People Santiago Matamoros, St. ... The Mexican Navy (official name Secretaría de Marina or SEMAR) is a branch of the Mexican Military responsible for conducting naval operations. ... The Battle of Los Cuates de Agua Dulce was a 19th century battle between the Republic of Mexico and the rebelling Mexican state of Texas. ... is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Goliad Campaign refers to a series of battles which occurred in 1836 as part of the Texas Revolution in the Mexican state of Coahuila y Tejas which ultimately led to the Goliad massacre. ...


At Goliad, Urrea's flying column caught Colonel James Fannin's force of about 300 men on the open prairie at a slight depression near Coleto Creek and made three charges at a heavy cost in Mexican casualties. Overnight, Urrea's forces surrounded the Texans, brought up cannon and reinforcements, and induced Fannin's surrender under terms the next day, March 20. About 342 of the Texan troops captured during the Goliad Campaign were executed a week later on Palm Sunday, March 27, 1836, under Santa Anna's direct orders, widely known as the Goliad Massacre. James Fannin James Walker Fannin, Jr. ... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Palm Sunday is a moveable feast in the Christian calendar which falls on the Sunday before Easter. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1836 (MDCCCXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Goliad Campaign was a series of battles that took place in Texas in 1836, which ultimately led to the Goliad massacre. ...

"The impact of the Goliad Massacre was crucial. Until this episode Santa Anna's reputation had been that of a cunning and crafty man, rather than a cruel one...together with the fall of the Alamo, branded both Santa Anna and the Mexican people with a reputation for cruelty and aroused the fury of the people of Texas, the United States, and even Great Britain and France, thus considerably promoting the success of the Texas Revolution."[6]

Meeting of two armies

Texan retreat: "The Runaway Scrape"

Houston immediately understood that his small army was not prepared to fight Santa Anna out in the open. The Mexican cavalry, experienced and feared, was something the Texans could not easily defeat. Seeing that his only choice was to keep the army together enough to be able to fight on favorable grounds, Houston ordered a retreat towards the U.S. border, and many settlers also fled in the same direction. A scorched earth policy was implemented, denying much-needed food for the Mexican army. Soon, the rains made the roads impassable, and the cold season made the list of casualties grow in both armies. The Runaway Scrape was the name Texans gave to fleeing from their homes when Antonio López de Santa Anna began his march through Texas after the fall of the Alamo in March, 1836. ... A scorched earth policy is a military tactic which involves destroying anything that might be useful to the enemy while advancing through or withdrawing from an area. ...


Santa Anna's army, always on the heels of Houston, gave unrelenting chase. The town of Gonzales could not be defended by the rebels, so it was put to the torch. The same fate awaited Austin's colony of San Felipe. Despair grew among the ranks of Houston's men, and much animosity was aimed towards him. All that impeded Santa Anna's advance were the swollen rivers, which gave Houston a chance to rest and drill his army.


Santa Anna defeated

Main article: Battle of San Jacinto

Events moved at a quick pace after Santa Anna decided to divide his own flying column and race quickly towards Galveston, where members of the Provisional Government had fled. Santa Anna hoped to capture the rebel leaders, and put an end to the war, which had proven costly and prolonged. Santa Anna, as dictator of Mexico, felt the need to return to Mexico City as soon as possible. Houston was informed of Santa Anna's unexpected move. Numbering about 700, Santa Anna's column marched east from Harrisburg, Texas. Without Houston's consent, and tired of running away, the Texan army of 900 moved to meet the enemy. Houston could do nothing but follow. Accounts of Houston's thinking during these moves is subject to speculation as Houston held no councils of war. Combatants Mexico Republic of Texas Commanders Antonio López de Santa Anna{POW} Manuel Fernandez Castrillon† Juan Almonte{POW} Sam Houston{wounded} Strength about 1,400 800 Casualties 630 killed, 208 wounded, 730 captured 9 killed, 26 wounded For other battles of the same name, see San Jacinto. ... Galveston redirects here. ... Harrisburg was founded before 1825 on the east shore of the Buffalo Bayou in present-day Harris County, Texas, on land belonging to John Richardson Harris. ...

The painting "Surrender of Santa Anna" by William Huddle shows the Mexican strong-man wounded surrendering to Sam Houston
The painting "Surrender of Santa Anna" by William Huddle shows the Mexican strong-man wounded surrendering to Sam Houston

On April 20, both armies met at the San Jacinto River. Separating them was a large sloping ground with tall grass, which the Texans used as cover. Santa Anna, elated at finally having the rebel army in front of him, waited for reinforcements, which were led by General Cos. On that same day, a skirmish was fought between the enemies, mostly cavalry, but nothing came of it. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Map of the San Jacinto River and associated watershed The San Jacinto River runs from Lake Houston in Harris County, Texas to Galveston Bay. ...


To the dismay of the rebels, Cos arrived sooner than expected with 540 more troops, swelling Santa Anna's army to over 1,200 men. Angered by the loss of opportunity and by Houston's indeciseveness, the rebel army demanded to make an attack. About 3:30 in the afternonn on April 21, after burning Vince's Bridge, the Texans surged forward, catching the Mexican army by surprise. Hours before the attack, Santa Anna had ordered his men to stand down, noting that the Texans would not attack his superior force. Also, his army had been stretched to the limit of endurance by the ongoing forced marches. His force was overwhelmed by Texians pushing into the Mexican camp. An 18-minute-long battle ensued, but soon the defenses crumbled and a massacre ensued. is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Vince’s Bridge was built and owned by Allen Vince. ...


Popular folk songs and legends hold that during the battle, Santa Anna was busy with and was distracted by a comely mixed race indentured servant, immortalized as The Yellow Rose of Texas. The Yellow Rose of Texas is a traditional folk song of the Southern United States, which became popular in 1955 in a recording by Mitch Miller. ...


Santa Anna's entire force of men was killed or captured by Sam Houston's heavily outnumbered army of Texans; only nine Texans died. This decisive battle resulted in Texas's independence from Mexico.


Santa Anna was captured when he could not cross the burned Vince's Bridge, and he was brought before Houston, who had been wounded in the ankle. Santa Anna agreed to end the campaign. General Vicente Filisola, noting the state of his tired and hungry army, marched back to Mexico, but not without protests from Urrea. Only Santa Anna had been defeated, not the Army of Operations, and Urrea felt that the campaign should continue, but Filisola disagreed. Vicente Filisola (1789-1850), born Ravello, Italy. ...


Aftermath

With Santa Anna a prisoner, his captors forced him to sign the Treaties of Velasco on May 14. The treaty recognized Texas's independence and guaranteed Santa Anna's life. The initial plan was to send him back to Mexico to help smooth relations between the two states. His departure was delayed by a mob who wanted him dead. Declaring himself as the only person who could bring about peace, Santa Anna was sent to Washington, D.C., by the Texan government to meet President Jackson in order to guarantee independence of the new republic. But unknown to Santa Anna, the Mexican government deposed him in absentia; thus, he no longer had any authority to represent Mexico. The Treaties of Velasco were two treaties signed at Velasco, Texas, on 14 May 1836 between Antonio López de Santa Anna of Mexico and the Republic of Texas, in the aftermath of the Battle of San Jacinto (21 April 1836). ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ...


Texas became a republic after a long and bloody fight, but it was never recognized as such by Mexico. The war continued as a standoff.


Santa Anna re-emerged as a hero during the Pastry War in 1838. He was re-elected President, and soon after, he ordered an expedition led by General Adrian Woll into Texas, occupying San Antonio, but briefly. There were small clashes between the two states for several years afterward. The war with Texas did not truly come to an end until the Mexican-American War of 1846. Combatants France Mexico Strength 30,000 3,000 The Pastry War (Spanish: Guerra de los pasteles) was an invasion of Mexico by French forces in 1838. ... ... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Zachary Taylor Winfield Scott Stephen W. Kearney Antonio López de Santa Anna Mariano Arista Pedro de Ampudia José Mariá Flores Strength 78,790 soldiers 25,000–40,000 soldiers Casualties KIA: 1733 Total dead: 13,271 Wounded: 4,152 AWOL: 9,200+ 25,000...


Sam Houston's victory at San Jacinto would earn him the presidency of Republic of Texas. He later became a U.S. senator and governor of Texas. Stephen F. Austin, after a lost bid for Texas's presidency in 1836, was appointed Secretary of State but died shortly thereafter. Sam Houston eulogized Austin as the "Father of Texas". Later during the American Civil War, most Texans considered Houston the "Traitor to the Republic" for his efforts to keep Texas from seceding from the Union and his refusal to take an oath of allegiance to the confederacy. Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... In politics, Governor of Texas is the title given to the chief executive of the state of Texas. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total...


Historical context of the Revolution

At the same time Texas declared independence, other Mexican states also decided to secede from Mexico and form their own republics. The state of Yucatán formed the Republic of Yucatán, which was recognized by Great Britain, and the states of Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas joined together to form the Republic of the Rio Grande. Several other states also went into open rebellion, including San Luis Potosí, Querétaro, Durango, Guanajuato, Michoacán, Jalisco and Zacatecas. All were upset with Santa Anna abolishing the 1824 Constitution, disbanding Congress, and changing the structure of government from a federal structure to a centralized one. Texas, however, was the only territory to be successful in detaching itself from Mexico. Location within Mexico Country Capital Municipalities 106 Government  - Governor Ivonne Ortega Pacheco PRI  - Federal Deputies PAN: 4 PRI: 1  - Federal Senators Hugo Laviada (PAN) Alfredo Rodríguez (PAN) Cleominio Zoreda (PRI) Area Ranked 20th  - State 38,402 km²  (14,827. ... Coahuila (formal name: Coahuila de Zaragoza) is one of Mexicos 31 component states. ... Nuevo León (Spanish for New León, after the former kingdom in Spain) is a state located in northeastern Mexico. ... Tamaulipas is a state in the northeast of Mexico. ... Flag Capital Laredo¹ Language(s) Spanish Government Republic President Jesús de Cárdenas History  - Established January 17, 1840  - Disestablished November 6, 1840 Area 300,000 km² Currency Peso ¹ Later moved to Guerrero, Tamaulipas, and in March 1840 to Victoria, Texas until disestablishment. ... The Mexican state of San Luis Potosí has an area of 62,848 km² (24,266 mi²). It is in the north-central part of the Mexican republic, bordered by the states of Jalisco, Guanajuato, Querétaro, Hidalgo, Veracruz, Tamaulipas, Nuevo León, Coahuila, and Zacatecas. ... Querétaro (formal name: Querétaro Arteaga) is a state in central Mexico. ... Durango (IPA pronunciation ) is one of the constituent states of Mexico. ... Guanajuato is a state in the central highlands of Mexico. ... Location within Mexico Country Capital Municipalities 113 Government  - Governor Lázaro Cárdenas Batel (PRD)  - Federal Deputies PAN:12  - Federal Senators Jesús Mendez Arroyo García (PAN) Juan Humberto Vasquez ( (PRI) Marko A. Cortés (PAN) Area Ranked 16th  - State 59,928 km²  (23,138. ... Location within Mexico Country Capital Municipalities 126 Largest City Guadalajara Government  - Governor Emilio González Márquez (PAN)  - Federal Deputies PAN: 18 PRI: 1  - Federal Senators Eva Contreras (PAN) Héctor Pérez (PAN) Ramiro Hernández (PRI) Area Ranked 6th  - State 30,534. ... Zacatecas is one of the 31 constituent states of Mexico. ...


See also

Texas Portal

Image File history File links This image, including all photography and graphics used in it, was taken and created by myself, Shem Daimwood. ... The history of Texas (as part of the United States) began in 1845, but settlement of the region dates back to the end of the Upper Paleolithic Period, around 10,000 BC. Its history has been shaped by being part of six independent countries: Spain, France, Mexico, the Republic of... This is a timeline of the Texas Revolution, spanning the time from the earliest independence movements of the area of Texas, over the declaration of independence from Spain, up to the secession of the Republic of Texas from Mexico. ... Horace Arlington Alsbury (1805-1847) was one of Stephen F. Austins Old Three Hundred and was also notable for his participation In the siege of San Antonio de Bexar in November-December of 1835 and on March 1, 1836, he also accompanied the thirty-two Gonzales, Texas volunteers on... Jewish Texans have been a part of Texas History since the first European explorers arrived in the 1500s. ... Juana Navarro Alsbury (1812-1888) is noted for being the one who was a nurse for Jim Bowie at the Battle of the Alamo in 1836, and also as one of the few survivors of that battle. ... Alijo Pérez, Jr. ... John T. Garner (1809 – 1888) was a soldier in the Texas Army during the Texas Revolution, noted for a daring action during the Battle of San Jacinto that helped seal the decisive Texian victory. ... Moses Lapham (1808 – 1838) was a soldier in the Texas Army during the Texas Revolution, noted for a daring action during the Battle of San Jacinto that helped seal the decisive Texian victory. ... Edwin R. Rainwater was a soldier in the Texas Army during the Texas Revolution, noted for a daring action during the Battle of San Jacinto that helped seal the decisive Texian victory. ... Denmore W. Reaves was a soldier in the Texas Army during the Texas Revolution, noted for a daring action during the Battle of San Jacinto that helped seal the decisive Texian victory. ... Young Perry Alsbury was born in Hopkinsville, Kentucky in 1814. ... John Coker (1789 – ?) was a soldier in the Texas Army during the Texas Revolution, noted for a daring action during the Battle of San Jacinto that helped seal the decisive Texan victory. ... Micajah Autry (1794 – March 6, 1836) was an American merchant, poet and lawyer who died in the Texas Revolution at the Battle of the Alamo. ... Dr. Albert Levy, Albert Moses Levy, was a Jewish Texan known for being a surgeon to revolutionary Texan forces in 1835. ...

References

  1. ^ AB Looscan, The Old Fort at Anahuac, Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Texas State Historical Association, Vol. 2, No. 1, July, 1898
  2. ^ SL Hardin (1996) Texian Iliad: A Military History of the Texas Revolution, 1835-1836,Chapter 1, U. of Texas Press ISBN-10: 0-292-73086-1; ISBN-13: 978-0-292-73086-1
  3. ^ [1] excerpted publications of Texas historian, Eugene Barker
  4. ^ [2] "The Port of Copano", Texas State Library website
  5. ^ John Henry Brown (1893) History of Texas: From 1685 to 1892 L.E. Daniell (publisher)
  6. ^ Harbert Davenport,"Men of Goliad", Volume 43, Number 1, Southwestern Historical Quarterly Online (Accessed Tue Oct 31, 2006)
  • Dingus, Anne, The Truth About Texas, Houston: Gulf Publishing Company (1995) ISBN 0-87719-282-0
  • Nofi, Albert A., The Alamo and The Texas War for Independence, Da Capo Press (1992) ISBN 0-306-81040-9
  • Hardin, Stephen L., Texian Iliad, Austin: University of Texas Press (1994) ISBN 0-292-73086-1
  • Lord, Walter, A Time to Stand,; Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press (1961) ISBN 0-8032-7902-7
  • Davis, William C., Lone Star Rising: The Revolutionary Birth of the Texas Republic, Free Press (2004) ISBN 0-684-86510-6
  • [4] Main Cause for Texas Revolution, Essay by M. Martin, Texas Legislator

External links

  • Texas War of Independence http://www.tamu.edu/ccbn/dewitt/independcon.htm
  • History of the revolution in Texas, particularly of the war of 1835 & '36; together with the latest geographical, topographical, and statistical accounts of the country, from the most authentic sources. by the Rev. C. Newell, published 1838, hosted by the Portal to Texas History
  • Military Maps of the Texas revolution hosted by the Portal to Texas History
  • Evacuation of Texas : translation of the Representation addressed to the supreme government / by Vicente Filisola, in defence of his honor, and explanation of his operations as commander-in-chief of the army against Texas. hosted by the Portal to Texas History


  Results from FactBites:
 
Texas Revolution - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4386 words)
The Texas Revolution was fought from October 2, 1835 to April 21, 1836 between Mexico and the Tejas portion of the Mexican state of Coahuila y Tejas.
Texas was annexed by the United States of America in 1845, and it was not until the Mexican-American War of 1846 to 1848 that the "Texan Question" would finally be resolved.
History of the revolution in Texas, particularly of the war of 1835 and '36; together with the latest geographical, topographical, and statistical accounts of the country, from the most authentic sources.
Kids.Net.Au - Encyclopedia > Texas Revolution (565 words)
Historians sympathetic to the revolutionaries tend to portray the revolution as a revolt against Santa Anna and his suspension of the Mexican constitution.
Historians unsympathetic to the revolutionaries tend to emphasize that one of the causes of the revolution was the desire of the revolutionaries to maintain the institution of slavery which was banned in Mexico.
The revolution moved in two phases: the initial revolt and expulsion of federal garrisons from Texas, followed by the Mexican invasion and eventual defeat and capture of Santa Anna.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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